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1

Marine Studies Building Fund Coastal Community Challenge  

E-print Network

research and education in marine studies ranging from science and engineering to arts and humanitiesMarine Studies Building Fund Coastal Community Challenge Our Future Is Bright! Marine science synergy in marine science and education among diverse partners ·A long-standing, collaborative, can

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

2

Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 mum. A total of 78 species were

Kuidong Xu; Joong Ki Choi; Yanli Lei; Eun Jin Yang

2011-01-01

3

Analysis of the relationship between sediment composition and benthic community structure in coastal deposits: Implications for marine aggregate dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seiderer, L. J. and Newell, R. C. 1999. Analysis of the relationship between sediment composition and benthic community structure in coastal deposits: Implications for marine aggregate dredging. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56: 757-765. The relationship between biological community structure and particle size composition is investigated in coastal deposits off the southeast of England. Sediments in the survey area

L. J. Seiderer; R. C. Newell

1999-01-01

4

Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected\\u000a from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution.\\u000a The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 ?m. A total of 78 species were

Kuidong Xu; Joong Ki Choi; Yanli Lei; Eun Jin Yang

2011-01-01

5

Seasonal Variations in Virus-Host Populations in Norwegian Coastal Waters: Focusing on the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are ubiquitous components of the marine ecosystem. In the current study we investigated seasonal variations in the viral community in Norwegian coastal waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results demonstrated that the viral community was diverse, displaying dynamic seasonal variation, and that viral populations of 29 different sizes in the range from 26 to 500 kb were present.

Ruth-Anne Sandaa; Aud Larsen

2006-01-01

6

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre University College Cork Annual Report 2008 #12;Contents Director's Statement 1 Introduction 2 Marine Geomatics 3 Marine Ecology 4 Coastal and Marine Governance 5 for the Coastal & Marine Resources Centre (CMRC). The year started extremely positively with the construction

Schellekens, Michel P.

7

Shifts in coastal Antarctic marine microbial communities during and after melt water-related surface stratification.  

PubMed

Antarctic coastal waters undergo major physical alterations during summer. Increased temperatures induce sea-ice melting and glacial melt water input, leading to strong stratification of the upper water column. We investigated the composition of micro-eukaryotic and bacterial communities in Ryder Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, during and after summertime melt water stratification, applying community fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing analysis of partial 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Community fingerprinting of the eukaryotic community revealed two major patterns, coinciding with a period of melt water stratification, followed by a period characterized by regular wind-induced breakdown of surface stratification. During the first stratified period, we observed depth-related differences in eukaryotic fingerprints while differences in bacterial fingerprints were weak. Wind-induced breakdown of the melt water layer caused a shift in the eukaryotic community from an Actinocyclus sp.- to a Thalassiosira sp.-dominated community. In addition, a distinct transition in the bacterial community was found, but with a few days' delay, suggesting a response to the changes in the eukaryotic community rather than to the mixing event itself. Sequence analysis revealed a shift from an Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to a Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides-dominated community under mixed conditions. Our results show that melt water stratification and the transition to nonstabilized Antarctic surface waters may have an impact not only on micro-eukaryotic but also bacterial community composition. PMID:21303395

Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Meredith, Michael P; Buma, Anita G J

2011-06-01

8

Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing bacterial diversity in surface sediments and resulting in distinct bacterial communities even at depth within the burrow. In an area of high macrofaunal abundance, this could lead to alterations in the microbial transformations of important nutrients at the sediment-water interface. PMID:20596074

Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

2010-12-01

9

Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages  

E-print Network

marine ecosystems. Keywords Coastal marine ecosystems, diversity, ecological functions, fish assemblages (Hughes 1994). Unexpected consequences of biodiversity loss for marine ecosystem functioning highlightLETTER Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages Fiorenza Micheli1, * and Benjamin S

Halpern, Benjamin S.

10

Diversity and community structure within anoxic sediment from marine salinity meromictic lakes and a coastal meromictic marine basin, Vestfold Hilds, Eastern Antarctica.  

PubMed

16S rDNA clone library analysis was used to examine the biodiversity and community structure within anoxic sediments of several marine-type salinity meromictic lakes and a coastal marine basin located in the Vestfolds Hills area of Eastern Antarctica. From 69 to 130 (555 total) 16S rDNA clones were analysed from each sediment sample, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analysis grouped the clones into 202 distinct phylotypes (a clone group with sequence similarity of >0.98). A number of phylotypes and phylotype groups predominated in all libraries, with a group of 10 phylotypes (31% of clones) forming a novel deep branch within the low G+C Gram-positive division. Other abundant phylotypes detected in several different clone libraries grouped with Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria, diatom chloroplasts, delta proteobacteria (Desulfosarcina group, Syntrophus and Geobacterl Pelobacter/Desulphuromonas group), order Chlamydiales (Parachlamydiaceae) and Spirochaetales (wall-less Antarctic spirochaetes). Most archaeal clones detected (3.1% of clones) belonged to a highly diverged group of Euryarchaeota clustering with clones previously detected in rice soil, aquifer sediments and hydrothermal vent material. Little similarity existed between the phylotypes detected in this study and other clone libraries based on marine sediment, suggesting that an enormous prokaryotic diversity occurs within marine and marine-derived sediments. PMID:11220308

Bowman, J P; Rea, S M; McCammon, S A; McMeekin, T A

2000-04-01

11

Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We visually observed 1,251 dives, of 14 sea otters instrumented with TDRs in southeast Alaska, and used attribute values from observed dives to classify 180,848 recorded dives as foraging (0.64), or traveling (0.36). Foraging dives were significantly deeper, with longer durations, bottom times, and postdive surface intervals, and greater descent and ascent rates, compared to traveling dives. Most foraging occurred in depths between 2 and 30 m (0.84), although 0.16 of all foraging was between 30 and 100 m. Nine animals, including all five males, demonstrated bimodal patterns in foraging depths, with peaks between 5 and 15 m and 30 and 60 m, whereas five of nine females foraged at an average depth of 10 m. Mean shallow foraging depth was 8 m, and mean deep foraging depth was 44 m. Maximum foraging depths averaged 61 m (54 and 82 for females and males, respectively) and ranged from 35 to 100 m. Female sea otters dove to depths 20 m on 0.85 of their foraging dives while male sea otters dove to depths 45 m on 0.50 of their foraging dives. Less than 0.02 of all foraging dives were >55 m, suggesting that effects of sea otter foraging on nearshore marine communities should diminish at greater depths. However, recolonization of vacant habitat by high densities of adult male sea otters may result in initial reductions of some prey species at depths >55 m.

Bodkin, J.L.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.

2004-01-01

12

Ecological Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Coastal Marine Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously,

J. B. C. Jackson; J. D. Cubit; B. D. Keller; V. Batista; K. Burns; H. M. Caffey; R. L. Caldwell; S. D. Garrity; C. D. Getter; C. Gonzalez; H. M. Guzman; K. W. Kaufmann; A. H. Knap; S. C. Levings; M. J. Marshall; R. Steger; R. C. Thompson; E. Weil

1989-01-01

13

Ecological effects of a major oil spill on panamanian coastal marine communities.  

PubMed

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many population of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documenation of the spread of oil and its biological begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered. PMID:17780421

Jackson, J B; Cubit, J D; Keller, B D; Batista, V; Burns, K; Caffey, H M; Caldwell, R L; Garrity, S D; Getter, C D; Gonzalez, C; Guzman, H M; Kaufmann, K W; Knap, A H; Levings, S C; Marshall, M J; Steger, R; Thompson, R C; Weil, E

1989-01-01

14

Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities  

SciTech Connect

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

1989-01-06

15

Structure of hydrocarbonoclastic nitrate-reducing bacterial communities in bioturbated coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

The organisation of denitrifying microorganisms in oil-polluted bioturbated sediments was investigated in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to that observed in the environment. Molecular and culture-dependent approaches revealed that denitrifying Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in oil-polluted and bioturbated sediments suggesting that they may play a key role in hydrocarbon degradation in the environment. T-RFLP and gene libraries analyses targeting nirS gene showed that denitrifying microbial communities structure was slightly affected by either the addition of Hediste diversicolor or crude oil revealing the metabolic versatility of denitrifying microorganisms. From oil-polluted sediments, distinct denitrifying hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortia were obtained by enrichment cultures on high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Interestingly, molecular characterisation of the consortia showed that the denitrifying communities obtained from oiled microcosms with addition of H. diversicolor were different to that observed without H. diversicolor addition, especially with fluoranthene and chrysene revealing the bacterial diversity involved in the degradation of these PAHs. PMID:24862403

Stauffert, Magalie; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-09-01

16

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth

R. A. Herbert

1999-01-01

17

FOOD WEB AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE COASTAL SYSTEMS (ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WETLANDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research will investigate the mechanisms by which increased loading of nutrients to coastal waters alters the structure and dynamics of food webs, resulting in declines in populations of ecologically and commercially important organisms. Research across NHEERL Divisions will...

18

Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

2014-01-15

19

ESM 254 Course Syllabus COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES  

E-print Network

1 ESM 254 Course Syllabus COASTAL MARINE ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES: Explore physical, chemical, geological, and ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, including estuaries, which influence or are influenced by human activities

California at Santa Barbara, University of

20

KAY DANIEL BIDLE Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

Bidle-1 KAY DANIEL BIDLE Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University 71 Dudley Road PREPARATION 2011-present Associate Professor, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University 2005- 2011 Assistant Professor, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University 2004

21

Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex The Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex comprises the Coastal  

E-print Network

in coastal marine science, engineering, policy, or management. #12;United States Senator Judd Gregg SenatorJudd Gregg Marine Research Complex The Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex comprises the Coastal Marine Laboratory, Marine Research Pier, and Pier Support Facility located in New Castle, N.H. Together

New Hampshire, University of

22

Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J.L.

2003-01-01

23

Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

Richardson, Laurie L.

2000-01-01

24

Coastal bacterioplankton community dynamics in response to a natural disturbance.  

PubMed

In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

Yeo, Sara K; Huggett, Megan J; Eiler, Alexander; Rappé, Michael S

2013-01-01

25

Coastal Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance  

PubMed Central

In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

Rappé, Michael S.

2013-01-01

26

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation  

E-print Network

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation Background Coastal dunes are a globally distributed ecosystem characterized by strong internal gradients in disturbance plant community assembly, but their relative importance in coastal dunes is not well elucidated. We

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

27

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

Bhj, Premathilake

2010-05-01

28

Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

Holm, Amy E.

29

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

30

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

31

Compliance and Enforcement of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Regulations in North Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal resources management has become a popular approach to marine conservation and sustainable fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific region. One premise of this approach is that enforcement of community management initiatives is the primary responsibility of the community and that, in most instances, they have the capability to effectively enforce locally developed regulations and rules. The socioeconomic theory of

BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; AUDRIE SIAHAINENIA; CHRISTOVEL ROTINSULU; ASEP SUKMARA

2004-01-01

32

San Diego State University Coastal and Marine Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal & Marine Institute studies environmental processes, advises on the management of natural resources, and coordinates oceanography and marine studies at San Diego State University. Undergraduate students can emphasize marine studies within their departmental degree program; Biology and Geology departments offer marine-related minors. CMI offers marine-related graduate degrees in: Biology; Chemistry; Ecology; Engineering; Genetics; Geology; Geography; Political Science. Also profiled are: research facilities; faculty expertise; student projects.

33

Curriculum Vitae Christien Laber Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

on pelagic marine ecosystem processes. #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Christien Laber Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 71 Dudley Rd. New Brunswick, NJ 08901- 8521 USA Phone: (660)528-0501 Email: claber@marine

34

Resilience to Climate Change in Coastal Marine Ecosystems  

E-print Network

, increased concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere have led to ocean acidification: The pResilience to Climate Change in Coastal Marine Ecosystems Joanna R. Bernhardt1,3 and Heather M as a Review in Advance on July 30, 2012 The Annual Review of Marine Science is online at marine

Leslie, Heather

35

Three Decades of Swedish Experience Demonstrates the Need for Integrated Long-Term Monitoring of Fish in Marine Coastal Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first attempts to monitor coastal fish in Sweden were made in the 1960s and 1970s. Ecological, physiological, biochemi- cal and environmental chemistry data were collected in separate projects. When the National Marine Monitoring Pro- gramme was revised in 1992, a new strategy was introduced for assessments of long-term trends in coastal fish communities. Annual integrated monitoring of contaminants, biomarkers

Olof Sandström; Åke Larsson; Jan Andersson

2005-01-01

36

3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems  

E-print Network

3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and Malaysian Marine Parks) and construct initial biomimetic prototypes and novel designs. Thereby, new links, networks and collaborations are established between communities of thinkers in different countries. 3D tourism aims at mapping new frontiers in emerging engineering and design fields. This provides a novel way to foster and promote innovative thinking in the sciences, and considers the need for synergy and collaboration between marine sciences, engineering and design rather than segmentation and isolation. With the concept of 3D corporate tourism the potential of Malaysian marine ecosystems...

Gebeshuber, Ille Christine; Esichaikul, Ranee; Macqueen, Mark; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

2010-01-01

37

PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

38

Linda V. Godfrey Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

Linda V. Godfrey Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University 70 Dudley Road New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Phone: (848) 932-3410 FAX: (732) 932 8578 E-Mail: godfrey@imcs.rutgers.edu EDUCATION

39

OPERATIONAL MONITORING OF COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT WITH SPACEBORNE SAR SYSTEMS: WHERE ARE WE NOW AND WHERE ARE WE GOING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2 nd workshop on Coastal and Marine Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar was held in Svalbard Norway on 8-12 September 2003. This conference was focused on providing an overview of the tools now available within the international community for utilizing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to characterize the marine environment. Applications were specifically focused on wind, waves, sea ice,

Christopher Wackerman; Johnny Johannessen

40

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in

C. Harley; R. Crim; R. Gooding; S. Nienhuis; E. Tang

2010-01-01

41

Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.

Kennedy, V.S. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies, Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Lab.

1994-12-31

42

THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

43

75 FR 34700 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial Fireworks Displays at Monterey Bay National Marine...vitulina) incidental to professional fireworks displays within the MBNMS. DATES: This...harassment, incidental to commercial fireworks displays within the Monterey Bay...

2010-06-18

44

Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

Phillips, Ronald C.

1978-01-01

45

Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: Ecological and geochemical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification occurs in essentially all river, lake, and coastal marine ecosystems that have been studied. In general, the range ofdenitrification rates measured in coastal marine sediments is greater than that measured in lake or river sediments. In various estuarine and coastal marine sediments, rates commonly range between 50 and 250 pmol N m--:! h-l, with extremes from 0 to 1,067.

Sybil P. Seitzinger

1998-01-01

46

Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271294 A simulation model of sustainability of coastal communities  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271­294 A simulation model of sustainability of coastal communities. / Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271­294 Fig. 1. Total aquaculture production (EU + EFTA) (FAO Fish Stat). EU and played its part in satisfying an increasing consumer demand for marine fish (Fig. 1). It has been argued

Pierce, Graham

47

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the inten- sive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35)

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2009-01-01

48

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2010-01-01

49

Linda V. Godfrey Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

Linda V. Godfrey Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University 70 Dudley Road New Brunswick, NJ 08901 Phone: (732) 932 6555 (ext 243) FAX: (732) 932 8578 E-Mail: godfrey IN REVIEW OR IN PREPARATION Godfrey, L.V., Falkowski P.G., The Nitrogen Isotopic Record of the Late Archean

Falkowski, Paul G.

50

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering direct negative impacts of acidification. Declines in grazer populations may in turn allow primary producers such as kelps to become more abundant. Because kelp forests provide habitat for a wide array of species, OA may have a positive impact on some aspects of biodiversity. On the other hand, mussel beds also harbor hundreds of dependent species, and a loss of mussel beds due to reduced mussel growth rates and increased loss to predators would decrease biodiversity of this component of the benthic community. The predictions outlined above should be viewed as preliminary due to large gaps in our understanding. For example, the effects of OA on fertilization and other sensitive life history stages and transitions remain unquantified in the vast majority of species, and any effects of such changes on population dynamics remain unknown. Furthermore, the strength of interactions among species may change in unexpected ways due to, for example, the effects of pH on organismal physiology. Finally, the effects of ocean acidification are not occurring in isolation, and critical physiological and ecological thresholds may be crossed when OA effects are combined with increases in temperature, storm disturbance, pollution, and fishing pressure.

Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

2010-12-01

51

Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2014-12-15

52

Baruch Institute for Marine & Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Found in Columbia, South Carolina, the Baruch Institute conducts basic research on environmental processes, tidal, estuarine and coastal ocean environments. Collectively the studies span the molecular to landscape level, including the effects of human activities. Site includes information on current research projects, faculty, facilities, and outreach initiatives. Also features downloadable data, imagery, and maps.

53

An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no ?15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher ?15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed ?15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

Zmudczy?ska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

2015-04-01

54

The Florida State University Department of Biological Science and The Florida State University Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine Resource Ecology is designed for  

E-print Network

Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine's potential for a career in marine biological research. Name of Reference THE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MARINE BIOLOGY & LIVING MARINE RESOURCE ECOLOGY HTTP

Bass, Hank W.

55

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

change in species richness of each trophic level and functional feeding group. Our results suggest that invasions are biased towards lower trophic levels whereas extinctions occur higher in the food web. We discuss the potential implications of these changes in trophic skew (9) for marine ecosystems.

Webs Jarrett; E. Byrnes; Pamela L. Reynolds; John J. Stachowicz

56

Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between species and functional diversity remains poorly understood for nearly all ecosystem types, yet determining this relationship is critically important for developing both a mechanistic understanding of community assembly and appropriate expectations and approaches to protecting and restoring biological communities. Here we use two distinct data sets, one from kelp forests in the Channel Islands, California, and one

Fiorenza Micheli; Benjamin S. Halpern

2005-01-01

57

Oceanic rafting by a coastal community  

PubMed Central

Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400–600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa. PMID:20843850

Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

58

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

59

Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21408023

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

2011-01-01

60

Mineralization of RDX-Derived Nitrogen to N2 via Denitrification in Coastal Marine Sediments.  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common constituent of military explosives. Despite RDX contamination at numerous U.S. military facilities and its mobility to aquatic systems, the fate of RDX in marine systems remains largely unknown. Here, we provide RDX mineralization pathways and rates in seawater and sediments, highlighting for the first time the importance of the denitrification pathway in determining the fate of RDX-derived N. (15)N nitro group labeled RDX ((15)N-[RDX], 50 atom %) was spiked into a mesocosm simulating shallow marine conditions of coastal Long Island Sound, and the (15)N enrichment of N2 (?(15)N2) was monitored via gas bench isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GB-IRMS) for 21 days. The (15)N tracer data were used to model RDX mineralization within the context of the broader coastal marine N cycle using a multicompartment time-stepping model. Estimates of RDX mineralization rates based on the production and gas transfer of (15)N2O and (15)N2 ranged from 0.8 to 10.3 ?mol d(-1). After 22 days, 11% of the added RDX had undergone mineralization, and 29% of the total removed RDX-N was identified as N2. These results demonstrate the important consideration of sediment microbial communities in management strategies addressing cleanup of contaminated coastal sites by military explosives. PMID:25594316

Smith, Richard W; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Cooper, Christopher; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J

2015-02-17

61

COMPARING MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COASTAL MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes re- sponsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how hu- mans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment

Mark H. Carr; Joseph E. Neigel; James A. Estes; Sandy Andelman; Robert R. Warner; John L. Largier

2003-01-01

62

Coastal Dune Forest Development and the Regeneration of Millipede Communities  

E-print Network

Coastal Dune Forest Development and the Regeneration of Millipede Communities Bereket H. Redi,1, the similarity of millipede assemblages on the two chrono- sequences to those on three sets of reference sites farther away. Key words: coastal dune forests, millipedes, regeneration, rehabilitation, succession

Pretoria, University of

63

Top-Down Regulation, Climate and Multi-Decadal Changes in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic Sea Areas  

PubMed Central

The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998

Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

2013-01-01

64

NOAA COMMUNITY-BASED RESTORATION PROGRAM PORTFOLIO OF SUCCESS Hands on HabitatCELEBRATING 10 YEARS OF COASTAL RESTORATION  

E-print Network

NOAA COMMUNITY-BASED RESTORATION PROGRAM PORTFOLIO OF SUCCESS Hands on HabitatCELEBRATING 10 YEARS OF COASTAL RESTORATION #12;Mission The NOAA Restoration Center restores habitats for the nation's living marine resources. Through partnerships, the Restoration Center restores degraded habitats; advances

65

YAIR ROSENTHAL-Curriculum Vita Institute of Marine and Coastal Science,  

E-print Network

YAIR ROSENTHAL- Curriculum Vita Institute of Marine and Coastal Science, and Department of Geology) 932-6555 ext. 250; fax: (732) 932-8578 Email: rosentha@imcs.rutgers.edu http://marine.rutgers.edu/faculty/rosentha/rosenthal cycle; Metal pollution in estuarine and coastal sediments Shipboard experience 2004 R/V KNORR. Co

66

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

67

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

68

Community Education in Eastern Chinese Coastal Cities: Issues and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first reviews the development of community education in Shanghai, one of China's eastern coastal cities. Then the development of community education in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, especially its management system and operational mechanisms, school operating systems and networks, curriculum systems, and team building are presented.…

Lu, Suju

2009-01-01

69

Oligonucleotide Microarrays for the Study of Coastal Microbial Communities  

E-print Network

is essential for understanding the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of aquatic systems. Specific enzymes19 Oligonucleotide Microarrays for the Study of Coastal Microbial Communities Gaspar Taroncher are useful for analyzing microbial communities as well as for analyzing the presence of functional genes

Ward, Bess

70

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics’era  

PubMed Central

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying “omics” approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

71

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.  

PubMed

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

72

Ecotoxicological characterization of marine sediment in Kostrena coastal area.  

PubMed

Samples of marine sediment were taken on 4 selected sites close to the shipyard industry in Kostrena coastal area. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe) were analyzed from chemical-analytical and toxicological aspect. For toxicity detection, the bacterial bioluminescence test (Vibrio fisheri) was used. Concentration of total PAHs varied in the range from 697 to 7807 microg/kg dry weight in marine sediments. The concentration of PCBs in sediment was 1.1 mg/kg dry weight. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found at the station within the shipyard. PAH toxicity was not correlated with the toxic potential of sediments. The obtained results indicate a high degree of environmental risk, especially at stations within the shipyard, with the 54% possibility of toxic effects. Chemical determination of the concentration of conventional pollutants is not sufficient for assessing the quality of the marine environment and it is necessary to use other approaches in order to evaluate the biological impact. PMID:23390841

Linsak, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?; Glad, Marin; Cenov, Arijana; Coklo, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Manestar, Dubravko; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir

2012-12-01

73

MARINE STRATUS CLOUD LIFECYCLE MODULATED BY LATENT HEAT FLUX IN A COASTAL OCEAN UPWELLING REGION  

E-print Network

MARINE STRATUS CLOUD LIFECYCLE MODULATED BY LATENT HEAT FLUX IN A COASTAL OCEAN UPWELLING REGION at Point Reyes alongside a cool, oceanic, eastern boundary current and beneath a persistent marine stratus and overlying marine stratus clouds and describe a mechanism governing the relationship between sea surface

74

Visiting Scientist Awards for 2010 Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

Visiting Scientist Awards for 2010 Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, current research projects, and the faculty associated with USC's Marine Science Program can be found University of South Carolina Baruch Marine Field Laboratory, Georgetown Applications are being accepted

Almor, Amit

75

Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.  

PubMed

Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

76

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

2010-01-01

77

A coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

Lightsom, Fran

2003-01-01

78

Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.  

PubMed

Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

2014-10-01

79

A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

2013-01-01

80

Marine data and its potential for coastal and offshore applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastDat data set is a compilation of coastal analyses and scenarios for the future from various sources. It contains no direct measurements but results from numerical models that have been driven either by observed data in order to achieve the best possible representation of observed past conditions or by climate change scenarios for the near future. One of the key objectives for developing coastDat was to derive a consistent and mostly homogeneous database for assessing marine weather statistics and long-term changes. Here, homogeneity refers to a data set which is free from effects caused by changes in instrumentation or measurement techniques. Contrary to direct measurements which are often rare and incomplete, coastDat offers a unique combination of consistent atmospheric, oceanic, sea state and other parameters at high spatial and temporal detail, even for places and variables for which no measurements have been made. The backbones of coastDat are regional wind, wave and storm surge hindcast and scenarios mainly for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Furthermore hindcast simulations are available for temperature, salinity, water level, u- and v-components for the North Sea for last 60 years. We will discuss the methodology to derive these data, their quality and limitations in comparison with observations. Long-term changes in the temperature, wind, wave and storm surge climate will be discussed and potential future changes will be assessed. We will conclude with a number of coastal and offshore applications (e.g. ship design, coastal protection, oil risk modelling and marine energy use) of coastDat demonstrating some of the potentials of the data set in hazard assessment. For example data from coastDat have been used extensively for designing, planning and installation of offshore wind farms. Return periods of extreme wind speed, surge and wave heights are used by a variety of users involved in the design and construction of offshore wind parks. Moreover, planning of installation and maintenance requires the estimation of probabilities of weather windows; that is, for example the probability of an extended period with wave heights below a given threshold to enable installation and/or maintenance. Data from coastDat were frequently used in such cases as observational data are too often too short to derive reliable statistics. www.coastdat.de

Meyer, Elke; Weisse, Ralf

2013-04-01

81

Impact of atmospheric deposition on the metabolism of coastal microbial communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of rain water collected at marine, urban and rural sites on coastal phytoplankton biomass, primary production and community composition as well as the effect on microbial plankton metabolism was studied in 3 microcosm experiments conducted under contrasting spring, autumn and winter conditions. The measured responses were highly variable. Rainwater additions increased chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration (5-68% difference between rainwater treatments relative to the control) in all experiments and reduced or stimulated primary production (PP) depending on the treatment and the experiment (from -10 to +169% relative to the control). Autotrophic stimulation was highest in spring, probably related to the low initial natural nutrient concentrations. Under winter nutrient replete conditions, rainwater inputs changed the phytoplankton community although this change did not promote increases in primary production. Enhancement of net autotrophy (increase of net oxygen production up to 227%) after rainwater inputs were only found during the period of low nutrient availability. Inputs of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) explained a large fraction of the variability in the response of PP, Chl a, community respiration (CR) and net community production (NCP). Our results suggest that differences in the initial environmental conditions (i.e. nutrient availability), rainwater composition and the ability of the present autotrophic communities to utilize the new nutrients result in substantial changes in the microbial responses and associated biologically-mediated carbon fluxes. As atmospheric nutrient inputs into coastal oceans are increasing rapidly, our results help to understand the effects of different inputs on the metabolism of distinct microbial communities.

Martínez-García, Sandra; Arbones, B.; García-Martín, E. E.; Teixeira, I. G.; Serret, P.; Fernández, E.; Figueiras, F. G.; Teira, E.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

2015-02-01

82

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

83

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine viral communities  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. However, very little is known about their diversity. Here we report a genomic analysis of two uncultured marine viral communities. Over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is previously uncharacterized. The most common significant hits among the known sequences were to viruses. The viral hits included sequences from all of the major families of dsDNA tailed phages, as well as some algal viruses. Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2–3% of the total population in both communities, which was estimated to contain between 374 and 7,114 viral types. Overall, diversity of the viral communities was extremely high. The results also showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community. PMID:12384570

Breitbart, Mya; Salamon, Peter; Andresen, Bjarne; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Segall, Anca M.; Mead, David; Azam, Farooq; Rohwer, Forest

2002-01-01

84

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine viral communities.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. However, very little is known about their diversity. Here we report a genomic analysis of two uncultured marine viral communities. Over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is previously uncharacterized. The most common significant hits among the known sequences were to viruses. The viral hits included sequences from all of the major families of dsDNA tailed phages, as well as some algal viruses. Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2-3% of the total population in both communities, which was estimated to contain between 374 and 7,114 viral types. Overall, diversity of the viral communities was extremely high. The results also showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community. PMID:12384570

Breitbart, Mya; Salamon, Peter; Andresen, Bjarne; Mahaffy, Joseph M; Segall, Anca M; Mead, David; Azam, Farooq; Rohwer, Forest

2002-10-29

85

Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

2013-08-01

86

Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors  

E-print Network

- 1 - Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors Jérôme contributing to the chalk cliffs located on either side of the English Channel are examined. From an analysis of the cliff are drawn. Field observations of the coastal chalk cliff show that the vertical erosion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

The effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications to a semi-enclosed  

E-print Network

The effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications approach should be considered as a realistic reproduction of the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems in combina- tion with the subsequent marine ecosystems have been modelled with varying levels of success

Arhonditsis, George B.

88

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q  

E-print Network

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore

Aberdeen, University of

89

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent

Joe Roman; James J. McCarthy

2010-01-01

90

Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

McDonnell, Janice D.

91

Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?  

PubMed

To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

2014-04-18

92

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

2012-01-01

93

Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

2010-12-01

94

Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

1991-01-01

95

Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

2013-06-15

96

Engaging a community towards marine cyberinfrastructure: Lessons Learned from The Marine Metadata Interoperability initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) initiative promotes the exchange, integration and use of marine data through enhanced data publishing, discovery, documentation and accessibility. The project, operating since late 2004, presents several cultural organizational challenges because of the diversity of participants: scientists, technical experts, and data managers from around the world, all working in organizations with different corporate cultures, funding structures, and systems of decision-making. MMI provides educational resources at several levels. For instance, short introductions to metadata concepts are available, as well as guides and "cookbooks" for the quick and efficient preparation of marine metadata. For those who are building major marine data systems, including ocean-observing capabilities, there are training materials, marine metadata content examples, and resources for mapping elements between different metadata standards. The MMI also provides examples of good metadata practices in existing data systems, including the EU's Marine XML project, and functioning ocean/coastal clearinghouses and atlases developed by MMI team members. Communication tools that help build community: 1) Website, used to introduce the initiative to new visitors, and to provide in-depth guidance and resources to members and visitors. The site is built using Plone, an open source web content management system. Plone allows the site to serve as a wiki, to which every user can contribute material. This keeps the membership engaged and spreads the responsibility for the tasks of updating and expanding the site. 2) Email-lists, to engage the broad ocean sciences community. The discussion forums "news," "ask," and "site-help" are available for receiving regular updates on MMI activities, seeking advice or support on projects and standards, or for assistance with using the MMI site. Internal email lists are provided for the Technical Team, the Steering Committee and Executive Committee, and for several content-centered teams. These lists help keep committee members connected, and have been very successful in building consensus and momentum. 3) Regularly scheduled telecons, to provide the chance for interaction between members without the need to physically attend meetings. Both the steering committee and the technical team convene via phone every month. Discussions are guided by agendas published in advance, and minutes are kept on-line for reference. These telecons have been an important tool in moving the MMI project forward; they give members an opportunity for informal discussion and provide a timeframe for accomplishing tasks. 4) Workshops, to make progress towards community agreement, such as the technical workshop "Advancing Domain Vocabularies" August 9-11, 2005, in Boulder, Colorado, where featured domain and metadata experts developed mappings between existing marine metadata vocabularies. Most of the work of the meeting was performed in six small, carefully organized breakout teams, oriented around specific domains. 5) Calendar of events, to keep update the users and where any event related to marine metadata and interoperability can be posted. 6) Specific tools to reach agreements among distributed communities. For example, we developed a tool called Vocabulary Integration Environment (VINE), that allows formalized agreements of mappings across different vocabularies.

Galbraith, N. R.; Graybeal, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Wright, D.

2005-12-01

97

Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community.  

PubMed

Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative 'Seal the Loop' [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours). PMID:25455820

Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

2014-12-15

98

Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.  

PubMed Central

For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

1996-01-01

99

Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from ?-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from ?-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and ?-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between membrane proteins and intracellular proteins grows to an approximate 75-25 split. Unlike the phytoplankton membrane proteins, which are detrital in nature, the bacterial protein suite at depth is consistent with living biomass.

Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

2015-03-01

100

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their

Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

2010-01-01

101

The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

102

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

103

Marine microbial community dynamics and their ecological interpretation.  

PubMed

Recent advances in studying the dynamics of marine microbial communities have shown that the composition of these communities follows predictable patterns and involves complex network interactions, which shed light on the underlying processes regulating these globally important organisms. Such 'holistic' (or organism- and system-based) studies of these communities complement popular reductionist, often culture-based, approaches for understanding organism function one gene or protein at a time. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of marine microbial community dynamics at various scales, from hours to decades. We also explain how the data illustrate community resilience and seasonality, and reveal interactions among microorganisms. PMID:25659323

Fuhrman, Jed A; Cram, Jacob A; Needham, David M

2015-03-01

104

Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))

1990-05-01

105

Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities  

PubMed Central

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

106

Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats: studies in the western coastal-shelf area of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freitas, R., Silva, S., Quintino, V., Rodrigues, A. M., Rhynas, K., and Collins, W. T. 2003. Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats: studies in the western coastal-shelf area of Portugal. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 599-608. Two single-beam, seabed-classification systems, QTC VIEW Series IV and QTC VIEW Series V, were used to identify and map biosedimentary gradients in

Rosa Freitas; Susana Silva; Victor Quintino; Ana Maria Rodrigues; Karl Rhynas; William T. Collins

2003-01-01

107

Short-term variability of the phytoplankton community in coastal ecosystem in response to physical and chemical conditions' changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term dynamics (time scale of a few days) of phytoplankton communities in coastal ecosystems, particularly those of toxic species, are often neglected. Such phenomena can be important, especially since these very species can endanger the sustainability of shellfish farming. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in phytoplankton community structure (species succession) in two coastal zones in parallel with physical and chemical conditions. Mixing events with allochtonous waters could thus be distinguished from local processes associated with population growth when it was associated with a change in light or nutrient limitation. Mixing events and water advection influenced fluctuations in total phytoplankton biomass and concentration of dominant species, while local processes influenced delayed changes in community structure. The estuarine species Asterionellopsis glacialis increased in concentration when the water mass mixed with the nearest estuarine water masses. The biological response, measured as photosynthetic capacity, occurred after a time-lag of a few hours, while the changes in community structure occurred after a time-lag of a few days. Finally, the coastal water mass was constantly mixed with both the nearest estuarine and marine water masses, leading in turn to delayed changes in phytoplankton community structure. These changes in species composition and dominance were observed on a time scale of a few days, which means that some toxic species may be missed with a bi-weekly sampling strategy.

Pannard, Alexandrine; Claquin, Pascal; Klein, Cécile; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

2008-11-01

108

Sustainable coastal communities in the age of coastal storms: Reconceptualising coastal planning as ‘new’ naval architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Hurricanes devastated the Gulf coast of the USA in 2005. Hurricane Katrina, in particular, highlighted the compelling,need to build more,sustainable and hazard- resilient communities. Much can be learned from recovery efforts to rebuild the Gulf coast. Personal observations and interviews with planners, academics and others involved in recovery efforts inform this analysis, which focuses on New Orleans. A conceptual

Bruce C. Glavovic

2008-01-01

109

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

2012-01-01

110

Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

Wallace, Bruce

1974-01-01

111

Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

2012-03-01

112

Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.  

PubMed

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2012-03-01

113

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

E-print Network

such as whales, pinnipeds, and seabirds must rise to the surface to breathe, and so may play a different roleThe Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin Joe Roman1 *, James of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.36104 metric tons of N per

Kudela, Raphael M.

114

Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal  

E-print Network

Editorial Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal they were not doing well. At least in portions of the Mediterranean basin, reason- able explanations were Programme's Agree- ment on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous

115

Fine Sediment Sources in Coastal Watersheds with Uplifted Marine Terraces in  

E-print Network

111 Fine Sediment Sources in Coastal Watersheds with Uplifted Marine Terraces in Northwest Humboldt and Luffenholtz Creek watersheds in Humboldt County, California, with their extensive clay soils, can lead to high the sources of turbidity. Watershed physiographic and land use characteristics were compared for those basin

Standiford, Richard B.

116

High-Resolution Modeling of Atmospheric Dispersion and Turbulence Transport in the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Due to the highly variable conditions in the marine boundary layer close to a coastline, ac- counting for the atmospheric deposition of nitrous compounds to the coastal ocean requires high resolution modeling of both the dispersion processes in the atmosphere and the deposi- tion. For the deposition, no global theory exist for deposition in the case of heterogeneous meteorological

Gunilla Svensson; Michael Tjernström; Mark Zagar

117

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL EXPERIMENT ON NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN TEMPERATE COASTAL MARINE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Which nutrients limit primary production in coastal marine environments? Using large (13 000 1) mesocosms with sediments we explored nutrient limitation in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA, over a 9 wk period. eparate and combined additions of phosphorus and nitrogen were made...

118

Estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystem restoration: Confusing management and science – A revision of concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor;

Michael Elliott; Daryl Burdon; Krystal L. Hemingway; Sabine E. Apitz

2007-01-01

119

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

120

Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical evacuation methodology was intended to provide key information to better understand and mitigate risk caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, thus it is possible to mitigate hazard for a community with only several large vertical evacuation shelters. It is able to provide a framework for a vertical evacuation plan and for the mitigation of collapse risk and fatalities of structures and a community based on a limited amount of information.

Park, Sangki

121

Coastal Community Adaptation to Future Potential Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research project aims to determine the physical and economic resilience of coastal communities. This translates into identifying how such communities can adapt to potential future climate change in the most efficient cost effective way. Fleetwood in Lancashire has been chosen as a case study site, with recently refurbished sea defences. This research is interested in the best way to maintain resilience of the defences over long time horizons and against low probability high impact events as the coastal defences deteriorate. We assess coastal flood risk using a flood inundation model called LISFLOOD-FP, this is a 2D hydrodynamic model designed to simulate flood inundation over complex topography. LISFLOOD-FP predicts water depths in each grid cell at each time step, simulating the dynamic propagation of flood waves over fluvial, coastal and estuarine floodplains. The model is forced at the boundary with an extreme water level that has a defined probability of occurring, e.g. 1 in 100 years. This is combined with a scaled surge curve for the area, a high spring tidal curve and the addition of a sea level rise parameter, which is dependent on the defined time horizon and future carbon emissions scenarios. LISFLOOD-FP has been extended to simulate wave over-topping of sea defences, this is achieved by using a Shallow Water And Boussinesq (SWAB) 1D model which models wave over-topping of sea defences. The outputs from this model can be added into LISFLOOD as a flow of water that originates from the top of the sea defences and simulates the over topping. The simulation has also been extended further by adding a river component. The flow within the river channel has been added into the model as a 1D vector with bed elevation and width, the river flow vector consists of a hydro-graph of a high flow event. Return period analysis will be applied to the river peaks over threshold data and the example hydro-graph can then be tailored to the peak return period flow rate. Combining all these inputs; storm surges, rivers and waves will give the best simulation of what inundation could occur at varying levels of sea level rise, extreme water return period, wave return period and river flow rate. Preliminary results show that river flow rates do not have a big impact on coastal flood inundation area. Waves increase the impact of sea level rise due to over-topping occurring sooner, for longer, and more frequently. They will also increase the rate of deterioration of sea defences due to increased erosion rates; this will have an effect on maintaining resilience. The flood risk maps that are produced will later be used in to perform a real options multi-objective optimisation study. This approach will find the optimal adaptive strategy for maintaining the resilience of the coastal community.

Prime, Thomas

2014-05-01

122

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception,  

E-print Network

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms, and Adaptation Committee #12;2 #12;Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms and boundedly rational storm perception. I also include endoge- nous economic growth, population growth, public

123

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

124

Body size abundance distributions of nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds in coastal marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on body size-abundance distributions of nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds in coastal marine areas of the Southern Adriatic-Ionian region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of common patterns of body size-abundance distributions in relation to physical, chemical and biological environmental forcing factors and to taxonomic composition of phytoplankton guilds. This paper is based on data collected during four oceanographic cruises carried out seasonally along the Southern Apulian coast (Adriatic and Ionian Seas, SE Italy) as a part of the INTERREG II Italy-Greece Program. The study was performed at 21 stations located on 7 transects perpendicular to the coastline, with 3 stations per transect at a distance of 3, 9 and 15 NM from the coastline. At each station, profiles of the major physical features of the water were determined and water samples were collected for phytoplankton and nutrient analysis. Overall, 320 nano- and micro-phytoplankton taxa were identified, 76% of which at species level, with phytoplankton cells ranging in size from 0.008 to 4697.54 ng. Body size-abundance distributions showed some common features: they were relatively invariant (average similarity 65%) with respect to taxonomic composition (average similarity 32%), right skewed (90%), leptokurtic (77%) and log normal (76%). Moreover, abiotic, biotic and spatial ecosystem components accounted for up to 75% of body size-abundance distribution variation. The results of this study suggest that body size-abundance distributions are an intrinsic property of marine phytoplankton communities, emphasising functional dependence on ecological constraints related to trophic factors and intra-guild coexistence relationships.

Sabetta, Letizia; Fiocca, Annita; Margheriti, Lucia; Vignes, Fabio; Basset, Alberto; Mangoni, Olga; Carrada, Gian Carlo; Ruggieri, Nicoletta; Ianni, Carmela

2005-06-01

125

The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

2007-01-01

126

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

2013-02-01

127

North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Four: Coastal Beginnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are simulations, puzzles, class discussions, crafts and other activities designed to introduce the past cultures of North Carolina's coastal peoples to elementary and secondary students. The manual is one of several produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under the "Man and the Seacoast" project with Sea Grant funding.…

Mauldin, Lundie, Ed.; And Others

128

Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches.  

PubMed

We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution. PMID:19458658

Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke

2009-11-01

129

Natural Physical Disturbances and Communities of Marine Soft Bottoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural physical disturbances have been shown to be important in the organization of a variety of terrestrial and marine communities. Some workers have suggested that disturbance may play a similar role in soft-bottom infauna communities. A consequence of such a view is the expectation that some species will become unusually abundant early in the recolonization of a disturbed patch, reflecting

David Thistle

1981-01-01

130

Microalgal communities epibiontic on the marine hydroid Eudendrium racemosum in the Ligurian Sea during an annual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microalgal community associated with Eudendrium racemosum, a marine hydroid widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea, was studied during an annual cycle, at monthly frequency,\\u000a in a coastal station of the Ligurian Sea. Microalgae were represented mainly by diatoms, which exhibited higher abundance\\u000a and biomass values between autumn and spring (max 46,752 cells mm?2 and 1.94 ?g C mm?2, respectively), while during summer a

Tiziana Romagnoli; Giorgio Bavestrello; Emellina M. Cucchiari; Mario De Stefano; Cristina G. Di Camillo; Chiara Pennesi; Stefania Puce; Cecilia Totti

2007-01-01

131

Home > Printer-friendly > Marine ecologist Anne Salomon dives into coastal change Marine ecologist Anne Salomon dives into coastal  

E-print Network

of this underwater interplay is a crucial component in ensuring sustainability of marine resources, she says. "What, ethnologies, and archaeological data can give us better understanding of base lines in the past." Salomons

132

Atmospheric Deposition and Nitrogen Pollution in Coastal Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first appreciation of the widespread occurrence of acid rain in North America (Likens and Bormann 1974), most public attention has focused on the acid component rather than effects from the associated elements in atmospheric\\u000a deposition. The emphasis has been on freshwater ecosystems and forests in sensitive regions with relatively low buffering\\u000a capacity. Effects of acid deposition on coastal

Robert W. Howarth

133

The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters\\/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282–16.891) items\\/km2, with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size

Peng Zhou; Chuguang Huang; Hongda Fang; Weixu Cai; Dongmei Li; Xiaomin Li; Hansheng Yu

2011-01-01

134

Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand marine phenology.

Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

2014-01-01

135

Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.  

PubMed

The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining 'no take' periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife. PMID:25437099

Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

2015-03-01

136

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

PubMed Central

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

2010-01-01

137

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

2014-01-15

138

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed Central

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the ‘cell water conservation hypothesis’, may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant–water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below ?1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above ?1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W.; Marcus, Sarah E.; Adams, Emily C.

2014-01-01

139

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

2014-01-01

140

Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life  

SciTech Connect

Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

2011-07-01

141

Bioluminescence to reveal structure and interaction of coastal planktonic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem function will in large part be determined by functional groups present in biological communities. The simplest distinction with respect to functional groups of an ecosystem is the differentiation between primary and secondary producers. A challenge thus far has been to examine these groups simultaneously with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution for observations to be relevant to the scales of change in coastal oceans. This study takes advantage of general differences in the bioluminescence flash kinetics between planktonic dinoflagellates and zooplankton to measure relative abundances of the two groups within the same-time space volume. This novel approach for distinguishing these general classifications using a single sensor is validated using fluorescence data and exclusion experiments. The approach is then applied to data collected from an autonomous underwater vehicle surveying >500 km in Monterey Bay and San Luis Obispo Bay, CA during the summers of 2002-2004. The approach also reveals that identifying trophic interaction between the two planktonic communities may also be possible.

Moline, Mark A.; Blackwell, Shelley M.; Case, James F.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Herren, Christen M.; Orrico, Cristina M.; Terrill, Eric

2009-02-01

142

A new algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and marine parameters in coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and marine parameters in coastal areas from ocean color data using the OC-SMART algorithm, Ocean Color: Simultaneous Marine and Aerosol Retrieval Tool. OC-SMART uses a one-step nonlinear optimal estimation/Levenberg-Marquardt method instead of the traditional two-step look-up table approach to improve retrieval accuracy, and a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) forward radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-water system to increase retrieval speed without loss of accuracy. We discuss applications of OC-SMART to analyze SeaWiFS, MERIS, and MODIS images obtained over coastal waters. Five parameters are obtained from the retrieval: aerosol optical depth, aerosol bi-modal fraction, chlorophyll concentration, CDOM absorption, and backscattering coefficient. The water leaving radiance is provided as a by-product.

Stamnes, K.; Li, W.; Fan, Y.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Folkestad, A.; So/rensen, K.; Stamnes, J. J.

2013-05-01

143

Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in Coastal Marine Biota.  

PubMed

The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates. PMID:25451633

Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

2014-12-01

144

Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing  

PubMed Central

In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process. PMID:23056406

DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

2012-01-01

145

Climate change impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global\\u000a air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001)\\u000a was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector\\u000a review of

Donald Scavia; John C. Field; Donald F. Boesch; Robert W. Buddemeier; Virginia Burkett; Daniel R. Cayan; Michael Fogarty; Mark A. Harwell; Robert W. Howarth; Curt Mason; Denise J. Reed; Thomas C. Royer; Asbury H. Sallenger; James G. Titus

2002-01-01

146

Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein we report on the abundance and composition of floating marine debris (FMD) in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (off the Chilean coast) during the austral summer 2002. The observed FMD consisted mainly of plastic material (86.9%). Densities of FMD were highest between 20°S and 40°S, corresponding to the main concentrations of human population and activities. Low densities of FMD

M. Thiel; I. Hinojosa; N. Vásquez; E. Macaya

2003-01-01

147

An Aerosol Model of the Marine and Coastal Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01–100 µm particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of

G. A. Kaloshin; I. A. Grishin

2011-01-01

148

Use of a Phytoplankton Community Index to assess the health of coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of marine-ecosystem status and health requires indicators of community structure and function. As a structural indicator, we propose a Phytoplankton Community Index (PCI) based on the abundance of \\

P. Tett; C. Carreira; D. K. Mills; S. van Leeuwen; J. Foden; E. Bresnan; R. J. Gowen

2008-01-01

149

Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the inertinite and vascular tissue facies. The vascular tissue facies occurs in the proximal prodelta and nearshore shallow shelf lithofacies of early Maestrichtian age. Baed in the sequence of organuic facies, dinoflagellate species abundance, and lithofacies in the investigated wells, the nonmarine and coastal inertinite facies was first deposited and was followed during the late Campanian by a marine trangression when the nearshore amorphous debris facies was deposited. This was followed in the early Maestrichtian by the influx of terrigenous organic matter (vascular tissue facies) in response to deltaic progradation on the shallow shelf. A marine regression occured towards the close of the early Maestrichtian, emplacing the coastal inertinite facies. The major marine transgression occured near the end of the early Maestrichtian, developing a farther offshore amorphous debris facies on an expanded continental shelf which persisted through the late Maestrichtian. The inertinite facies returned during marine regression in the approximate position of the Maestrichtian/Danian boudnary. ?? 1989.

Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

1989-01-01

150

Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

2014-01-01

151

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

2012-02-28

152

COASTAL WETLAND INSECT COMMUNITIES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Insects of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have received little attention in spite of their importance in food webs and sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors. We characterized insect communities from four coastal wetlands that spanned the length of a trophic gradient in Green Bay d...

153

Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), a cooperative initiative of the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Many of the issues in the province, and models being es- tablished through

Brian R. Crawford; I. M. Dutton; C. Rotinsulu; L. Z. Hale

154

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems  

E-print Network

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern California. Methods: In each of 4 years ­ Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis ­ with those in adjacent open dunes. Results

Cushman, J. Hall

155

J. Zool., Lond. (1996) 238, 703 712 Millipede communities in rehabilitating coastal dune forests  

E-print Network

J. Zool., Lond. (1996) 238, 703 712 Millipede communities in rehabilitating coastal dune forestsI' a known-aged series of stands representative or coastal dune ["orest suceesslun. A survey of the millipede-specific millipede COIII III unity variables on rehabilitating dunes with those recorded in relatively undisturbed d

Pretoria, University of

156

Ethnobotany of Atlantic Forest Coastal Communities: II. Diversity of Plant Uses at Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an ethnobotanical study of Atlantic Forest coastal communities located at Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Atlantic Forest remnants are top priority conservation areas, and include native communities that depend on fish and small-scale agriculture. We conducted fieldwork in the community of Calhaus (Jaguanum Island) from 1989 to 1991, and interviewed adults on their use of plants.

Gisela M. Figueiredo; Hermógenes F. Leitão-Filho; Alpina Begossi

1997-01-01

157

Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa  

PubMed Central

The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal cells shaped North Sea bacterial community composition and enhanced bacterial substrate assimilation. Infected algal cultures of Phaeocystis globosa grown in coastal North Sea water contained gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes that were distinct from those in the non-infected control cultures 5?h after infection. The gammaproteobacterial population at this time mainly consisted of Alteromonas sp. cells that were attached to the infected but still intact host cells. Nano-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) showed ?20% transfer of organic matter derived from the infected 13C- and 15N-labelled P. globosa cells to Alteromonas sp. cells. Subsequent, viral lysis of P. globosa resulted in the formation of aggregates that were densely colonised by bacteria. Aggregate dissolution was observed after 2 days, which we attribute to bacteriophage-induced lysis of the attached bacteria. Isotope mass spectrometry analysis showed that 40% of the particulate 13C-organic carbon from the infected P. globosa culture was remineralized to dissolved inorganic carbon after 7 days. These findings reveal a novel role of viruses in the leakage or excretion of algal biomass upon infection, which provides an additional ecological niche for specific bacterial populations and potentially redirects carbon availability. PMID:23949664

Sheik, Abdul R; Brussaard, Corina P D; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Musat, Niculina; Krupke, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2014-01-01

158

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China  

E-print Network

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas reclamation. Abstract The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

159

Barging in: A Temperate Marine Community Travels to the Subantarctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diverse fouling community discovered encrusting a barge intended for deployment at subantarctic Macquarie Island is described\\u000a and its role as a transport vector for non-indigenous marine organisms is discussed. The barge proved to be a potential vector\\u000a capable of transporting entire epi-bethic communities, 20 species in total, from a temperate estuarine system (Derwent River,\\u000a Tasmania, Australia) into the subantarctic.

Patrick N. Lewis; Dana M. Bergstrom; Jennie Whinam

2006-01-01

160

The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

2014-05-01

161

Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and Arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multiyear mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) buildup and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

2014-12-01

162

Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

2010-11-01

163

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

164

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

165

Remediation of coastal marine sediments using granulated coal ash.  

PubMed

It is very important to reduce phosphorus flux from sediment as well as cutting down terrigenous loads in order to control eutrophication in semi-enclosed coastal seas. Hydrogen sulfide is also a noxious substance which is highly toxic and fatal to benthic organisms. The purpose of this study is to evaluate remediation efficiency of organically enriched sediments using granulated coal ash (GCA) in terms of reducing benthic phosphorus flux and hydrogen sulfide. A flow-through experimental system was used to simulate the semi-enclosed water bodies. The application of GCA decreased the concentration of PO4(3-) in the pore water effectively, and reduced phosphate releasing flux from the sediment into overlying water by 37-44% compared to the control. The hydrogen sulfide in the pore water was also decreased by 77-100%, due to adsorption onto the GCA and deactivation of sulfate-reducing bacteria due to increasing pH. Thus, GCA is a promising recycled material for reducing phosphate releasing flux from organically enriched sediment to alleviate eutrophication as well as reduce the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in pore water. PMID:19632778

Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji; Yoshioka, Ichiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi

2009-12-15

166

MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

2010-12-01

167

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats  

PubMed Central

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

2014-01-01

168

Do anthropogenic, continental or coastal aerosol sources impact on a marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head north-east (NE) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station compared to that of aerosol over the pristine open-ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to potentially enhanced coastal sources, possibly leading to artificially high values of aerosol concentrations, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic or continental aerosol and its potential dominance over, or perturbation of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here, we review the results of previous experimental studies on marine aerosols over the NE Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of a pristine open-ocean aerosol, i.e. with negligible anthropogenic/continental influence. Particular focus is given to submicron organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) in marine air conforming to clean-air sampling criteria, either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations, up to observed peak values of 3.8 ?g m-3, are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing techniques corroborate the conclusion that there is a predominant natural source of OM, with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean-air conditions, rising to ∼98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak OM mass concentrations > 3 ?g m-3 are observed. Similarly, a maximum contribution of 20% OM mass coming from non-marine sources was established by dual carbon isotope analysis. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the secondary or primary aerosol mass residing in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head marine-air criteria ensure anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a predominant, and sometimes overwhelming, natural marine aerosol contribution to the total aerosol population when the criteria are adhered to.

O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Vaishya, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2014-10-01

169

Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

Hay, Mark E.

2009-01-01

170

Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized. PMID:21141035

Hay, Mark E.

2012-01-01

171

Indian Valley Colleges, Marin County Community College District, Marin County, California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian Valley Colleges, in Marin County Community College District, was given an award in the AS&U 1977 College & University Architectural Competition for the design of separate cluster colleges that blend with the site with little disturbance. (Author/MLF)

American School and University, 1977

1977-01-01

172

New particle formation: Nucleation rates and spatial scales in the clean marine coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleation of new, ultra-fine, aerosol particles has been observed in the clean marine coastal atmosphere under a variety of conditions. These nucleation events were observed to occur frequently over spatial scales of 10's-100' of metres and temporal scales of seconds to minutes. Two conditions appeared to be necessary for nucleation event to occur: low tide and solar irradiation. The requirement of low tide conditions suggests that the exposed shore area provides the source of new particle precursors. It is speculated that VOC and/or alkyl halide derivatives contribute to nucleation under these conditions. Nucleation rates were calculated to be ? 10³ - 104 cm-3 s-1, suggesting that the coastal zone is an important source of atmospheric nuclei.

O'Dowd, Colin D.; Geever, Michael; Hill, Martin K.; Smith, Michael H.; Jennings, S. Gerard

173

Marine reservoir correction (delta R) for the southern and western coastal waters, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine reservoir correction (¥ÄR) values are measured using two species of mollusk tests collected by NFRDI in 1942 before nuclear bomb testing to convert the radiocarbon age to calendar age in Korean coastal waters more accurately. The ¥ÄR values are calculated to be -117 ± 45 14C yr in the western coast of Korea and - 160 ± 35 14C yr in the eastern coast. These values are similar to those in Chinese coast of the Yellow Sea (- 81 ± 60, -178 ± 50 14C yr), indicating that regional reservoir 14C ages of these areas are lower than mean global reservoir 14C age. The lower ¥ÄR values in these areas are presumed to be mainly caused by influence of freshwater inflow. The ¥ÄR values presented in this study enhance the accuracy in converting radiocarbon age to calendar age in Korean coastal waters.

Kong, G.; Lee, C.; Park, S.; Bahk, J.

2006-12-01

174

Two Decades of Community Researchon Gas in Shallow Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments; Listvyanka, Russia, 6-12 September 2010 ; The Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments was held near Irkutsk, Russia, and was attended by 120 participants from 19 countries. The GIMS conference series has provided biannual discussions that have knit disparate researchers into a scientific community. The setting was important because the adjacent Lake Baikal contains the only documented freshwater hydrate methane seepage (methane hydrate is a metastable ice at high pressures and low temperatures) due to its great depth (1637 meters). The conference included 72 oral and 47 poster presentations and a day cruise during which gas hydrates were retrieved.

Leifer, Ira; Hovland, Martin; Zemskaya, Tamara

2011-04-01

175

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California’s coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate change and sea level rise, local government staff is typically removed from this information and often lack the time or resources necessary for keeping up with the most recent information. Specifically, there is a disconnect between the latest science and the practice of coastal planners in dealing with sea level rise issues. Improving the transfer of relevant information and resources from scientists to decision-makers should encourage and assist local governments in their responses to this developing issue. Designing and implementing adaptation plans and developing policies for sea level rise are challenging. Each coastal community is unique in its geographic setting and demographics and therefore faces vulnerabilities that differ from those of other communities. Uplift and subsidence, for example, cause regional variations in the rate of sea level rise. Planning staff needs to understand the local impacts of sea level rise in order to take appropriate actions. Even when the potential threats are reasonably well understood, the gradual nature of sea level rise can make it hard to formulate, approve and implement policies that may not affect communities for decades to come. Fortunately, there are tools and resources available to assist planners. Several communities in California have recently completed climate change adaptation plans or are in the process of preparing such plans. However, these documents are not focused solely upon the specific issues associated with sea level rise. A study is underway to fill that void, which includes the development of an informative guide for local government agencies to use in the preparation of sea level rise vulnerability studies and in formulating adaptation plans. This project will identify: 1) the range of sea level rise hazards and issues facing California’s coastal cities and counties in the decades ahead; 2) the types of information or data needed for making vulnerability assessments; 3) the range of adaptation strategies available based upon the severity of the hazards and potential future impacts; and 4) appropriate response recommendations. Two communities have been selected for specific sea level rise vulnerability assessment studies, which involves working with agency staff from the selected communities to identify the current issues, concerns and problem areas. The experience and information gained from working with local government agencies will inform the guidebook’s development. The final products of this research include sea level rise adaptation plans for two local coastal communities as well as a guide to be made available to all of California’s coastal cities and counties.

Griggs, G. B.; Russell, N.

2010-12-01

176

Long-term shifts in the species composition of a coastal fish community  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study decadal shifts in a coastal nekton community, we analyzed data on 25 fish and invertebrate species collected from 1959 to 2005 by the University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography (Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA). This weekly trawl survey samples two locations: inside Narragansett Bay and in Rhode Island Sound. Over four decades, the community has shifted progressively

Jeremy S. Collie; Anthony D. Wood; H. Perry Jeffries

2008-01-01

177

IMPACT OF TSUNAMI ON FISHING, AQUACULTURE AND COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN MALAYSIA 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the socioeconomic impacts of the 26 th December 2004 tsunami on fisheries, aquaculture and livelihoods of coastal communities in Malaysia. Data for the discussion were collected in the months on January to February 2005, based on a rapid assessment survey of communities impacted by the tsunami in the states of Kedah (including Langkawi Island) and Penang. In

Chamhuri Siwar; Mohd Zaki Ibrahim

178

Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica  

EPA Science Inventory

In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

179

Learning To Leave: The Irony of Schooling in a Coastal Community...Some Preliminary Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the role of education in outmigration from the rural coastal community of Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. Data gathered on 756 Grade 6 students who left Digby Neck Consolidated School between 1957 and 1992 were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 36 of those former students, 12 area educators, and community members. Findings…

Corbett, Mike

180

Gender bias in a marginalised community: A study of fisherfolk in coastal Kerala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analysis of female-male ratio in Kerala reveals that two communities, Fisherfolk and Scheduled Tribes, have gender bias in their population unlike rest of Kerala. An in-depth study on fishing households from two coastal hamlets in the state not only validates the lower proportion of females in the community statistically but also provides justification of Sen's alternative version of \\

K. Pushpangadan; G. Murugan

2000-01-01

181

Changes in bacterial community dynamics associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a potentially significant pathway of groundwater and dissolved chemical species in it to the coastal zone. Groundwater has different chemical and biological characteristics compared to seawater; therefore, mixing of the discharged groundwater with seawater can affect the microbial community in near-shore environments. Temporal variability of SGD rates in response to sea level fluctuations (tide, waves) can control the transport of terrestrial materials, periodically altering water quality and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of the submarine groundwater discharge on the microbial community structure in the coastal water body adjacent to the southern shore of Jeju Island, Korea. Near-shore water samples were collected as a function of tidal stage and subjected to DNA pyrosequencing and statistical community analyses. Phlyogenetic classification showed that ?-Proteobacteria was predominant in the seawater samples taken at a high tide or away from the coast while relative abundance of ?-, and ?- Proteobacteria significantly increased in the samples mixed with groundwater at a flood and ebb tide. The genus level analysis showed that the dominant phylotypes in the seawater samples were Roseovarius (40.5%; mean abundance ratio of the samples), DQ009083g (17.1%), and Glaciecola (3.7%). Distributions of the bacterial sequences in the mixed water samples showed a remarkable difference between the flood tide and ebb tide. The abundant phylotypes in the flood tide sample were Candidatus Pelagibacter (11.0%), EU801223 (8.4%) and ABVV (6.2%) whereas Shewanella (34.8%) and Candidatus Pelagibacter (5.1%) were in the ebb tide sample. Several phylototypes were detected only in the mixed water samples, including Sphingopyxis (0.6%), Rheinheimera (1.0%), Hydrogenophaga (1.8%), Colwelliaceae_uc (0.9%), Kinneretia (0.5%), and Collimonas (1.2%). These were hypothesized to be originating from the fresh groundwater discharge. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the mixed water samples were separated from seawater samples, which resulted from significant increase in Shewanella sp. (ebb tide sample) and marine bacteria such as SAR11 and SAR116 clade belonging to ?-Proteobacteria (flood tide sample). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two principal components explained about 84% of the variance in the sequence data. The microbial community in the seawater samples formed a distinct cluster. The microbial diversity in the mixed water samples changed depending on the seawater stage, showing similar trends in the phylogenetic classification. Our study results demonstrate that the microbial environment in the coastal zone subject to SGD and sea level fluctuation may change dynamically over short time period (< 1day). * This study was supported by the Basic Research Projects (14-3211-2) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

Lee, Eunhee; Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul

2014-05-01

182

Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction, invasive species, land and resource use, extreme natural events), which may lead to more significant consequences.

Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

2002-01-01

183

Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.  

PubMed

In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks. PMID:15952346

Nakata, Haruhiko

2005-05-15

184

A multivariate approach to the determination of an indicator species pool for community-based bioassessment of marine water quality.  

PubMed

Previous studies in Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea have shown that periphytic ciliates are reliable indicators of marine water quality. However, traditional community-based bioassessments are time-consuming because they rely on the identification and enumeration of all species within the community. In order to improve bioassessment efficiency, step-best-matching analysis was used to identify which are the most reliable indicator species among periphytic marine ciliate communities. Based on indices of species richness, diversity and evenness, a subset of 48 species (out of a total of 141) was found to retain sufficient information for accurately predicting water quality, and was more strongly related to changes of environmental variables than the full species set. These results demonstrate that the step-best-matching analysis is a powerful approach for identifying an indicator species pool from a full species dataset of a community, and allows the development of time-efficient sampling protocols for community-based marine bioassessment. PMID:25146425

Xu, Guangjian; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yangfan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

2014-10-15

185

Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the  

E-print Network

of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations optical properties (IOP) of the water constituents (namely the absorption, scattering, and backscatteringSensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal

Chami, Malik

186

Victims or vectors: a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1-4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5-13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health. PMID:18828560

Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Ellis, Julie C; Dennett, Mark; Pugliares, Katie R; Lentell, Betty J; Moore, Michael J

2008-08-19

187

Geographical patterns of dominant bivalves and a polychaete in Europe: no metapopulations in the marine coastal zone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic diversity, differentiation and performance of some dominant invertebrates in the marine coastal zone of Europe are reviewed in order to discuss the use of the metapopulation concept in the marine coastal realm. A consistently high genetic diversity of the species studied (mussels of the Mytilus edulis complex, Baltic clams Macoma balthica and lugworms Arenicola marina), a low differentiation and an almost uniform ecophysiological performance (determined by growth, maximum length, level reserve constituents or stress resistance) all along the coast of Europe do not support the use of the metapopulation concept.

Hummel, Herman

2002-12-01

188

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

2012-01-01

189

Soil chemical features as key predictors of plant community occurrence in a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the relationships between soil chemical factors and vegetation in coastal areas provides a significant contribution to understanding the ecology and conservation of these ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. The present study relates coastal plant communities and soil chemistry using multivariate analysis and generalized additive models (GAMs) in order (a) to determine the relationships between soil factors and plant community occurrence along a coastline-lagoon gradient; (b) to build best models of soil chemical predictors for coastal plant community occurrence. Distance from coastline was the primary driver of changes in plant community composition and soil factors on the Mediterranean coast. Field capacity, pH, CaCO3, NaCl and soil organic matter were the major parameters related to the pattern of vegetation distribution. Along the costaline-lagoon gradient, however, plant community and soil changes agreed for two main sequences of habitats. The first was in the sand dune environment, involving plant communities, the species composition of which varied in response to increasing soil development. The second was near lagoons, where vegetation responded to soil salinity, acting independently of other soil factors. Coastal plant community occurrence was explained by GAMs, using a few soil chemical predictors: pH and CaCO3 were the main predictors for dune communities but only partly explained their occurrence, whereas NaCl was the key factor for salt marsh community occurrence and largely contributed to the model. The results suggest that soil chemical changes can be detected through vegetation distribution, particularly in saline habitats. Thus, habitat-based models could be a useful tool to identify the key factors for different types of vegetation occurrence in coastal habitats.

Angiolini, Claudia; Landi, Marco; Pieroni, Giorgia; Frignani, Flavio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Gaggi, Carlo

2013-03-01

190

Temporal dynamics in the free-living bacterial community composition in the coastal North Sea  

PubMed Central

The coastal North Sea is characterized by strong seasonal dynamics in abiotic and biotic variables. Hence, pronounced temporal changes in the bacterioplankton community composition can be expected. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a seasonal succession, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating before the spring phytoplankton bloom, Bacteroidetes increasing during the bloom (up to 60% of the prokaryotic community) and being replaced by Gammaproteobacteria during the postbloom period (on average 30% of prokaryotic cells). Daily changes in similarity of the bacterioplankton community assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism averaged 0.08 day?1 (Whittaker similarity index) for the free-living bacterial community, resulting in a decreasing similarity between samples with increasing time up to approximately 150 days. After about 150 days, the community composition became increasingly similar to the initial composition. Changes in the bacterial community showed periods of fairly stable composition, interrupted by periods of rapid changes. Taken together, our results support the notion of a recurring bacterioplankton community in the coastal North Sea and indicate a tight coupling between the resources, the bacterial community metabolism, physiological structure and community composition throughout the seasonal cycle in the coastal North Sea. PMID:22938648

Sintes, Eva; Witte, Harry; Stodderegger, Karen; Steiner, Paul; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

191

Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.  

PubMed

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level. PMID:25311223

Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

2014-10-13

192

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 1: Temporal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive analysis was conducted using long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) sites from the AIRMAP Observatories in southern New Hampshire, USA. Decreasing trends in background Hg0 were identified in the 7.5- and 5.5-yr records at TF and PM with decline rates of 3.3 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv) yr-1 and 6.3 ppqv yr-1, respectively. Common characteristics at these sites were the reproducible annual cycle of Hg0 with its maximum in winter-spring and minimum in fall, comprised of a positive trend in the warm season (spring - early fall) and a negative one in the cool season (late fall - winter). Year-to-year variability was observed in the warm season decline in Hg0 at TF varying from a minimum total (complete) seasonal loss of 43 ppqv in 2009 to a maximum of 92 ppqv in 2005, whereas variability remained small at AI and PM. The coastal site TF differed from the other two sites with its exceptionally low levels (as low as below 50 ppqv) in the nocturnal inversion layer possibly due to dissolution in dew water. Measurements of Hg0 at PM exhibited the smallest diurnal to annual variability among the three environments, where peak levels rarely exceeded 250 ppqv and the minimum was typically 100 ppqv. It should be noted that summertime diurnal patterns at TF and AI were opposite in phase indicating strong sink(s) for Hg0 during the day in the marine boundary layer, which was consistent with the hypothesis of Hg0 oxidation by halogen radicals there. Mixing ratios of RGM in the coastal and marine boundary layers reached annual maxima in spring and minima in fall, whereas at PM levels were generally below the limit of detection (LOD) except in spring. RGM levels at AI were higher than at TF and PM indicating a stronger source strength in the marine environment. Mixing ratios of HgP at AI and TF were close in magnitude to RGM levels and were mostly below 1 ppqv. Diurnal variation in HgP was barely discernible at TF and AI in spring and summer. Higher levels of HgP were observed during the day, while values that were smaller, but above the LOD, occurred at night.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.

2012-06-01

193

The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

2007-01-01

194

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-04-01

195

The Seasonality of California Coastal Marine Layer Clouds from a New Satellite-Derived Dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low coastal stratiform clouds (typically stratus and fog), referred to here as marine layer clouds (MLCs), are a persistent seasonal feature of coastal California (CA). We have created a novel record of MLC spatial extent for CA and the near-shore waters utilizing NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The low cloud satellite retrieval is optimized and validated against coastal airport cloud observations and is shown to be of excellent quality. The record spans 17 summers and is rich in its spatial (4 km) and temporal (half hourly day and night) resolution. This new data provides a detailed record of MLC variability on diurnal, intra-seasonal, and interannual time scales since 1997. The data reveal that MLC in the Southern California Bight has a greater inland and offshore diurnal movement than the MLC in central and northern CA. Differences also emerge in the seasonality of cloudiness. Seasonal peak MLC cover along the southern California coast is part of a tongue of high early summer cloud cover that extends to the southwest, while peak MLC in later summer along central and northern California is a pattern that occurs broadly in the offshore California region. The data indicates there is interesting differences in seasonal variability that operate diurnally over southern CA and central and northern CA coastal regions. These climatological tendencies are overlain by considerable spatial and temporal variation from synoptic to interannual time scales, which are also under investigation. Satellite retrieval findings are supported by airport cloud observations since 1950. Focusing first on the intricate structure of the seasonal cycle, we then begin to describe and quantify synoptic weather and large scale climatic controls on the finely resolved space-time variability of MLCs.

Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

2013-12-01

196

Response of bacterioplankton communities to cadmium exposure in coastal water microcosms with high temporal variability.  

PubMed

Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 ?g liter(-1) of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 ?g liter(-1)). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N, PO4 (3-)-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. PMID:25326310

Wang, Kai; Zhang, Demin; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

2015-01-01

197

Changes in microbial communities in coastal sediments along natural CO2 gradients at a volcanic vent in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Natural CO2 venting systems can mimic conditions that resemble intermediate to high pCO2 levels as predicted for our future oceans. They represent ideal sites to investigate potential long-term effects of ocean acidification on marine life. To test whether microbes are affected by prolonged exposure to pCO2 levels, we examined the composition and diversity of microbial communities in oxic sandy sediments along a natural CO2 gradient. Increasing pCO2 was accompanied by higher bacterial richness, and by a strong increase in rare members in both bacterial and archaeal communities. Microbial communities from sites with CO2 concentrations close to today's conditions had different structures than those of sites with elevated CO2 levels. We also observed increasing sequence abundance of several organic matter degrading types of Flavobacteriaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which paralleled concurrent shifts in benthic cover and enhanced primary productivity. With increasing pCO2 , sequences related to bacterial nitrifying organisms such as Nitrosococcus and Nitrospirales decreased and sequences affiliated to the archaeal ammonia oxidising Thaumarchaeota Nitrosopumilus maritimus increased. Our study suggests that microbial community structure and diversity, and likely key ecosystem functions, may be altered in coastal sediments by long-term CO2 exposure to levels predicted for the end of the century. PMID:25471738

Raulf, Felix F; Fabricius, Katharina; Uthicke, Sven; de Beer, Dirk; Abed, Raeid M M; Ramette, Alban

2014-12-01

198

Coastal terrorism: using tabletop discussions to enhance coastal community infrastructure through relationship building.  

PubMed

The unique vulnerability of the nation's ports to terrorist attacks and other major disasters requires development of specialized training approaches that integrate and connect critical stakeholders. In 2003, the University of South Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness developed and held its first Coastal Terrorism workshop in conjunction with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Key federal, regional, state, and coastal agency leaders were invited to the 2-day event to explore, in a no-risk environment, the crucial role that public health agencies would play in a covert biological agent incident aboard a cruise ship. The incident began as a possible outbreak of a Norwalk-like viral agent; however, as the scenario unfolded, evidence of a terrorist plot emerged. This immediately shifted the scenario from a public health-dominated incident to one directed by law enforcement. Communication and coordination issues surfaced illustrating potential conflicts between disciplines and jurisdictions in terms of roles and responsibilities of responding agencies. The goals of the workshop were to facilitate communication and interagency networking among coastal stakeholders while assessing their training and research needs and increasing their familiarity with resources and protocols regarding a bioterrorist coastal event. Positive systems changes were observed. PMID:16205543

Richter, Jane; Livet, Melanie; Stewart, Jill; Feigley, Charles E; Scott, Geoff; Richter, Donna L

2005-11-01

199

Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era  

PubMed Central

Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling. PMID:21177688

Vermeij, Geerat J.

2011-01-01

200

University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

Alexander, V.

1998-12-18

201

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

202

Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.  

PubMed

The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. PMID:21556113

Kaloshin, Gennady A

2011-05-10

203

Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine organisms have occupied hard substrates since the Archaean. Shells, rocks, wood and sedimentary hardgrounds offer relatively stable habitats compared to unconsolidated sediments, but the plants and animals which inhabit them must develop means to gain and defend this premium attachment space. Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit. While mobile grazers, organically attached and even soft-bodied organisms may leave evidence of their former presence in ancient hard substrate communities, a superior fossil record is left by sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons and by borers which leave trace fossils. Furthermore, encrusters and borers are preserved in situ, retaining their spatial relationships to one another and to the substrate. Spatial competition, ecological succession, oriented growth, and differential utilisation of exposed vs. hidden substrate surfaces can all be observed or inferred. Hard substrate communities are thus excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years. Here we review the research on modern and ancient hard substrate communities, and point to some changes that have affected them over geological time scales. Such changes include a general increase in bioerosion of hard substrates, particularly carbonate surfaces, through the Phanerozoic. This is, at least in part, analogous to the infaunalisation trends seen in soft substrate communities. Encrusting forms show an increase in skeletalisation from the Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which may be a response to increasing levels of predation. Hard substrate communities, considering borers and encrusters together, show a rough increase in tiering through the Phanerozoic which again parallels trends seen in soft substrate communities. This extensive review of the literature on living and fossil hard substrate organisms shows that many opportunities remain for large-scale studies of trends through time at the community and clade levels. Palaeontologists will especially benefit by closer integration of their work with that of neontologists, particularly in aspects of ecology such as larval recruitment, competition and succession.

Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A.

2003-07-01

204

On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

205

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

206

Overcoming Governance and Institutional Barriers to Integrated Coastal Zone, Marine Protected Area, and Tourism Management in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major barriers to addressing complex social–ecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area

Robert B. Powell; Ariel Cuschnir; Prakash Peiris

2009-01-01

207

Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported

Megan E. Moore; Fred A. Goetz; Donald M. van Doornik; Eugene P. Tezak; Thomas P. Quinn; Jose J. Reyes-Tomassini; Barry A. Berejikian; Mark Briffa

2010-01-01

208

Small copepods structuring mesozooplankton community dynamics in a tropical estuary-coastal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know the ultimate role of small copepods in structuring mesozooplankton community pattern and diversity on an estuary-coastal gradient. Here multivariate analyses were used to elucidate this in the Godavari estuary, on the east coast of India. During May 2002, corresponding to the spring intermonsoon, mesozooplankton were sampled from 4 GPS fixed stations in the estuarine reaches of River Godavari and 19 in the coastal waters where Godavari enters the Bay of Bengal. There were 91 mesozooplankton taxa represented by 23 divergent groups. Copepods were by far the most prominent in terms of species richness, numerical abundance, and widespread distribution followed by appendicularians. Small copepods of families Paracalanidae, Acartiidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae, and Euterpinidae dominated. There were differing regional mesozooplankton/copepod communities, that segregated the estuary-coastal sites into different biotic assemblages: Group-I representing the estuary proper, Group-II estuary mouth and near shore, Group-III the intermediate coastal stations and Group-IV the coastal-offshore waters. Alpha (SRp, H', J', ?*) and beta diversity (MVDISP, ?, ?-dissimilarity) measures varied noticeably across these assemblages/areas. The significant correlation of small copepod abundance with total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (mgDM.m-3) in the estuarine (r: 0.40) and coastal (r: 0.46-0.83) waters together with a regression analysis of diversity measures have revealed the importance of small copepods in the overall mesozooplankton/copepod community structure. There were 'characterizing' and 'discriminating' species, responsible for the observed assemblage patterns. Mesozooplankton/copepod community structure and the size-spectra observed during this study indicate an estuarine-coastal gradient in plankton tropho-dynamics that may shift between a microbial dominated system inside the estuary and mixotrophy in the coastal waters. The functional diversity of copepods revealed features of an effective niche sharing and efficient utilization of the coastal resources by the resident zooplankton some of which are brought out for the first time showing a tropical estuary under the influence of monsoons. The present study also illustrates the importance of, and advocates the need for, incorporating complementary or additional biodiversity measures while describing biotic communities vis-à-vis environmental gradients.

Rakhesh, M.; Raman, A. V.; Ganesh, T.; Chandramohan, P.; Dehairs, F.

2013-07-01

209

Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S. [Moss Landing Marine Labs., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

210

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to cloud condensation nuclei and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the marine/coastal particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to marine/coastal particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-10-01

211

Temporal and Spatial Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Coastal Waters of the South China Sea  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns. PMID:23785512

Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

2013-01-01

212

Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.  

PubMed

Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns. PMID:23785512

Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

2013-01-01

213

Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters? †  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

2009-01-01

214

Short communication Spatial distribution of fungal communities in a coastal grassland soil  

E-print Network

Basidiomycota Saprotrophs ITS DNA sequence Point Reyes National Seashore Coastal grassland Spatial structure T-RFLP a b s t r a c t In grasslands, saprotrophic fungi, including basidiomycetes, are major decomposers. The aim of this study was to characterise the scale and distribution of saprotrophic fungal communities

Silver, Whendee

215

Successional changes in rehabilitating coastal dune communities in northern KwaZulu\\/Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-mining habitat rehabilitation of coastal sand dunes north of Richards Bay by Richards Bay Minerals commenced in 1978. The reshaping of dunes followed by the spreading of topsoil collected ahead of mining, results in the development of a series of known aged habitat types, varying from young communities dominated by low growing sweet thorns, Acacia karroo, to forests dominated by

R. J. van Aarde; S. M. Ferreira; J. J. Kritzinger

1996-01-01

216

Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

Berkman, P.A.

1992-03-01

217

Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) uses spatial planning exercises in State Renewable Energy Task Force meetings to identify competing and conflicting ocean uses, and to delineate areas suitable for renewable energy development. Similarly terrestrial areas such as in national parks and national wildlife refuges managed by the Department of the Interior (DOI) prepare management plans for preservation and restoration of species and habitats of concern, some of which are protected by law. The analogy to CMSP is clear - multiple users and multiple expectations, resulting in the requirement to establish spatial plans for management of different resources and different ecosystem services. A two-day workshop on December 1-2, 2010, was convened for DOI representatives and several key non-DOI participants with roles in CMSP as a step toward clarifying national perspectives and consequences of the National Ocean Policy for the West (appendix 1). Discussions helped to develop an understanding of CMSP from the federal perspective and to identify regional priorities. An overarching theme was to promote a better understanding of current and future science needs. The workshop format included briefings by key Federal agencies on their understanding of the national focus followed by discussion of regional issues, including the needs for scientific information and coordination. The workshop also explored potential science contributions by Federal agencies and others; utilizing current capabilities, data, and information systems; and provided a foundation for possible future regional workshops focusing in turn on the West Coast Region (California, Oregon, and Washington), Pacific Islands (sometimes referred to as Oceania) and Alaska. Participants were asked to share information in the following areas, recognizing that the purpose would be to learn more about the national perspective (see appendixes 2-4): Explore how the Western U.S. (Alaska, Pacific Islands, and West Coast Region) migh

Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

2011-01-01

218

Ectoenzyme activity in coastal marine waters: response to temperature and metal ion availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ectoenzymes in the ocean are vital for the breakdown of complex organic substrates and for the uptake of nutrients by marine organisms. The activity levels of these enzymes affect the turnover rate of nutrient pools within the ocean, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical nutrient cycles. This study measured the activity of extracellular enzymes from seawater samples under different environmental conditions. Samples were collected daily from coastal waters in the subtropical North Pacific (Lat.: 33°). Ambient seawater temperatures were between 18° and 20° C for the duration of the study. The activity response of four enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, ?-glucosidase, ?-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase) was measured over a range of temperatures (4° to 40° C). The optimal temperatures of all four enzymes were above the ambient seawater temperature of the samples: optimal temperatures of ?-glucosidase, ?-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the seawater samples were between 28° and 34° C, while alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the temperature over the range tested. Enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was further investigated under several metal ion conditions. Activity was highest in the presence of Co2+ ions, while the availability of other ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+/Zn2+) had a lesser effect. The influence of Co2+ on alkaline phosphatase activity indicates the presence of a Co2+-dependent alkaline phosphatase in coastal marine waters. These results suggest that variations in environmental conditions (such as temperature and ion concentration) have discernable effects on enzyme activity, and thus affect turnover rates of nutrient pools in the ocean.

Wiedenbeck, J. K.; Neino, V.; Allison, S. D.; Martiny, A.

2009-12-01

219

Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

2014-11-01

220

Territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in Chile.  

PubMed

Territorial user rights for fisheries have been advocated as a way to achieve sustainable resource management. However, few researchers have empirically assessed their potential as ancillary marine conservation instruments by comparing them to no-take marine protected areas. In kelp (Lessonia trabeculata) forests of central Chile, we compared species richness, density, and biomass of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes among territorial-user-right areas with low-level and high-level enforcement, no-take marine protected areas, and open-access areas in 42 100-m subtidal transects. We also assessed structural complexity of the kelp forest and substratum composition. Multivariate randomized permutation tests indicated macroinvertebrate and reef fish communities associated with the different access regimes differed significantly. Substratum composition and structural complexity of kelp forest did not differ among access regimes. Univariate analyses showed species richness, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes were greater in highly enforced territorial-user-right areas and no-take marine protected areas than in open-access areas. Densities of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes of economic importance were not significantly different between highly enforced territorial-user-right and no-take marine protected areas. Densities of economically important macroinvertebrates in areas with low-level enforcement were significantly lower than those in areas with high-level enforcement and no-take marine protected areas but were significantly higher than in areas with open access. Territorial-user-right areas could be important ancillary conservation instruments if they are well enforced. PMID:22971114

Gelcich, Stefan; Fernández, Miriam; Godoy, Natalio; Canepa, Antonio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

2012-12-01

221

Building Community and Governance of Metadata and Ontologies Within the Marine Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three years the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project has been explicitly building a metadata community for the marine sciences. Toward that goal, the organization identified technical resources, developed tools, provided guidance, held workshops, gave scores of presentations, led and participated in interoperability demonstrations, and contributed to standards development activities. All of this information has been presented on the organization's web site, and is used to increase awareness and participation of the community. As a successful community-building project with many accomplishments to date, MMI is keenly aware of the opportunities -- and the need -- for further progress. In this talk, we will frankly present the successes, challenges, and lessons of the project to date; consider MMI in the context of like-minded organizations; consider opportunities for MMI and similar organizations to achieve semantic interoperability objectives; and envision a more thoroughly collaborative and effective marine science community. Finally, with this background in mind, the presentation will discuss how to best manage the standards and ontologies needed for earth science data systems interoperability.

Graybeal, J.

2007-12-01

222

Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs. The ability of most fishing groups to govern MPA resources changed. Increased resource rights were positively correlated with MPA zoning and compliance with MPA regulations. Small sample sizes precluded statistical tests of the impacts of MPAs on employment, community organization, and income. Our results demonstrate that MPAs shape the social well-being and political power of fishing communities; impacts (positive and negative) vary within and among social groups; and social impacts are correlated with some--but not all--commonly hypothesized explanatory factors. Accordingly, MPAs may represent a viable strategy for enhancing food security and empowering local communities, but current practices negatively affect at least a minority of fishers. To inform policy making, further research must better document and explain variation in the positive and negative social impacts of MPAs. PMID:20507354

Mascia, Michael B; Claus, C Anne; Naidoo, Robin

2010-10-01

223

How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.  

PubMed

The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. PMID:25256299

Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

2014-11-15

224

Mathematical modeling of biogenic substance transformations and recycling in a subtropical coastal marine ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model describing the biotransformations of organic and mineral compounds of biogenic elements (P, N, and Si) and dissolved organic carbon was applied for a theoretical analysis of the recycling of nutrients in the coastal zone of the Canary water upwelling. The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the effect of nutrient recycling on the dynamics of the biomasses of microorganisms as a matter basis for the biological productivity of the marine environment. Model calculations were carried out for four near-shore areas off the Moroccan Sahara using the morphometric data (mean depths, water volumes, and areas) and longterm monthly mean values of the parameters of the marine environment (temperature, light intensity, water transparency, and depth of the thermocline). In the calculations, no account was taken for the flow rates across the boundaries between the areas and only indirect account for the vertical exchange was taken. At the absence of nutrient transfer, the model reproduces particular features of the dynamics of nutrient and detritus concentrations and the biomasses of microorganisms resulting from the internal recycling of organic and mineral substances only. In order to characterize the processes of the biotransformation, the internal fluxes and turnover times of organic and mineral components were estimated together with the biomasses and biological productivities of microorganisms.

Leonov, A. V.; Sukhoruk, V. I.; Barkova, M. V.

2008-08-01

225

Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. (Faculte de Medecine, Nice (France))

1988-09-01

226

Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These findings suggest a pivotal host-driven effect on the shape of the marine sponge microbiome, bearing implications to our current understanding of the distribution of microbial genetic resources in the marine realm. PMID:23300853

Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

227

Cartographie des biocénoses marines de Guadeloupe à partir de données SPOT (récifs coralliens, phanérogames marines, mangroves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of a comprehensive study of the coastal marine ecosystems of Guadeloupe Island (French West Indies), a remote sensing survey of marine communities was conducted in the Bay of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin. Pictures of SPOT satellite were used. At first sight, XS data from SPOT did not seem to be well adapted to extract information from deepest

Sylvain CHAUVAUD; Claude BOUCHON; Roger MANIÈRE

2001-01-01

228

Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there today). Potiki-roa and his wife escaped the disaster because their home was further inland and on higher ground. This purakau contains many elements of value to help us understand the societal and ecological significance of this event. Coastal resources (and probably canoes) are lost, buildings further inland and on higher ground survive the inundation while those at the coast and on lower ground are destroyed. This is a representative example of what can be recognised through the archaeological record as an almost nationwide abandonment of coastal settlements, the movement of people from the coast to inland and uphill areas, coastal resource depletion and increased warfare. Not all of this happened immediately after inundation but rather reflects the longer term human and environmental response to tsunami inundation and associated geological processes.

Goff, J. R.

2011-12-01

229

Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon provides an important link between terrestrial and marine archives of Holocene environmental change in South Georgia.

Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

230

Key geochemical factors regulating Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of Mn(IV) oxides coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of NH4+ has been proposed for more than a decade to contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in marine sediments, yet the existence of this process is still under debate. In this study, surface sediments from an intertidal salt marsh were incubated with MnO2 in the presence of elevated concentrations of NH4+ to test the hypothesis that the reduction of Mn(IV) oxides catalyzes anaerobic NH4+ oxidation to NO2- or NO3-. Geochemical factors such as the ratio of Mn(IV) to NH4+, the type of Mn(IV) oxides (amorphous or colloidal MnO2), and the redox potential of the sediment significantly affect the activity of anaerobic nitrification. Incubations show that the net production of NO3- is stimulated under anaerobic conditions with external addition of colloidal but not amorphous MnO2 and is facilitated by the presence of high concentrations of NH4+. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that anaerobic NH4+ oxidation contributes to the net consumption of NH4+, providing another piece of evidence for the occurrence of Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments. Finally, anaerobic nitrification is stimulated by the amendment of small concentrations of NO3- or the absence of sulfate reduction, suggesting that moderately reducing conditions favor anaerobic NH4+ oxidation. Overall, these findings suggest that Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in suboxic sediments with high N/Mn concentration ratios and highly reactive manganese oxides may be an important source of NO2- and NO3- for subsequent marine nitrogen loss via denitrification or anammox.

Lin, Hui; Taillefert, Martial

2014-05-01

231

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

232

Community composition has greater impact on the functioning of marine phytoplankton communities than ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (?(2) ) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. This study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans. PMID:24115206

Eggers, Sarah L; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Barcelos E Ramos, Joana; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Gallo, Francesca; Matthiessen, Birte

2014-03-01

233

Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and nifH gene diversity within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmolN L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C and the surface nitrate concentration was low (? 0.30 ?M), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 ?M). During periods with high nitrogen fixation, the nifH sequences of UCYN-A were recovered, suggesting that these groups played a key role in nitrogen fixation. The nifH genes were also recovered in spring and winter when nitrogen fixation was undetectable. These genes consisted of many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria), which hitherto have rarely been reported to be abundant in surface diazotroph communities in marine environments.

Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

2015-01-01

234

Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services. PMID:24890042

Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

2014-09-01

235

Direct measurements of heat output by marine microbial and phage communities  

E-print Network

and energy. Phage are also important mediators of microbial diversity. Most phage are strain1 Direct measurements of heat output by marine microbial and phage communities E. Djamali1, 2 , P Diego, California, 92182-7720 USA Running Title: Natural Marine Microbial Communities Keywords: Type

Salamon, Peter

236

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES BASED ON KEY FUNCTIONAL GENES1  

E-print Network

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF MARINE PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES BASED ON KEY FUNCTIONAL GENES1 Punyasloke nitrate reductase; community composition; diversity; marine phyto- plankton; rbcL Abbreviations: NR Jersey 08544, USA The phylogeny and diversity of two key functional genes were investigated as the basis

Ward, Bess

237

The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats  

PubMed Central

After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

2013-01-01

238

The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).  

PubMed

The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas. PMID:21764082

Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

2011-09-01

239

Characterization of tropical near-shore fish communities by coastal habitat status on spatially complex island systems  

E-print Network

Characterization of tropical near-shore fish communities by coastal habitat status on spatially, variability Synopsis We present a protocol for characterizing near-shore fish habitat as well as fish variability affected fish community composition, indicating that attempts to characterize a fish community

Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

240

The Ecological Importance of Horseshoe Crabs in Estuarine and Coastal Communities: A Review and Speculative Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Beyond their commercial importance for LAL and bait, and their status as a living fossil, it is often asserted that horseshoe\\u000a crabs play a vital role in the ecology of estuarine and coastal communities. How would the various ecological relationships\\u000a involving horseshoe crabs be affected if these animals were no longer abundant? Attempts to understand and generalize the\\u000a ecological importance

Mark L. Botton

241

Effects of Fragmentation and Invasion on Native Ant Communities in Coastal Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We investigated,the roles of habitat fragmentation,and,the invasion,of an exotic species,on the structure of ground-foraging,ant communities,in 40 scrub,habitat fragments in coastal southern California. In particular, we asked: how do fragment age, fragment size, amount of urban edge, percentage of native vegetation, degree of isolation, and the relative abundance of an exotic species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, affect native ants?

Andrew V. Suarez; Douglas T. Bolger; Ted J. Case

1998-01-01

242

Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20 %, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity, suggesting that jellyfish blooms can induce durable changes in the bacterial community structure in coastal lagoons. PMID:25408076

Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

2014-11-20

243

Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.  

PubMed

Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896

Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

2013-10-01

244

Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.  

PubMed

In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71?×?10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments. PMID:25219532

Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

2015-02-01

245

Hair mercury level of coastal communities in Malaysia: a linkage with fish consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury level was assessed in four coastal communities in Malaysia with relation to fish consumption between gender,\\u000a age, and rural and urban area. Mercury level was found at a range of 0.01–21.00 (?g\\/g dry wt). The average mercury levels\\u000a were 13.69, 10.85, 9.94, and 6.78 ?g\\/g dry wt for communities in Kedah, Terengganu, Johor, and Selangor, respectively. The\\u000a same order

Parvaneh Hajeb; Jinap Selamat; Ahmad Ismail; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Jamilah Bakar; Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

2008-01-01

246

[Marine SRB community reducing sulfate wastewater in flue gas desulfurization].  

PubMed

An SRB community (SRB-2) was enriched from marine sediment for the treatment of sulfate-rich wastewater of high salinity, and the effect of salinity, temperature, pH value, carbon source, concentration of sulfate and the form of Fe on the activity of SRB-2 was studied. The results show that SRB-2 is a halophilous and moderately mesophilous SRB community. The optimal conditions for its growth are as follows: temperature of 30-40 degrees C and pH value of 7.4-8.3; it can endure 5,200 mg/L SO4(2-) and 60g/L NaCl. Zero-valent Fe can promote the reductive activity of SRB-2, while Fe2+ inhibits that. SEM and optical microscopic measurements indicate many rod-shaped and spiral bacteria on the surface of padding in reactor and black sticky substance composed of rod-shaped bacteria on the bottom of reactor. This sticky substance might be cumulus of culture SRB-2-64 (GenBank accession number: EU167911). PMID:19402507

Pan, Jia-Chuan; Cao, Hong-Bin; Shao, Zong-Ze; Sheng, Yu-Xing; Zhang, Yi

2009-02-15

247

Nitrogen acquisition and the organization of marine phytoplankton communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model with self-assembling microbial communities to examine the role of nitrogen acquisition strategies in organizing marine phytoplankton communities on the global scale. The model is initialized with many tens of physiological variants of phytoplankton which "self- organize" according to their relative fitness. A subset of the initialized phytoplankton types persist and populate the virtual ocean with plausible biogeography. In one study, mutations were applied to pico- cyanobacteria, causing them to lose the ability to assimilate nitrate. The mutants accumulate in habitats closely reflecting those of non-nitrate using Prochlorococcus but were lost in regions where nitrate- using Synechococcus are observed to dominate. In a second study, a fraction of the initialized phytoplankton were given the ability to fix nitrogen. A variety of successful diazotrophic phenotypes persisted, mirroring those observed in the ocean. In both studies the importance of cellular scale, metabolic trade-offs is emphasized, demanding a closer connection between studies at the sub-cellular scale through to global ecology.

Follows, M. J.; Bragg, J.; Monteiro, F.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Chisholm, S. W.

2008-12-01

248

Marine microbial diversity studied via 16S rRNA sequences: cloning results from coastal waters and counting of native archaea with fluorescent single cell probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

New molecular approaches relying on 16S rRNA sequences allow qualitative and quantitative analysis of marine microbial diversity. Here we report on (1) continued development of ‘lists’ of taxa present in marine environments, in temperate coastal waters, and (2) new fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches to quantify taxonomic compositions, with an initial focus on archaea. Our cloning results come from

Jed A. Fuhrman; Cleber C. Ouverney

1998-01-01

249

The influence of thermal effects on the wind speed profile of the coastal marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind speed profile in a coastal marine environment is investigated with data from the measurement program Rødsand, where meteorological data are collected with a 50 m high mast in the Danish Baltic Sea, about 11 km from the coast. When compared with the standard Monin-Obukhov theory the measured wind speed increase between 10 m and 50 m height is found to be systematically larger than predicted for stable and partly for near-neutral conditions. The data indicate that the deviation is smaller for short (10-20 km) distances to the coast than for larger (>30 km) distances. The theory by Csanady (1974) offers a qualitative explanation for these findings: When warm air is advected over colder water, a capping inversion might develop. The air below is constantly cooled by the water and gradually develops into a well-mixed layer with near-neutral stratification. Typical examples as well as scatter plots of the data are consistent with this explanation. The deviation of measured and predicted wind speed profiles is shown to be correlated with the height and strength of the inversion layer as estimated with Csanady's theory. Csanady, G. T.: 1974, 'Equilibrium theory of the planetary boundary layer with an inversion lid' Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 6, 63-79.

Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

2003-04-01

250

The Influence of Thermal Effects on the Wind Speed Profile of the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wind speed profile in a coastal marine environment is investigated withobservations from the measurement program Rødsand, where meteorologicaldata are collected with a 50m high mast in the Danish Baltic Sea, about 11 kmfrom the coast. When compared with the standard Monin-Obukhov theory themeasured wind speed increase between 10m and 50m height is found to besystematically larger than predicted for stable and near-neutral conditions. Thedata indicate that the deviation is smaller for short (10-20 km) distances to thecoast than for larger (>30 km) distances.The theory of the planetary boundary layer with an inversion lid offers a qualitative explanation for these findings. When warm air is advected over colder water, acapping inversion typically develops. The air below is constantly cooled by thewater and gradually develops into a well-mixed layer with near-neutral stratification.Typical examples as well as scatter plots of the data are consistent with this explanation.The deviation of measured and predicted wind speed profiles is shown to be correlatedwith the estimated height and strength of the inversion layer.

Lange, Bernhard; Larsen, Søren; Højstrup, Jørgen; et al.

251

Medium-resolution Autonomous in situ Gamma Detection System for Marine and Coastal Waters  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes (40K and U/Th series radionuclides). Filtration is used to preconcentrate target isotopes residing on suspended particles, while chemosorption is employed to preferentially extract truly dissolved components from the water column. A variety of commercial and in-house nano-porus chemosorbents have been selected, procured or produced, and tested. Used filter and chemosorbent media are counted autonomously using two LaBr3 detectors in a near 4-pi configuration around the samples. A compact digital pulse processing system developed in-house and capable of running in coincidence mode is used to process the signal from the detectors to a small on-board computer. The entire system is extremely compact (9” dia. x 30” len.) and platform independent, but designed for initial deployment on a research buoy.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Douglas, Matthew; Meier, David E.; Mullen, O Dennis; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Jones, Mark E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Johnson, Bryce; Santschi, Peter H.

2009-12-01

252

Coupling between sediment dynamics and benthic communities in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of benthic communities on the sediment dynamics of the coastal zone is usually ignored in sediment transport studies, although recent studies suggest that their role could be significant. In order to investigate this topic a field experiment was carried out across the shoreface off the Ebro delta. Time series of waves, currents, water turbidity, bottom sediment characteristics and benthic communities composition were simultaneously monitored during 1 year. Two benthic communities dominated by "Bolinus brandaris" (mud sediment) and "Ophiura texturata" (fine-sand sediment) were analyzed. The major biological impacts on the sediment are related with changes in the bottom roughness and reworking of the superficial few centimeters of the sediment. The significance of these impacts largely depends on the composition and abundance of each group in the benthic community and it changes along the year.

Guillén, J.; Soriano, S.; Demestre, M.; Falqués, A.; Martín, D.; Palanques, A.; Puig, P.; Sánchez, P.; Serra, J.

2003-04-01

253

Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes  

PubMed Central

The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l?1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.

2014-01-01

254

Changes in habitat heterogeneity alter marine sessile benthic communities.  

PubMed

Habitat heterogeneity is considered an important mechanism influencing diversity patterns in spatially structured habitats. However, spatial heterogeneity is not static and it can change along temporal scales. These changes, whether gradual or rapid, have the potential of forcing species extinctions or facilitating the introduction of nonnative species. Here, we present modeling results that show how changes in spatial heterogeneity over several generations can produce strong changes in benthic species composition residing in eastern Long Island Sound, USA. For many benthic species, hard substrate is a limiting resource which can vary in availability among different coastal areas. We modeled gradual changes from a heterogeneous landscape (mimicking patches of natural hard and soft substrate) to a homogenous one (analogous to a fully developed coast with hard, manmade substrate) and followed the abundance and distribution patterns of species possessing four different life histories. We also modeled changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous landscapes. We found that as regions become more homogeneous, species extinctions become more frequent and poor dispersers dominate locally. In contrast, as habitats become more heterogeneous, species distributing across localities leads to regional species coexistence and fewer extinctions. These results suggest that focusing on changing habitat heterogeneity can be a useful management strategy to prevent poor dispersing species, such as invasive ascidians, from driving communities to monocultures. PMID:21639055

Munguia, Pablo; Osman, Richard W; Hamilton, John; Whitlatch, Robert; Zajac, Roman

2011-04-01

255

Response of bacterial community structure and function to experimental rainwater additions in a coastal eutrophic embayment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recognized as a potentially important source of both inorganic and organic nutrients, the impact of rainwater on microbial populations from marine planktonic systems has been poorly assessed. The effect of rainwater additions on bacterioplankton metabolism and community composition was evaluated in microcosm experiments enclosing natural marine plankton populations from the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain). The experiments were conducted during three different seasons (spring, autumn and winter) using rainwater collected at three different locations: marine, urban and rural sites. Bacterial abundance and production significantly increased up to 1.3 and 1.8-fold, respectively, after urban rainwater additions in spring, when ambient nutrient concentration was very low. Overall, the increments in bacterial production were higher than those in bacterial respiration, which implies that a higher proportion of carbon consumed by bacteria would be available to higher trophic levels. The response of the different bacterial groups to distinct rainwater types differed between seasons. The most responsive bacterial groups were Betaproteobacteria which significantly increased their abundance after urban (in spring and winter) and marine (in spring) rainwater additions, and Bacteroidetes which positively responded to all rainwater treatments in spring and to urban rainwater in autumn. Gammaproteobacteria and Roseobacter responded only to urban (in spring) and marine (in winter) rainwater treatment, respectively. The responses to rainwater additions were moderate and transient, and the resulting bacterial community structure was not importantly altered.

Teira, Eva; Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Martínez-García, Sandra; Figueiras, Francisco G.; Arbones, Belén; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

2013-03-01

256

Genomic island genes in a coastal marine Synechococcus strain confer enhanced tolerance to copper and oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Highly variable regions called genomic islands are found in the genomes of marine picocyanobacteria, and have been predicted to be involved in niche adaptation and the ecological success of these microbes. These picocyanobacteria are typically highly sensitive to copper stress and thus, increased copper tolerance could confer a selective advantage under some conditions seen in the marine environment. Through targeted gene inactivation of genomic island genes that were known to be upregulated in response to copper stress in Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, we found two genes (sync_1495 and sync_1217) conferred tolerance to both methyl viologen and copper stress in culture. The prevalence of one gene, sync_1495, was then investigated in natural samples, and had a predictable temporal variability in abundance at a coastal monitoring site with higher abundance in winter months. Together, this shows that genomic island genes can confer an adaptive advantage to specific stresses in marine Synechococcus, and may help structure their population diversity. PMID:23344240

Stuart, Rhona K; Brahamsha, Bianca; Busby, Kayla; Palenik, Brian

2013-01-01

257

CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & MARINE HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...

258

Shifting microbial community structure across a marine terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California  

E-print Network

Shifting microbial community structure across a marine terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz Microbial community structure Microbial biomass Decline phase Grassland a b s t r a c t Changes plant productivity, and soil microbial communities across a grassland chro- nosequence (65

Macalady, Jenn

259

Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

2011-12-01

260

Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.

Arkema, Katie K.; Verutes, Gregory; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Wood, Spencer A.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Rosenthal, Amy; McField, Melanie; de Zegher, Joann

2014-11-01

261

Ecology of Pacific Northwest coastal sand dunes: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant communities identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.

Wiedemann, A.M.

1984-03-01

262

Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in coastal fish communities.  

PubMed Central

Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate communities at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spatio-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish communities along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in coastal fish communities in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in community composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to coastal currents and advection. PMID:12350265

Lekve, Kyrre; Boulinier, Thierry; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hines, James E; Nichols, James D

2002-01-01

263

Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

264

Mediterranean coastal dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant communities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.

Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2014-08-01

265

Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected

G Zega; R Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; F De Bernardi

2009-01-01

266

Phylogenetic differences in attached and free-living bacterial communities in a temperate coastal lagoon during summer, revealed via high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing.  

PubMed

Most of what is known about coastal free-living and attached bacterial diversity is based on open coasts, with high particulate and nutrient riverine supply, terrestrial runoffs, and anthropogenic activities. The Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) are dominated by shallow lagoons with small, relatively pristine catchments and no freshwater input apart from rain. Such conditions provided an opportunity to investigate coastal free-living and attached marine bacterial diversity in the absence of confounding effects of steep freshwater gradients. We found significant differences between the two communities and marked temporal patterns in both. Taxonomic richness and diversity were greater in the attached than in the free-living community, increasing over summer, especially within the least abundant bacterial phyla. The highest number of reads fell within the SAR 11 clade (Pelagibacter, Alphaproteobacteria), which dominated free-living communities. The attached communities had deeper phylum-level diversity than the free-living fraction. Distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration was the main variable separating early and late summer samples with salinity and temperature changes also significantly correlated to bacterial community structure. Our approach using high-throughput sequencing detected differences in free-living versus attached bacteria in the absence of riverine input, in keeping with the concept that marine attached communities are distinct from cooccurring free-living taxa. This diversity likely reflects the diverse microhabitats of available particles, implying that the total bacterial diversity in coastal systems is linked to particle supply and variability, with implications for understanding microbial biodiversity in marine systems. PMID:24463966

Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Toupoint, Nicolas; Lovejoy, Connie

2014-04-01

267

Marine Communities on Oil Platforms in Gabon, West Africa: High Biodiversity Oases in a Low Biodiversity Environment  

PubMed Central

The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil platforms in the marine protected area design process. PMID:25083704

Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

268

Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.  

PubMed

The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil platforms in the marine protected area design process. PMID:25083704

Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

2014-01-01

269

Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

1998-01-01

270

Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis: scale matters in coastal plant communities  

PubMed Central

Darwin proposed two seemingly contradictory hypotheses for a better understanding of biological invasions. Strong relatedness of invaders to native communities as an indication of niche overlap could promote naturalization because of appropriate niche adaptation, but could also hamper naturalization because of negative interactions with native species (‘Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis’). Although these hypotheses provide clear and opposing predictions for expected patterns of species relatedness in invaded communities, so far no study has been able to clearly disentangle the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that conflicting past results are mainly due to the neglected role of spatial resolution of the community sampling. In this study, we corroborate both of Darwin’s expectations by using phylogenetic relatedness as a measure of niche overlap and by testing the effects of sampling resolution in highly invaded coastal plant communities. At spatial resolutions fine enough to detect signatures of biotic interactions, we find that most invaders are less related to their nearest relative in invaded plant communities than expected by chance (phylogenetic overdispersion). Yet at coarser spatial resolutions, native assemblages become more invasible for closely-related species as a consequence of habitat filtering (phylogenetic clustering). Recognition of the importance of the spatial resolution at which communities are studied allows apparently contrasting theoretical and empirical results to be reconciled. Our study opens new perspectives on how to better detect, differentiate and understand the impact of negative biotic interactions and habitat filtering on the ability of invaders to establish in native communities. PMID:24860240

Carboni, Marta; Münkemüller, Tamara; Gallien, Laure; Lavergne, Sébastien; Acosta, Alicia; Thuiller, Wilfried

2014-01-01

271

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-12-01

272

Integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of marine biofilm communities.  

PubMed

Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses were utilized to determine the composition and function of complex air-water interface biofilms sampled from the hulls of two US Navy destroyers. Prokaryotic community analyses using PhyloChip-based 16S rDNA profiling revealed two significantly different and taxonomically rich biofilm communities (6,942 taxa) in which the majority of unique taxa were ascribed to members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Clostridia. Although metagenomic sequencing indicated that both biofilms were dominated by prokaryotic sequence reads (> 91%) with the majority of the bacterial reads belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, the Ship-1 metagenome harbored greater organismal and functional diversity and was comparatively enriched for sequences from Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and macroscopic eukaryotes, whereas the Ship-2 metagenome was enriched for sequences from Proteobacteria and microscopic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metaproteome analyses identified 678 unique proteins, revealed little overlap in species and protein composition between the ships and contrasted with the metagenomic data in that ~80% of classified and annotated proteins were of eukaryotic origin and dominated by members of the Bacillariophyta, Cnidaria, Chordata and Arthropoda (data deposited to the ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD000961). Within the shared metaproteome, quantitative (18)O and iTRAQ analyses demonstrated a significantly greater abundance of structural proteins from macroscopic eukaryotes on Ship-1 and diatom photosynthesis proteins on Ship-2. Photosynthetic pigment composition and elemental analyses confirmed that both biofilms were dominated by phototrophic processes. These data begin to provide a better understanding of the complex organismal and biomolecular composition of marine biofilms while highlighting caveats in the interpretation of stand-alone environmental '-omics' datasets. PMID:25407927

Leary, Dagmar H; Li, Robert W; Hamdan, Leila J; Hervey, W Judson; Lebedev, Nikolai; Wang, Zheng; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W; Vora, Gary J

2014-11-01

273

Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

2014-05-23

274

Salinity-dominated change in community structure and ecological function of Archaea from the lower Pearl River to coastal South China Sea.  

PubMed

Archaea have multiple roles in global biogeochemical cycles. However, we still have limited knowledge about how environmental factors affect the diversity and function of different archaeal lineages. The goal of this study was to examine the change in the abundance and community structure of Archaea in the sediments collected from the lower Pearl River (mainly North River tributary), its estuary, and coastal South China Sea (SCS) in order to evaluate how archaeal ecological function might change along the salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of Archaea was performed on sediment samples from Feilaixia Dam on the North River tributary to Wanshan islands, which have a salinity range of 0.1 to 31.2‰. Consistent with the salt tolerance of cultivated representatives, methanogens in the genera Methanoregula, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina and Nitrososphaera within Thaumarchaeota of the ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were abundant in freshwater sediments of the North River tributary, whereas the marine-associated genera Methanococcoides and Nitrosopumilus were the most abundant methanogens and AOA, respectively, in the estuary and coastal SCS. However, the percentages of total methanogens decreased and Thaumarchaeota increased with salinity, respectively. The phylum Crenarchaeota was largely represented by class-level lineages with no cultivated representatives, which collectively were more abundant in the estuary and coastal SCS in comparison to freshwater sites. This study indicates that salinity is the dominating factor affecting archaeal community structure and ecological function from the North River tributary of the Pearl River, its estuary, and coastal SCS, which is consistent with salinity control on microbial diversity in other regions of the world. PMID:24880629

Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhou, Xuedan; Wang, Peng

2014-09-01

275

Facilitating Community Change. A Case Study of Marin City Families First.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the development and progress of Marin City Families First (MCFF), a project undertaken in Marin City (California) in 1993 by the Far West Laboratory's (FWL) Center for Child and Family Studies. Its goal was to develop a model comprehensive child and family support system for low-income communities. In pursuing its objective…

Quiett, Douglas; And Others

276

Occurrence of Lysogenic Bacteria in Marine Microbial Communities as Determined by Prophage Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant and dynamic members of the marine microbial community, and it is important to understand their role in the ecology of natural microbial populations. We have previously found lysogenic bacteria to be a significant proportion (43%) of the cultivable heterotrophic microbial population. As the majority of marine bacteria are not cultivable using standard plating methods, we measured the

S. C. Jiang; John H. Paul

1996-01-01

277

Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard. We have many ways to study earthquake faults. Where faults break the land surface, we may learn valuable information needed for hazard assessment, such as cumulative offset, slip rate, and earthquake history. However, many of the major faults in the region are partly submerged beneath San Francisco and Monterey Bays. Although this situation poses problems in gathering observational data for hazard assessment, bay-region waterways provide an opportunity to study faultzone structure by using marine subsurface-imaging techniques, which are easier and cheaper than equivalent studies on land. In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched a 5-year project aimed at unearthing the basic science of the submerged San Andreas strike-slip fault system in the San Francisco Bay region with its many interacting strands. Primary project goals were structural, such as to discover how the San Andreas and Hayward Faults are connected or related at depth, to learn how the complex of faults in the San Andreas stepover zone on the Golden Gate platform functions, and to locate previously unknown faults. This volume thus contains mostly structural information about the San Francisco Bay region, much of it gathered through exploratory geophysical experiments. The volume is organized “top down,” from studies in the shallowest crust to the base of the crust. The first three chapters are linked through their use of novel geophysical techniques to study earthquake effects, coseismic slip, and shallow stratigraphy. Kayen and others examine crustal structure at very high resolution and demonstrate the use of ground-penetrating-radar tomography to measure the liquefaction potential of coastal sedimentary deposits. McGann and others use microfossils from drill cores along the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge to determine a more detailed late Pleistocene stratigraphy of San Francisco Bay than was previously available. Geist and Zoback use the historical record of a small local tsunami generated by the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake to model the rupture process of that earthquake. The last four chapters are dedicated to studies of fault related structure of the seismogenic crust in and around the San Andreas Fault system in the San Francisco Bay region. Jachens and others compile an aeromagnetic anomaly map from new high-resolution flights across the bay region. Some of these anomalies mark the positions of offshore faults, and others are offset by faults, providing constraints on cumulative slip. Hart and others concisely summarize the marine seismic data recorded in and around San Francisco Bay, map the coverage, and provide archival information for those interested in acquiring data. The last two chapters present the results of the seismic data that have been analyzed. Bruns and others present their analysis of high-quality intermediate-resolution (~5-km penetration) seismic-reflection data gathered over the complex San Andreas-San Gregorio Fault junction. This junction, which is thought to be where the 1906 San Francisco earthquake originated (see Geist and Zoback, this volume), contains an apparent extensional right stepover in the San Andreas Fault. Finally, Parsons and others review and summarize the results of deep-crustal seismic-reflection experiments and local-earthquake tomographic studies, including previously unpublished data, and provide additional support and discussion for already-published studies. In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background infor

Parsons, Tom, (Edited By)

2002-01-01

278

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIRD COMMUNITIES AND FOREST AGE, STRUCTURE, SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FRAGMENTATION IN THE WEST GULF COASTAL PLAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant communities through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some species with others and cause changes

Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

279

Metabolism of a nitrogen-enriched coastal marine lagoon during the summertime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured metabolism rates in a shallow, nitrogen-enriched coastal marine ecosystem on Cape Cod (MA, USA) during seven summers using an open-water diel oxygen method. We compared two basins, one directly receiving most of the nitrogen (N) load (“Snug Harbor”) and another further removed from the N load and better flushed (“Outer Harbor”). Both dissolved oxygen and pH varied greatly over the day, increasing in daylight and decreasing at night. The more N-enriched basin frequently went hypoxic during the night, and the pH in both basins was low (compared to standard seawater) when the oxygen levels were low, due to elevated carbon dioxide. Day-to-day variation in gross primary production (GPP) was high and linked in part to variation in light. Whole-ecosystem respiration tended to track this short-term variation in GPP, suggesting that respiration by the primary producers often dominated whole-system respiration. GPP was higher in the more N-loaded Snug Harbor. Seagrasses covered over 60 % of the area of the better-flushed, Outer Harbor throughout our study and were the major contributors to GPP there. Seagrasses covered 20 % of the area in Snug Harbor for the first 5 years of our study, and their contribution to GPP was relatively small. The seagrasses in Snug Harbor died off completely in the 6th year, but GPP remained high then and in the subsequent year. Overall, rates of phytoplankton GPP were relatively low, suggesting that benthic micro- and macro-algae may be the dominant primary producers in Snug Harbor in most years. Net ecosystem production in both Snug Harbor and the Outer Harbor was variable from year to year, showing net heterotrophy in some years and net autotrophy in others, with a trend towards increasing autotrophy over the 7 years reported here.

Howarth, Robert W.; Hayn, Melanie; Marino, Roxanne M.; Ganju, Neil; Foreman, Kenneth; McGlathery, Karen; Giblin, Anne E.; Berg, Peter; Walker, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

280

Community structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a marine pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.  

PubMed

Marine microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial community composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable community composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in coastal environments affected by marine oil spills. PMID:24356981

Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

2014-07-01

281

Hygroscopic behavior of partially volatilized coastal marine aerosols using the volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal marine nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode aerosol particles with back trajectories indicative of marine origin were examined using a volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer (VHTDMA) to reveal the volatilization temperatures of the various component species. The diameter hygroscopic growth factors of the residue particles were continually examined throughout the volatilization process. In each of the three modes the dominant particle type appeared to be composed of the same four physicochemically distinct species though in different ratios. These species exhibited volatility and hygroscopic behavior consistent with combinations of a volatile organic species, sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate or bisulfate, iodine oxide, and an insoluble nonvolatile residue. The Aitken and accumulation mode aerosols contain large fractions of the insoluble, volatile, organic-like material, and the volatilization of this species results in a distinct increase in the water volume uptake of the particles. Of the four distinct species, only the sulfuric acid-like species constituted an increasing volume fraction with decreasing particle size. This finding indicates that nucleation mode particles constitute an acidic seed and as such would undergo acid-catalyzed secondary organic aerosol growth at a faster rate. The lack of a nonvolatile hygroscopic residue consistent with sea salt in these particles implies that the aerosolization of seawater is not the dominant production mechanism for these submicrometer coastal marine aerosols.

Johnson, G. R.; Ristovski, Z. D.; D'Anna, B.; Morawska, L.

2005-10-01

282

Late Cenozoic marine deposition in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain related to tectonism and global climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major hiatuses in upper Cenozoic marine deposits in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain are recognized on the basis of molluscan faunal changes at erosional unconformities. These hiatuses generally coincided with periods of global cooling and ice sheet formation. Such hiatuses provide information to supplement global climatic data. Major hiatuses are recognized within the early Miocene (23-20 m.y. ago), at the end of the middle Miocene (??? 11-10 m.y. ago), at the end of the late Miocene (???6.5-5 m.y. ago), at the end of the early Pliocene (???4.0-2.5 m.y. ago), at the end of the late Pliocene (???1.9 or 1.8 m.y. ago), within the Pleistocene (???1.1-0.5 m.y. ago) and several times within the last 0.4 m.y. Estimates of the amount of water contained in ice sheets at different times in the Pliocene and Pleistocene facilitate calculation of probable minimum sea levels on the Coastal Plain during different high stands of the sea. The altitudes of dated shoreline deposits in the Atlantic Coastal Plain show that the amount of uplift in the Cape Fear area has averaged at least 1.3 cm per 1000 years since the beginning of Pliocene time. The Coastal Plain of Georgia has apparently experienced relatively little vertical deformation during this same time. ?? 1981.

Blackwelder, B. W.

1981-01-01

283

Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the community is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland community. 63 references.

Hobbie, J.E.

1984-06-01

284

Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

2012-11-01

285

Seasonal Variations in Planktonic Community Structure and Production in an Atlantic Coastal Pond: The Importance of Nanoflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and summertime production of planktonic communities and the role of nondiatom planktonic cells were studied\\u000a in coastal ponds, which are areas traditionally used for fattening and greening table-sized oysters. The abundance and biomass\\u000a of nano–microplanktonic protists were determined at weekly intervals between February 1998 and February 1999 in a coastal\\u000a pond without oysters in the French Atlantic coast

C. Dupuy; M. Ryckaert; S. Le Gall; H. J. Hartmann

2007-01-01

286

Diversity and population structure of a near-shore marine-sediment viral community.  

PubMed

Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in marine sediments, yet almost nothing is known about their identity or diversity. We present the metagenomic analysis of an uncultured near-shore marine-sediment viral community. Three-quarters of the sequences in the sample were not related to anything previously reported. Among the sequences that could be identified, the majority belonged to double-stranded DNA phage. Temperate phage were more common than lytic phage, suggesting that lysogeny may be an important lifestyle for sediment viruses. Comparisons between the sediment sample and previously sequenced seawater viral communities showed that certain phage phylogenetic groups were abundant in all marine viral communities, while other phage groups were under-represented or absent. This 'marineness' suggests that marine phage are derived from a common set of ancestors. Several independent mathematical models, based on the distribution of overlapping shotgun sequence fragments from the library, were used to show that the diversity of the viral community was extremely high, with at least 10(4) viral genotypes per kilogram of sediment and a Shannon index greater than 9 nats. Based on these observations we propose that marine-sediment viral communities are one of the largest unexplored reservoirs of sequence space on the planet. PMID:15156913

Breitbart, Mya; Felts, Ben; Kelley, Scott; Mahaffy, Joseph M; Nulton, James; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

2004-03-22

287

Diversity and population structure of a near-shore marine-sediment viral community.  

PubMed Central

Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in marine sediments, yet almost nothing is known about their identity or diversity. We present the metagenomic analysis of an uncultured near-shore marine-sediment viral community. Three-quarters of the sequences in the sample were not related to anything previously reported. Among the sequences that could be identified, the majority belonged to double-stranded DNA phage. Temperate phage were more common than lytic phage, suggesting that lysogeny may be an important lifestyle for sediment viruses. Comparisons between the sediment sample and previously sequenced seawater viral communities showed that certain phage phylogenetic groups were abundant in all marine viral communities, while other phage groups were under-represented or absent. This 'marineness' suggests that marine phage are derived from a common set of ancestors. Several independent mathematical models, based on the distribution of overlapping shotgun sequence fragments from the library, were used to show that the diversity of the viral community was extremely high, with at least 10(4) viral genotypes per kilogram of sediment and a Shannon index greater than 9 nats. Based on these observations we propose that marine-sediment viral communities are one of the largest unexplored reservoirs of sequence space on the planet. PMID:15156913

Breitbart, Mya; Felts, Ben; Kelley, Scott; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Nulton, James; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

2004-01-01

288

Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on animal distribution and abundance is integral to wildlife conservation and management. However abundance estimates have not been available for many cetacean species inhabiting the coastal waters of Canada's Pacific coast, including those species that were heavily depleted by commercial whaling. Systematic sightings surveys were conducted in the inshore coastal waters of the Inside Passage, between the British Columbia

ROB WILLIAMS; LEN THOMAS

2007-01-01

289

Community-based Restoration Matching Grants Program TNC Global Marine Team & NOAA Restoration Center  

E-print Network

1 Community-based Restoration Matching Grants Program TNC Global Marine Team & NOAA Restoration Center Request for Proposals ­ Due April 13, 2012 TNC-NOAA Community-based Habitat Restoration Grants to request proposals for their restoration matching grants program. This program is part of a national

290

The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. PMID:22341882

Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

2012-04-01

291

Effects of a coastal power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton community structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.  

PubMed

The effects of a thermal discharge from a coastal power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. PMID:24635985

Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li

2014-04-15

292

Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential influence of coastal development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI?community from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-community structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the community was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton community.

Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.

2014-01-01

293

Seaweeds: an opportunity for wealth and sustainable livelihood for coastal communities.  

PubMed

The European, Canadian, and Latin American seaweed industries rely on the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. As several countries wish to increase their activity, the harvest should be managed according to integrated and participatory governance regimes to ensure production within a long-term perspective. Development of regulations and directives enabling the sustainable exploitation of natural resources must therefore be brought to the national and international political agenda in order to ensure environmental, social, and economic values in the coastal areas around the world. In Europe, Portugal requires an appraisal of seaweed management plans while Norway and Canada have developed and implemented coastal management plans including well-established and sustainable exploitation of their natural seaweed resources. Whereas, in Latin America, different scenarios of seaweed exploitation can be observed; each country is however in need of long-term and ecosystem-based management plans to ensure that exploitation is sustainable. These plans are required particularly in Peru and Brazil, while Chile has succeeded in establishing a sustainable seaweed-harvesting plan for most of the economically important seaweeds. Furthermore, in both Europe and Latin America, seaweed aquaculture is at its infancy and development will have to overcome numerous challenges at different levels (i.e., technology, biology, policy). Thus, there is a need for regulations and establishment of "best practices" for seaweed harvesting, management, and cultivation. Trained human resources will also be required to provide information and education to the communities involved, to enable seaweed utilization to become a profitable business and provide better income opportunities to coastal communities. PMID:25346571

Rebours, Céline; Marinho-Soriano, Eliane; Zertuche-González, José A; Hayashi, Leila; Vásquez, Julio A; Kradolfer, Paul; Soriano, Gonzalo; Ugarte, Raul; Abreu, Maria Helena; Bay-Larsen, Ingrid; Hovelsrud, Grete; Rødven, Rolf; Robledo, Daniel

2014-01-01

294

Characterization of Coastal Urban Watershed Bacterial Communities Leads to Alternative Community-Based Indicators  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and ?-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC?A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health. PMID:20585654

Wu, Cindy H.; Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Wong, Jakk; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Holden, Patricia A.; Andersen, Gary L.

2010-01-01

295

Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

2010-03-01

296

An index to determine vulnerability of communities in a coastal zone: a case study of Baler, Aurora, Philippines.  

PubMed

A coastal community vulnerability index (CCVI) was constructed to evaluate the vulnerability of coastal communities (Buhangin, Pingit, Reserva, Sabang, and Zabali) in the municipality of Baler, Aurora, Philippines. This index was composed of weighted averages of seven vulnerability factors namely geographical, economic and livelihood, food security, environmental, policy and institutional, demographic, and capital good. Factor values were computed based on scores that described range of conditions that influence communities' susceptibility to hazard effects. Among the factors evaluated, economic and livelihood, policy and institutional and food security contributed to CCVI across communities. Only small variations on CCVI values (i.e., 0.47-0.53) were observed as factor values cancelled out one another during combination process. Overall, Sabang received the highest CCVI, which was contributed mainly by geographical and demographic factors. This technique to determine factors that influenced communities' vulnerability can provide information for local governments in enhancing policies on risk mitigation and adaptation. PMID:22797853

Orencio, Pedcris M; Fujii, Masahiko

2013-02-01

297

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

298

Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert wastes on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-wide × 350-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the elements contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) “anomalous” enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content.

Colizza, E.; Fontolan, G.; Brambati, A.

1996-06-01

299

Stratigraphic correlation of oligocene marginal marine and fluvial deposits across the middle and lower coastal plain, South Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age and stratigraphic relationship of the Upland Unit, which crops out at the Savannah River Site near Barnwell, South Carolina has been the focus of many recent investigations. The geological interpretation of the Upland Unit is particularly significant since it serves as the upper confining unit used in the storage of lowlevel radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site. The age and regional extent of the unit is also important in providing an accurate geological map of the upper coastal plain. The age of the Upland Unit has been in dispute because it lacks datable material. Extensive coring and seismic studies have been conducted to investigate the occurrence and regional distribution of this stratigraphic unit. Lithologically, the Upland Unit consists of poorly sorted, clayey to silty, medium- to coarse-grained sands and gravels of fluvial origin. Similar quartz gravel deposits have been reported from the Chandler Bridge Formation near Charleston, South Carolina. These 'Upland-like' gravels are the oldest gravels of Tertiary age reported in the lower coastal plain. The Chandler Bridge Formation is interpreted as a downdip marginal marine facies of an extensive fluvial drainage system which once extended from the upper to the lower coastal plain of South Carolina. Where present, the Chandler Bridge Formation is overlain by nodular phosphate deposits of the Edisto Formation (late Oligocene to early Miocene), and underlain by the Ashley Formation of late Oligocene age. Pollen and dinoflagellate analyses conducted on sediment samples also confirm a late Chattian age for the Chandler Bridge Formation. Consequently, if quartz clasts in the Chandler Bridge Formation represent fluvial transport of Upland Unit gravels from the upper coastal plain which seems likely, then the age of the Upland Unit can be no younger than late Oligocene. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the Upland Unit and the Chandler Bridge Formation are correlative and represent a sequence of fluvial and marginal marine deposits of late Oligocene age. The depositional history of these formational units provides additional information concerning the geological evolution of the middle and lower coastal plain of South Carolina.

Katuna, Michael P.; Geisler, Jonathan H.; Colquhoun, Donald J.

1997-02-01

300

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic.  

PubMed

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S PMID:23565124

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-04-01

301

Linkage between bacterial carbon processing and the structure of the active bacterial community at a coastal site in the NW Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The temporal dynamics in bulk bacterial parameters and in the richness of the total and active bacterial community, determined from CE-SSCP fingerprints of 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA transcripts, respectively, were followed weekly to bimonthly at an oligotrophic coastal site in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Bacterial abundance, bacterial heterotrophic production, and bacterial and community respiration determined over two seasonal cycles displayed large short-term variability and no pronounced temporal pattern was detectable for these parameters. Concentrations in inorganic nutrients, salinity, or concentrations of chlorophyll a could not significantly explain the temporal variability of the bacterial parameters determined. By contrast, bacterial respiration and the bacterial carbon demand were both negatively correlated with the richness of the active bacterial community, while the bacterial parameters determined herein were not related to the richness of the total bacterial community present. Our results indicate that a reduced number of ribotypes is active when rates of bacteria-mediated carbon processes are high. Our approach, based on fingerprints of 16S rRNA transcripts, could represent an interesting tool to investigate the relationship between the structure and function of marine bacteria, in particular, on short temporal and spatial scales. PMID:19789909

Obernosterer, Ingrid; Lami, Raphael; Larcher, Mariele; Batailler, Nicole; Catala, Philippe; Lebaron, Philippe

2010-04-01

302

Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), ?13CTOC, ?13C and ?18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The ?13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The ?18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture, conversion, storage and reuse through the coastal ocean of Taiwan: The biological pump.

Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

2012-12-01

303

How does mesh-size selection reshape the description of zooplankton community structure in coastal lakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide evidence of the inadequacy of using conventional sampling methods to study mesozooplankton community structure in confined environments, samples from a Mediterranean meromictic coastal lake were taken using 80-?m and 200-?m mesh nets towed at three different depths (0-18 m). Mesh size significantly affected the description of the community structure of the collected zooplankton. The 80-?m-mesh catch revealed for the first time in such an environment the overwhelming abundance of the copepod species Oithona brevicornis, as two orders of magnitude greater than recorded for the 200-?m-mesh catch. The other dominant species were Paracartia latisetosa and Pseudodiaptomus marinus, which were more efficiently sampled with the 200-?m mesh. These showed a summer abundance peak for P. latisetosa near the surface layer, and for P. marinus in the deepest stratum, close to the anoxic layer. Copepod nauplii and bivalve larvae were more efficiently caught with the 80-?m-mesh, and accounted for most of the zooplankton in winter, and showed the highest loss percentage of abundance between the two mesh-size catches. The differences in the assemblages reflect different diversity patterns, with peaks in summer and winter for the communities collected with the 80-?m-mesh and 200-?m-mesh, respectively. These findings imply the need for the development of a commonly used sampling method with paired nets, to correctly take into account both the large and small fractions of the mesozooplankton in the study of closed and semi-enclosed coastal environments, and to obtain data that can be better compared across studies.

Pansera, Marco; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Minutoli, Roberta; Zagami, Giacomo; Brugnano, Cinzia

2014-12-01

304

Assessment of benthic trophic status of marine coastal ecosystems: Significance of meiofaunal rare taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication enhances organic C inputs to the sea bottom, so that the quantity and biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are expected to change under different trophic status conditions. In turn, changes in the trophic status are often associated with shifts in the abundance and community structure of the benthos. We investigated the quantity and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phytopigment) of sedimentary organic matter together with abundance and community structure of meiofauna in two regions of the Mediterranean Sea characterized by different levels of primary productivity. At each region, five transects were randomly selected along the coastline. At each transect, three stations located at increasing distance from the shore and different water depth were investigated. Uni- and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter displayed the most relevant differences between stations, suggesting their potential use as descriptor of the benthic trophic state at the small spatial scale (i.e. <2 km). The correlation analyses, corroborated by nMDS dispersion plots and cluster analyses highlighted that the biopolymeric C content of the sediment and the algal fraction of sediment organic matter were inversely related and able to discriminate the trophic status at the scale of region, transect and station. Uni- and multivariate analyses on meiofaunal assemblages revealed that differences at different spatial scales were less evident in terms of abundance and richness of meiofaunal taxa but were more evident in terms of taxonomic composition. Furthermore, these differences were enhanced when the analyses were restricted using the meiofaunal rare taxa (i.e. those taxa representing <1% of the total meiofaunal abundance) as an input. The results of the multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that the taxonomic composition of meiofaunal assemblages was driven mostly by protein, biopolymeric C and chlorophyll-a concentrations but also by the algal fraction of biopolymeric C. We conclude that, the study of the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter coupled with an analysis of the rare meiofaunal taxa allows an ecosystem-oriented assessment of the trophic status of marine benthic environments.

Pusceddu, Antonio; Bianchelli, Silvia; Gambi, Cristina; Danovaro, Roberto

2011-07-01

305

Ontogenetic Shifts in Diets of Juvenile and Subadult Coho and Chinook Salmon in Coastal Marine Waters: Important for Marine Survival?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successfully shifting to a more piscivorous diet may be an important factor in the growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha during their first summer in the northern California Current. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis of diets by size showed several distinct groupings as the salmon grew during their first marine summer.

Elizabeth A. Daly; Richard D. Brodeur; Laurie A. Weitkamp

2009-01-01

306

Effects of marine reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While the species level effects of marine reserves are widely recognized, community level shifts due to marine reserves have only recently been documented. Protection from fishing of top predators may lead to trophic cascades, which have community-wide implications. Disease may act in a similar manner, regulating population levels of dominant species within a community. Two decades of data from the Channel Islands National Park Service's Kelp Forest Monitoring database allowed us to compare the effects of fishing and urchin disease on rocky reef community patterns and dynamics. Different size-frequency distributions of urchins inside and outside of reserves indicated reduced predation on urchins at sites where fishing removes urchin predators. Rocky reefs inside reserves were more likely to support kelp forests than were fished areas. We suggest that this results from cascading effects of the fishery on urchin predators outside the reserves, which releases herbivores (urchins) from predation. After periods of prevalent urchin disease, the reef community shifted more towards kelp forest assemblages. Specific groups of algae and invertebrates were associated with kelp forest and barrens communities. The community dynamics leading to transitions between kelp forests and barrens are driven by both fishing and disease; however the fishery effect was of greater magnitude. This study further confirms the importance of marine reserves not only for fisheries conservation, but also for the conservation of historically dominant community types.

Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

2004-01-01

307

Impact of polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) on carbon biogeochemistry in coastal marine sediments†  

PubMed Central

Known effects of bioturbation by common polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) in Northern European coastal waters on sediment carbon diagenesis is summarized and assessed. The physical impact of irrigation and reworking activity of the involved polychaete species is evaluated and related to their basic biology. Based on past and present experimental work, it is concluded that effects of bioturbation on carbon diagenesis from manipulated laboratory experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in situ conditions. The 45–260% flux (e.g., CO2 release) enhancement found in the laboratory is much higher than usually observed in the field (10–25%). Thus, the faunal induced enhancement of microbial carbon oxidation in natural sediments instead causes a reduction of the organic matter inventory rather than an increased release of CO2 across the sediment/water interface. The relative decrease in organic inventory (Gb/Gu) is inversely related to the relative increase in microbial capacity for organic matter decay (kb/ku). The equilibrium is controlled by the balance between organic input (deposition of organic matter at the sediment surface) and the intensity of bioturbation. Introduction of oxygen to subsurface sediment and removal of metabolites are considered the two most important underlying mechanisms for the stimulation of carbon oxidation by burrowing fauna. Introduction of oxygen to deep sediment layers of low microbial activity, either by downward irrigation transport of overlying oxic water or by upward reworking transport of sediment to the oxic water column will increase carbon oxidation of anaerobically refractory organic matter. It appears that the irrigation effect is larger than and to a higher degree dependent on animal density than the reworking effect. Enhancement of anaerobic carbon oxidation by removal of metabolites (reduced diffusion scale) may cause a significant increase in total sediment metabolism. This is caused by three possible mechanisms: (i) combined mineralization and biological uptake; (ii) combined mineralization and abiogenic precipitation; and (iii) alleviation of metabolite inhibition. Finally, some suggestions for future work on bioturbation effects are presented, including: (i) experimental verification of metabolite inhibition in bioturbated sediments; (ii) mapping and quantification of the role of metals as electron acceptors in bioturbated sediments; and (iii) identification of microbial community composition by the use of new molecular biological techniques. These three topics are not intended to cover all unresolved aspects of bioturbation, but should rather be considered a list of obvious gaps in our knowledge and present new and appealing approaches. PMID:16759424

Kristensen, Erik

2001-01-01

308

Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2??m phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2??m) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession. PMID:23091470

Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

309

Integrating GIS, ECDIS and Web-based Marine Information System for Maritime Navigation and Coastal Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Over seventy percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water upon which world trade, fisheries, marine transportation and costal populations are relying and require safe navigation and environmental protection. This paper summarizes the principal components of a web- based Marine Information System (MIS); the data formats of electronic nautical chart (ENC), Digital Nautical Charts (DNC?) and raster nautical

Steve Y. W. LAM; Andrew E. LEYZACK

310

The relative contribution of marine snow of different origins to biological processes in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a disproportionate quantity of photosynthetic and hetrotrophic microbial activity can occur on marine snow in surface waters, the significance of these macroscopic aggregates as sites for the transformation of matter in the euphotic zone appears to be highly variable. We investigated the hypothesis that this variability results from differences in aggregate origin by comparing the properties of marine snow at 13 stations in the Southern California Bight and California Current. Four types of marine snow were encountered including larvacean houses, diatom flocs, fecal aggregates and aggregates composed primarily of miscellaneous debris and detritus. More than 95% of the aggregates observed at any one station were of the same type. Bacteria grew 3 fold faster and phaeopigments were significantly concentrated on marine snow of all types. However, an insignificant fraction (<1%) of total bacterial abundance, bacterial production, primary production, Chl a and nutrients occurred in association with marine snow of larvacean, fecal or miscellaneous origin. Marine snow formed from the coagulation of living diatom cells contributed more than 5% to these parameters, but only when the aggregates were large, abundant and recently formed. Our results indicate that only marine snow of direct phytoplankton origin contributes significantly to primary production in surface waters, and that a significant fraction of total photosynthetic and heterotrophic microbial activity is likely to occur on marine snow only episodically when aggregates are newly formed.

Alldredge, Alice L.; Gotschalk, Chris C.

1990-01-01

311

Proceedings OceanSAR 2006 Third Workshop on Coastal and Marine Applications of SAR, St. John's, NL, Canada, October 2006 Algorithm development for operational satellite SAR  

E-print Network

1 Proceedings OceanSAR 2006 ­ Third Workshop on Coastal and Marine Applications of SAR, St. John's, NL, Canada, October 2006 Algorithm development for operational satellite SAR classification, computer analysis of calibrated ERS-2 and RADARSAT ScanSAR images of Great Lakes ice cover using

312

Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the\\u000a MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened

Nurit Kress; Barak Herut; Edna Shefer; Hava Hornung

1999-01-01

313

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

1972-01-01

314

Variation of a benthic heterotrophic bacteria community with different respiratory metabolisms in Coyuca de Benítez coastal lagoon (Guerrero, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluctuations of the number, biomass and composition of the heterotrophic community were stud- ied daily for two days, according to depth, pH, Eh, O2 and organic carbon concentration within a zone of the canal between the Coyuca de Benítez lagoon (Guerrero, Mexico) and the coastal waters. At the three moments of the day studied (6 am, 2 pm and

María Jesús Ferrara-Guerrero; María Elena Castellanos-Páez; Gabriela Garza-Mouriño

2007-01-01

315

Neighbourhood association of Cortaderia selloana invasion, soil properties and plant community structure in Mediterranean coastal grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasion by alien species is threatening the conservation of native plant communities and the integrity of ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of such impacts, many studies have examined the traits that make alien species successful invaders as well as the factors involved in community invasibility. However, it is necessary to link invader effects on community structure and on ecosystem processes in order to unravel the mechanisms of impact. Cortaderia selloana is a perennial grass native to South America that is invading abandoned agricultural lands close to coastal human settlements in Catalonia (NE Spain). In invaded pastures, we examined the association between C. selloana invasion, soil properties and vegetation structure changes in pastures, comparing the neighbourhood area of influence of C. selloana with areas far from C. selloana. Areas under the influence of C. selloana had lower total soil nitrogen values and higher C/N values than in areas far from C. selloana. Furthermore, the areas affected by C. selloana had lower species, family and life form richness and diversity, and less plant cover. In addition, C. selloana also increased the vertical vegetation structure and changed species composition (only 44% similarity between invaded and non-invaded areas). Our results point out that C. selloana has an effect on its neighbourhood leading to an increase in small-scale variability within invaded fields.

Domènech, Roser; Vilà, Montserrat; Gesti, Josep; Serrasolses, Isabel

2006-03-01

316

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

1997-01-01

317

Distribution of mercury in coastal marine sediments of China: Sources and transport.  

PubMed

A total of 220 surface sediments and eight sediment cores were analyzed to study the distribution and transport of Hg in Chinese marginal seas. Spatial distribution showed a general offshore decreasing trend towards the outer continental shelf. Vertical profiles of sediment cores displayed a general increasing trend from bottom to surface layers. Coastal land-based discharges and river-derived inputs are probably the main sources of Hg in coastal sediments of China seas, while TOC, pH, ocean currents and sediment characteristics could play important roles in the transport and spatial distribution of Hg in sediment. The influence of TOC on Hg concentration is more significant than that of pH. The mud deposits on the coastal shelves are main sinks of Hg in the region. The results showed that sedimentary Hg was affected by regional anthropogenic activities and riverine runoffs, and was also influenced by long-range atmospheric transport and ocean current circulations. PMID:25220313

Meng, Mei; Shi, Jian-Bo; Yun, Zhao-Jun; Zhao, Zong-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Gu, Yu-Xiao; Shao, Jun-Juan; Chen, Bao-Wei; Li, Xiang-Dong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

2014-11-15

318

Dynamic changes in the structure of microbial communities in Baltic Sea coastal seawater microcosms modified by crude oil, shale oil or diesel fuel.  

PubMed

The coastal waters of the Baltic Sea are constantly threatened by oil spills, due to the extensive transportation of oil products across the sea. To characterise the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community of this marine area, microcosm experiments on diesel fuel, crude oil and shale oil were performed. Analysis of these microcosms, using alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and 16S rRNA marker genes in PCR-DGGE experiments, demonstrated that substrate type and concentration strongly influence species composition and the occurrence of alkB genes in respective oil degrading bacterial communities. Gammaproteobacteria (particularly the genus Pseudomonas) and Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in all microcosms treated with oils. All alkB genes carried by bacterial isolates (40 strains), and 8 of the 11 major DGGE bands from the microcosms, had more than 95% sequence identity with the alkB genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, the closest relatives of the majority of sequences (54 sequences from 79) of the alkB gene library from initially collected seawater DNA were Actinobacteria. alkB gene expression, induced by hexadecane, was recorded in isolated bacterial strains. Thus, complementary culture dependent and independent methods provided a more accurate picture about the complex seawater microbial communities of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23510642

Viggor, Signe; Juhanson, Jaanis; Jõesaar, Merike; Mitt, Mario; Truu, Jaak; Vedler, Eve; Heinaru, Ain

2013-08-25

319

A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-marine ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In eastern coastal Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-marine deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-marine delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local marine highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during marine regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.

2007-01-01

320

The influence of estuarine conditions on the dynamics of a coastal phytoplankton community in a micro-tidal estuary: Yura River Estuary, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western side of Wakasa Bay, Tango Sea, Japan receives most of its allochthonous nutrient input from the Yura River. The Yura Estuary is classified as micro-tidal with a spring tidal range of less than 0.5 m. In summer, generally, the river discharge is low and the sea level is high, so the salt wedge extends 20 km upstream. Then, phytoplankton blooms occur due to an influx of riverine nutrients in the estuary. In contrast, during spring, river discharge is high and the salt wedge is not formed. These seasonal differences in estuarine physical and biological conditions may affect the coastal zone. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of estuarine conditions on the dynamics of the coastal phytoplankton community in this micro-tidal estuary. For this objective, field surveys were conducted both in the coastal zone and the river side of this estuary. Four sampling stations with depths of 5, 10, 20 and 30 m were set in the coastal zone, and weekly surveys were conducted from December 2009 to June 2011. Six sampling stations were set between the mouth of the Yura River and 16 km upstream, and monthly surveys were conducted in summer (from June 2010 to August 2010) and spring (from February 2011 to April 2011). Vertical profiles of salinity, water temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured with a CTD profiler at each station. With water samples taken from the surface, middle, and bottom layers at each station, concentrations of chlorophyll a, pheophytin, and nutrients were analyzed. The nutrients flux from the upstream to the estuary correlated strongly with river discharge, not with nutrient concentrations. In summer, when estuarine water were stratified, marine phytoplankton (mainly diatoms) developed in the middle layer of the estuary while freshwater phytoplankton (mainly green algae) increased in the surface layer of the river mouth. Nitrate concentration in riverine water was estimated to decline 15% while the water flowed from the 16 km upstream to the river mouth, and this nutrient depression could be caused by phytoplankton growth in the estuary. Due to a combination of low river discharge and high nutrient utilization by phytoplankton, the flux of nutrients to the coastal zone decreased (e.g. nitrate flux was ranged from 0.89 to 6.54 tN/d) and phytoplankton biomass in the coastal zone remained low (chl. a concentration was ranged from 0.19 to 2.14 ?g/L) during summer. In contrast, during spring, river discharge was high and nutrient utilization was low, so the flux of nutrients was relatively high (e.g. nitrate flux was ranged from 4.60 to 17.49 tN/d). As a result, nutrient concentration increased and phytoplankton bloomed in the coastal zone (chl. a concentration was ranged from 0.65 to 8.82 ?g/L). This study reveals the role of increased spring river flow, mainly due to melting snow, on phytoplankton blooms in the coastal community.

Watanabe, K.; Fukuzaki, K.; Akiyama, S.; Ichimi, K.; Kasai, A.; Fukushima, K.; Ueno, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Yamashita, Y.

2011-12-01

321

Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

2014-11-01

322

On the spatial scale needed for benthos community monitoring in the coastal North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In community monitoring an attempt is made to identify long-term trends by regular sampling of selected sites. Since the benthos is reputed to be fairly sedentary, the spatial resolution is often reduced to single sites. However, members of many benthic invertebrate species have been found drifting across sedimentary seabeds in shallow waters. Transportation by currents may result in changes of their spatial pattern in the sediment, thereby changing local community composition. The quantitative importance of drifting was tested by repeated sampling of a 2-km 2 shallow (10 m) offshore area west of the island of Sylt (North Sea). Within the fortnight period between two samplings the benthic community composition had changed dramatically. Despite fairly calm weather, translocation of organisms by currents exceeded 1 km. In about half of the species, the spatial changes in abundance within these two weeks roughly equalled the average variation between consecutive years. This example suggests that community monitoring needs a wide spatial scale to discriminate long-term temporal changes from short-term variability. Extending the sampling area from 2 to 180 km 2 strongly reduced the variability of abundance estimates. However, only in a few species was the spatial distribution over the sampling sites found on one sampling date a suitable estimator for the spatial pattern found one or two months later, at the same sites. Instead the spatial patterns of the fauna changed strongly during a single month with a spatial scale of re-distribution exceeding several km in some species. At the same time the granulometric sediment composition changed, indicating changes of habitat quality. Hence, sampling of a large area, with random selection of the sampling sites on each sampling date, is suggested to yield the most reliable estimates of population development in the coastal North Sea. However, in view of the expected spatial scale of re-distribution during storm tides and the spatial variability of recruitment, even a 180-km 2 sampling area may be too small.

Armonies, W.

2000-05-01

323

Occurrence of the artificial sweetener sucralose in coastal and marine waters of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first concentration data for the artificial sweetener sucralose (Splenda®) is presented for North American coastal and open ocean waters. Large volume water samples were collected and pre-concentrated using solid phase extraction followed by GC\\/MS analysis. The concentration of sucralose varied over several orders of magnitude in these environmental samples with the greatest abundance in a waste water treatment plant

Ralph N. Mead; Jeremy B. Morgan; G. Brooks Avery Jr.; Robert J. Kieber; Aleksandra M. Kirk; Stephan A. Skrabal; Joan D. Willey

2009-01-01

324

The marine atmospheric boundary layer jet in the coastal ocean dynamics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric boundary layer near the northern California coast was investigated during spring upwelling conditions as part of the 1981 Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment. Two daytime aircraft flights were devised to measure mean and turbulent quantities for 25-km tracks along and across the continental shelf from 30- to 1200-m altitude. The Pacific high offshore

Jan Zemba; Carl A. Friehe

1987-01-01

325

A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

1979-01-01

326

Substrate-Specific Clades of Active Marine Methylotrophs Associated with a Phytoplankton Bloom in a Temperate Coastal Environment? †  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms that consume one-carbon (C1) compounds are poorly described, despite their impact on global climate via an influence on aquatic and atmospheric chemistry. This study investigated marine bacterial communities involved in the metabolism of C1 compounds. These communities were of relevance to surface seawater and atmospheric chemistry in the context of a bloom that was dominated by phytoplankton known to produce dimethylsulfoniopropionate. In addition to using 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and clone libraries to characterize samples taken from a bloom transect in July 2006, seawater samples from the phytoplankton bloom were incubated with 13C-labeled methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, methyl bromide, and dimethyl sulfide to identify microbial populations involved in the turnover of C1 compounds, using DNA stable isotope probing. The [13C]DNA samples from a single time point were characterized and compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fingerprint cluster analysis, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Bacterial community DGGE fingerprints from 13C-labeled DNA were distinct from those obtained with the DNA of the nonlabeled community DNA and suggested some overlap in substrate utilization between active methylotroph populations growing on different C1 substrates. Active methylotrophs were affiliated with Methylophaga spp. and several clades of undescribed Gammaproteobacteria that utilized methanol, methylamines (both monomethylamine and dimethylamine), and dimethyl sulfide. rRNA gene sequences corresponding to populations assimilating 13C-labeled methyl bromide and other substrates were associated with members of the Alphaproteobacteria (e.g., the family Rhodobacteraceae), the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group, and unknown taxa. This study expands the known diversity of marine methylotrophs in surface seawater and provides a comprehensive data set for focused cultivation and metagenomic analyses in the future. PMID:18849453

Neufeld, Josh D.; Boden, Rich; Moussard, Hélène; Schäfer, Hendrik; Murrell, J. Colin

2008-01-01

327

Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity. PMID:24577740

He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

2014-05-01

328

Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic communities in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie coastal wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic communities.

Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.

2005-05-01

329

Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

2008-11-01

330

Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

2011-11-01

331

Comparison of Different Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Primer Sets for the Study of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities? †  

PubMed Central

An annual seasonal cycle of composition of a bacterioplankton community in an oligotrophic coastal system was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using five different primer sets. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed that primer set 357fGC-907rM grouped samples according to seasons. Additionally, we used the set of 16S rRNA genes archived in the RDPII database to check the percentage of perfect matches of each primer for the most abundant bacterial groups inhabiting coastal plankton communities. Overall, primer set 357fGC-907rM was the most suitable for the routine use of PCR-DGGE analyses in this environment. PMID:17660308

Sánchez, Olga; Gasol, Josep M.; Massana, Ramon; Mas, Jordi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2007-01-01

332

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Visitor Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism designed to gain a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having

333

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Resident Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having on the Tutukaka Coast

334

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Business Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having on the Tutukaka Coast

335

A new method for detecting pollution effects on marine macrobenthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described by which the pollution status of a marine macrobenthic community may be assessed without reference to a temporal or spatial series of control samples. Theoretical considerations suggest that the distribution of numbers of individuals among species should behave differently from the distribution of biomass among species when influenced by pollution-induced disturbance. Combined k-dominance plots for species

R. M. Warwick

1986-01-01

336

Microbial Community Diversity Associated With Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Permeable Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though a large fraction of primary production and organic matter cycling in the oceans occurs on continental shelves dominated by sandy deposits, the microbial communities associated with permeable shelf sediments remain poorly characterized. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to provide the first detailed characterization of microbial diversity in representative marine sands of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB)

Evan M. Hunter; Heath J. Mills; Joel E. Kostka

2006-01-01

337

Directory of Academic Marine Programs in California. Community Colleges, Four-Year Colleges, and Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides descriptions of marine academic programs in California's community colleges, 4-year private colleges and universities, and 4-year public colleges and universities. Each program listing (by institution) includes; (1) program title corresponding to official degree title; (2) degree(s) offered; (3) descriptive information…

Anderson, Kelly Elizabeth

338

A review of marine macrofouling communities with special reference to animal fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the initial adsorption of macromolecules to the development of complex and diverse plant and animal communities, marine fouling affects most solid surfaces permanently or temporarily immersed in the sea. Invertebrate larvae and macroalgal spores often demonstrate remarkable powers of selectivity before committing themselves to life as sessile individuals. Several environmental and substratum?related factors, especially surface biochemistry, play vital roles

M. D. Richmond; R. Seed

1991-01-01

339

Characterization of marine prokaryotic communities via DNA and RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We know very little about species distributions in prokaryotic marine plankton. Such information is very interesting in its own right, and ignorance of it is also beginning to hamper process studies, such as those on viral infection. New DNA- and RNA-based approaches avoid many prior limitations. Here we discuss four such applications: (1) cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes

J. A. Fuhrman; S. H. Lee; Y. Masuchi; A. A. Davis; R. M. Wilcox

1994-01-01

340

Seasonality and depth distribution of the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in marine coastal sediments (North Sea)  

PubMed Central

Microbial processes such as nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important for nitrogen cycling in marine sediments. Seasonal variations of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and anammox bacteria, as well as the environmental factors affecting these groups, are not well studied. We have examined the seasonal and depth distribution of the abundance and potential activity of these microbial groups in coastal marine sediments of the southern North Sea. This was achieved by quantifying specific intact polar lipids as well as the abundance and gene expression of their 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene of AOA and AOB, and the hydrazine synthase (hzsA) gene of anammox bacteria. AOA, AOB, and anammox bacteria were detected and transcriptionally active down to 12 cm sediment depth. In all seasons, the abundance of AOA was higher compared to the AOB abundance suggesting that AOA play a more dominant role in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these sediments. Anammox bacteria were abundant and active even in oxygenated and bioturbated parts of the sediment. The abundance of AOA and AOB was relatively stable with depth and over the seasonal cycle, while anammox bacteria abundance and transcriptional activity were highest in August. North Sea sediments thus seem to provide a common, stable, ecological niche for AOA, AOB, and anammox bacteria. PMID:25250020

Lipsewers, Yvonne A.; Bale, Nicole J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Villanueva, Laura

2014-01-01

341

Distribution of heavy metals in marine bivalves, fish and coastal sediments in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

An assessment of marine contamination due to heavy metals was made in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 2000-2001. Sediment metal loadings were generally not remarkable, although hot spots were noted in Bahrain (Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and on the east coast of the UAE (As, Co, Cr, Ni). Concentrations of As and Hg were typically low in sediments and the total Hg levels in top predator fish commonly consumed in the region were < 0.5 microg g(-1) and posed no threat to public health. Very high Cd concentrations (up to 195 microg g(-1)) in the liver of some fish from southern Oman may result from food-chain bioaccumulation of elevated Cd levels brought into the productive surface waters by upwelling in the region. Very high As concentrations (up to 156 microg g(-1)) were measured in certain bivalve species from the region. Although not certain, the As is probably derived from natural origins rather than anthropogenic contamination. PMID:15325209

de Mora, Stephen; Fowler, Scott W; Wyse, Eric; Azemard, Sabine

2004-09-01

342

Temporal changes in the sensitivity of coastal Antarctic zooplankton communities to diesel fuel: a comparison between single- and multi-species toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic marine fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole community) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic coastal zooplankton community to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton community within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the community also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton community. PMID:24590679

Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti

2014-04-01

343

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai'i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

344

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

345

Application of marine GIS using information from sonar for coastal fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present report aims at showing the effectiveness of the geographic information system (GIS) techniques for enhancing the coastal fisheries. The acoustic information from scanning sonar was adopted to visualize the distribution of fish schools and quantify their behavior. To collect the information of the fish schools on a real-time basis with a high economic\\/effort efficiency, the 3D view was

A. Hamano; Y. Umetani; H. Tanoue; T. Nakamura

2004-01-01

346

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

Goodell, H. G.

1970-01-01

347

Nutrient flux in a landscape: Effects of coastal land use and terrestrial community mosaic on nutrient transport to coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term interdisciplinary studies of the Rhode River estuary and its watershed in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of North\\u000a America have measured fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus fractions through the hydrologically-linked ecosystems of this landscape.\\u000a These ecosystems are upland forest, cropland, and pasture; streamside riparian forests; floodplain swamps; tidal brackish\\u000a marshes and mudflats; and an estuarine embayment. Croplands discharged far more

David L. Correll; Thomas E. Jordan; Donald E. Weller

1992-01-01

348

Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.  

PubMed

Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further study is needed to determine the role of small-scale marine reserves in the conservation of tropical marine biodiversity. PMID:21513198

Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

2011-03-01

349

Regional climatic warming drives long-term community changes of British marine fish.  

PubMed Central

Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marine fish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had dramatic effects on community composition. Each assemblage contained a subset of dominant species whose abundances were strongly linked to annual mean sea-surface temperature. Species' latitudinal ranges were not good predictors of species-level responses, however, and the same species did not show congruent trends between sites. This suggests that within a region, populations of the same species may respond differently to climatic change, possibly owing to additional local environmental determinants, interspecific ecological interactions and dispersal capacity. This will make species-level responses difficult to predict within geographically differentiated communities. PMID:15156925

Genner, Martin J.; Sims, David W.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Southall, Emily J.; Southward, Alan J.; Henderson, Peter A.; Hawkins, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

350

Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal

Martin Gade; Werner Alpers

1999-01-01

351

The SAR92 Clade: an Abundant Coastal Clade of Culturable Marine Bacteria Possessing Proteorhodopsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a protein that is abundant in marine bacterioplankton. PR is hypothesized to be a light-dependent proton pump, thus creating a proton gradient that can be used for energy production without electron transport. Currently, the only culture that has been reported to possesses PR is the highly abundant alphaproteobacterium \\

Ulrich Stingl; Russell A. Desiderio; Jang-Cheon Cho; Kevin L. Vergin; Stephen J. Giovannoni

2007-01-01

352

The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all direction within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea

Michael Tjernström; Ann-Sofi Smedman

1993-01-01

353

ALLOMETRIC LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS FOR BENTHIC PREY OF AQUATIC WILDLIFE IN COASTAL MARINE HABITATS  

EPA Science Inventory

We developed models to estimate the soft tissue content of benthic marine invertebrates that are prey for aquatic wildlife. Allometric regression models of tissue wet weight with shell length for 10 species of benthic invertebrates had r2 values ranging from 0.29 for hermit crabs...

354

Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

Etcheverry, Jose R.

355

Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton?  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. Community tolerance was quantified with a short-term test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The communities were established in a continuous flow of natural seawater through microcosms with or without added Irgarol. The selection pressure from Irgarol resulted in an altered species composition and an inducted community tolerance to Irgarol. Moreover, there was a very high diversity in the psbA gene sequences in the periphyton, and the composition of psbA and D1 fragments within the communities was dramatically altered by increased Irgarol exposure. Even though tolerance to this type of compound in land plants often depends on a single amino acid substitution (Ser264?Gly) in the D1 protein, this was not the case for marine periphyton species. Instead, the tolerance mechanism likely involves increased degradation of D1. When we compared sequences from low and high Irgarol exposure, differences in nonconserved amino acids were found only in the so-called PEST region of D1, which is involved in regulating its degradation. Our results suggest that environmental contamination with Irgarol has led to selection for high-turnover D1 proteins in marine periphyton communities at the west coast of Sweden. PMID:19088321

Eriksson, K. M.; Clarke, A. K.; Franzen, L.-G.; Kuylenstierna, M.; Martinez, K.; Blanck, H.

2009-01-01

356

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

357

Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from Korean coastal fish markets.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

2014-06-01

358

Community infrastructure and repository for marine magnetic identifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

anomaly identifications underpin plate tectonic reconstructions and form the primary data set from which the age of the oceanic lithosphere and seafloor spreading regimes in the ocean basins can be determined. Although these identifications are an invaluable resource, their usefulness to the wider scientific community has been limited due to the lack of a central community infrastructure to organize, host, and update these interpretations. We have developed an open-source, community-driven online infrastructure as a repository for quality-checked magnetic anomaly identifications from all ocean basins. We provide a global sample data set that comprises 96,733 individually picked magnetic anomaly identifications organized by ocean basin and publication reference, and provide accompanying Hellinger-format files, where available. Our infrastructure is designed to facilitate research in plate tectonic reconstructions or research that relies on an assessment of plate reconstructions, for both experts and nonexperts alike. To further enhance the existing repository and strengthen its value, we encourage others in the community to contribute to this effort.

Seton, Maria; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar; DeMets, Charles; Merkouriev, Sergey; Cande, Steve; Gaina, Carmen; Eagles, Graeme; Granot, Roi; Stock, Joann; Wright, Nicky; Williams, Simon E.

2014-04-01

359

Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively. PMID:23050797

Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib

2013-01-01

360

Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.  

PubMed

This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in coastal dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects. PMID:17119624

Holston, Kevin C

2005-01-01

361

Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California  

PubMed Central

This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in coastal dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects. PMID:17119624

Holston, Kevin C.

2005-01-01

362

Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal Louisiana marsh communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the coastal marsh communities of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh community dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in fresh, brackish/ intermediate, and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, the mechanism of hurricane influence varied across the landscape. In the western region, saltwater storm surge inundated freshwater marshes and remained for weeks, effectively causing damage that reset the vegetation community. This is in contrast to the direct physical disturbance of the storm surge in the eastern region, which flipped and relocated marsh mats, thereby stressing the vegetation communities and providing an opportunity for disturbance species to colonize. In the brackish/intermediate marsh, disturbance species took advantage of the opportunity provided by shifting species composition caused by physical and saltwater-induced perturbations, although this shift is likely to be short lived. Saline marsh sites were not negatively impacted to a severe degree by the hurricanes. Species composition of vegetation in saline marshes was not affected, and sediment deposition appeared to increase vegetative productivity. The coastal landscape of Louisiana is experiencing high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes and is experiencing subsidence rates greater than 10.0 millimeters per year (mm yr-1); therefore, it is important to understand how hurricanes influence sedimentation and soil properties. We document long-term vertical accretion rates and accumulation rates of organic matter, bulk density, carbon and nitrogen. Analyses using caesium-137 to calculate long-term vertical accretion rates suggest that accretion under impounded conditions is less than in nonimpounded conditions in the brackish marsh of the chenier plain. Our data also support previous studies indicating that accumulation rates of organic matter explain much of the variability associated with vertical accretion in brackish/intermediate and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, more of the variability associated with vertical accretion was explained by mineral accumulation than in the other mars

Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.

2011-01-01

363

Community analysis of high- and low-nucleic acid-containing bacteria in NW Mediterranean coastal waters using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The ecological significance of the marine bacterial populations distinguishable by flow cytometry on the basis of the fluorescence (FL) of their nucleic acid (NA) content and proxies of cell size (such as side scatter, SSC) remains largely unknown. Some studies have suggested that cells with high NA (HNA) content and high SSC (HS) represent the active members of the community, while the low NA (LNA) cells are inactive members of the same phylogenetic groups. But group-specific activity measurements and phylogenetic assignment after cell sorting have suggested this is not be the case, particularly in open-ocean communities. To test the extent to which the different NA subgroups are similar, and consequently the extent to which they likely have similar ecological and biogeochemical roles in the environment, we analysed the phylogenetic composition of three populations after cell sorting [high NA-high SC (HNA-HS), high NA-low SC (HNA-LS), low NA (LNA)] by 454 pyrosequencing in two contrasting periods of the year in NW Mediterranean coastal waters (BBMO, Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory) where these three populations have recurrent seasonal patterns. Statistical analyses showed that summer and winter samples were significantly different and, importantly, the sorted populations within a sample were composed of different taxa. The majority of taxa were associated with one NA fraction only, and the degree of overlap (i.e. OTUs present simultaneously in 2 fractions) between HNA and LNA and between summer and winter communities was very small. Rhodobacterales, SAR116 and Bacteroidetes contributed primarily to the HNA fraction, whereas other groups such as SAR11 and SAR86 contributed largely to the LNA fractions. Gammaproteobacteria other than SAR86 showed less preference for one particular NA fraction. An increase in diversity was observed from the LNA to the HNA-HS fraction for both sample dates. Our results suggest that, in Blanes Bay, flow cytometric signatures of natural communities track their phylogenetic composition. PMID:22390635

Vila-Costa, Maria; Gasol, Josep M; Sharma, Shalabh; Moran, Mary Ann

2012-06-01

364

Polar organic micropollutants in the coastal environment of different marine systems.  

PubMed

Polar anthropogenic organic micropollutants are frequently detected in freshwater and discharged on large scale into marine systems. In this work the results of 153 samples collected from the shorelines of the Baltic Sea (Germany), Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy), Aegean Sea and Dardanelles (Greece & Turkey), San Francisco Bay (USA), Pacific Ocean (USA), Mediterranean Sea (Israel), and Balearic Sea (Spain) are presented. The samples were analyzed for various classes of micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and stimulants. Caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine, tolyltriazole, 1H-benzotriazole, and atrazine were detected in>50% of all samples. The detection frequencies of carbamazepine, iopamidol, diuron, sulfamethoxazole, paracetamol, theophylline, and atenolol were between 20% and 32%. As caffeine is linked to untreated wastewater, the widespread occurrence of raw sewage in marine environments and thus potentially elevated nutrient concentrations and risk for the presence of wastewater-related pathogens is remarkable. PMID:25015017

Nödler, Karsten; Voutsa, Dimitra; Licha, Tobias

2014-08-15

365

The ecology of the coastal marshes of western Lake Erie: A community profile  

SciTech Connect

Lake Erie, the southernmost of the Laurentian Great Lakes, is narrow and relatively shallow in comparison to other Great Lakes. The lake experiences extreme water level fluctuations and storm energy restricts the development of wetlands to protected areas within embayments, lagoons, or behind barriers. However, coastal marshes of western Lake Erie fringe the shorelines of Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario and encompass an area of 268 km/sup 2/. This publication reviews the ecological data and information on the wetlands of Lake Erie, which are some of the more productive areas in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The geologic history of the Lake Erie leading to the development of wetlands, the present environment, and present wetland distribution are presented as background in the opening chapters. Biological information available for the Lake Erie wetlands is discussed in detail, and ecological processes contributing to the evolution of wetlands, biological production, and community organization in the wetlands are examined. A chapter on applied ecology addressing issues, such as wetland loss, values of wetlands to fish and wildlife, management, and future prospects for Lake Erie wetlands, completes the publication.

Herdendorf, C.E.

1987-02-01

366

Research on Coastal Marine Systems. Review and Recommendations for Unesco Programme 1987-1989. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 52. Report of the Meeting of the Unesco/SCOR/IABO Consultative Panel on Coastal Systems (4th, Dakar, Senegal, December 15-17, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a detailed analysis, both retrospective and prospective, of the Unesco Major Interregional Coastal Marine (COMAR) Project. The report cites achievements during the period 1985-1986 and reviews plans for the various COMAR components for the triennium 1987-1989. Activities under review include: (1) co-operation with ICSU and its…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

367

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific  

PubMed Central

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

2015-01-01

368

Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast pacific.  

PubMed

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M

2015-01-01

369

Light-independent mechanisms of virion inactivation in coastal marine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that specific components of seawater, such as particulate, dissolved and colloidal organic and inorganic material,\\u000a render virions non-infective has long been postulated, but never rigorously tested. To address this hypothesis, the plaque\\u000a assay method was used to derive infective decay rates, k, of two bacteriophages—P1 (marine host: PWH3a) and T4 (enteric host: E. coli B). We compared k

Michael B. Finiguerra; Douglas F. Escribano; Gordon T. Taylor

2011-01-01

370

Living in a coastal lagoon environment: photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of key marine macroalgae.  

PubMed

The physiological status of Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica and Palisada tenerrima was studied by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment content, stoichiometry (C:N), accumulation of UV photoprotectors and antioxidant activity; comparing their photosynthetic response in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor) and in Mediterranean coastal waters. In general, the specimens reached their highest ETRmax in spring in the Lagoon, but in summer in the Mediterranean, coinciding with their maximum biomass peak. The species exhibited a dynamic photoinhibition. Except C. compressa, they showed a lower decrease in Fv/Fm and higher recovery rates in the Mediterranean populations when exposed to high irradiance. The higher salinity and temperature of the lagoon could impair the photoprotection mechanisms. The acclimation to lagoon environments is species-specific and involves complex regulatory mechanisms. The results underline the importance of N in repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. In general, Lagoon specimens showed higher pigment concentration. Although xanthophylls play important photo-protective and antioxidant roles, the observed trend is more likely to be explained by the higher temperatures reached in the lagoon compared to Mediterranean. Therefore the studied photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms can be effective not only for high irradiance, but also for higher temperatures in a climate change scenario, but are highly dependent on nutrient availability. PMID:25164017

García-Sánchez, Marta; Korbee, Nathalie; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Marcos, Concepción; Figueroa, Félix L; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2014-10-01

371

Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.  

PubMed

Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. PMID:21864861

Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

2011-10-01

372

Sources of organic matter and microbial community structure in the sediments of the Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic matter in the coastal sediments originates from various terrestrial and marine sources. Within the sampling sites, relative inputs from these sources may vary and can influence the microbial community structure. In order to identify the sources of organic matter, and its influence on microbial community structure in coastal environment, 19 surface sediment samples were collected from various stations in

Ranjita R. Harji; Narayan B. Bhosle; Anita Garg; Subhash S. Sawant; Krishnamurthy Venkat

2010-01-01

373

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

1972-01-01

374

Diseases of the Chilean Flounder, Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867), as a Biomarker of Marine Coastal Pollution Near the Itata River (Chile): Part II. Histopathological Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the histopathological lesions of the Chilean flounder, Paralichthys adspersus, inhabiting the marine coastal area influenced by the Itata River (central Chile) in order to provide an environmental baseline\\u000a given the plans to discharge effluents from a cellulose plant through a submarine pipe in the area. Flounder were also sampled\\u000a at two reference sites over the course of

Maritza Leonardi; Eduardo Tarifeño; Jeanett Vera

2009-01-01

375

The Ecology of Microbial Communities Associated with Macrocystis pyrifera  

E-print Network

and organic matter. In eutrophic coastal marine systems rapid bacterial biofilm growth on available surfaces of the composition and diversity of these bacterial communities is lacking. Bacterial communities on the surface trends in the seawater and the surface of the kelp. Bacterial community structure and membership

Palumbi, Stephen

376

Dating of coastal marine sediments: 210Pb versus 137Cs signal on the Danube-influenced Black Sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal marine sediments represent a natural archive of pelagic processes, coastal erosion and river discharge of suspended matter. Correct dating of those sediments is a prerequisite for chronological reconstruction of the flux of pollutants and organic matter from the water column to the sediments and hence, the reconstruction of the pollution and eutrophication events. In the reconstruction of the sedimentation history during the pre-industrial and industrial periods, which usually spans the past 100 years, the natural occurring radionuclide 210Pb and the artificial radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am are widely applied tracers. 137Cs is used as an independent time marker for end the atmospheric bomb test fallout in 1963 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. As the 137Cs signal is often weakened due to its mobility in sediments, 241Am, less mobile than 137Cs and derived from decay the bomb fallout of 241Pu, is used as a second time marker of the 1963 event. The northwestern shelf of the Black Sea has been seriously affected by eutrophication and pollution from the late 1960's to the mid-1990's, largely triggered by Danube River input of nutrients and pollutants. The aim of our study is ultimately to reconstruct the eutrophication history and recycling of nutrients following the deposition of organic matter. The ‘memory effect' of sediment recycling plays a critical role in maintaining eutrophic conditions in enclosed seas such as the Black Sea. Here we present results from sediment cores taken within the Danube River plume on the shallow northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. The cores have been dated in two laboratories to rule out artifacts. The sediment record is repeatedly interrupted by so-called turbidites that consist of stiff clay. The clay horizons display a drop in unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs and a higher signal of supported 210Pb than the non-clay horizons. Below the turbidite, the unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs increase again to values above the turbidite. This points to a non-marine origin of the turbidite. In such sediment sequence, the classical application of the CRS model would provide false ages and sedimentation rates. We hypothesize that the turbidite represents terrestrial clay eroded from the Danube Delta that had been transported in pulse-like events during flash floods of the Danube River.

Friedrich, Jana; Laptev, Gennady

2010-05-01

377

Changes in Bacterial Communities of the Marine Sponge Mycale laxissima on Transfer into Aquaculture? †‡  

PubMed Central

The changes in bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial community of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial communities changed during aquaculture. These communities were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial communities when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these communities may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves. PMID:18156319

Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Enticknap, Julie J.; Lohr, Jayme E.; McIntosh, Scott M.; Hill, Russell T.

2008-01-01

378

The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25493694

Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

2014-12-01

379

The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

2014-12-01

380

Spatio-Temporal Migration Patterns of Pacific Salmon Smolts in Rivers and Coastal Marine Waters  

PubMed Central

Background Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. Methodology/Principal Findings Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations) were tagged between 2004–2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong effects on travel speeds included species, wild or hatchery-rearing history, watershed size and, in smaller rivers, body length. During the coastal migration, travel speeds were only strongly affected by species differences. PMID:20886121

Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; Walters, Carl J.

2010-01-01

381

Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.  

PubMed

Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be more resilient to climate change than large ones. PMID:25044507

Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

2015-01-01

382

Effect of marine litter on the benthic megafauna of coastal soft bottoms: a manipulative field experiment.  

PubMed

The effect of litter on the abundance and community structure of soft-bottom epibenthic megafauna was investigated in three coves of the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea). At each site, two surfaces were defined on the sea-bottom. One of the surfaces was uniformly littered with debris (16 items per 100 m(2)), while the other remained 'clean' and acted as control. Benthic megafauna was censused with SCUBA diving, once before the littering episode and then monthly for one year. Both total abundance and the number of species showed an increasing trend in the impacted surfaces, either because the litter provided refuge or reproduction sites for mobile species or because hard-substratum sessile species had the opportunity to settle on provided surfaces. A marked gradual deviation in the community structure of the impacted surface from the control and a clear successional pattern of change in the community composition of the impacted surfaces were demonstrated. PMID:17303184

Katsanevakis, Stelios; Verriopoulos, George; Nicolaidou, Artemis; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

2007-06-01

383

Distribution of picophytoplankton communities from brackish to hypersaline waters in a South Australian coastal lagoon  

PubMed Central

Background Picophytoplankton (i.e. cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes) are abundant and ecologically critical components of the autotrophic communities in the pelagic realm. These micro-organisms colonized a variety of extreme environments including high salinity waters. However, the distribution of these organisms along strong salinity gradient has barely been investigated. The abundance and community structure of cyanobacteria and pico-eukaryotes were investigated along a natural continuous salinity gradient (1.8% to 15.5%) using flow cytometry. Results Highest picophytoplankton abundances were recorded under salinity conditions ranging between 8.0% and 11.0% (1.3 × 106 to 1.4 × 106 cells ml-1). Two populations of picocyanobacteria (likely Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus) and 5 distinct populations of pico-eukaryotes were identified along the salinity gradient. The picophytoplankton cytometric-richness decreased with salinity and the most cytometrically diversified community (4 to 7 populations) was observed in the brackish-marine part of the lagoon (i.e. salinity below 3.5%). One population of pico-eukaryote dominated the community throughout the salinity gradient and was responsible for the bloom observed between 8.0% and 11.0%. Finally only this halotolerant population and Prochlorococcus-like picocyanobacteria were identified in hypersaline waters (i.e. above 14.0%). Salinity was identified as the main factor structuring the distribution of picophytoplankton along the lagoon. However, nutritive conditions, viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing are also suggested as potentially important players in controlling the abundance and diversity of picophytoplankton along the lagoon. Conclusions The complex patterns described here represent the first observation of picophytoplankton dynamics along a continuous gradient where salinity increases from 1.8% to 15.5%. This result provides new insight into the distribution of pico-autotrophic organisms along strong salinity gradients and allows for a better understanding of the overall pelagic functioning in saline systems which is critical for the management of these precious and climatically-stress ecosystems. PMID:20178652

2010-01-01

384

Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches. Fungal ITS rDNA and 18S gene analyses (DGGE and direct sequencing approaches) showed the presence of representatives of three order (Polyporales, Malasseziales, and Agaricales) from the phylum Basidiomycota and seven orders belonging to the phylum Ascomycota (Arthoniales, Capnodiales, Dothideales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, and Saccharomycetales). On the other hand, bacterial 16S rDNA gene analyses by direct sequencing approach revealed the presence of representatives of seven bacterial phyla (Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Lentisphaerae, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes). Results from statistical analyses (rarefaction curves) suggested that the sampled clones covered the fungal diversity in the sponge samples studied, while for the bacterial community additional sampling would be necessary for saturation. This is the first report related to the molecular analyses of fungal and bacterial communities by cultivation-independent approaches in the marine sponges D. reticulatum. Additionally, the present work broadening the knowledge of microbial diversity associated to marine sponges and reports innovative data on the presence of some fungal genera in marine samples. PMID:25213208

Passarini, Michel R Z; Miqueletto, Paula B; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Sette, Lara D

2015-02-01

385

Diagnosis of the Marine Low Cloud Simulation in the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a diagnostic analysis of the marine low cloud climatology simulated by two state-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean models: the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global Forecasting System (GFS). In both models, the shallow convection and boundary layer turbulence parameterizations have been recently updated: both models now use a mass-flux scheme for the parameterization of shallow convection, and a turbulence parameterization capable of handling Stratocumulus (Sc)-topped Planetary Boundary Layers (PBLs). For shallow convection, both models employ a convective trigger function based on the concept of convective inhibition and both include explicit convective overshooting/penetrative entrainment formulation. For Sc-topped PBL, both models treat explicitly turbulence mixing and cloud-top entrainment driven by cloud-top radiative cooling. Our focus is on the climatological transition from Sc to shallow Cumulus (Cu)-topped PBL in the subtropical eastern oceans. We show that in the CESM the coastal Sc-topped PBLs in the subtropical Eastern Pacific are well-simulated but the climatological transition from Sc to shallow Cu is too abrupt and happens too close to the coast. By contrast, in the GFS coupled simulation the coastal Sc amount and PBL depth are severely underestimated while the transition from Sc to shallow-Cu is "delayed" and offshore Sc cover is too extensive in the subtropical Eastern Pacific. Preliminary analysis suggests that despite similar frameworks for representing shallow convection and boundary layer turbulence in the two models, differences in the formulations of key physical processes, for example, in the formulations of convective overshooting, lateral entrainment rate, convective precipitation efficiency, and shallow convection triggering, could contribute to the differences in the simulated marine low cloud distribution between the two models. Further testing of the sensitivity of marine low cloud simulation to the parametric choices in the shallow convection and boundary layer turbulence parameterizations with both single column and global model setups is recommended.

Xiao, H.; Mechoso, C. R.; Sun, R.; Han, J.; Pan, H.; Park, S.; Hannay, C.; Bretherton, C. S.; Teixeira, J.

2012-12-01

386

Differences between Betaproteobacterial Ammonia-Oxidizing Communities in Marine Sediments and Those in Overlying Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess links between betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in marine sediment and in overlying water, communities in Loch Duich, Scotland, were characterized by analysis of clone libraries and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Nitrosospira cluster 1-like sequences were isolated from both environments, but different sequence types dominated water and sediment samples. De- tailed phylogenetic analysis of

Thomas E. Freitag; James I. Prosser

2004-01-01

387

Man Meets Coast. A Game of Coastal Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an educational game in which 30 to 75 players temporarily assume new identities to explore and resolve various coastal issues facing a ficitious community. Designed for both adults and junior/senior high school students, the game: (1) demonstrates the interrelationship between the natural marine environment and human systems; (2)…

Barile, Diane

388

A comparative ecological risk assessment of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 in the coastal marine environment  

SciTech Connect

The conduct of comparative ecological risk assessments (CERA) resulting from the release of anthropogenic stressors into coastal marine environments requires theoretical and methodological innovations to integrate contaminant exposure with populations at risk over time and space scales. Consequently, predicted risks must be scaled to allow comparisons of relative ecological impacts in three physical dimensions plus time. This study was designed to compare the risks from hypothetical spills of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 into the Tampa Bay ecosystem. The CERA framework used in this study integrates numerical hydrodynamic and transport-and-fate, toxicological, and biological models with extensive spatially explicit databases that describe the distributions of critical species and habitats. The presentation of the comparative ecological risks is facilitated by visualization and GIS techniques to allow realistic comparisons of toxicant exposures and their co-occurrence with key biological resources over time and across the seascape. A scaling methodology is presented that uses toxicological data as scalars for graphically representing the ecological effects associated with exposure levels for each scenario simulation. The CERA model serves as an interactive tool for assessing the relative ecological consequences of a range of potential exposure scenarios and for forecasting the longer-term productivity of critical biological resources and habitats that are key to ecosystem structure and function.

Harwell, M.; Ault, J.; Gentile, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses

1995-12-31

389

COASTAL SALT MARSH COMMUNITY CHANGE IN NARRAGANSETT BAY IN RESPONSE TO CULTURAL EUTROPHICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal salt marshes are susceptible to cultural eutrophication, particularly the over-enrichment of nitrogen, because they are often located where surface water and groundwater discharge into estuaries. In this report, the current areal extent of coastal salt marshes in Narrag...

390

Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities In Support Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment: Task 2.1.7 Permitting and Planning Fiscal Year 2012 Year-End Report  

SciTech Connect

This fiscal year 2012 year-end report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the MHK industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, NGOs, and industry. Objectives for 2.1.7 are the following: • To work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process. • To work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development. • To communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders. • To engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which are described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning As the MHK industry works with the regulatory community and stakeholders to plan, site, permit and license MHK technologies they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under 2.1.7 is to understand these varied interests, explore mechanisms to reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately identify pathways to reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.

Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.; Judd, Chaeli R.; Blake, Kara M.

2012-09-01

391

Calcareous foraminiferal test as a proxy of cadmium in coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic pressures exerted on estuaries and coastal areas necessitate to develop new tools for evaluation and assessment of those environments. Researches on foraminifers (Protozoan, Rhizopod) as bioindicator of anthropogenic impact increased considerably in the three last decades. Foraminiferal shell (calcite) is used as {C}d, Zn or Ba proxy in paleoceanographic studies in accordance with the hypothesis that dissolved metal concentration of seawater and foraminifer are linearly correlated. begin{center} ([{C}d]/[Ca])foram = D ([{C}d]/[Ca])SW More recently, articles reported water contamination records from the {C}d content of foraminiferal shell. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of foraminifer as proxy of cadmium contamination in coastal areas. Two complementary experiments were carried out. On the one hand, controlled culture experiments of foraminifer Ammonia sp.) in laboratory with specific {C}d concentrations ( 2.7 nmol/l to 11.0 nmol/l ) at fixed temperature and salinity. Factor D{Cd} determination on adult and juvenile foraminifer will show D{Cd} sensitivity to salinity and temperature conditions. Preliminary results at S= 28 ^0 /00 and T= 18 o{C}, lack of any difference between adults and juveniles. Cultures were made at: begin{description} [{C}d]= 4.3 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.8 , SD=0.4 n=8 [{C}d]= 6.4 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.0 , SD=0.1 n=8 [{C}d]= 8.8 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 2.2 , n=1 [{C}d]= 11.0 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.4 , n=1 Those values can be compared with data published by Havach et al., 2001. They report an average D{Cd} forAmmonia sp. of 1.0 ± 0.5, forCibicidoides sp. of 4 ± 2, forBulimina sp. of 3 ± 1, and forUvigerina sp. 2 ± 1 with S= 35 ^0 /00 and T= 10 o{C}. On the other hand, field sampling are going to be carried out to Hamanako lake ({J}apan), a lagoon surrounded by an urban belt. Determination of physicochemical parameter and {C}d content from bottom water, sediment pore water and foraminifer will be performed. The results will be compared with the experimental data on D{Cd} and suppose to give insights and greater accuracy in assessing anthropogenic impacts in costal regions.

Marechal-Abram, N.; Kitazato, H.; Debenay, J.-P.; Wada, H.

2003-04-01

392

Diel fluctuations in the abundance and community diversity of coastal bacterioplankton assemblages over a tidal cycle.  

PubMed

The diel change in abundance and community diversity of the bacterioplankton assemblages within the Pacific Ocean at a fixed location in Monterey Bay, California (USA) were examined with several culture-independent (i.e., nucleic acid staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization {FISH}, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene libraries) approaches over a tidal cycle. FISH analyses revealed the quantitative predominance of bacterial members belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster as well as two Proteobacteria (?- and ?-) subclasses within the bacterioplankton assemblages, especially during high tide (HT) and outgoing tide (OT) than the other tidal events. While the clone libraries showed that majority of the sequences were similar to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of unknown bacteria (32% to 73%), however, the operational taxonomic units from members of the ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria were also well represented during the four tidal events examined. Comparatively, sequence diversity was highest in OT, lowest in low tide, and very similar between HT and incoming tide. The results indicate that the dynamics of bacterial occurrence and diversity appeared to be more pronounced during HT and OT, further indicative of the ecological importance of several environmental variables including temperature, light intensity, and nutrient availability that are also concurrently fluctuating during these tidal events in marine systems. PMID:21915631

Olapade, Ola A

2012-01-01

393

Negative effects of vertebrate herbivores on invertebrates in a coastal dune community.  

PubMed

Although competition has been a major focus in ecology for the past century, most empirical and theoretical studies in this area have emphasized interactions between closely related species. However, there is growing evidence that negative interactions among distantly related taxa also occur and may be far more important than previously thought. In this study, we took advantage of an 11-year-old replicated vertebrate-exclosure experiment in a coastal dune community in northern California, USA, to examine the effects of the two most common vertebrate herbivores (jackrabbits and black-tailed deer) on the abundance of the three most visible invertebrate herbivores (two snail, a moth, and a grasshopper species). Our results indicate that four of the six possible pairwise interactions were significantly negative for the invertebrates. Jackrabbits reduced the abundances of snails by 44-75%, tiger moth caterpillars by 36%, and grasshoppers by 62%. Deer reduced the abundances of snails by 32%, increased the abundances of caterpillars by 31%, and had no measurable effect on grasshopper abundance. Our data also revealed that jackrabbits significantly decreased the volume of forbs and common shrubs and the flowering by grasses in our study plots. We were unable to detect an effect of deer on these measures of vegetation. These results suggest that by changing vegetation, jackrabbits may reduce invertebrate populations that are limited by food, protective structures, or microclimate provided by plants. Of these three mechanisms, only shade was strongly supported as limiting snail numbers in smaller-scale manipulations. In most systems, as in this one, the number of pairs of distantly related herbivores far exceeds the number of pairs of congeners. Since interactions among distantly related herbivores may be common in many cases, these interactions are likely to be important and should receive far more attention from ecologists. PMID:18705383

Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Cushman, J Hall

2008-07-01

394

Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

2013-01-01

395

Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

1987-01-01

396

Primary production of coral ecosystems in the Vietnamese coastal and adjacent marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef ecosystems in coastal waters and islands of Vietnam have high primary production. Average gross primary production (GPP) in coral reef waters was 0.39 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of corals ranged from 3.12 to 4.37 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of benthic microalgae in coral reefs ranged from 2 to 10 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of macro-algae was 2.34 g C m-2 day-1. Therefore, the total of GPP of whole coral reef ecosystems could reach 7.85 to 17.10 g C m-2 day-1. Almost all values of the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in the water bodies are higher than 1, which means these regions are autotrophic systems. Wire variation of GPP in coral reefs was contributed by species abundance of coral and organisms, nutrient supports and environmental characteristics of coral ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important ecological role of biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in waters around the reefs. These results contribute valuable information for the protection, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in coral reef ecosystems in Vietnam.

Tac-An, Nguyen; Minh-Thu, Phan; Cherbadji, I. I.; Propp, M. V.; Odintsov, V. S.; Propp, L. H.

2013-11-01