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1

Marine Studies Building Fund Coastal Community Challenge  

E-print Network

Marine Studies Building Fund Coastal Community Challenge Our Future Is Bright! Marine science synergy in marine science and education among diverse partners ·A long-standing, collaborative, can-do spirit that grows with each success Oregon State University - with Hatfield Marine Science Center as its

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

2

Seasonal changes in the abundance and composition of marine heterotrophic bacterial communities in an Antarctic coastal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 1-year period, systematic observations of the Antarctic coastal marine bacterioplankton were recorded. Three field stations were sampled weekly in 1989 in “Terre Adélie” area. The survey included physicochemical (temperature and particulate organic matter) and bacteriological (total and heterotrophic counts, estimation of bacterial production) measurements. The bacterial community structure was investigated by carrying out 27 morphological and biochemical tests

D. Delille; M. Curie

1993-01-01

3

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre University College Cork Annual Report 2008 #12;Contents Director's Statement 1 Introduction 2 Marine Geomatics 3 Marine Ecology 4 Coastal and Marine Governance 5 for the Coastal & Marine Resources Centre (CMRC). The year started extremely positively with the construction

Schellekens, Michel P.

4

Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 ?m. A total of 78 species were classified: 55 species at Station 2, 51 species each at Stations 1 and 4, and 47 species at Station 3. The mean number of species at each site was 29.2±2.0 (Station 1), 28.5±2.9 (Station 2), 27.8±1.7 (Station 3), and 24.5±2.3 (Station 4). The abundance was highly variable: 19 331±11 187 ind./L at Station 1, 7 960±5 639 ind./L at Station 2, 29 015±12 999 ind./L at Station 3, and 8 190±4 658 ind./L at Station 4. Our results suggest that neither the simple chemical analysis (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and phosphate) nor the eutrophication/pollution index adequately described the water quality at the four stations. The same was true of the number of species and their abundance, both of which had no correlation with the chemical indices. In contrast, Margalef's diversity index values (3.12 at Station 2, 2.89 at Station 1, and 2.64 at Stations 3 and 4) generally discriminated the water quality status of the four stations. The difference in water quality among the stations was strongly supported by the pattern of species richness (i.e. the total number of species) of ciliates at each station. Our evaluation was consistent with the results of long-term water quality monitoring at the four stations. With increasing eutrophication, we observed also a compositional and functional shift in the ciliate assemblages from algivorous oligotrich/choreotrich to nonselective-omnivorous gymnostomatids to bacterivorous-detrivorous scuticociliatids. Thus, ciliates may be used to indicate the coastal water quality status of a given site.

Xu, Kuidong; Choi, Joong Ki; Lei, Yanli; Yang, Eun Jin

2011-01-01

5

How does EPA help to improve fisheries, marine life, and coastal communities?  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has several roles in protecting and restoring coastal habitats and communities ? through policy, regulation, assistance, and research. The agency?s mandates and actions promote clean air and clean water, control uses and disposal of toxic ...

6

Spatio-temporal variability of richness estimators: coastal marine fish communities as examples.  

PubMed

We assessed the performance of two estimators of species richness, the Chao2 and the Coleman 'random placement curve'. Using a dataset of intertidal fish from the Norwegian Skagerrak coast, we found that Chao2 was effective for low sampling intensity, often reaching asymptotic values for few samples, but for higher sampling intensity the performance deteriorated. For large samples, the Coleman random placement curve was more effective than the Chao2 estimates when comparing spatio-temporal patterns of species richness. Spatial patterns were clearly and consistently identified by both methods, whereas the coastal fish communities displayed too much variability in the early summer for any sensible measure of temporal patterns of fish-species richness to be made. To control for spurious results due to systematic differences in mean abundance of the samples the analyses were performed also on data standardised by the number of individuals in the samples, without any significant change in the results. We conclude that modest sampling effort is sufficient to characterise spatial patterns of coastal fish-species richness, while a detailed and high-precision description of seasonal patterns could not be obtained with any reasonable sampling effort. PMID:15800740

Lekve, Kyrre; Ellingsen, Kari E; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2005-06-01

7

Ecological Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Coastal Marine Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously,

J. B. C. Jackson; J. D. Cubit; B. D. Keller; V. Batista; K. Burns; H. M. Caffey; R. L. Caldwell; S. D. Garrity; C. D. Getter; C. Gonzalez; H. M. Guzman; K. W. Kaufmann; A. H. Knap; S. C. Levings; M. J. Marshall; R. Steger; R. C. Thompson; E. Weil

1989-01-01

8

Bacterioplankton: a sink for carbon in a coastal marine plankton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent determinations of high production rates (up to 30% of primary production in surface waters) implicate free-living marine bacterioplankton as a link in a microbial loop that supplements phytoplankton as food for herbivores. An enclosed water column of 300 cubic meters was used to test the microbial loop hypothesis by following the fate of carbon-14-labeled bacterioplankton for over 50 days.

H. W. Ducklow; D. A. Purdie; P. J. Le B. Williams; J. M. DAVIES

1986-01-01

9

Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities  

SciTech Connect

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

1989-01-06

10

Structure of hydrocarbonoclastic nitrate-reducing bacterial communities in bioturbated coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

The organisation of denitrifying microorganisms in oil-polluted bioturbated sediments was investigated in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to that observed in the environment. Molecular and culture-dependent approaches revealed that denitrifying Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in oil-polluted and bioturbated sediments suggesting that they may play a key role in hydrocarbon degradation in the environment. T-RFLP and gene libraries analyses targeting nirS gene showed that denitrifying microbial communities structure was slightly affected by either the addition of Hediste diversicolor or crude oil revealing the metabolic versatility of denitrifying microorganisms. From oil-polluted sediments, distinct denitrifying hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortia were obtained by enrichment cultures on high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Interestingly, molecular characterisation of the consortia showed that the denitrifying communities obtained from oiled microcosms with addition of H. diversicolor were different to that observed without H. diversicolor addition, especially with fluoranthene and chrysene revealing the bacterial diversity involved in the degradation of these PAHs. PMID:24862403

Stauffert, Magalie; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-09-01

11

Archaea in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments. PMID:1608980

DeLong, E F

1992-06-15

12

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth

R. A. Herbert

1999-01-01

13

Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual neutral sugars in sediments, sediment trap materials and major biological sources of a coastal marine environment (Dabob Bay, Washington State) were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography of equilibrated isomeric mixtures. Plankton, bacteria, and vascular plant tissues of different types yielded reproducible and biochemically consistent compositional patterns. These patterns, when expressed in simple parameters, allowed distinctions between marine and terrestrial

Gregory L. Cowie; John I. Hedges

1984-01-01

14

Davidson Laboratory: Marine Hydrodynamics & Coastal Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Davidson Laboratory, a hydrodynamic and ocean engineering research center, is part of the Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering department at the Stevens Institute of Technology. This laboratory is focused on marine craft and testing as well as coastal engineering, marine environmental engineering, and underwater acoustics. Ongoing research projects in areas such as marine hydrodynamics, coastal engineering, acoustics, turbulence, and computational fluid dynamics are explained in greater detail in the Departments section. A highlight of the Davidson Laboratory site is the Coastal Monitoring Network section, where users have the opportunity to view and read about the coastal conditions (atmosphere pressure, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at locations such as Avalon, New Jersey. The image and data on this page are updated on a regular basis. Although some parts of this site are under construction, the currently available information makes it worth a visit.

15

New marine community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While exploring the West Florida Escarpment, a steep slope in the Gulf of Mexico several hundred kilometers off the Florida coast, the deep submergence research vessel Alvin chanced upon a well-developed community of marine life akin to that found 7 years ago in the eastern Pacific Ocean.According to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which operates the submersible and its new tender, the Atlantis II (Eos, November 1, 1983, p. 619), the marine community contains large clams, mussels, crabs, fish, and tube worms like those found at hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. While the east Pacific communities exist at spreading centers, the newly discovered group, which may stretch for almost 2 km at a depth of roughly 3200 km, lies in a passive continental margin. Also, whereas the water around the Pacific hydrothermal vents is much warmer than the surrounding seawater, the water around the new found community is apparently the same temperature as the ambient waters.

16

Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

2014-01-15

17

FOOD WEB AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE COASTAL SYSTEMS (ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WETLANDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research will investigate the mechanisms by which increased loading of nutrients to coastal waters alters the structure and dynamics of food webs, resulting in declines in populations of ecologically and commercially important organisms. Research across NHEERL Divisions will...

18

Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, IMCS provides national and international leadership in marine science and is New Jersey's focal point for education, research, and service efforts in estuarine, coastal, and ocean environments. Site features all the latest IMCS news, information on seminars and internships, faculty, students, and IMCS research. Also includes information on the academic programs, facilities, and professional development for teachers.

19

USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

USGS

20

Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J.L.

2003-01-01

21

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Infobank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse provides organized access to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) coastal and marine data and metadata. The facilities section features material on Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) regional centers such as maps and information about staff, facilities, labs, research libraries and archives. The Atlas includes maps for specific geographic areas and information about specific types of data within the area such as bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, sampling, and others. The Field Activities section provides information about specific data collection activities (date, place, crew, equipment used, data collected, publications). The Field Activity Collection System (FACS) provides information about field activities (overviews, crew lists, equipment lists, and events). The "Geology School" provides general, broad-based information about earth science concepts, processes and terminology, indexed to keywords. There is also a set of links to additional databases, software tools and viewers, and to related topics.

22

Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

23

Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

Richardson, Laurie L.

2000-01-01

24

Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

Holm, Amy E.

25

Perceived Attitude and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) establishment: Why households’ characteristics matters in Coastal resources conservation initiatives in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, conservation initiatives through Marine Protected Area (MPAs) in many developing countries have been molded to win the support and participation of local communities. Increasingly, studies have been undertaken to enhance the understandings of the characteristics of rural communities. In the case of Tanzania, the level of compliance with marine and coastal resources management is constrained by lack

Jennifer K. Sesabo; Hartmut Lang; Richard S.J. Tol

2006-01-01

26

Coastal Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance  

PubMed Central

In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

Rappé, Michael S.

2013-01-01

27

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

28

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

29

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation  

E-print Network

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation Background Coastal dunes are a globally distributed ecosystem characterized by strong internal gradients in disturbance plant community assembly, but their relative importance in coastal dunes is not well elucidated. We

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

30

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

Bhj, Premathilake

2010-05-01

31

Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

Tilton, E. L., III

1974-01-01

32

Coastal Ecosystem Effects of Climate Change (CEECC) Coastal and marine ecosystems are intimately  

E-print Network

warming events, with implications for coral reef bleaching; Changes in precipitation that alter freshwater Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and the Coral Reef Conservation Act, NOAA is mandated to protectCoastal Ecosystem Effects of Climate Change (CEECC) Issue: Coastal and marine ecosystems

33

PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

34

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in

C. Harley; R. Crim; R. Gooding; S. Nienhuis; E. Tang

2010-01-01

35

Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.

Kennedy, V.S. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies, Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Lab.

1994-12-31

36

COASTAL COMMUNITY COLIFORM AND NUTRIENT CONTROL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent water sampling conducted by the Suwannee River Water Management District has shown that coliform counts in waters adjacent to several coastal communities exceed the water quality standards for surface waters with respect to fecal and total coliform counts. Also, sampling c...

37

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

source of risk from changing climate. City of Green Bay watershed - #12;Predicted climate includes climate change impacts on specific Wisconsin natural resources, ecosystems and regions. WICCI was createdStormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities Johnson Foundation at Wingspread

Sheridan, Jennifer

38

Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

2009-04-01

39

Summary Notes Marine and Coastal Faculty Forum  

E-print Network

and Coastal Issues do you want to see FAU explore? (GREEN) To understand and adapt to, effecting course. Defining structure and how each issue fits underneath one umbrella. Coastal continuum. Fresh to salt. Changes in biodiversity. Pedagogical review. Graphic indication of dialogue. Identifying

Fernandez, Eduardo

40

Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

Phillips, Ronald C.

1978-01-01

41

Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: Ecological and geochemical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification occurs in essentially all river, lake, and coastal marine ecosystems that have been studied. In general, the range ofdenitrification rates measured in coastal marine sediments is greater than that measured in lake or river sediments. In various estuarine and coastal marine sediments, rates commonly range between 50 and 250 pmol N m--:! h-l, with extremes from 0 to 1,067.

Sybil P. Seitzinger

1998-01-01

42

THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

43

Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6?m) in Singapore’s coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and

K. L. Ng; J. P. Obbard

2006-01-01

44

NOAA HABITAT BLUEPRINT Healthy habitats that sustain resilient and thriving marine  

E-print Network

NOAA HABITAT BLUEPRINT VISION Healthy habitats that sustain resilient and thriving marine · Recovered threatened and endangered species · Protected coastal and marine areas and habitats at risk · Resilient coastal communities · Increased coastal/marine tourism, access, and recreation PURPOSE The Habitat

45

INTRODUCTION Marine mammals in coastal British Columbia  

E-print Network

whaling. Systematic sightings surveys were conducted in the inshore coastal waters of the Inside Passage, between the British Columbia (BC)-Washington and the BC-Alaska borders. A total of 4,400km (2,400 n

Thomas, Len

46

Acoustic classification of marine habitats in coastal Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital acoustic seabed classification system, QTC View (Series IV) was used in the coastal waters of Newfoundland to characterize and classify marine benthic habitats. The QTC View system was calibrated in Placentia Bay at sites identified independently during a submersible research program. Four different habitats were used for calibration of the QTC View system: mud, gravel, rock, and macroalgae

John T. Anderson; Robert S. Gregory; William T. Collins

2002-01-01

47

Marine Council Membership The Council will consist of University coastal and marine leaders who have primary responsibilities for resource  

E-print Network

Marine Council Membership 12 14 2009 The Council will consist of University coastal and marine will be chaired by someone with broad experience in leading diverse units and have a national reputation in marine as the first OSU Marine Council Chair. Members of the Marine Council: Director, Oregon Sea Grant Program

Escher, Christine

48

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering direct negative impacts of acidification. Declines in grazer populations may in turn allow primary producers such as kelps to become more abundant. Because kelp forests provide habitat for a wide array of species, OA may have a positive impact on some aspects of biodiversity. On the other hand, mussel beds also harbor hundreds of dependent species, and a loss of mussel beds due to reduced mussel growth rates and increased loss to predators would decrease biodiversity of this component of the benthic community. The predictions outlined above should be viewed as preliminary due to large gaps in our understanding. For example, the effects of OA on fertilization and other sensitive life history stages and transitions remain unquantified in the vast majority of species, and any effects of such changes on population dynamics remain unknown. Furthermore, the strength of interactions among species may change in unexpected ways due to, for example, the effects of pH on organismal physiology. Finally, the effects of ocean acidification are not occurring in isolation, and critical physiological and ecological thresholds may be crossed when OA effects are combined with increases in temperature, storm disturbance, pollution, and fishing pressure.

Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

2010-12-01

49

Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based marine protected areas have become a popular coastal resources management method advocated in many projects and programs. While many case studies have been written about factors contributing to project success, few empirical studies using quantitative methods have been employed. A study was conducted of 45 community-based marine protected areas in Philippines. Several success measures were developed and analyzed in

Richard B. Pollnac; Brian R. Crawford; Maharlina L. G. Gorospe

2001-01-01

50

Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.  

PubMed

Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2014-12-15

51

Baruch Institute for Marine & Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Found in Columbia, South Carolina, the Baruch Institute conducts basic research on environmental processes, tidal, estuarine and coastal ocean environments. Collectively the studies span the molecular to landscape level, including the effects of human activities. Site includes information on current research projects, faculty, facilities, and outreach initiatives. Also features downloadable data, imagery, and maps.

52

The Florida State University Department of Biological Science and The Florida State University Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine Resource Ecology is designed for  

E-print Network

Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine's potential for a career in marine biological research. Name of Reference THE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MARINE BIOLOGY & LIVING MARINE RESOURCE ECOLOGY HTTP

Bass, Hank W.

53

Field Activities for Coastal and Marine Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of field investigations was developed by the Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) in a field-based workshop for educators. The activities focus on field work on beaches and rocky headlands (beach and cliff landscapes, wave activity, rocks and sand), and on vegetation and plant ecosystems (algae, plants, estuaries and creeks). There is also an introductory guide for teachers on how to conduct field work, a discussion of moral issues involving student behavior on outings, and a checklist of equipment for use in marine areas.

54

Changes in Scottish coastal fishing communities—Understanding socio-economic dynamics to aid management, planning and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates how coastal areas, socio-economically dependent on marine capture fisheries, are working towards long-term sustainable community development. Two case studies (Shetland Islands and the North East region) were selected from Scotland, on the basis of their geographical (island versus mainland) and sectoral representation. The challenges facing these areas are typical for many coastal communities around the world.An outline

Selina M. Stead

2005-01-01

55

Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.  

PubMed

Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas. PMID:25201818

Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

2014-11-15

56

The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

2003-01-01

57

Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone  

SciTech Connect

An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

1980-11-01

58

An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (?15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no ?15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher ?15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed ?15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

Zmudczy?ska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

2015-04-01

59

Developing Partnerships with the Community for Coastal ESD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community-university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data collected from two coastal community outreach projects were analyzed. Findings: The outreach projects improved the…

Kawabe, Midori; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Reiko; Ishimaru, Takashi; Baba, Osamu; Horimoto, Naho; Kanda, Jota; Matsuyam, Masaji; Moteki, Masato; Oshima, Yayoi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Yap, Minlee

2013-01-01

60

Predator decline leads to decreased stability in a coastal fish community.  

PubMed

Fisheries exploitation has caused widespread declines in marine predators. Theory predicts that predator depletion will destabilise lower trophic levels, making natural communities more vulnerable to environmental perturbations. However, empirical evidence has been limited. Using a community matrix model, we empirically assessed trends in the stability of a multispecies coastal fish community over the course of predator depletion. Three indices of community stability (resistance, resilience and reactivity) revealed significantly decreasing stability concurrent with declining predator abundance. The trophically downgraded community exhibited weaker top-down control, leading to predator-release processes in lower trophic levels and increased susceptibility to perturbation. At the community level, our results suggest that high predator abundance acts as a stabilising force to the naturally stochastic and highly autocorrelated dynamics in low trophic species. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of predators in marine ecosystems and provide empirical support for the theory of predatory control. PMID:25224645

Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Minto, Cóilín; Ferretti, Francesco; Boero, Ferdinando; Lotze, Heike K

2014-12-01

61

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

62

Mineralization of RDX-derived nitrogen to N2 via denitrification in coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common constituent of military explosives. Despite RDX contamination at numerous U.S. military facilities and its mobility to aquatic systems, the fate of RDX in marine systems remains largely unknown. Here, we provide RDX mineralization pathways and rates in seawater and sediments, highlighting for the first time the importance of the denitrification pathway in determining the fate of RDX-derived N. (15)N nitro group labeled RDX ((15)N-[RDX], 50 atom %) was spiked into a mesocosm simulating shallow marine conditions of coastal Long Island Sound, and the (15)N enrichment of N2 (?(15)N2) was monitored via gas bench isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GB-IRMS) for 21 days. The (15)N tracer data were used to model RDX mineralization within the context of the broader coastal marine N cycle using a multicompartment time-stepping model. Estimates of RDX mineralization rates based on the production and gas transfer of (15)N2O and (15)N2 ranged from 0.8 to 10.3 ?mol d(-1). After 22 days, 11% of the added RDX had undergone mineralization, and 29% of the total removed RDX-N was identified as N2. These results demonstrate the important consideration of sediment microbial communities in management strategies addressing cleanup of contaminated coastal sites by military explosives. PMID:25594316

Smith, Richard W; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Cooper, Christopher; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J

2015-02-17

63

Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. PMID:20615603

Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

2010-11-01

64

COMPARING MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COASTAL MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes re- sponsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how hu- mans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment

Mark H. Carr; Joseph E. Neigel; James A. Estes; Sandy Andelman; Robert R. Warner; John L. Largier

2003-01-01

65

The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for an ecologically-relevant ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes, creating a potential connection between water and air quality in the coastal environment.

Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-12-01

66

Oceanic rafting by a coastal community  

PubMed Central

Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400–600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa. PMID:20843850

Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

67

Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21408023

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

2011-01-01

68

Denitrification and the denitrifier community in coastal microbial mats.  

PubMed

Denitrification was measured in three structurally different coastal microbial mats by using the stable isotope technique. The composition of the denitrifying community was determined by analyzing the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) genes using clone libraries and the GeoChip. The highest potential rate of denitrification (7.0 ± 1.0 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) was observed during summer at station 1 (supra-littoral). The rates of denitrification were much lower in the stations 2 (marine) and 3 (intermediate) (respectively 0.1 ± 0.05 and 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) and showed less seasonality when compared to station 1. The denitrifying community at station 1 was also more diverse than that at station 2 and 3, which were more similar to each other than either of these stations to station 1. In all three stations, the diversity of both nirS and nirK denitrifiers was higher in summer when compared to winter. The location along the tidal gradient seems to determine the composition, diversity and activity of the denitrifier community, which may be driven by salinity, nitrate/nitrite and organic carbon. Both nirS and nirK denitrifiers are equally present and therefore they are likely to play a role in the denitrification of the microbial mats studied. PMID:25764561

Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

2015-03-01

69

75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration...administer the approximately 3 percent of funding that remains from the original...

2010-02-04

70

Microarray-Based Characterization of Microbial Community Functional Structure and Heterogeneity in Marine Sediments from the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments of coastal margins are important sites of carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling. To determine the metabolic potential and structure of marine sediment microbial communities, two cores were collected each from the two stations (GMT at a depth of 200 m and GMS at 800 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, and six subsamples representing different depths were analyzed

Liyou Wu; Laurie Kellogg; Allan H. Devol; James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou

2008-01-01

71

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation\\u000a and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities\\u000a are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In

A. Diedrich

2007-01-01

72

Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOLAN, A.H., and WALKER, I.J., 2003. Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39 (Proceedings of the 8th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Itajaí, SC - Brazil, ISSN 0749-0208 This paper discusses the concept of vulnerability as characterized in the climate change literature and presents a framework for assessing adaptive capacity.

A. H. Dolan; I. J. Walker

2004-01-01

73

NORTHEAST COASTAL COMMUNITIES SECTOR MEMBERSHIP AGREEMENT AND OPERATIONS PLAN  

E-print Network

of fish harvested through more efficient harvesting practices; and (iii) improve their conservation1 NORTHEAST COASTAL COMMUNITIES SECTOR MEMBERSHIP AGREEMENT AND OPERATIONS PLAN Fishing Year 2010 for fishermen to preserve access to the groundfishery and to ensure a future for their coastal fishing

74

Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

2012-01-01

75

75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...this draft standard for public review at its July 20, 2010 meeting. The FGDC invites all stakeholders in coastal and marine ecology and management to comment on this standard to ensure that the standard meets their needs. The draft Coastal and Marine...

2010-08-23

76

Top-Down Regulation, Climate and Multi-Decadal Changes in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic Sea Areas  

PubMed Central

The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998

Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

2013-01-01

77

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

78

Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 microm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 microm) and subsurface layer (1m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping. PMID:16388828

Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

2006-07-01

79

Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areas—in particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areas—of species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapes—should be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and

Biliana Cicin-Sain; Stefano Belfiore

2005-01-01

80

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.  

PubMed

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

81

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics’era  

PubMed Central

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying “omics” approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

82

Ooids - a shallow marine proxy for coastal aridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims at outlining shallow marine carbonates that can be used to infer coastal and hinterland climate for the time period of deposition. The carbonates used are ooids resulting from abiotic precipitation of aragonite around a nucleus. It is thought that ooid formation requires high CO32- concentration, microbial activity and less than 3-5 m of warm, agitated sea water. In the modern analogues (Bahamas, Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Suez) the environmental factors controlling the formation of tangential ooids are (i) seabed morphology and tidal currents allowing for water agitation, (ii) absence of fluvial discharge and (iii) minimum annual sea-surface temperature of around 20° C. Albeit significant environmental differences in terms of annual rainfall, sea surface temperature and salinity, Bahamian ooids are indistinguishable from those formed on shores of the Arabian Peninsula. These modern analogues have however in common that no terrestrial sediment is delivered to the shore. Thus, ooids are a proxy for the absence of riverine sediment supply to the coast. Our test sites, situated on the southern coast of the Mediterranean, show sharp switches between siliciclastic and oolitic nearshore environments during the last interglacial sea-level highstand. These switches confirm the absence of fluvial sediment discharge when the carbonate factory was active. Applying this concept to a number of chronologically constrained coastal sites in the Mediterranean, we are able to infer spatially differential response to external climatic forcing: some coastal areas respond instantaneously and exclusively to external forcing while others respond delayed and prolonged. The spatial difference underlines the importance of shelf geometry for coastal response to climate change.

Mauz, Barbara; Elmejdoub, Noureddine

2014-05-01

83

Effects of variability in spacing of coastal marine reserves on fisheries yield and sustainability  

E-print Network

distribution of reserves covering an adequate proportion of the entire coastline. Keywords: marine protectedEffects of variability in spacing of coastal marine reserves on fisheries yield and sustainability 15 16 17 18 19 #12;Abstract The size and configuration of marine reserves best suited to reaching

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

84

Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk  

PubMed Central

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

85

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

2010-01-01

86

A coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

Lightsom, Fran

2003-01-01

87

A coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations.The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

Lightsom, Fran

88

Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.  

PubMed

Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

2014-10-01

89

Diversity and population structure of uncultured marine viral communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in the marine environment. However, very little is known about the identity or diversity of these viruses. Here we present the first metagenomic analyses of uncultured viral communities from two nearshore marine water samples and one marine sediment sample. In all three marine libraries, over 65% of

M. Breitbart; B. Felts; S. Kelley; J. M. Mahaffy; J. Nulton; P. Salamon; F. Rohwer

2003-01-01

90

Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

2004-01-01

91

Fine-Scale Temporal Variation in Marine Extracellular Enzymes of Coastal Southern California  

PubMed Central

Extracellular enzymes are functional components of marine microbial communities that contribute to nutrient remineralization by catalyzing the degradation of organic substrates. Particularly in coastal environments, the magnitude of variation in enzyme activities across timescales is not well characterized. Therefore, we established the MICRO time series at Newport Pier, California, to assess enzyme activities and other ocean parameters at high temporal resolution in a coastal environment. We hypothesized that enzyme activities would vary most on daily to weekly timescales, but would also show repeatable seasonal patterns. In addition, we expected that activities would correlate with nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and that most enzyme activity would be bound to particles. We found that 34–48% of the variation in enzyme activity occurred at timescales <30?days. About 28–56% of the variance in seawater nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations, and ocean currents also occurred on this timescale. Only the enzyme ?-glucosidase showed evidence of a repeatable seasonal pattern, with elevated activities in the spring months that correlated with spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Most enzyme activities were weakly but positively correlated with nutrient concentrations (r?=?0.24–0.31) and upwelling (r?=?0.29–0.35). For the enzymes ?-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase, most activity was bound to particles. However, 81.2% of alkaline phosphatase and 42.8% of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was freely dissolved. These results suggest that enzyme-producing bacterial communities and nutrient dynamics in coastal environments vary substantially on short timescales (<30?days). Furthermore, the enzymes that degrade carbohydrates and proteins likely depend on microbial communities attached to particles, whereas phosphorus release may occur throughout the water column. PMID:22912628

Allison, Steven D.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Hatosy, Stephen; Martiny, Adam C.

2012-01-01

92

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

93

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

94

High tolerance of microzooplankton to ocean acidification in an Arctic coastal plankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine biota have been observed in a wide range of marine systems. We used a mesocosm approach to study the response of a high Arctic coastal microzooplankton community during the post-bloom period in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) to direct and indirect effects of high pCO2/low pH. We found almost no direct effects of OA on microzooplankton composition and diversity. Both the relative shares of ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates as well as the taxonomic composition of microzooplankton remained unaffected by changes in pCO2/pH. Although the different pCO2 treatments affected food availability and phytoplankton composition, no indirect effects (e.g. on the total carrying capacity and phenology of microzooplankton) could be observed. Our data point to a high tolerance of this Arctic microzooplankton community to changes in pCO2/pH. Future studies on the impact of OA on plankton communities should include microzooplankton in order to test whether the observed low sensitivity to OA is typical for coastal communities where changes in seawater pH occur frequently.

Aberle, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Malzahn, A. M.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-03-01

95

California Coastal Commission Public Education Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This education program presents materials and information designed to increase public knowledge of California's coastal and marine resources and to engage the public in coastal protection and restoration activities. Visitors may access information on programs and contests, cleanup activities, "green" boating, and grants for public marine education programs. For educators, there is a selection of classroom and community activities that addresses issues such as endangered species, marine debris, and coastal geology, as well as a curriculum of hands-on activities to help students understand the effects of marine debris on coastal wildlife and habitats. An extensive directory of links to other marine, coastal, and watershed resources is also included.

2004-12-10

96

Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.  

PubMed

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

2013-08-01

97

Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors  

E-print Network

- 1 - Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors Jérôme contributing to the chalk cliffs located on either side of the English Channel are examined. From an analysis of the cliff are drawn. Field observations of the coastal chalk cliff show that the vertical erosion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Luminescent bacteria as indicators of marine water quality: Preliminary results from the Campania coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports preliminary results on the concentration of marine heterotrophic bacteria (Apparent Bacterial Concentration, ABC), and their luminous fraction (Apparent Luminous Bacterial Concentration, ALBC), here expressed as percentage of luminous bacteria (LB%), in coastal waters along the Campania shoreline. The results show that the Campania coastal area includes sectors characterised by different levels of water quality, following a geographical

A. Sardo; A. Accornero; F. Giovinazzi

2008-01-01

99

Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection of data for mapping; * seek innovative solutions to the primary obstacles identified; * identify the steps needed to move mapping of Florida's oceans and coasts forward, in preparation for a better coordinated, more cost-effective mapping program to allow State and Federal agencies to make better decisions on coastal-resource issues. Over 90 invited participants representing more than 30 State and Federal agencies, universities, NGOs, and private industries played a large role in the success of this two-day workshop. State of Florida agency participants created a ranked priority order for mapping 13 different regions around Florida. The data needed for each of the 13 priority regions were outlined. A matrix considering State and Federal priorities was created, utilizing input from all agencies. The matrix showed overlapping interests of the entities and will allow for partnering and leveraging of resources. The five most basic mapping needs were determined to be bathymetry, high-vertical resolution coastline for sea-level rise scenarios, shoreline change, subsurface geology, and benthic habitats at sufficient scale. There was a clear convergence on the need to coordinate mapping activities around the state. Suggestions for coordination included: * creating a glossary of terms: a standard for specifying agency data-mapping needs; * creating a geographic information officer (GIO) position or permanent organizing group to maintain communications established at this workshop and to maintain progress on the issues identified during the workshop. The person or group could develop a website, maintain a project-status matrix, develop a list of contacts, create links to legislative updates and links to funding sources; * developing a web portal and one-stop/clearinghouse of data. There was general consensus on the need to adopt a single habitat classification system and a strategy to accommodate existing systems smoothly. Unresolve

Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

2008-01-01

100

Influence of Deglaciation on Microbial Communities in Marine Sediments Off the Coast of Svalbard, Arctic Circle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in global temperatures have been shown to enhance glacier melting in the Arctic region. Here, we have evaluated\\u000a the effects of meltwater runoff on the microbial communities of coastal marine sediment located along a transect of Temelfjorden,\\u000a in Svalbard. As close to the glacier front, the sediment properties were clearly influenced by deglaciation. Denaturing gradient\\u000a gel electrophoresis profiles showed

Soo-Je Park; Byoung-Joon Park; Man-Young Jung; So-Jeong Kim; Jong-Chan Chae; Yul Roh; Matthias Forwick; Ho-Il Yoon; Sung-Keun Rhee

101

Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated using a three-stage filtration process to remove larger detritus and biological particles before collecting the bacterial population on a 0.2um filter, for re-suspension in a small volume of filter-sterilized seawater. To ensure eventual carbon limitation in microbial incubations, the samples were spiked with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Oxygen measurements were made as a proxy for community carbon uptake with an Ocean Optics FOXY-R fluorescence probe. Post irradiation, 15 samples were immediately sacrificed to take t=0 oxygen measurements, and the remainder were incubated in the dark for 10-12 days. Seasonal biolabile carbon photoproduction values ranged from -1.8E-2 to 9.2E-2 mol C produced/mol photons absorbed. To compare seasonal and spatial variations over this large data set, irradiations were set at a photon dose of 3.2 mol photons/m^2. Progressive photon dose experiments shows that irradiation length strongly influences the total biolabile product as assayed with microbial measurements. A conceptual model is presented to explain this dependence on photon dose. This varying dependence on photon dose is different from other photochemical products such as CO, and further complicates attempts to quantify the effect of photochemistry on the bioavailability of carbon in marine environments.

Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

2010-12-01

102

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

2006-12-01

103

Impact of atmospheric deposition on the metabolism of coastal microbial communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of rain water collected at marine, urban and rural sites on coastal phytoplankton biomass, primary production and community composition as well as the effect on microbial plankton metabolism was studied in 3 microcosm experiments conducted under contrasting spring, autumn and winter conditions. The measured responses were highly variable. Rainwater additions increased chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration (5-68% difference between rainwater treatments relative to the control) in all experiments and reduced or stimulated primary production (PP) depending on the treatment and the experiment (from -10 to +169% relative to the control). Autotrophic stimulation was highest in spring, probably related to the low initial natural nutrient concentrations. Under winter nutrient replete conditions, rainwater inputs changed the phytoplankton community although this change did not promote increases in primary production. Enhancement of net autotrophy (increase of net oxygen production up to 227%) after rainwater inputs were only found during the period of low nutrient availability. Inputs of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) explained a large fraction of the variability in the response of PP, Chl a, community respiration (CR) and net community production (NCP). Our results suggest that differences in the initial environmental conditions (i.e. nutrient availability), rainwater composition and the ability of the present autotrophic communities to utilize the new nutrients result in substantial changes in the microbial responses and associated biologically-mediated carbon fluxes. As atmospheric nutrient inputs into coastal oceans are increasing rapidly, our results help to understand the effects of different inputs on the metabolism of distinct microbial communities.

Martínez-García, Sandra; Arbones, B.; García-Martín, E. E.; Teixeira, I. G.; Serret, P.; Fernández, E.; Figueiras, F. G.; Teira, E.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.

2015-02-01

104

Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana  

EPA Science Inventory

Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

105

Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

McDonnell, Janice D.

106

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2012-02-01

107

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial viability (culturability) of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable (culturable) microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-09-01

108

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

2012-01-01

109

Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

1991-01-01

110

Engaging a community towards marine cyberinfrastructure: Lessons Learned from The Marine Metadata Interoperability initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) initiative promotes the exchange, integration and use of marine data through enhanced data publishing, discovery, documentation and accessibility. The project, operating since late 2004, presents several cultural organizational challenges because of the diversity of participants: scientists, technical experts, and data managers from around the world, all working in organizations with different corporate cultures, funding structures, and systems of decision-making. MMI provides educational resources at several levels. For instance, short introductions to metadata concepts are available, as well as guides and "cookbooks" for the quick and efficient preparation of marine metadata. For those who are building major marine data systems, including ocean-observing capabilities, there are training materials, marine metadata content examples, and resources for mapping elements between different metadata standards. The MMI also provides examples of good metadata practices in existing data systems, including the EU's Marine XML project, and functioning ocean/coastal clearinghouses and atlases developed by MMI team members. Communication tools that help build community: 1) Website, used to introduce the initiative to new visitors, and to provide in-depth guidance and resources to members and visitors. The site is built using Plone, an open source web content management system. Plone allows the site to serve as a wiki, to which every user can contribute material. This keeps the membership engaged and spreads the responsibility for the tasks of updating and expanding the site. 2) Email-lists, to engage the broad ocean sciences community. The discussion forums "news," "ask," and "site-help" are available for receiving regular updates on MMI activities, seeking advice or support on projects and standards, or for assistance with using the MMI site. Internal email lists are provided for the Technical Team, the Steering Committee and Executive Committee, and for several content-centered teams. These lists help keep committee members connected, and have been very successful in building consensus and momentum. 3) Regularly scheduled telecons, to provide the chance for interaction between members without the need to physically attend meetings. Both the steering committee and the technical team convene via phone every month. Discussions are guided by agendas published in advance, and minutes are kept on-line for reference. These telecons have been an important tool in moving the MMI project forward; they give members an opportunity for informal discussion and provide a timeframe for accomplishing tasks. 4) Workshops, to make progress towards community agreement, such as the technical workshop "Advancing Domain Vocabularies" August 9-11, 2005, in Boulder, Colorado, where featured domain and metadata experts developed mappings between existing marine metadata vocabularies. Most of the work of the meeting was performed in six small, carefully organized breakout teams, oriented around specific domains. 5) Calendar of events, to keep update the users and where any event related to marine metadata and interoperability can be posted. 6) Specific tools to reach agreements among distributed communities. For example, we developed a tool called Vocabulary Integration Environment (VINE), that allows formalized agreements of mappings across different vocabularies.

Galbraith, N. R.; Graybeal, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Wright, D.

2005-12-01

111

European Community`s program in marine resources development  

SciTech Connect

The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed.

Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

1995-12-01

112

Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.  

PubMed Central

Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

1992-01-01

113

Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community.  

PubMed

Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative 'Seal the Loop' [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours). PMID:25455820

Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

2014-12-15

114

Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

2010-12-01

115

A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

2007-12-01

116

A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a 1.5 m surface penetrating mast which currently limits the operational depth, although the core vehicle can be deployed to depths in excess of 10 m. Propulsion is accomplished with two DC brushless motors driving six wide heavy tread pneumatic wheels, three on each side. Power is provided by NiMH batteries. An onboard computer controls propulsion, navigation and communications. Guidance and navigation utilize inertial sensors, an electronic compass and a GPS unit mounted on the mast. A scientist onshore can monitor data from the scientific payload as well as command the robot through a mast-mounted radio Ethernet bridge. Standard, off the shelf oceanographic sensors such as sondes and ADCPs can easily be integrated onto the robot making it a versatile sensing platform. We have successfully deployed the vehicle off a sandy beach in Lake Michigan where it has performed lawn-mower surveys in the surf zone. LMAR's design and field test results will be presented along with a discussion of how to further harden the vehicle for deployment in storms.

Consi, T. R.

2012-12-01

117

Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from ?-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from ?-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and ?-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between membrane proteins and intracellular proteins grows to an approximate 75-25 split. Unlike the phytoplankton membrane proteins, which are detrital in nature, the bacterial protein suite at depth is consistent with living biomass.

Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

2015-03-01

118

Variability in bacterial community structure during upwelling in the coastal ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the last 30 years, investigations at the community level of marine bacteria and phytoplankton populations suggest they are tightly coupled. However, traditional oceanographic approaches cannot assess whether associations between specific bacteria and phytoplankton exist. Recently, molecular based approaches have been implemented to characterize specific members of different marine bacterial communities. Yet, few molecular-based studies have examined coastal upwelling situations. This is important since upwelling systems provide a unique opportunity for analyzing the association between specific bacteria and specific phytoplankton in the ocean. It is widely believed that upwelling can lead to changes in phytoplankton populations (blooms). Thus, if specific associations exist, we would expect to observe changes in the bacterial population triggered by the bloom. In this paper, we present preliminary data from coastal waters off New Jersey that confirm a shift in bacterial communities during a 1995 upwelling event recorded at a long-term earth observatory (LEO-15) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Using PCR amplification and cloning, specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences were found which were present in upwelling samples during a phytoplankton bloom, but were not detected in non-bloom samples (surface seawater, offshore sites or sediment samples) collected at the same time or in the same area. These findings are consistent with the notion of specific associations between bacteria and phytoplankton in the ocean. However, further examination of episodic events, such as coastal upwelling, are needed to confirm the existence of specific associations. Additionally, experiments need to be performed to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the specific linkages between a group of bacteria and a group of phytoplankton.

Kerkhof, L.J.; Voytek, M.A.; Sherrell, R.M.; Millie, D.; Schofield, O.

1999-01-01

119

Marine debris ingestion by coastal dolphins: what drives differences between sympatric species?  

PubMed

This study compared marine debris ingestion of the coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis in a sympatric area in Atlantic Ocean. Among the 89 stomach contents samples of P. blainvillei, 14 (15.7%) contained marine debris. For S. guianensis, 77 stomach contents samples were analyzed and only one of which (1.30%) contained marine debris. The debris recovered was plastic material: nylon yarns and flexible plastics. Differences in feeding habits between the coastal dolphins were found to drive their differences regarding marine debris ingestion. The feeding activity of P. blainvillei is mainly near the sea bottom, which increases its chances of ingesting debris deposited on the seabed. In contrast, S. guianensis has a near-surface feeding habit. In the study area, the seabed is the main zone of accumulation of debris, and species with some degree of association with the sea bottom may be local bioindicators of marine debris pollution. PMID:24746357

Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda

2014-06-15

120

Planning for Climate Impacts Wisconsin's Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

gauges broke records 810 Square miles of land flooded 161 Communities overflowed 90 million gallons raw the future IPCC 2007 General Circulation Models (GCMs) simulate the effects of incoming and outgoing thermal temperatures · Moderate increase in frequency and intensity of precipitation · Significant increase in rain

Sheridan, Jennifer

121

Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.  

PubMed

This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139

Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

2013-06-01

122

Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment  

SciTech Connect

This fiscal year 2011 progress report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power Task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Objectives for Task 2.1.7 are the following: • to work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process • to work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development • to communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders • to engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which is described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. As MHK industry partners work with the regulatory community and stakeholders to plan, site, permit, and license MHK technologies, they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under Task 2.1.7 is to understand and work to address these varied interests, reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.

Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Hanna, Luke A.

2011-09-30

123

Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.  

PubMed

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S

2014-01-01

124

Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities  

PubMed Central

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S.

2014-01-01

125

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

126

Adaptation technologies and legal instruments to address climate change impacts to coastal and marine resources in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the consequent pressures related to climate change are having significant impacts on the coastal and marine resources on which much of Tanzania's coastal population depends for its livelihood. A decline in mangrove cover, coral bleaching and mortality and the destruction of seagrass beds are some of these impacts. Coastal erosion also

G. Y. S. Mtui; Dares Salaam

2008-01-01

127

Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain  

SciTech Connect

Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))

1990-05-01

128

KAY DANIEL BIDLE Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

processes in marine phytoplankton: consequences on diversity modification"; Ministry for Science; Principal US Investigator. 2009 "Assessing Genetic Mechanisms of DNA Repair in Ancient Ice Microbes through

129

Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

Wallace, Bruce

1974-01-01

130

Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities  

PubMed Central

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

131

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.  

PubMed

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

2012-10-23

132

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

2012-01-01

133

Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system  

E-print Network

particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydro- dynamic to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel- dividuals away from a source location through passive and (or) active means, where the passive component

Taggart, Christopher

134

Understanding the hazards posed by eruptions at shallow marine and coastal calderas  

E-print Network

of explosive volcanism and shoreface sedimentation in a caldera setting (Fig. 2). Figure 2: Pumice-rich sub calderas worldwide are situated in shallow marine and/or coastal settings and some; Krakatau, Indonesia; Campei Flegrei, Bay of Naples, Italy; Santorini, Greece). Such settings allow the easy

Guo, Zaoyang

135

Kinetics of manganese adsorption, desorption, and oxidation in coastal marine sediments  

E-print Network

Kinetics of manganese adsorption, desorption, and oxidation in coastal marine sediments Dominique´bec a` Rimouski, Que´bec, Canada Abstract Ejection of excavated manganese (Mn)-laden particles from disturbances triggers desorption and oxidation of reduced manganese species. These competing reactions

Beaudoin, Georges

136

Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal  

E-print Network

Programme's Agree- ment on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and ContiguousEditorial Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal they were not doing well. At least in portions of the Mediterranean basin, reason- able explanations were

137

Marine subsidies alter the diet and abundance of insular and coastal lizard populations  

E-print Network

islands and the coast of the Gulf of California. Here, marine materials are brought onto land by seabirds available, (2) only seabird-derived subsidies, and (3) only tidal-derived subsidies. Stable isotope data indicated that lizard diets are subsidized indirectly by seabird and tidal activity. For example, in coastal

Wait, D. Alexander

138

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q  

E-print Network

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-develop- ment baseline, and to develop ship noise

Aberdeen, University of

139

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

140

Prey Selection by Marine-coastal River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that diets of river otters (Lontra canadensis) vary in response to seasonal shifts in prey availability, and that they select slowly moving fish of moderate size. To test these assumptions for marine-coastal river otters in Newfoundland, Canada, we reconstructed diets and estimated body length of important fish prey through analysis of otoliths and other hard parts

D. Cote; H. M. J. STEWART; R. S. Gregory; J. Gosse; J. J. Reynolds; G. B. Stenson; E. H. Miller

2008-01-01

141

The effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications to a semi-enclosed  

E-print Network

rights reserved. Keywords: Marine eutrophication; Nutrient enrichment; Non-point pollution; MediterraneanThe effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, Sapfous 5, 81100 Mytilene, Greece Received 11 January 2001

Arhonditsis, George B.

142

A comparison of non-hydrolytic methods for extracting amino acids and proteins from coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in analytical techniques now allow for the potential analysis of intact peptides and proteins isolated from marine sediments. However, there is no established technique for the extraction of macromolecular materials from marine sediments. Six different methods for extracting the amino acid component from coastal marine sediments were compared to the standard hot acid hydrolysis technique for their percent recovery

Brook L. Nunn; Richard G. Keil

2006-01-01

143

The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

2007-01-01

144

Nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off northeastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off Northeastern Taiwan. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the analyzed elements in copepods are discussed. Owing to the upwelling intrusion of Kuroshio Water, the study area presented an enriched copepod community and the copepod abundance ranged within 106-4890 ind. m-3. The trace elements content in the analyzed copepods varied substantially, ranging from 0.01 to 780 mg kg-1. and the average concentration followed the sequence: Sr>Fe>Zn>Cr>Li>Ni>Mn>Ba>Cu>Se>As>V>Pb>Rb>Cd>Co>Ga>Ag>Cs. The trace elements can be divided into five groups according to the concentration quantity in copepods: (1) Sr; (2) Fe, Zn, Cr, Li and Ni; (3) Mn, Cu, Ba, Se, As, V, Pb and Rb; (4) Cd, Co and Ga; (5) Ag and Cs. The concentration difference in each group is nearly one order of magnitude. The trace element concentrations in copepods seem to be in proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater. The trace element log BCF values ranged within 1.32-5.66. Transition metals generally have a higher BCF value than the associated minor elements, such as Ba, Sr, Li and Rb. The trace element BCF value in copepods is in inverse proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater.

Fang, Tien-Hsi; Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Nan, Fan-Hua

2014-12-01

145

Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, marine debris has become a major factor affecting the coastal ecosystem of Korea. This study compiled information regarding how marine debris impacts wildlife in Korea. Cases of marine debris impacting wildlife were collected from experts of various fields and from local participants through an open access website from February 2010 to March 2012. A total of 21 species were affected by marine debris: 18 species of birds, 2 species of mammals, and 1 species of crustacean. Five threatened or protected species were identified: black-faced spoonbill, finless porpoise, water deer, whooper swan, and greater painted snipe. Recreational fishing gears were the types of debris that most frequently impacted wildlife, especially birds. Black tailed gulls were the most vulnerable species to recreational fishing hooks and lines. Although it was preliminary, this study revealed that recreational fishing activities should be prioritized when managing marine debris in Korea. PMID:23199729

Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Jang, Yong Chang; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jong; Han, Donguk; Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Daeseok; Shim, Won Joon

2013-01-15

146

77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rigorous four month public and peer review process led to consideration of and response...CMECS, which will follow a regular peer review and revision cycle. Protocols...Marine Protected Area selection, evaluation, and assessment Resource...

2012-08-31

147

Marine Protected Areas: A Tool for Coastal Areas Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biodiversity is threatened by human impact. Though few marine species are regarded as being extinct due to Man, many\\u000a species are critically endangered (e.g. the monk seal Monachus monachus), endangered (e.g. the Mediterranean giant limpet\\u000a Patella ferruginea) or vulnerable, i.e. dwindling rapidly, although not threatened with extinction in the immediate future\\u000a (e.g. the large mollusk Pinna nobilis). There are

C. F. Boudouresque; G. Cadiou; L. Diréac'h

148

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

2013-02-01

149

Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

2012-08-01

150

Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already impacting the 50% of humanity that lives along coasts Population densities in coastal regions are about three times higher than the global average, with 23 per cent of the world's population living both within 100 kilometer distance of the coast and less than 100 meters above sea level. Sixty percent of the world's cities with a

Lynne Zeitlin Hale; Imèn Meliane; Sarah Davidson; Trevor Sandwith; Jonathan Hoekstra; Mark Spalding; Steven Murawski; Ned Cyr; Kenric Osgood; Marea Hatziolos; Pieter Van Eijk; Nicholas Davidson; William Eichbaum; Carlos Dreus

2009-01-01

151

Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

2012-03-01

152

Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.  

PubMed

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2012-03-01

153

Home > Printer-friendly > Marine ecologist Anne Salomon dives into coastal change Marine ecologist Anne Salomon dives into coastal  

E-print Network

of this underwater interplay is a crucial component in ensuring sustainability of marine resources, she says. "What, ethnologies, and archaeological data can give us better understanding of base lines in the past." Salomons

154

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception,  

E-print Network

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms, and Adaptation Committee #12;2 #12;Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms and boundedly rational storm perception. I also include endoge- nous economic growth, population growth, public

155

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

156

Coastal Community Adaptation to Future Potential Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research project aims to determine the physical and economic resilience of coastal communities. This translates into identifying how such communities can adapt to potential future climate change in the most efficient cost effective way. Fleetwood in Lancashire has been chosen as a case study site, with recently refurbished sea defences. This research is interested in the best way to maintain resilience of the defences over long time horizons and against low probability high impact events as the coastal defences deteriorate. We assess coastal flood risk using a flood inundation model called LISFLOOD-FP, this is a 2D hydrodynamic model designed to simulate flood inundation over complex topography. LISFLOOD-FP predicts water depths in each grid cell at each time step, simulating the dynamic propagation of flood waves over fluvial, coastal and estuarine floodplains. The model is forced at the boundary with an extreme water level that has a defined probability of occurring, e.g. 1 in 100 years. This is combined with a scaled surge curve for the area, a high spring tidal curve and the addition of a sea level rise parameter, which is dependent on the defined time horizon and future carbon emissions scenarios. LISFLOOD-FP has been extended to simulate wave over-topping of sea defences, this is achieved by using a Shallow Water And Boussinesq (SWAB) 1D model which models wave over-topping of sea defences. The outputs from this model can be added into LISFLOOD as a flow of water that originates from the top of the sea defences and simulates the over topping. The simulation has also been extended further by adding a river component. The flow within the river channel has been added into the model as a 1D vector with bed elevation and width, the river flow vector consists of a hydro-graph of a high flow event. Return period analysis will be applied to the river peaks over threshold data and the example hydro-graph can then be tailored to the peak return period flow rate. Combining all these inputs; storm surges, rivers and waves will give the best simulation of what inundation could occur at varying levels of sea level rise, extreme water return period, wave return period and river flow rate. Preliminary results show that river flow rates do not have a big impact on coastal flood inundation area. Waves increase the impact of sea level rise due to over-topping occurring sooner, for longer, and more frequently. They will also increase the rate of deterioration of sea defences due to increased erosion rates; this will have an effect on maintaining resilience. The flood risk maps that are produced will later be used in to perform a real options multi-objective optimisation study. This approach will find the optimal adaptive strategy for maintaining the resilience of the coastal community.

Prime, Thomas

2014-05-01

157

Community structure and function in prokaryotic marine plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biodiversity studies of microbial communities have provided invaluable information on the existence of heretofore\\u000a unknown organisms and on community composition. Cloning and ‘fingerprinting’ techniques have been used many times to study\\u000a prokaryote community composition of marine plankton. There are still many opportunities for new discoveries in this area,\\u000a but the results have also opened new questions about the activities

Jed A. Fuhrman

2002-01-01

158

Research Spotlight: Coastal cooling and marine productivity increasing off Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upwelling system off Peru is of environmental and economic importance due to its high fish productivity. It has been suggested that global warming may be leading to increasing temperature differences between the coast and the ocean, causing increases in alongshore wind stress and coastal upwelling in this zone. Upwelling brings nutrients from deep waters toward the surface, increasing biological productivity. To confirm reported trends of increasing coastal cooling and rising biological productivity, Gutiérrez et al. analyzed sediment records spanning the past 150 years as well as instrumental records from the main upwelling zone off Peru. They found that sea surface temperatures have been declining since the 1950s in the main upwelling zone. The cooling trend is likely linked to increased upwelling in spring, during which there is enhanced biological productivity. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046324, 2011)

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

159

Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.  

PubMed

The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining 'no take' periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife. PMID:25437099

Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

2015-03-01

160

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed Central

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the ‘cell water conservation hypothesis’, may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant–water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below ?1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above ?1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W.; Marcus, Sarah E.; Adams, Emily C.

2014-01-01

161

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

2014-01-01

162

SYNTHESES The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven directly by temperature. However, recent work has revealed that both abiotic changes and biological

Christopher D. G. Harley; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; Benjamin G. Miner; Cascade J. B. Sorte; Carol S. Thornber; Laura F. Rodriguez; Lars Tomanek; Susan L. Williams

2006-01-01

163

Levels of toxic metals in marine organisms collected from Southern California coastal waters.  

PubMed Central

Emission of toxic trace metals into southern California coastal waters has resulted in the extensive accumulation of the elements within marine sediments. The current study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of trace metals in bottom-dwelling marine fauna collected from two sampling areas. Analyses carried out on muscle samples of the dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) and the crab (Cancer anthonyi) by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis showed considerable concentrations of arsenic and selenium. Samples of gonads, digestive gland, and muscle from the crab Mursia gaudichaudii analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy showed elemental concentrations in muscle similar to the crab Cancer anthonyi and much higher metal levels in gonad and digestive gland. These findings suggest the need for further studies concerning the relationship between emission of metals into the marine environment and their abundance in marine fauna. PMID:1227863

Fowler, B A; Fay, R C; Walter, R L; Willis, R D; Gutknecht, W F

1975-01-01

164

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

2014-01-15

165

Influence of deglaciation on microbial communities in marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard, Arctic Circle.  

PubMed

Increases in global temperatures have been shown to enhance glacier melting in the Arctic region. Here, we have evaluated the effects of meltwater runoff on the microbial communities of coastal marine sediment located along a transect of Temelfjorden, in Svalbard. As close to the glacier front, the sediment properties were clearly influenced by deglaciation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that the sediment microbial communities of the stations of glacier front (stations 188-178) were distinguishable from that of outer fjord region (station 176). Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that total carbon and calcium carbonate in sediment and chlorophyll a in bottom water were key factors driving the change of microbial communities. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries suggested that microbial diversity was higher within the glacier-proximal zone (station 188) directly affected by the runoffs than in the outer fjord region. While the crenarchaeotal group I.1a dominated at station 176 (62%), Marine Benthic Group-B and other Crenarchaeota groups were proportionally abundant. With regard to the bacterial community, alpha-Proteobacteria and Flavobacteria lineages prevailed (60%) at station 188, whereas delta-Proteobacteria (largely sulfate-reducers) predominated (32%) at station 176. Considering no clone sequences related to sulfate-reducers, station 188 may be more oxic compared to station 176. The distance-wise compositional variation in the microbial communities is attributable to their adaptations to the sediment environments which are differentially affected by melting glaciers. PMID:21556884

Park, Soo-Je; Park, Byoung-Joon; Jung, Man-Young; Kim, So-Jeong; Chae, Jong-Chan; Roh, Yul; Forwick, Matthias; Yoon, Ho-Il; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2011-10-01

166

Coastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources  

E-print Network

of Waikato's Bay of Plenty Regional Council Chair in Coastal Science, based in Tauranga. Among other national; safeguarding and sustaining the coastal environment; managing natural hazards; and ensuring New Zealand complies with its international obligations. The policy is clear about the issues facing the nation

Waikato, University of

167

Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

2008-12-01

168

The sociological perspective in coastal management and geoengineering approach: effects of hydraulic structures on the resilience of fishing communities (NW Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast plays an important role in global transportation and is the most popular tourist destination around the world. During the years coastal scientists "walking on the shore", have tried to understand the shoreline in relation to the processes that shape it, and its interrelationships with the contiguous superficial marine and terrestrial hinterland environments. Those factors encourage the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), because of its possible use in identifying coastal management issues to take into account in policy strategies, measures and planning. Therefore this research presents an integrated strategy and a holistic approach to researching and studying coastal areas involving a wide number of sciences including sociology. Because of the numerous types of hazards in coastal areas the only possible response involves a holistic, integrated and long term approach. Combining marine sociological research, resilience and flexibility of a particular coastal community with other scientific fields will help to understand and manage marine social problems. This study also shows an integrative and "eclectic" methodology and adapts it to coastal management. Hence a new integrated coastal geoengineering approach for maritime environments was proposed, which is the core foundation of this approach. Also it was important to incorporate in a broader sense coastal geosciences and geoengineering GIS mapping to this final equation resulting in conceptual models. In Portugal there are several areas buffeted by sea invasions, coastal erosion and severe storms. The Portuguese coastal zone is one of Europe's most vulnerable regarding coastal erosion. The case study presented herein is an example of one of the most vulnerable sites in Portugal in terms of coastal erosion and sea invasions and how the meeting of local fishing community and coastal projects are extremely important. The coastal stretch between Figueira da Foz and Espinho (Centre and NW Portugal) case shows the link between governance - stakeholders - contractors - researchers - local community as a necessary management strategy and more, such as the holistic synergy. It defined a "social mesh" embracing a platform or a project which comprises different vectors and combines social aspects, economic factors, culture and heritage with activities, upgrading the traditions in fishing communities, to somehow forget and accept the sea invasions and the hard solutions like coastal protection structures (e.g. groynes, seawalls) as well as the reinforcement and requalification of the urban areas and the improvement in the seashore area. In the course of this project and during this period, the community worked as a live laboratory and as an experimental field. The study takes advantage of GIS tools to contribute to the understanding of the geomorphological dynamics of Espinho (NW Portugal) presented here as one of the examples (already addressed by the authors in several publications and works). This type of framework can be adapted and applied in other geographical settings and other coastal environments to develop innovative sustainability paths and help to solve coastal issues.

Rocha, Fernando; Pires, Ana; Chamine, Helder

2014-05-01

169

Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in Coastal Marine Biota.  

PubMed

The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates. PMID:25451633

Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

2015-05-01

170

Eutrophication and the rate of denitrification and NâO production in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large (13 m³, 5 m deep) microcosms with coupled pelagic and benthic components were used to measure the effect of nutrient loading and eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems on the rates of benthic denitrification (Nâ) and NâO production. After 3 months or daily nutrient addition, average denitrification rates ranged from about 300 ..mu..mol N m⁻² h⁻¹ in the sediments of

SYBIL P. SEITZINGER; SCOTT W. NIXON

1985-01-01

171

Effects of Land Use Change on Tropical Coastal Systems are Exacerbated by the Decline of Marine Mega-Herbivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes in tropical regions such as deforestation, mining activities, and shrimp farming, not only affect freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, but also have a strong impact on coastal marine ecosystems. The increased influx of sediments and nutrients affects these ecosystems in multiple ways. Seagrass meadows that line coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services, e.g. sediment trapping, coastal protection and fisheries. Based on studies in East Kalimantan (Indonesia) we have shown that seagrass meadow parameters may provide more reliable indicators of land use change than the sampling of either marine sediments or water quality chemical parameters. Observations of changes in ecosystem functioning are particularly valuable for those areas where flux values are lacking and rapid surveys are needed. Time series of estuarine seagrass transects can show not only the intensity, but also the radius of action of land use change on coastal marine systems. Marine mega-herbivores pose a strong top-down control in seagrass ecosystems. We will provide a conceptual model, based on experimental evidence, to show that the global decline of marine mega-herbivore populations (as a result of large-scale poaching) may decrease the resilience of seagrass systems to increased anthropogenic forcing including land use changes. These outcomes not only urge the need for better regulation of land use change, but also for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPA's) in tropical coastal regions.

Lamers, L. P.; Christianen, M. J.; Govers, L. L.; Kiswara, W.; Bouma, T.; Roelofs, J. G.; Van Katwijk, M. M.

2011-12-01

172

Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.  

PubMed

Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

2015-03-15

173

Estuaries and coastal waters need help  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures,

Howard Levenson

1987-01-01

174

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

175

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

2012-02-24

176

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China  

E-print Network

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas reclamation. Abstract The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

177

Hygroscopic behavior of partially volatilized coastal marine aerosols using the volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marine nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode aerosol particles with back trajectories indicative of marine origin were examined using a volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer (VHTDMA) to reveal the volatilization temperatures of the various component species. The diameter hygroscopic growth factors of the residue particles were continually examined throughout the volatilization process. In each of the three modes

G. R. Johnson; Z. D. Ristovski; B. D'Anna; L. Morawska

2005-01-01

178

Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia River is experiencing a far too common problem of disastrous coastal erosion that has been causing grave concern in its community. Because of this, the US Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Washington Department of Ecology created the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study to predict management scale coastal change, and provide "coastal communities with decision support tools for integrating scientific research with coastal decision making and long-term land use planning efforts." Visitors can discover the study's approach, findings, and participants. The lengthy, informative research link provides information about the study's five key components: coastal change, sediment budget, coastal processes, predictive modeling, and management support. The authors are currently compiling the data collected. Presently, researchers can find data about the beach profiles and the shorelines. The website offers a great, thorough glossary to assist users with unfamiliar terminology. This site is also reviewed in the June 11, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

179

Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

2010-11-01

180

The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

2014-05-01

181

Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.  

PubMed

It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification. PMID:25756110

Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

2014-12-01

182

FORECASTING EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SOLIDS ON MARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solids from marine municipal discharges settle to the sea bottom where they cause major but potentially reversible changes in the biomass and trophic structure of macrobenthic communities. The relationships may be useful in forecasting changes in the size and structure of benthic...

183

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Coordinator: [ ] #12;2 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New/operator Manager Other (please specify) #12;3 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers

184

Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.  

PubMed

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D A; Edgar, Robert J

2014-01-01

185

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats  

PubMed Central

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

2014-01-01

186

Vulnerability and adaptation of coastal communities to climate variability and sea-level rise: Their implications for integrated coastal management in Cavite City, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal areas are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. These impacts will exacerbate the risks posed by the continuing environmental degradation confronting the coastal communities.Adopting a participatory research approach, the study examines the vulnerability of socioeconomic groups among the coastal population in Cavite City, Philippines, their current adaptation strategies and their adaptive capacity to cope with

Ramon Faustino M. Sales Jr.

2009-01-01

187

Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

2014-01-01

188

COASTAL WETLAND INSECT COMMUNITIES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Insects of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have received little attention in spite of their importance in food webs and sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors. We characterized insect communities from four coastal wetlands that spanned the length of a trophic gradient in Green Bay d...

189

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and ecosystems  

E-print Network

Shrubs as ecosystem engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern California. Methods: In each of 4 years ­ Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis ­ with those in adjacent open dunes. Results

Cushman, J. Hall

190

Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa.  

PubMed

The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal cells shaped North Sea bacterial community composition and enhanced bacterial substrate assimilation. Infected algal cultures of Phaeocystis globosa grown in coastal North Sea water contained gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes that were distinct from those in the non-infected control cultures 5?h after infection. The gammaproteobacterial population at this time mainly consisted of Alteromonas sp. cells that were attached to the infected but still intact host cells. Nano-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) showed ?20% transfer of organic matter derived from the infected (13)C- and (15)N-labelled P. globosa cells to Alteromonas sp. cells. Subsequent, viral lysis of P. globosa resulted in the formation of aggregates that were densely colonised by bacteria. Aggregate dissolution was observed after 2 days, which we attribute to bacteriophage-induced lysis of the attached bacteria. Isotope mass spectrometry analysis showed that 40% of the particulate (13)C-organic carbon from the infected P. globosa culture was remineralized to dissolved inorganic carbon after 7 days. These findings reveal a novel role of viruses in the leakage or excretion of algal biomass upon infection, which provides an additional ecological niche for specific bacterial populations and potentially redirects carbon availability. PMID:23949664

Sheik, Abdul R; Brussaard, Corina P D; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Musat, Niculina; Krupke, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2014-01-01

191

Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Coastal Bacterial Community Abundance and Diversity  

PubMed Central

Hydrostatic pressure is an important parameter influencing the distribution of microbial life in the ocean. In this study, the response of marine bacterial populations from surface waters to pressures representative of those under deep-sea conditions was examined. Southern California coastal seawater collected 5 m below the sea surface was incubated in microcosms, using a range of temperatures (16 to 3°C) and hydrostatic pressure conditions (0.1 to 80 MPa). Cell abundance decreased in response to pressure, while diversity increased. The morphology of the community also changed with pressurization to a predominant morphotype of small cocci. The pressure-induced community changes included an increase in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Flavobacteria largely at the expense of Epsilonproteobacteria. Culturable high-pressure-surviving bacteria were obtained and found to be phylogenetically similar to isolates from cold and/or deep-sea environments. These results provide novel insights into the response of surface water bacteria to changes in hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25063663

Marietou, Angeliki

2014-01-01

192

Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence competitive success of key phytoplankton groups such as diatoms, but how long-term responses to global change will affect community structure is unknown. We incubated a mixed natural diatom community from coastal New Zealand waters in a short-term (two-week) incubation experiment using a factorial matrix of warming and/or elevated pCO2 and measured effects on community structure. We then isolated the dominant diatoms in clonal cultures and conditioned them for 1 year under the same temperature and pCO2 conditions from which they were isolated, in order to allow for extended selection or acclimation by these abiotic environmental change factors in the absence of interspecific interactions. These conditioned isolates were then recombined into 'artificial' communities modelled after the original natural assemblage and allowed to compete under conditions identical to those in the short-term natural community experiment. In general, the resulting structure of both the unconditioned natural community and conditioned 'artificial' community experiments was similar, despite differences such as the loss of two species in the latter. pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on community structure, but temperature was more influential, as warming significantly reduced species richness. In this case, our short-term manipulative experiment with a mixed natural assemblage spanning weeks served as a reasonable proxy to predict the effects of global change forcing on diatom community structure after the component species were conditioned in isolation over an extended timescale. Future studies will be required to assess whether or not this is also the case for other types of algal communities from other marine regimes. PMID:23980240

Tatters, Avery O; Roleda, Michael Y; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fu, Feixue; Hurd, Catriona L; Boyd, Philip W; Caron, David A; Lie, Alle A Y; Hoffmann, Linn J; Hutchins, David A

2013-01-01

193

Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming  

PubMed Central

Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence competitive success of key phytoplankton groups such as diatoms, but how long-term responses to global change will affect community structure is unknown. We incubated a mixed natural diatom community from coastal New Zealand waters in a short-term (two-week) incubation experiment using a factorial matrix of warming and/or elevated pCO2 and measured effects on community structure. We then isolated the dominant diatoms in clonal cultures and conditioned them for 1 year under the same temperature and pCO2 conditions from which they were isolated, in order to allow for extended selection or acclimation by these abiotic environmental change factors in the absence of interspecific interactions. These conditioned isolates were then recombined into ‘artificial’ communities modelled after the original natural assemblage and allowed to compete under conditions identical to those in the short-term natural community experiment. In general, the resulting structure of both the unconditioned natural community and conditioned ‘artificial’ community experiments was similar, despite differences such as the loss of two species in the latter. pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on community structure, but temperature was more influential, as warming significantly reduced species richness. In this case, our short-term manipulative experiment with a mixed natural assemblage spanning weeks served as a reasonable proxy to predict the effects of global change forcing on diatom community structure after the component species were conditioned in isolation over an extended timescale. Future studies will be required to assess whether or not this is also the case for other types of algal communities from other marine regimes. PMID:23980240

Tatters, Avery O.; Roleda, Michael Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fu, Feixue; Hurd, Catriona L.; Boyd, Philip W.; Caron, David A.; Lie, Alle A. Y.; Hoffmann, Linn J.; Hutchins, David A.

2013-01-01

194

Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and Arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multiyear mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) buildup and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

2014-12-01

195

Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multi-year mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) build-up and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

2014-08-01

196

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY ALTERED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN COASTAL WATERS. (R825243)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human-based (anthropogenic) nutrient and other pollutant enrichment of the world's coastal waters is causing unprecedented changes in microbial community structure and function. Symptoms of these changes include accelerating eutrophication, the proliferation of harmful microal...

197

Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized. PMID:21141035

Hay, Mark E.

2012-01-01

198

Indian Valley Colleges, Marin County Community College District, Marin County, California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian Valley Colleges, in Marin County Community College District, was given an award in the AS&U 1977 College & University Architectural Competition for the design of separate cluster colleges that blend with the site with little disturbance. (Author/MLF)

American School and University, 1977

1977-01-01

199

North Carolina Marine Education Manual. Connections: Guide to Marine Resources, Living Marine Systems and Coastal Field Trips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of teaching and resource materials is designed to help middle school teachers put marine perspectives into their lessons. Materials are organized into three parts. Part 1 describes the preparation and maintenance of brackish water aquariums, marine aquariums, and touch tanks. Activities related to and sources of information on…

Spence, L.; Medlicott, J.

200

Two Decades of Community Researchon Gas in Shallow Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments; Listvyanka, Russia, 6-12 September 2010 ; The Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments was held near Irkutsk, Russia, and was attended by 120 participants from 19 countries. The GIMS conference series has provided biannual discussions that have knit disparate researchers into a scientific community. The setting was important because the adjacent Lake Baikal contains the only documented freshwater hydrate methane seepage (methane hydrate is a metastable ice at high pressures and low temperatures) due to its great depth (1637 meters). The conference included 72 oral and 47 poster presentations and a day cruise during which gas hydrates were retrieved.

Leifer, Ira; Hovland, Martin; Zemskaya, Tamara

2011-04-01

201

Toward a community coastal sediment transport modeling system: The second workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models for transport and the long-term fate of particles in coastal waters are essential for a variety of applications related to commerce, defense, public health, and the quality of the marine environment. Examples include: analysis of waste disposal and transport and the fate of contaminated materials; evaluation of burial rates for naval mines or archaeological artifacts; prediction of water-column optical properties; analysis of transport and the fate of biological particles; prediction of coastal flooding and coastal erosion; evaluation of impacts of sea-level or wave-climate changes and coastal development; planning for construction and maintenance of navigable waterways; evaluation of habitat for commercial fisheries; evaluation of impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes in coastal conditions on recreational activities; and design of intakes and outfalls for sewage treatment, cooling systems, and desalination plants.

Sherwood, Christopher R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Rockwell Geyer, W.; Butman, Bradford

202

An operational forecasting system for the meteorological and marine conditions in Mediterranean regional and coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling of a suite of meteorological limited area models with a wave prediction system based on the nesting of different wave models provides for medium-range sea state forecasts at the Mediterranean, regional and coastal scale. The new system has been operational at ISPRA since September 2012, after the upgrade of both the meteorological BOLAM model and large-scale marine components of the original SIMM forecasting system and the implementation of the new regional and coastal (WAM-SWAN coupling) chain of models. The coastal system is composed of nine regional-scale high-resolution grids, covering all Italian seas and six coastal grids at very high resolution, capable of accounting for the effects of the interaction between the incoming waves and the bathymetry. A preliminary analysis of the performance of the system is discussed here focusing on the ability of the system to simulate the mean features of the wave climate at the regional and sub-regional scale. The results refer to two different verification studies. The first is the comparison of the directional distribution of almost one year of wave forecasts against the known wave climate in northwestern Sardinia and central Adriatic Sea. The second is a sensitivity test on the effect on wave forecasts of the spatial resolution of the wind forcing, being the comparison between wave forecast and buoy data at two locations in the northern Adriatic and Ligurian Sea during several storm episodes in the period autumn 2012-winter 2013.

Casaioli, M.; Catini, F.; Inghilesi, R.; Lanucara, P.; Malguzzi, P.; Mariani, S.; Orasi, A.

2014-05-01

203

Hydrologic signals and patterns in coastal mangrove communities using space-borne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal mangrove ecotone, along the southern edge of the Florida Everglades, is the transition zone between the marine waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay, and the freshwater from the "River of Grass". Hydrologically-dependent ecosystems, like the Florida Everglades, have been experiencing greater threats in the past decade from climate change, increased fresh water demand, and urban growth and development. Identifying changes to water chemistry and evapotranspiration (ET) over the coastal landscape is important to understanding the ecosystem response and adaptation with respect to environmental restoration projects, water management practices and sea-level rise. Space-borne remote sensing can be a cost-effective tool to remotely measure water chemistry and ET changes in remote areas of the coastal Everglades on a regional scale. The objectives of this research were to; 1) to measure surface and subsurface water chemistry by building relationships between satellite-based mangrove reflectance data and the ionic and nutrient concentrations in the surface water and groundwater across the coastal mangrove ecotone; and 2) to estimate ET across the coastal everglades. Water chemistry and Landsat 5TM satellite data were used to develop a linear model to quantitatively predict water chemistry on the landscape scale within the coastal mangrove communities of south Florida on seasonal and annual timescales. A satellite-based energy balance approach was used to determine regional scale ET estimates. Using this satellite-energy balance approach, we were able to account for the spatial variability in surface temperature, changes in albedo, and vegetation reflectance. Water samples were collected from the surface water and groundwater from five Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that spanned a variety of mangrove communities and biomass production. Surface water samples were collected from 2008-2012 and groundwater samples were collected from 2009-2012. All water samples analyzed for major ion (e.g., Cl-, SO42-, Na2+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+) and nutrient (e.g., TOC, TN and TP) concentrations. Satellite spectra were extracted from the five LTER and used to calculate a number of biophysical indices. Seasonal patterns in both Cl- concentrations and ET were identified using the satellite reflectance data which correspond to the wet and dry seasons in south Florida. Chloride concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the dry season as compared to the end of the wet season. In addition, the ion concentrations in the water tended to increase down river. However, there were some exceptions when higher ion concentrations were exhibited upstream and may be a result increased flushing times and salt exclusion by the mangroves. Evapotranspiration estimates coincided well with previous site-specific and other satellite methods. Changes in the evapotranspiration varied seasonally with respect to mangrove phenology and net radiation and ranged between 6-7 mm day-1 in the dry season to 3-5 mm day-1 in the wet season. Ultimately, this research could provide a method to remotely monitor and detect water chemistry and water budget changes to the environment with respect to natural or man-made modifications.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

204

Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by group diversity, evenness, relative abundance and biovolume. Sixty-six taxa were identified in addition to eight potentially harmful algal genera including Gymnodinium sp. Phytoplankton group diversity was lowest at Vermillion Bay in February 2008, but otherwise ranged between 2.16 and 3.40. Phytoplankton evenness was also lowest at Vermillion Bay in February 2008, but otherwise ranged between 0.54 and 0.77. Dissolved oxygen increased with increased biovolume (R² = 0.85, p < 0.001) and biovolume decreased with increased light attenuation (R² = 0.34, p = 0.007), which supported the importance of light in regulating oxygen dynamics. Diatoms were dominant in relative abundance and biovolume at almost all stations and all cruises. Brunt-Väisälä frequency was used as a measure of water column stratification and was negatively correlated (p = 0.02) to diatom relative percent total abundance. PMID:22498318

Schaeffer, Blake A; Kurtz, Janis C; Hein, Michael K

2012-08-01

205

Halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters.  

PubMed

Information on accumulation of halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammal is limited. The present study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of chlorinated and brominated phenolic contaminants (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and bromophenols) in the blood collected from pinnipeds (northern fur seal, spotted seal, Steller sea lion and ribbon seal) and small cetaceans (harbor porpoise and Dall's porpoise) from Japanese coastal waters. Concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs found in pinnipeds were the same as in small cetaceans living in the same coastal area. However, significantly lower concentrations of brominated compounds (PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs) were found in the blood of pinnipeds than the levels found in cetacean species which live same area (p < 0.05). This difference of accumulation pattern suggested pinnipeds have an enhanced capability to degrade organobromine compounds relative to cetaceans. PMID:24060385

Nomiyama, Kei; Kanbara, Chika; Ochiai, Mari; Eguchi, Akifumi; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Matsuishi, Takashi; Yamada, Tadasu K; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-02-01

206

Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats. The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored. Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another. An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal environmental variation and stochastic events. The long-term monitoring of mat communities on Highborne Cay stromatolites and the resulting model are an important step in understanding morphogenesis of modern marine stromatolites, with implications for interpreting patterns of stromatolite lamination in the geologic record.

Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

2012-07-01

207

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California’s coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate change and sea level rise, local government staff is typically removed from this information and often lack the time or resources necessary for keeping up with the most recent information. Specifically, there is a disconnect between the latest science and the practice of coastal planners in dealing with sea level rise issues. Improving the transfer of relevant information and resources from scientists to decision-makers should encourage and assist local governments in their responses to this developing issue. Designing and implementing adaptation plans and developing policies for sea level rise are challenging. Each coastal community is unique in its geographic setting and demographics and therefore faces vulnerabilities that differ from those of other communities. Uplift and subsidence, for example, cause regional variations in the rate of sea level rise. Planning staff needs to understand the local impacts of sea level rise in order to take appropriate actions. Even when the potential threats are reasonably well understood, the gradual nature of sea level rise can make it hard to formulate, approve and implement policies that may not affect communities for decades to come. Fortunately, there are tools and resources available to assist planners. Several communities in California have recently completed climate change adaptation plans or are in the process of preparing such plans. However, these documents are not focused solely upon the specific issues associated with sea level rise. A study is underway to fill that void, which includes the development of an informative guide for local government agencies to use in the preparation of sea level rise vulnerability studies and in formulating adaptation plans. This project will identify: 1) the range of sea level rise hazards and issues facing California’s coastal cities and counties in the decades ahead; 2) the types of information or data needed for making vulnerability assessments; 3) the range of adaptation strategies available based upon the severity of the hazards and potential future impacts; and 4) appropriate response recommendations. Two communities have been selected for specific sea level rise vulnerability assessment studies, which involves working with agency staff from the selected communities to identify the current issues, concerns and problem areas. The experience and information gained from working with local government agencies will inform the guidebook’s development. The final products of this research include sea level rise adaptation plans for two local coastal communities as well as a guide to be made available to all of California’s coastal cities and counties.

Griggs, G. B.; Russell, N.

2010-12-01

208

A multivariate approach to the determination of an indicator species pool for community-based bioassessment of marine water quality.  

PubMed

Previous studies in Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea have shown that periphytic ciliates are reliable indicators of marine water quality. However, traditional community-based bioassessments are time-consuming because they rely on the identification and enumeration of all species within the community. In order to improve bioassessment efficiency, step-best-matching analysis was used to identify which are the most reliable indicator species among periphytic marine ciliate communities. Based on indices of species richness, diversity and evenness, a subset of 48 species (out of a total of 141) was found to retain sufficient information for accurately predicting water quality, and was more strongly related to changes of environmental variables than the full species set. These results demonstrate that the step-best-matching analysis is a powerful approach for identifying an indicator species pool from a full species dataset of a community, and allows the development of time-efficient sampling protocols for community-based marine bioassessment. PMID:25146425

Xu, Guangjian; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yangfan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

2014-10-15

209

Do anthropogenic or coastal aerosol sources impact on a clean marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head North East (N.E.) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station to that of aerosol over the open ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to enhanced coastal sources, thereby leading to artificially high values to aerosol parameters, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol and its potential dominance over, or drowning-out of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here we review the results of previous experimental studies into marine aerosols over the N.E. Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of an open ocean aerosol with negligible anthropogenic influence. Particular focus is given to organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations up to peak values of 3.8 ?g m-3 are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing corroborate the natural source of OM with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean air conditions, rising to 98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak concentrations >3 ?g m-3 are observed. A range of other experiments are discussed which corroborate the dominance of a marine signal under Mace Head clean air criteria along. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head clean air criteria ensures anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a dominant, if not at times, an overwhelming natural marine aerosol signal.

O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2013-03-01

210

Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic models.

Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

2013-11-01

211

Advective flow as an early diagenetic agent in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore intertidal sand and mud flats are subject to tidally forced ground water flow leading to circulation and subsequent discharge of ground waters to the coastal ocean. These waters have passed organic-rich, relatively young sediments that harbor active microbial communities. A number of biogeochemical processes alter the chemical composition of the circulating sea water of which the most prominent one is microbial sulphate reduction. As a result of these processes discharging ground waters are strongly enriched in certain trace metals (Mn, Ba, V), nutrients (Ammonia, Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Phosphate, Silicate) and depleted in others (such as Mo, U). Advective flow therefore drives a biogeochemical alteration of sea water. So far, pore water chemistry indicates that tidal creek margins, where advective flow is most significant, show stronger chemical gradients compared to sites from the central tidal flat, where diffusion appears to dominate. To investigate the role of advection we mapped the geochemistry down to 2.5 meters sediment depth along a transect from the creek to the central tidal flat using push-point samplers that allow almost artifact-free in-situ sampling of pore waters. Additionally a recently developed hydrogeological simulation of the creek margin was applied to calculate ages of the sampled pore waters. The simulation was calibrated by comparison of measured in-situ pressure heads with simulated ones. Sample ages obtained were used to quantify averaged production or depletion rates for trace metals, nutrients and sulphate. Our results demonstrate that sites dominated by advection generally show higher rates of turnover for almost all species investigated. Averaged production rates for Ba, Mn, ammonia or DIC appear to be 10 to more than 30 times higher when advection dominated the subsurface flow regime. Based on these findings we speculate whether advective ground water flow in marine sediments may be regarded as a geological agent, a view traditionally held for terrestrial aquifers. Reasons may be that (1) the distribution of reagents such as hydrogen sulfide produced from microbial reduction of sulphate in the sediments is enhanced by flow and dispersion; (2) microbial activity may be stimulated because flow maintains a steady resupply of electron donors and acceptors in the subsurface.

Riedel, Thomas; Lettmann, Karsten; Beck, Melanie; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2010-05-01

212

Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the  

E-print Network

of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations optical properties (IOP) of the water constituents (namely the absorption, scattering, and backscatteringSensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal

Chami, Malik

213

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

walk Visited Poor Knights marine reserve Bird watching ­ shore based Bird watching ­ on a boat Mammal1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand: [ ] #12;2 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand

214

Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the July/August pages of BioScience is about the need for a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. The conservation and sustainable use of marine resources is a highlighted goal on a growing number of national and international policy agendas. Unfortunately, efforts to assess progress, as well as to strategically plan and prioritize new marine conservation measures, have been hampered by the lack of a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. Here we report on a new global system for coastal and shelf areas: the Marine Ecoregions of the World, or MEOW, a nested system of 12 realms, 62 provinces, and 232 ecoregions. This system provides considerably better spatial resolution than earlier global systems, yet it preserves many common elements and can be cross-referenced to many regional biogeographic classifications. The designation of terrestrial ecoregions has revolutionized priority setting and planning for terrestrial conservation; we anticipate similar benefits from the use of a coherent and credible marine system.

MARK D. SPALDING, HELEN E. FOX, GERALD R. ALLEN, NICK DAVIDSON, ZACH A. FERDAÃ?A, MAX FINLAYSON, BENJAMIN S. HALPERN, MIGUEL A. JORGE, AL LOMBANA, SARA A. LOURIE, KIRSTEN D. MARTIN, EDMUND MCMANUS, JENNIFER MOLNAR, CHERI A. RECCHIA, JAMES ROBERTSON (; )

2007-07-01

215

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

216

Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activity by coastally caught marine fishes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many commercially important marine fishes are found in estuaries, particularly as juveniles. The estuaries may provide a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Here, carbon ( ?13C) and sulphur ( ?34S) stable isotope data from coastally caught common sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) were used in independent mixing models to determine relative contributions of estuarine prey to white muscle composition. The influence of assumed trophic fractionation was also investigated with sensitivity analysis. At the population level, there was evidence for estuarine contributions to muscle tissue in both species (means from 16.37% to 61.28%), though among-individual variability was considerable. ?13C and ?34S model outputs implied different estuarine contributions for the same individual, likely reflecting the slower turnover of ?34S than ?13C. Sole exhibited population level plasticity in their feeding as juveniles, separating into two distinct juvenile sub-populations; but they are less plastic as older fish when they adopt increasingly marine diets. Whiting show individual plasticity as both juveniles and adults, feeding on prey of estuarine and coastal origin.

Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

2008-10-01

217

Changes in bacterial community dynamics associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a potentially significant pathway of groundwater and dissolved chemical species in it to the coastal zone. Groundwater has different chemical and biological characteristics compared to seawater; therefore, mixing of the discharged groundwater with seawater can affect the microbial community in near-shore environments. Temporal variability of SGD rates in response to sea level fluctuations (tide, waves) can control the transport of terrestrial materials, periodically altering water quality and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of the submarine groundwater discharge on the microbial community structure in the coastal water body adjacent to the southern shore of Jeju Island, Korea. Near-shore water samples were collected as a function of tidal stage and subjected to DNA pyrosequencing and statistical community analyses. Phlyogenetic classification showed that ?-Proteobacteria was predominant in the seawater samples taken at a high tide or away from the coast while relative abundance of ?-, and ?- Proteobacteria significantly increased in the samples mixed with groundwater at a flood and ebb tide. The genus level analysis showed that the dominant phylotypes in the seawater samples were Roseovarius (40.5%; mean abundance ratio of the samples), DQ009083g (17.1%), and Glaciecola (3.7%). Distributions of the bacterial sequences in the mixed water samples showed a remarkable difference between the flood tide and ebb tide. The abundant phylotypes in the flood tide sample were Candidatus Pelagibacter (11.0%), EU801223 (8.4%) and ABVV (6.2%) whereas Shewanella (34.8%) and Candidatus Pelagibacter (5.1%) were in the ebb tide sample. Several phylototypes were detected only in the mixed water samples, including Sphingopyxis (0.6%), Rheinheimera (1.0%), Hydrogenophaga (1.8%), Colwelliaceae_uc (0.9%), Kinneretia (0.5%), and Collimonas (1.2%). These were hypothesized to be originating from the fresh groundwater discharge. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the mixed water samples were separated from seawater samples, which resulted from significant increase in Shewanella sp. (ebb tide sample) and marine bacteria such as SAR11 and SAR116 clade belonging to ?-Proteobacteria (flood tide sample). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two principal components explained about 84% of the variance in the sequence data. The microbial community in the seawater samples formed a distinct cluster. The microbial diversity in the mixed water samples changed depending on the seawater stage, showing similar trends in the phylogenetic classification. Our study results demonstrate that the microbial environment in the coastal zone subject to SGD and sea level fluctuation may change dynamically over short time period (< 1day). * This study was supported by the Basic Research Projects (14-3211-2) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

Lee, Eunhee; Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul

2014-05-01

218

Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica  

EPA Science Inventory

In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

219

Learning To Leave: The Irony of Schooling in a Coastal Community...Some Preliminary Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the role of education in outmigration from the rural coastal community of Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. Data gathered on 756 Grade 6 students who left Digby Neck Consolidated School between 1957 and 1992 were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 36 of those former students, 12 area educators, and community members. Findings…

Corbett, Mike

220

Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on the groundwater model, scenarios will be evaluated considering various target figures (i.e. agricultural water demand, drinking water supply, "beautification", tourism, industry etc.). Within these scenarios, marine saltwater encroachment should be minimized or saline groundwater should even be pushed back into the coastal direction, thus stabilizing the natural equilibrium between continental freshwater flux and seawater intrusion and ensuring a long-term, stable usage of the agricultural areas. Literature KOLDITZ O., DELFS J.-O., BÜRGER C.-M., BEINHORN M., PARK C.-H. (2008): Numerical analysis of coupled hydrosystems based on an object-oriented compartment approach. J. Hydroinformatics, 10(3): 227-244, DOI: 10.2166/hydro.2008.003.

Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

2010-05-01

221

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

222

The impact of marine reserves on nekton diversity and community composition in subtropical eastern Australia  

E-print Network

Australia Suzanne Pillansa,b, *, Juan-Carlos Ortizb , Richard D. Pillansc , Hugh P. Possinghamd a CRC for Coastal Zone, Estuary and Waterway Management, Australia b Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia c CSIRO Marine Research, P.O. Box 120, Cleveland, Brisbane

Queensland, University of

223

Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.  

PubMed

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level. PMID:25311223

Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

2015-04-01

224

Contrasting effects of variable species recruitment on marine sessile communities.  

PubMed

The species composition, density, and frequency of recruitment into any given habitat are highly variable in most biological systems that rely on dispersive propagules (larvae, seeds, spores, etc.). There are few direct experimental studies of how recruitment variation between single species influences the composition and assembly of whole communities in many of these systems. We manipulated recruitment of a variety of single taxa and followed their effects on the subsequent development of hard-substrate communities of sessile animals living in temperate marine waters. The effects of recruitment on communities were complex. Patterns of recruitment of individual species influenced community structure, but these effects varied greatly depending on the identity of species recruits, the time of community development, and location across three different sites. Variable recruitment of arborescent bryozoans and didemnid ascidians had little effect on community structure. At one site, recruitment of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri had short-lived effects on community structure, while barnacles had more persistent effects. At another site, recruitment of B. schlosseri and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata had strong persistent effects on community structure, dominating space where they recruited and influencing the abundances of a variety of different taxa. Differences in the effects of species recruitment on communities appear to be caused by differences between the ecology and life history of recruiting species as well as differences in background processes between sites. These results demonstrate that discrete recruitment events that vary between single species can be important drivers of community composition but are likely to be heavily influenced by the local environment, even within a single species. PMID:22764501

Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

2012-05-01

225

Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf  

EPA Science Inventory

Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

226

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-04-01

227

The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

2007-01-01

228

Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs support the livelihood of millions of people especially those engaged in marine fisheries activities. Coral reefs are highly vulnerable to climate change induced stresses that have led to substantial coral mortality over large spatial scales. Such climate change impacts have the potential to lead to declines in marine fish production and compromise the livelihoods of fisheries dependent communities.

J. E. Cinner; T. R. McClanahan; N. A. J. Graham; T. M. Daw; J. Maina; S. M. Stead; A. Wamukota; K. Brown; Ö. Bodin

229

Stratified Communities of Active Archaea in Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments  

PubMed Central

Archaeal 16S rRNA was extracted from samples of deep marine subsurface sediments from Peru Margin site 1227, Ocean Drilling Program leg 201. The amounts of archaeal 16S rRNA in each extract were quantified by serial dilution and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The results indicated a 1,000-fold variation in rRNA content with depth in the sediment, with the highest concentrations found near the sediment surface and in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). The phylogenetic composition of the active archaeal population revealed by cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products changed with depth. Several phylotypes affiliated with marine benthic group B (MBGB) dominated clone libraries from the upper part of the SMTZ and were detected only in this layer. Members of the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group (MCG) dominated clone libraries from the other layers. These results demonstrate that archaeal communities change in activity and community composition over short distances in geochemically distinct zones of deep subseafloor sediments and that these changes are traceable in the rRNA pool. It was shown for the first time that members of both the MCG and MBGB Archaea are more active in the SMTZ than in layers above and below. This indicates that they benefit either directly or indirectly from the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They also appear to be ecophysiologically flexible, as they have been retrieved from a wide range of marine sediments of various geochemical properties. PMID:16820449

Sørensen, Ketil B.; Teske, Andreas

2006-01-01

230

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

231

How a Bacterial Community Originating from a Contaminated Coastal Sediment Responds to an Oil Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities inhabiting coastal sediments are subjected to oil spills. In order to examine the early structural response\\u000a of a complex bacterial community to oil pollution, a kinetic study of the crude oil impact on bacterial communities inhabiting\\u000a sediments from the contaminated Etang-de-Berre lagoon was performed. The sediments were maintained in slurries in presence\\u000a or absence of crude oil and

Sandrine Païssé; Marisol Goñi-Urriza; Frédéric Coulon; Robert Duran

2010-01-01

232

University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

Alexander, V.

1998-12-18

233

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

234

Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era  

PubMed Central

Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling. PMID:21177688

Vermeij, Geerat J.

2011-01-01

235

Spatial patterns in community structure of motile epibenthic fauna in coastal habitats along the Skagerrak - Baltic salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns in community structure and functioning of motile epibenthic fauna were investigated in shallow (0-1 m) sediment habitats along the Skagerrak-Baltic estuarine gradient (salinity range from 4 to 34). The study area was divided into five regions, reflecting different sea-basins along the 1260 km coastline, and fauna was collected at six sites within each region. Ten replicate samples of motile epibenthic fauna were taken randomly at each site with a portable drop trap (bottom area 1 m 2) in June and September in 2004. All together, 110 taxa were found, of which 45 had a marine and 65 a limnic origin. The marine species decreased along the salinity gradient while the limnic showed the opposite pattern. Number of species and abundance of epibenthic fauna exhibited considerable local and regional variation, with a trend of increase with decreasing salinity. Fauna biomass, on the other hand was significantly higher (six times) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area compared to the Baltic. There was a significant difference in fauna composition among regions and season, but with high similarity within the five regions, which implies that management of such coastal habitats should preferably be based on scales of a region (ca. 100 km) or smaller. Predators were the dominant functional group in all coastal regions, with a species shift from Crustacea to Insecta along the salinity gradient and with gobid fish occurring in all regions. Grazers were the second most important group in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area, but planktovores were more important in two of the Baltic regions. The importance of shallow sediment bottoms as feeding and nursery grounds for coastal fish assemblages is discussed and compared throughout the investigated area.

Nohrén, Emma; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2009-08-01

236

Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Digital Atlas  

E-print Network

Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Cork Abstract Data accessibility is a problem for many GIS users. In Ireland, improving accessibility. Introduction In November 2002, Ireland began the process of developing the Irish Spatial Data Infrastructure

Dwyer, Ned

237

Overcoming Governance and Institutional Barriers to Integrated Coastal Zone, Marine Protected Area, and Tourism Management in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major barriers to addressing complex social–ecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area

Robert B. Powell; Ariel Cuschnir; Prakash Peiris

2009-01-01

238

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

239

On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

240

Factors controlling the biogeochemical cycles of trace elements in fresh and coastal marine waters as revealed by artificial radioisotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems can provide important insights into the way physical, chemical, biological, and sedimentological processes are coupled into networks to control the transfer of major and trace elements within the waterbody itselfand across its boundaries. Examples from artificial radionuclide studies in freshwater (Experimental Lakes Area in Northern Ontario, ELA) and coastal marine ecosystem enclosures (MERL tanks at Narragansett

P. H. Santschi

1988-01-01

241

Limitation of N2 fixation in coastal marine waters: Relative importance of molybdenum, iron, phosphorus, and organic matter availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth in many coastal and pelagic marine waters is chronically limited by nitrogen availability. Such conditions potentially favor the establishment of N,-fixing microor- ganisms (eubacteria and cyanobacteria). However, planktonic and benthic N, fixation is often either absent or present at ecologically insignificant rates. It has been proposed that deficiencies in in- organic nutrient (specifically molybdenum) availability could help explain

HANS W. PAERL; KENNETH M. CROCKER; LESLIE E. PRUFERT

1987-01-01

242

Temporal dynamics in the free-living bacterial community composition in the coastal North Sea  

PubMed Central

The coastal North Sea is characterized by strong seasonal dynamics in abiotic and biotic variables. Hence, pronounced temporal changes in the bacterioplankton community composition can be expected. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a seasonal succession, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating before the spring phytoplankton bloom, Bacteroidetes increasing during the bloom (up to 60% of the prokaryotic community) and being replaced by Gammaproteobacteria during the postbloom period (on average 30% of prokaryotic cells). Daily changes in similarity of the bacterioplankton community assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism averaged 0.08 day?1 (Whittaker similarity index) for the free-living bacterial community, resulting in a decreasing similarity between samples with increasing time up to approximately 150 days. After about 150 days, the community composition became increasingly similar to the initial composition. Changes in the bacterial community showed periods of fairly stable composition, interrupted by periods of rapid changes. Taken together, our results support the notion of a recurring bacterioplankton community in the coastal North Sea and indicate a tight coupling between the resources, the bacterial community metabolism, physiological structure and community composition throughout the seasonal cycle in the coastal North Sea. PMID:22938648

Sintes, Eva; Witte, Harry; Stodderegger, Karen; Steiner, Paul; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

243

Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

2013-02-01

244

Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

245

Connecting subsistence harvest and marine ecology: A cluster analysis of communities by fishing and hunting patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alaska Native subsistence hunters and fishers are engaged in environmental sampling, influenced by harvest technology and cultural preferences as well as biogeographical factors. We compared subsistence harvest patterns in 35 communities along the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort coasts of Alaska to identify affinities and groupings, and to compare those results with previous ecological analyses done for the same region. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal spatial patterns in subsistence harvest records of coastal Alaska Native villages from the southern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Three main clusters were identified, correlating strongly with geography. The main division separates coastal villages of western Alaska from arctic villages along the northern Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and on islands of the Bering Sea. K-means groupings corroborate this result, with some differences. The second node splits the arctic villages, along the Chukchi, Beaufort and northern Bering Seas, where marine mammals dominate the harvest, from those on islands of the Bering Sea, characterized by seabird and seal harvests. These patterns closely resemble eco-regions proposed on biological grounds. Biogeography thus appears to be a significant factor in groupings by harvest characteristics, suggesting that subsistence harvests are a viable form of ecosystem sampling.

Renner, Martin; Huntington, Henry P.

2014-11-01

246

Marine incursions of the past 1500 years and evidence of tsunamis at Suijin-numa, a coastal lake facing the Japan Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy deposits of marine origin underlie the floor of Suijin-numa, a coastal lake midway along the subduction zone marked by the Japan Trench. The deposits form three units that are interbedded with lacustrine peat and mud above a foundation of marine, probably littoral sand. Unlike the lacustrine deposits, all three sandy units contain marine and brackish diatoms. The middle unit

Yuki Sawai; Yushiro Fujii; Osamu Fujiwara; Takanobu Kamataki; Junko Komatsubara; Yukinobu Okamura; Kenji Satake; Masanobu Shishikura

2008-01-01

247

Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S. [Moss Landing Marine Labs., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

248

Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080

Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

2013-01-01

249

Adaptation to coastal hazards: the livelihood struggles of a fishing community in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

This case study examines the coastal hazard adaptation strategies of a fishing community in a village in Kerala, India. It shows that formal adaptation strategies are highly techno-centric, costly, and do not take into account the vulnerabilities of the fishing community. Instead, they have contributed to ecological, livelihood, and knowledge uncertainties. The adaptation strategies of the fishing community are a response to these uncertainties. However, they may not lead to the fishing community's recovery from its vulnerability contexts. This case study is primarily qualitative in nature. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Insights reveal that when actors with diverse values, interests, knowledge, and power evolve or design their respective adaptation strategies, the resulting interface often aggravates existing uncertainties associated with hazards. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that local discourses on coastal hazards are livelihood-centric and socially constructed within the struggle of the fishing community to access resources and to acquire the right to development. PMID:25230704

Santha, Sunil D

2015-01-01

250

Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.  

PubMed

Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

2009-05-01

251

Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters? †  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

2009-01-01

252

Natural oil seeps in the Alaskan marine environment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a synthesis of information on the marine and coastal oil seeps in Alaska, and on the effects of chronic oil pollution on Arctic marine biotic communities and ecological processes. Of 29 oil seepage areas reported along the Alaskan coast, 14 have been confirmed as containing actual oil seeps. Large areas of coastal seepage have been identified in

P. R. Becker; C. A. Manen

1988-01-01

253

Response of bacterioplankton communities to cadmium exposure in coastal water microcosms with high temporal variability.  

PubMed

Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 ?g liter(-1) of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 ?g liter(-1)). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3 (-)-N, NO2 (-)-N, PO4 (3-)-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. PMID:25326310

Wang, Kai; Zhang, Demin; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

2015-01-01

254

Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

Berkman, P.A.

1992-03-01

255

Sound Waves: Coastal and Marine Research News from Across the USGS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open your eyes and your interest in coastal and marine research by exploring this most informative publication. Created by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), this monthly newsletter was started in 1999 to provide the public and other parties with access to timely research findings and updates from the various units of the USGS. The newsletter contains sections such as Fieldwork, Research, Meetings, and Awards. A good place to start is the Recent Highlights from Past Issues area. Some of the gems here include scientific explorations of Hurricane Sandy's long-term effects and the juvenile surf smelt and sand lance populations in Puget Sound. Units contributing news pieces to Sound Waves include the Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana.

256

Rutgers University: Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences -Deep Sea Microbiology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, Dr. Costantino Vetriani's Deep Sea Microbiology Lab focuses on "the physiology, ecology and evolutionary relationships of deep-sea prokaryotes, with an emphasis on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps"." The Microbiology Lab website includes a Publications section which lists book chapters and a number of downloadable, refereed journal articles that have been authored, or co-authored, by Dr. Vetriani. The site also contains a short summary of a current research project, and a listing of oceanographic expeditions dating back to 1995. The site's Deep-Sea Video Clips include some brief, yet interesting coverage of tube worms, zoarcid fish, Pompeii worms, crabs, and more. The site also contains a few intriguing DSML underwater images of microorganisms from hydrothermal vents.

257

Temporal study of Helicobacter pylori presence in coastal freshwater, estuary and marine waters.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is believed to be transmitted via the fecal-oral route as well as the oral-oral route. Its presence and viability in environmental waters is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to test H. pylori presence via molecular methods in freshwater, estuarine and beach sites in Delaware over both short and long time scales and to establish whether fecal indicator bacteria, including total Enterococcus and human-specific Bacteroidetes species, are predictive of the pathogen in these waters. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was initially tested by PCR with newly designed 23S rRNA gene primers against Helicobacter spp. and confirmed by sequencing. Two coastal beach sites were repeatedly positive in 2007. Clone library analysis indicated the persistence of one operational taxonomic unit (OTU) over time at one site. Detection of H. pylori was also determined by PCR assays from DNA and RNA for the 16S rRNA gene, as well as DNA for the ureA and cagA genes. Approximately 21% of the samples were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene and 80% of those were also positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA, indicating that this potential pathogen is not only present in natural waters, but also probably viable. There was no correlation between the occurrence of H. pylori and fecal indicator bacteria, suggesting that standard water quality tests are ineffective in predicting the presence of this pathogen in natural waters. These results demonstrate the widespread presence of potentially viable H. pylori in coastal marine and estuarine waters. Additionally, the repeatedly positive samples indicate either a continual contamination source or persistence of H. pylori in marine waters. PMID:21193216

Twing, Katrina I; Kirchman, David L; Campbell, Barbara J

2011-02-01

258

Cartographie des biocénoses marines de Guadeloupe à partir de données SPOT (récifs coralliens, phanérogames marines, mangroves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of a comprehensive study of the coastal marine ecosystems of Guadeloupe Island (French West Indies), a remote sensing survey of marine communities was conducted in the Bay of the Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin. Pictures of SPOT satellite were used. At first sight, XS data from SPOT did not seem to be well adapted to extract information from deepest

Sylvain CHAUVAUD; Claude BOUCHON; Roger MANIÈRE

2001-01-01

259

Phylogenetic Analysis of Particle-Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in the Columbia River, Its Estuary, and the Adjacent Coastal Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the ?, ?, or ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (?-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and ?-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean. PMID:10388721

Crump, Byron C.; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Baross, John A.

1999-01-01

260

Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

2015-03-01

261

Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

2014-11-01

262

Evidence for Distinct Coastal and Offshore Communities of Bottlenose Dolphins in the North East Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Bottlenose dolphin stock structure in the northeast Atlantic remains poorly understood. However, fine scale photo-id data have shown that populations can comprise multiple overlapping social communities. These social communities form structural elements of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) populations, reflecting specific ecological and behavioural adaptations to local habitats. We investigated the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the waters of northwest Ireland and present evidence for distinct inshore and offshore social communities. Individuals of the inshore community had a coastal distribution restricted to waters within 3 km from shore. These animals exhibited a cohesive, fission-fusion social organisation, with repeated resightings within the research area, within a larger coastal home range. The offshore community comprised one or more distinct groups, found significantly further offshore (>4 km) than the inshore animals. In addition, dorsal fin scarring patterns differed significantly between inshore and offshore communities with individuals of the offshore community having more distinctly marked dorsal fins. Specifically, almost half of the individuals in the offshore community (48%) had characteristic stereotyped damage to the tip of the dorsal fin, rarely recorded in the inshore community (7%). We propose that this characteristic is likely due to interactions with pelagic fisheries. Social segregation and scarring differences found here indicate that the distinct communities are likely to be spatially and behaviourally segregated. Together with recent genetic evidence of distinct offshore and coastal population structures, this provides evidence for bottlenose dolphin inshore/offshore community differentiation in the northeast Atlantic. We recommend that social communities should be considered as fundamental units for the management and conservation of bottlenose dolphins and their habitat specialisations. PMID:25853823

Oudejans, Machiel G.; Visser, Fleur; Englund, Anneli; Rogan, Emer; Ingram, Simon N.

2015-01-01

263

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

and trekking Guided walk Visit Poor Knights marine reserve Bird watching ­ shore based Bird watching1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand and tourism management in the future. We would like to learn what local residents think about marine tourism

264

Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These findings suggest a pivotal host-driven effect on the shape of the marine sponge microbiome, bearing implications to our current understanding of the distribution of microbial genetic resources in the marine realm. PMID:23300853

Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

265

Small copepods structuring mesozooplankton community dynamics in a tropical estuary-coastal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to know the ultimate role of small copepods in structuring mesozooplankton community pattern and diversity on an estuary-coastal gradient. Here multivariate analyses were used to elucidate this in the Godavari estuary, on the east coast of India. During May 2002, corresponding to the spring intermonsoon, mesozooplankton were sampled from 4 GPS fixed stations in the estuarine reaches of River Godavari and 19 in the coastal waters where Godavari enters the Bay of Bengal. There were 91 mesozooplankton taxa represented by 23 divergent groups. Copepods were by far the most prominent in terms of species richness, numerical abundance, and widespread distribution followed by appendicularians. Small copepods of families Paracalanidae, Acartiidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae, and Euterpinidae dominated. There were differing regional mesozooplankton/copepod communities, that segregated the estuary-coastal sites into different biotic assemblages: Group-I representing the estuary proper, Group-II estuary mouth and near shore, Group-III the intermediate coastal stations and Group-IV the coastal-offshore waters. Alpha (SRp, H', J', ?*) and beta diversity (MVDISP, ?, ?-dissimilarity) measures varied noticeably across these assemblages/areas. The significant correlation of small copepod abundance with total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (mgDM.m-3) in the estuarine (r: 0.40) and coastal (r: 0.46-0.83) waters together with a regression analysis of diversity measures have revealed the importance of small copepods in the overall mesozooplankton/copepod community structure. There were 'characterizing' and 'discriminating' species, responsible for the observed assemblage patterns. Mesozooplankton/copepod community structure and the size-spectra observed during this study indicate an estuarine-coastal gradient in plankton tropho-dynamics that may shift between a microbial dominated system inside the estuary and mixotrophy in the coastal waters. The functional diversity of copepods revealed features of an effective niche sharing and efficient utilization of the coastal resources by the resident zooplankton some of which are brought out for the first time showing a tropical estuary under the influence of monsoons. The present study also illustrates the importance of, and advocates the need for, incorporating complementary or additional biodiversity measures while describing biotic communities vis-à-vis environmental gradients.

Rakhesh, M.; Raman, A. V.; Ganesh, T.; Chandramohan, P.; Dehairs, F.

2013-07-01

266

Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. (Faculte de Medecine, Nice (France))

1988-09-01

267

The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2013-01-01

268

Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly different components, one dynamic containing large droplets, with short residence time in the air, deposited close to the shore, the other one being microscopic droplets, with long residence time in the air and with a low deposition velocity (principally, the system is similar to that of mineral particles, i.e. saltating dune sand vs loess). The deposition of marine aerosols has various effects on the terrestrial environments. Aside from those associated to human activities, i.e. technical effects on outdoor electrical installations, increased corrosion of cars, etc. there are others associated to natural ecosystems. Hence, salts are important contributors to major and trace elements for plant growth. On the other hand, the deposition of windborne salt spray is believed to form an important stress factor on forests and especially to exposed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.). In this latter sense it is the authors' opinion that the rising number of westerly gales reported on the Swedish west coast during the last two decades might give an important contribution to the increasing amounts of damage observed from coniferous forests in SW Sweden.

Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

269

How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.  

PubMed

The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. PMID:25256299

Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

2014-11-15

270

Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

2010-01-01

271

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

PubMed Central

Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies. PMID:18366740

Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

2008-01-01

272

Trophic transfer of methyl siloxanes in the marine food web from coastal area of northern china.  

PubMed

Methyl siloxanes, which belong to organic silicon compounds and have linear and cyclic structures, are of particular concern because of their potential characteristic of persistent, bioaccumulated, toxic, and ecological harm. This study investigated the trophic transfer of four cyclic methyl siloxanes (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)) in a marine food web from coastal area of Northern China. Trophic magnification of D4, D5, D6, and D7 were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels of marine food web configurations. A significant positive correlation (R = 0.44, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized D5 concentrations and trophic levels in organisms, showing the trophic magnification potential of this chemical in the marine food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of D5 was estimated to be 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.24, 99.8% probability of the observing TMF > 1). Such a significant link, however, was not found for D4 (R = 0.14 and p = 0.16), D6 (R = 0.01 and p = 0.92), and D7 (R = -0.15 and p = 0.12); and the estimated values of TMFs (95% CI, probability of the observing TMF > 1) were 1.16 (0.94-1.44, 94.7%), 1.01 (0.84-1.22, 66.9%) and 0.85 (0.69-1.04, 48.6%) for D4, D6, and D7, respectively. The TMF value for the legacy contaminant BDE-99 was also estimated as a benchmark, and a significant positive correlation (R = 0.65, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized concentrations and trophic levels in organisms. The TMF value of BDE-99 was 3.27 (95% CI: 2.49-4.30, 99.7% probability of the observing TMF > 1), showing the strong magnification in marine food webs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the trophic magnification of methyl siloxanes in China, which provided important information for trophic transformation of these compounds in marine food webs. PMID:25625298

Jia, Hongliang; Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Chaoqun; Hong, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Yi-Fan

2015-03-01

273

Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

274

The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

1993-03-15

275

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

276

Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

2015-02-01

277

Key geochemical factors regulating Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of Mn(IV) oxides coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of NH4+ has been proposed for more than a decade to contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in marine sediments, yet the existence of this process is still under debate. In this study, surface sediments from an intertidal salt marsh were incubated with MnO2 in the presence of elevated concentrations of NH4+ to test the hypothesis that the reduction of Mn(IV) oxides catalyzes anaerobic NH4+ oxidation to NO2- or NO3-. Geochemical factors such as the ratio of Mn(IV) to NH4+, the type of Mn(IV) oxides (amorphous or colloidal MnO2), and the redox potential of the sediment significantly affect the activity of anaerobic nitrification. Incubations show that the net production of NO3- is stimulated under anaerobic conditions with external addition of colloidal but not amorphous MnO2 and is facilitated by the presence of high concentrations of NH4+. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that anaerobic NH4+ oxidation contributes to the net consumption of NH4+, providing another piece of evidence for the occurrence of Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments. Finally, anaerobic nitrification is stimulated by the amendment of small concentrations of NO3- or the absence of sulfate reduction, suggesting that moderately reducing conditions favor anaerobic NH4+ oxidation. Overall, these findings suggest that Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in suboxic sediments with high N/Mn concentration ratios and highly reactive manganese oxides may be an important source of NO2- and NO3- for subsequent marine nitrogen loss via denitrification or anammox.

Lin, Hui; Taillefert, Martial

2014-05-01

278

The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea.

TjernströM, Michael; Smedman, Ann-Sofi

1993-03-01

279

A Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Invertebrate Community Gradient: Relative Influence of Flooding Regime and Vegetation Zonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland invertebrate community composition is affected by habitat conditions associated with flooding regimes and vegetation\\u000a characteristics, yet distinguishing among these influential factors is difficult because they tend to co-vary spatially. We\\u000a studied a Great Lakes coastal wetland invertebrate community along an elevation gradient as Lake Huron water level rose and\\u000a fell over a three-year period. This hydrologic variation caused changes

Joseph P. Gathman; Thomas M. Burton

2011-01-01

280

Rapid community change at a tropical upwelling site ´ in the Galapagos Marine Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high biodiversity of tropical marine communities has attracted considerable interest, yet we still lack a clear understanding of the tempo of diversity change in these systems (Jackson (1991) BioScience 41: 475-482; National Research Council (1995) Understanding Marine Biodiversity, National Academic Press, Washington, DC). Knowledge of the conditions associated with fast or slow community assembly in the tropics would enhance

JON D. WITMAN; FRANZ SMITH

2003-01-01

281

Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services. PMID:24890042

Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

2014-09-01

282

Short communication Spatial distribution of fungal communities in a coastal grassland soil  

E-print Network

Basidiomycota Saprotrophs ITS DNA sequence Point Reyes National Seashore Coastal grassland Spatial structure T-RFLP a b s t r a c t In grasslands, saprotrophic fungi, including basidiomycetes, are major decomposers. The aim of this study was to characterise the scale and distribution of saprotrophic fungal communities

Silver, Whendee

283

Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on the Oak Woodland Bird Community of Coastal  

E-print Network

., Carmel Valley, CA 93924. #12;GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-196 196 Introduction Sudden oak death (SOD195 Potential Effects of Sudden Oak Death on the Oak Woodland Bird Community of Coastal California1 population declines as a result of sudden oak death (SOD). We investigated how the disappearance of two

Standiford, Richard B.

284

Comparison of Fish Communities in Open and Plugged Backfilled Canals in Louisiana Coastal Marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish communities were compared among 13 open, partially open, and plugged back-filled canals in coastal Louisiana brackish marshes. Captured fish were divided into two categories: residents, those species that complete their entire life cycles in shallow marsh ponds, and migrants, species that move into shallow marsh areas as postlarvae or juveniles. Migrant fishes included several species of high commercial or

Christopher Neill; R. Eugene Turner

1987-01-01

285

North Carolina Coastal Plain savannas rank among the most species rich communities in the  

E-print Network

North Carolina Coastal Plain savannas rank among the most species rich communities in the world floristic inventory of a North Carolina savanna: Big Savannah (Pender Co.) (Shelingoski et al. 2005 & Shunk (1928), AK thanks: Donna Wright (North Carolina State University) for thoughtful discussions

Krings, Alexander

286

Much of the North Carolina Coastal Plain is wet and supports plant communities that are domi-  

E-print Network

in parentheses following the names taken from the PLANTS Database. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Winter plantMuch of the North Carolina Coastal Plain is wet and supports plant communities that are domi- nated. Plant species are identified during the growing season with the aid of keys that are based We thank Andy

Krings, Alexander

287

Inventory of non-federally funded marine-pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: South Atlantic and Gulf coastal region  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, NMPPO published a summary of non-Federally funded projects. This inventory report includes projects in or related to the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In addition to oceanic, coastal, and estuarine studies, projects specific to freshwater areas have been included if these areas are being studied for the purpose of determining sources of pollutants to estuarine and coastal areas or the effects of changes in freshwater areas on the marine environment.

Not Available

1984-11-01

288

Community composition has greater impact on the functioning of marine phytoplankton communities than ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (?(2) ) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. This study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans. PMID:24115206

Eggers, Sarah L; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Barcelos E Ramos, Joana; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Gallo, Francesca; Matthiessen, Birte

2014-03-01

289

Stormwater Programs offered to Communities in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed  

E-print Network

The Link: Linking the Economic Benefits of Low Impact Development and Community Decision making Audience: Community Boards and Municipal Staff Rain Garden Installation Training Rain gardens are beautiful as well as functional! Discover the benefits of rain gardens as small-scale stormwater management features

New Hampshire, University of

290

Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework  

EPA Science Inventory

Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

291

A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure.  

PubMed

A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning-sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, ?- and ?-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change. PMID:23364354

Kirkham, Amy R; Lepère, Cécile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

2013-05-01

292

Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes.  

PubMed

Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100 000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

Kowalewski, Micha?; Wittmer, Jacalyn M; Dexter, Troy A; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

2015-03-22

293

Vegetation associations in a rare community type - Coastal tallgrass prairie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coastal prairie ecoregion is located along the northwestern coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico in North America. Because of agricultural and urban development, less than 1% of the original 3.4 million ha of this ecosystem type remains in native condition, making it one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation and environmental relationships in a relatively pristine example of lowland coastal prairie in order to provide information for use in conservation and restoration. The study area was a small, isolated prairie located near the southern boundary of the coastal prairie region. Samples were taken along three parallel transects that spanned the prairie. Parameters measured included species composition, elevation, soil characteristics, indications of recent disturbance, above-ground biomass, and light penetration through the plant canopy. Fifty-four species were found in the 107 0.25-m2 plots and a total of 96 species were found at the site. Only two non-native species occurred in sample plots, both of which were uncommon. Cluster analysis was used to identify six vegetation groups, which were primarily dominated by members of the Poaceae or Asteraceae. A conspicuous, natural edaphic feature of the prairie was the presence of 'mima' mounds, which are raised areas approximately 0.5 to 1 m high and 5 to 10 m across. Indicator species analysis revealed a significant number of species that were largely restricted to mounds and these were predominately upland and colonizing species. Ordination was performed using nonmetric, multidimensional scaling. The dominant environmental influence on species composition was found to be elevation and a host of correlated factors including those associated with soil organic content. A secondary group of factors, consisting primarily of soil cations, was found to explain additional variance among plots. Overall, this prairie was found to contain plant associations that are now rare in the surrounding landscape. Within the prairie, plant groups were largely separated by a suite of environmental conditions associated with topography. These results suggest that conservation and restoration efforts will need to carefully consider local topographic influences in order to be successful.

Grace, J.B.; Allain, L.; Allen, C.

2000-01-01

294

Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and Community Composition of Coastal Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea  

PubMed Central

Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (? diversity) and community composition (? diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

2015-01-01

295

Environmental gradients explain species richness and community composition of coastal breeding birds in the baltic sea.  

PubMed

Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (? diversity) and community composition (? diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

2015-01-01

296

Ecosystem Services Transcend Boundaries: Estuaries Provide Resource Subsidies and Influence Functional Diversity in Coastal Benthic Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the ‘outwelling hypothesis’). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (?13C, ?15N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of integrative ecosystem-based management that maintains the connectivity of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. PMID:22880089

Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Hewitt, Judi E.

2012-01-01

297

Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and nifH gene diversity within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmolN L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C and the surface nitrate concentration was low (? 0.30 ?M), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 ?M). During periods with high nitrogen fixation, the nifH sequences of UCYN-A were recovered, suggesting that these groups played a key role in nitrogen fixation. The nifH genes were also recovered in spring and winter when nitrogen fixation was undetectable. These genes consisted of many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria), which hitherto have rarely been reported to be abundant in surface diazotroph communities in marine environments.

Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

2015-01-01

298

Factors controlling regional spatial distribution of 53 elements in coastal sea sediments in northern Japan: Comparison of geochemical data derived from stream and marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all, 53 elements were analyzed in 1406 coastal sea sediment samples collected from an area off Hokkaido and the Tohoku region of Japan during a nationwide marine geochemical mapping project. The spatial distribution patterns of the elemental concentrations in coastal seas along with the existing geochemical maps in terrestrial areas were used to define natural geochemical background variation and

Atsuyuki Ohta; Noboru Imai; Shigeru Terashima; Yoshiko Tachibana; Ken Ikehara; Hajime Katayama; Atsushi Noda

2010-01-01

299

Elemental distribution of coastal sea and stream sediments in the island-arc region of Japan and mass transfer processes from terrestrial to marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 49 elements have been identified in 338 coastal sea sediment samples collected from an area situated off the Ise-Tokai region of Japan for a nationwide marine geochemical mapping project. The spatial distribution patterns of the elemental concentrations in coastal seas along with the existing geochemical maps in terrestrial areas were used to define the natural geochemical background

Atsuyuki Ohta; Noboru Imai; Shigeru Terashima; Yoshiko Tachibana; Ken Ikehara; Takashi Okai; Masumi Ujiie-Mikoshiba; Ran Kubota

2007-01-01

300

Heat output by marine microbial and viral communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Microbial Food Web (MMFW) includes heterotrophicmicrobes and their protist and viral predators. These microbes consume dissolved organic matter thereby making the MMFW a major component of global biogeochemical and energy cycles. However, quantification of the MMFW contribution to these cycles is dependent on a handful of techniques, all of which require laboratory-derived conversion factors. Here we describe a differential calorimeter capable of measuring the small amounts of heat produced by marine microbes and viruses at natural populations. Using this ultra-sensitive calorimeter, we show that heat production in the presence of viruses is significantly larger than in their absence. This increased heat output occurs despite a net decrease in the number of microbes. This provides direct evidence for top-down control of microbial populations by viruses and shows that there is increased re-mineralization. A comparative statics model was developed to interpret the calorimeter measurements. The spirit of the model is thermodynamic - it restricts its view to net changes in the populations and net heat produced. The model predicts that approximately 25% of the total heat production during the growth phase of a pelagic microbial community is due directly to viral activities. This result has implications for the energy budget of our planet and for climate prediction.

Djamali, Essmaiil; Nulton, James D.; Turner, Peter J.; Rohwer, Forest; Salamon, Peter

2012-09-01

301

California's Coastal Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

California Coastal Commission

302

Community-dependent Positive Interactions in Southern California Coastal Ecosystems  

E-print Network

during secondary succession within the plant communities ofbetween plant species during secondary succession. Both ofplants in response to the abiotic stress associated with elevated soil salinity during secondary succession.

Bryson, Sarah

2012-01-01

303

Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

2014-11-01

304

Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments.

Reed, David William; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark Edmond; Blackwelder, David Bradley; Colwell, Frederick Scott; Uchida, T.

2002-08-01

305

Marine protected areas for whom? Fisheries, tourism, and solidarity in a Philippine community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal economy of the municipality of Mabini located on the Calumpan Peninsula of Luzon has roots on one coast in the harvest of fish and on the opposite coast in the attraction of dive tourists and other recreationalists from metropolitan Manila. Marine protected areas at the base of the municipality promoted by foreign and local conservationists provide de facto

Enrique G. Oracion; Marc L. Miller; Patrick Christie

2005-01-01

306

Marine microbial diversity studied via 16S rRNA sequences: cloning results from coastal waters and counting of native archaea with fluorescent single cell probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

New molecular approaches relying on 16S rRNA sequences allow qualitative and quantitative analysis of marine microbial diversity. Here we report on (1) continued development of ‘lists’ of taxa present in marine environments, in temperate coastal waters, and (2) new fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches to quantify taxonomic compositions, with an initial focus on archaea. Our cloning results come from

Jed A. Fuhrman; Cleber C. Ouverney

1998-01-01

307

Selenium: an essential element for growth of the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae)  

SciTech Connect

An obligate requirement for selenium is demonstrated in axenic culture of the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (clone 3H) (Hust.) Hasle and Heimdal grown in artificial seawater medium. Selenium deficiency was characterized by a reduction in growth rate and eventually by a cessation of cell division. The addition of 10 M Na2SeO3 to nutrient enriched artificial seawater resulted in excellent growth of T. pseudonana and only a slight inhibition of growth occurred at Na2SeO3 concentrations of 10 T and 10 S M. By contrast, Na2SeO4 failed to support growth of T. pseudonana when supplied at concentrations less than 10 X M and the growth rate at this concentration was only one quarter of the maximum growth rate. The addition of 10 T and 10 S M Na2SeO4 to the culture medium was toxic and cell growth was completely inhibited. Eleven trace elements were tested for their ability to replace the selenium requirement by this alga and all were without effect. In selenium-deficient and selenium-starved cultures of T. pseudonana cell volume increased as much as 10-fold as a result of an increase in cell length (along the pervalvar axis) but cell width was constant. It is concluded that selenium is an indispensable element for the growth of T. pseudonana and it should be included as a nutrient enrichment to artificial seawater medium when culturing this alga.

Price, N.M.; Thompson, P.A.; Harrison, P.J.

1987-03-01

308

Remote sensing and in situ observations of marine slicks associated with inhomogeneous coastal currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations co-located and simultaneous with satellite radar imagery of biogenic slick bands on the sea surface aimed to study relation between slicks and marine stream currents were carried out in the coastal zone of the Black Sea. Measurements of the current velocities at different depths were performed using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and surface floats. Samples of surfactant films inside/outside slick bands were collected from the water surface with nets. The sampled films were reconstructed in laboratory conditions and measurements of the damping coefficient of gravity-capillary waves and the surface tension were carried out using an original parametric wave method. It is obtained that the banded slicks are characterized by enhanced concentration of surfactants due to their compression by convergent current components. The slicks are revealed to be oriented along the stream currents and are located in the zones of current shears. Small convergent transverse velocity components are observed near slick boundaries and are responsible for slick formation in stream shear currents. Different examples of slicks formed by stream shear current are described. Results of a case study of two streams of different directions merging and forming a banded slick in a shear zone with convergent transverse current components are presented. Another case study is when a flow below a thermocline coming to the shore meets a bottom slope and a vertical current occurs resulting in horizontal divergence and convergence on the surface.

Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Sergievskaya, I.

2011-11-01

309

Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes  

PubMed Central

The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l?1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.

2014-01-01

310

Classification of natural forest communities of coastal British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison to countries with a tradition of vegetation studies, a comprehensive, hierarchical classification of plant communities in the province of British Columbia has not yet been developed. Such a classification is needed for systematic ecological studies and coordinated conservation of vegetation. As the culmination of fifty years of detailed surveys, tabular and multivariate analyses of 3779 relevés of natural,

Karel Klinka; Hong Qian; Jim Pojar; V. Meidinger

1996-01-01

311

CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & MARINE HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...

312

Characterization of tropical near-shore fish communities by coastal habitat status on spatially complex island systems  

E-print Network

complex island systems Vanessa L. Nero & Kathleen Sullivan Sealey Coastal Ecology Project, Department communities for Andros Island, Bahamas, a complex coastal-reef island system. Benthic assessments and beach. This protocol for the characterization of complex island habitats can be applied to ecological studies aimed

Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

313

Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that

L. Wantiez; P. Thollot; M. Kulbicki

1997-01-01

314

Quaternary tectonics of the southeastern coastal area, Korea: subsidence of marine terrace and late Quaternary faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquake has rarely occurred in Korean peninsula and a few events were recorded since 27 A.D. Historical and recent earthquakes are concentrated in the southeastern area of Korean peninsula, where more than 30 Quaternary fault exposures have recently been founded. The southern tip of the southeastern coastal area has been known as a stable block: quaternary fault and micro-earthquakes haven’t occurred. To clarify whether the active tectonic movement is or not, digital marine terrace mapping and fracture mapping have been done for the southeastern coastal area. The area is composed of the Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks and the Early Tertiary granite. Wave-cut platform in the area is comparatively smaller and narrower than that of other southeastern parts. Most of platforms have no Quaternary sediments and or very thin sediments. Platforms except the Holocene are generally divided into three steps. The lowest platform has a height of 8-11m. The middle one is broad with a height of 17 to 22m. The highest is narrowly scattered with a height of 33-41m. The lowest platform is correlated to the 2nd terrace of the northern area, which has been attributed to the isotopic substage, 5a. The uplift rate based on the altimetrical and indirect chronological data ranges from 0.072-0.108 m/ky. Such a low uplift rate indicates that the area is very stable because of belonging to intra-plate or continental block. The elevation of platform is getting lower from the north to the south. Reducing altitude of platform towards the south might be interpreted to a local block tilting within Yangsan Fault Belt during the Latest Pleistocene or an active tectonic subsidence to the south throughout the whole Korean peninsula. Several Quaternary faults supporting the active tectonic movement have been found from marine terrace feature mapping. Two sites have been proved the presence of fault by geophysical survey and cut-slope. Flight of marine terrace at two fault sites inclines slowly to the inland side and shows topographically vertical offset with small amount. Local block tilting and subsiding platforms from the north to the south are both due to the active tectonic fault movement of the Latest Pleistocene. Accompanied reverse Pleistocene faults dip to the east and show the top-up-to-the-west reverse movement sense. GPS measurement revealed the west of northwestern vector. Differential tectonic stress regime to the west has occurred to Korean peninsula during the Latest Pleistocene. Stronger tectonic force from the Pacific Ocean Plate gave an effect of high platform to the northern area. Weaker dynamic force due to the Philippine Plate caused low elevation to the southern area.

Choi, S.-J.; Ota, Y.; Chwae, U.

2003-04-01

315

The Role of Invasive Erodium Species in Restoration of Coastal Sage Scrub Communities and Techniques for Control  

E-print Network

Guidelines*for*Ranking*Invasive*Species*Control* Projects. *control*are*necessary*information*(National* Invasive*Species*Invasive*Erodium*Species*in*Restoration*of*Coastal*Sage*Scrub*Communities*and* Techniques*for*Control*

Weathers, Kristin Anne

2013-01-01

316

Marine Environmental Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.

317

Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20 %, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity, suggesting that jellyfish blooms can induce durable changes in the bacterial community structure in coastal lagoons. PMID:25408076

Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

2014-11-20

318

Study on Emergency Announcement Systems to Reduce Damages by Hazardous Disasters in Coastal Fishery Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a number of hazardous disasters occurred everywhere in the world. In Japan, though the administrative sections have performed to construct structures for measures to protect people by hazards, it is important that the people evacuate in the event of disasters adequately. In this study, some questionnaires and field investigations were carried out on the effectiveness of emergency announcement systems installed in coastal fishery communities facing Pacific Ocean. Also, some ways to improve emergency announcement systems are discussed.

Gotoh, Hiroshi

319

Nekton Communities in Hawaiian Coastal Wetlands: The Distribution and Abundance of Introduced Fish Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nekton communities were sampled from 38 Hawaiian coastal wetlands from 2007 to 2009 using lift nets, seines, and throw nets\\u000a in an attempt to increase our understanding of the nekton assemblages that utilize these poorly studied ecosystems. Nekton\\u000a were dominated by exotic species, primarily poeciliids (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia spp.) and tilapia. These fish were present in 50–85% of wetlands sampled;

Richard Ames MacKenzie; Gregory L. Bruland

320

Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.

Arkema, Katie K.; Verutes, Gregory; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Wood, Spencer A.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Rosenthal, Amy; McField, Melanie; de Zegher, Joann

2014-11-01

321

Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.  

PubMed

Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896

Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

2013-10-01

322

Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected

G Zega; R Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; F De Bernardi

2009-01-01

323

Marine geo-hazard in the Campi Flegrei coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campi Flegrei (i.e. "burning plains") are located on the eastern Tyrrhenian margin, an area characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. It is a densely urbanized coastal zone, including the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, where documented human activities have been developing for more than two thousand years. In the Pozzuoli area two major periods of eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. These periods were followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Numerous monogenic volcanoes formed close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flow and surge, has been detected offshore. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. In the Campi Flegrei, magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1883 on Ischia, and 1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. Volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity mainly associate with inferred resurgent calderas whose uplift have caused mass wasting phenomena, faulting and erosional activity both on land and at sea. Major geohazard features resulting from marine geophysical and sedimentological investigations include (1) extensive landslide deposits and associated hummocky topographies off Ischia volcanic island, (2) seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fan, (3) superficial faulting (i.e. displacing the seafloor) in the bay of Pozzuoli and (4) erosional morphologies and forms at the canyon heads and the shelf break. Moreover, numerous volcanic bank and pyroclastic structures have been detected off the bay of Pozzuoli and Ischia island, both in the shelf area and deeper waters. These information have been mapped with the aim to recognize, compare and classify hazard-bearing processes active at seafloor in the Campi Flegrei coastal area: a basic approach for assessing and managing risk related to geological processes.

Violante, C.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Sacchi, M.

2009-04-01

324

LETTER Trait vs. phylogenetic diversity as predictors of competition and community composition in herbivorous marine amphipods  

E-print Network

in herbivorous marine amphipods R. J. Best,* N. C. Caulk and J. J. Stachowicz Evolution and Ecology, University or phylogenetic diversity can predict competition and production in communities of grazing amphipods, we

Stachowicz, Jay

325

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

326

Starting point or solution? Community-based marine protected areas in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, in response to declining coral reef conditions, local residents and officials established small, no-take marine sanctuaries on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands through a community-based process. The implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands has been a partial success. As a direct result of protection, living hard coral cover has increased by 119% in Balicasag's

P. Christie; A. White; E. Deguit

2002-01-01

327

Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia  

E-print Network

Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia William W. L, The University of British Columbia, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4. B Ocean Institute, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. C Centre for Marine Futures, Oceans Institute

Pauly, Daniel

328

Marine reserves demonstrate top-down control of community structure on temperate reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replicated ecological studies in marine reserves and associated unprotected areas are valuable in examining top-down impacts on communities and the ecosystem-level effects of fishing. We carried out experimental studies in two temperate marine reserves to examine these top-down influences on shallow subtidal reef communities in northeastern New Zealand. Both reserves examined are known to support high densities of predators and

Nick T. Shears; Russell C. Babcock

2002-01-01

329

Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

2014-05-23

330

Community structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a marine pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.  

PubMed

Marine microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial community composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable community composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in coastal environments affected by marine oil spills. PMID:24356981

Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

2014-07-01

331

Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard. We have many ways to study earthquake faults. Where faults break the land surface, we may learn valuable information needed for hazard assessment, such as cumulative offset, slip rate, and earthquake history. However, many of the major faults in the region are partly submerged beneath San Francisco and Monterey Bays. Although this situation poses problems in gathering observational data for hazard assessment, bay-region waterways provide an opportunity to study faultzone structure by using marine subsurface-imaging techniques, which are easier and cheaper than equivalent studies on land. In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched a 5-year project aimed at unearthing the basic science of the submerged San Andreas strike-slip fault system in the San Francisco Bay region with its many interacting strands. Primary project goals were structural, such as to discover how the San Andreas and Hayward Faults are connected or related at depth, to learn how the complex of faults in the San Andreas stepover zone on the Golden Gate platform functions, and to locate previously unknown faults. This volume thus contains mostly structural information about the San Francisco Bay region, much of it gathered through exploratory geophysical experiments. The volume is organized “top down,” from studies in the shallowest crust to the base of the crust. The first three chapters are linked through their use of novel geophysical techniques to study earthquake effects, coseismic slip, and shallow stratigraphy. Kayen and others examine crustal structure at very high resolution and demonstrate the use of ground-penetrating-radar tomography to measure the liquefaction potential of coastal sedimentary deposits. McGann and others use microfossils from drill cores along the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge to determine a more detailed late Pleistocene stratigraphy of San Francisco Bay than was previously available. Geist and Zoback use the historical record of a small local tsunami generated by the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake to model the rupture process of that earthquake. The last four chapters are dedicated to studies of fault related structure of the seismogenic crust in and around the San Andreas Fault system in the San Francisco Bay region. Jachens and others compile an aeromagnetic anomaly map from new high-resolution flights across the bay region. Some of these anomalies mark the positions of offshore faults, and others are offset by faults, providing constraints on cumulative slip. Hart and others concisely summarize the marine seismic data recorded in and around San Francisco Bay, map the coverage, and provide archival information for those interested in acquiring data. The last two chapters present the results of the seismic data that have been analyzed. Bruns and others present their analysis of high-quality intermediate-resolution (~5-km penetration) seismic-reflection data gathered over the complex San Andreas-San Gregorio Fault junction. This junction, which is thought to be where the 1906 San Francisco earthquake originated (see Geist and Zoback, this volume), contains an apparent extensional right stepover in the San Andreas Fault. Finally, Parsons and others review and summarize the results of deep-crustal seismic-reflection experiments and local-earthquake tomographic studies, including previously unpublished data, and provide additional support and discussion for already-published studies. In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background infor

Parsons, Tom, (Edited By)

2002-01-01

332

The Role of Pre-Existing Disturbances in the Effect of Marine Reserves on Coastal Ecosystems: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432

Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

333

Phylogenetic Differences in Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in a Temperate Coastal Lagoon during Summer, Revealed via High-Throughput 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Most of what is known about coastal free-living and attached bacterial diversity is based on open coasts, with high particulate and nutrient riverine supply, terrestrial runoffs, and anthropogenic activities. The Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) are dominated by shallow lagoons with small, relatively pristine catchments and no freshwater input apart from rain. Such conditions provided an opportunity to investigate coastal free-living and attached marine bacterial diversity in the absence of confounding effects of steep freshwater gradients. We found significant differences between the two communities and marked temporal patterns in both. Taxonomic richness and diversity were greater in the attached than in the free-living community, increasing over summer, especially within the least abundant bacterial phyla. The highest number of reads fell within the SAR 11 clade (Pelagibacter, Alphaproteobacteria), which dominated free-living communities. The attached communities had deeper phylum-level diversity than the free-living fraction. Distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration was the main variable separating early and late summer samples with salinity and temperature changes also significantly correlated to bacterial community structure. Our approach using high-throughput sequencing detected differences in free-living versus attached bacteria in the absence of riverine input, in keeping with the concept that marine attached communities are distinct from cooccurring free-living taxa. This diversity likely reflects the diverse microhabitats of available particles, implying that the total bacterial diversity in coastal systems is linked to particle supply and variability, with implications for understanding microbial biodiversity in marine systems. PMID:24463966

Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Toupoint, Nicolas

2014-01-01

334

Dissolved silver in European estuarine and coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver is one of the most toxic elements for the marine microbial and invertebrate community. However, little is known about the distribution and behaviour of dissolved silver in marine systems. This paper reports data on dissolved and sediment-associated silver in European estuaries and coastal waters which have been impacted to different extents by past and present anthropogenic inputs. This is

Alan D. Tappin; Jose L. Barriada; Charlotte B. Braungardt; E. Hywel Evans; Matthew D. Patey; Eric P. Achterberg

2010-01-01

335

Ecology of Pacific Northwest coastal sand dunes: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant communities identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.

Wiedemann, A.M.

1984-03-01

336

Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

337

Mediterranean coastal dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant communities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.

Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela

2014-08-01

338

Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in coastal fish communities.  

PubMed

Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate communities at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spatio-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish communities along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in coastal fish communities in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in community composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to coastal currents and advection. PMID:12350265

Lekve, Kyrre; Boulinier, Thierry; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hines, James E; Nichols, James D

2002-09-01

339

Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in coastal fish communities.  

PubMed Central

Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate communities at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spatio-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish communities along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in coastal fish communities in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in community composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to coastal currents and advection. PMID:12350265

Lekve, Kyrre; Boulinier, Thierry; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Hines, James E; Nichols, James D

2002-01-01

340

Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

2012-11-01

341

Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

1998-01-01

342

Open Access Mapping and Analysis of Marine Pollution in Tuticorin Coastal Area Using Remote Sensing and GIS  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2012 Raj Chandar P. and Rejeesh Kumar P. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract In this project, the Marine Pollution Information System has been suggested with the help of Remote Sensing and GIS. This system provides pollution hot spot area and spread rate of the Tuticorin coastal area in Tamilnadu, India. The spread rate and hot spot analysis has been analyzed with the aid of various Chemical, Biological and Physical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Total Suspended

Raj Ch; Ar P; Rejeesh Kumar P

2012-01-01

343

Diversity and population structure of a near-shore marine-sediment viral community.  

PubMed Central

Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in marine sediments, yet almost nothing is known about their identity or diversity. We present the metagenomic analysis of an uncultured near-shore marine-sediment viral community. Three-quarters of the sequences in the sample were not related to anything previously reported. Among the sequences that could be identified, the majority belonged to double-stranded DNA phage. Temperate phage were more common than lytic phage, suggesting that lysogeny may be an important lifestyle for sediment viruses. Comparisons between the sediment sample and previously sequenced seawater viral communities showed that certain phage phylogenetic groups were abundant in all marine viral communities, while other phage groups were under-represented or absent. This 'marineness' suggests that marine phage are derived from a common set of ancestors. Several independent mathematical models, based on the distribution of overlapping shotgun sequence fragments from the library, were used to show that the diversity of the viral community was extremely high, with at least 10(4) viral genotypes per kilogram of sediment and a Shannon index greater than 9 nats. Based on these observations we propose that marine-sediment viral communities are one of the largest unexplored reservoirs of sequence space on the planet. PMID:15156913

Breitbart, Mya; Felts, Ben; Kelley, Scott; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Nulton, James; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest

2004-01-01

344

Historical change in marine animal populations and coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean and Florida Keys  

E-print Network

links to coral reef ecosystems and lessons for managementthat considers management regimes for coral reef fisheriesCoral reef ecology Historical ecology Human impacts on marine systems Marine fisheries management

McClenachan, Loren Elizabeth

2009-01-01

345

The role of benthic macrophytes and their associated macroinvertebrate community in coastal lagoon resistance to eutrophication.  

PubMed

Eutrophication is widely recognised as one of the major menaces to coastal environments, particularly enclosed bays and lagoons. Although there is a general understanding of the consequences of eutrophication in these systems, there is a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning biotic feedbacks that influence eutrophication patterns and the resistance capacity of coastal environments. In this paper, the isotope ratios of main producers and consumers of a Mediterranean lagoon were examined in order to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic inputs from the main watercourse flowing into the lagoon. The results of the study of stable isotope data in the Mar Menor lagoon reflected that the whole benthic community plays an important role as a natural 'filter' that removes excess nutrients from the water column and stores them in the sediments, thereby enhancing lagoon resistance to eutrophication. PMID:19703693

Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo

2009-12-01

346

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIRD COMMUNITIES AND FOREST AGE, STRUCTURE, SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FRAGMENTATION IN THE WEST GULF COASTAL PLAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant communities through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some species with others and cause changes

Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

347

Ocean Wave Energy-Driven Desalination Systems for Off-grid Coastal Communities in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (RME) is based in Boston, MA and is developing ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to benefit remote off-grid communities in developing nations. Our two WEC technologies are based on the heaving and surging motion of a buoy on the ocean surface (the 3-D WEC) and on a bottom-mounted hinged paddle that oscillates in the full water

Eshwan Ramudu

2011-01-01

348

COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (CMARIS): A SPATIAL APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ECOREGIONAL MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sulu-Sulawesi Seas comprise one of the most biologically diverse marine ecoregions in the world. Situated at the center of the coral triangle, the ecoregion hosts at least 450 species of corals, significant populations of marine turtles, critical mangrove and seagrass habitats, marine mammals, including commercially important species collectively supporting multi-billion dollar fishing industries and subsistence livelihoods for a population

A. J. A. Ramos

349

Fine Sediment Sources in Coastal Watersheds with Uplifted Marine Terraces in  

E-print Network

turbidity levels in receiving bodies of water, increasing the costs of treating water for domestic water coastal California, has increased treatment costs for the City of Trinidad. Excessive turbidity, turbidity, forest road, water quality, coastal California Introduction Turbidity in Luffenholtz Creek, north

Standiford, Richard B.

350

Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on animal distribution and abundance is integral to wildlife conservation and management. However abundance estimates have not been available for many cetacean species inhabiting the coastal waters of Canada's Pacific coast, including those species that were heavily depleted by commercial whaling. Systematic sightings surveys were conducted in the inshore coastal waters of the Inside Passage, between the British Columbia

ROB WILLIAMS; LEN THOMAS

2007-01-01

351

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

E-print Network

- males and hatchlings on coastal nesting beaches. Sea turtles have complex life histories which involve of connectivity between sea turtle nesting, coastal, and off- shore habitats (Bjorndal and Bolten, 2008), yet and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer prom- ise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas

Florida, University of

352

Dissolved humic substances of vascular plant origin in a coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial decomposition of vascular plant detritus in coastal wetlands results in the conversion of particulate organic matter to dissolved form and causes the release of humic substances into the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. WC found that 34% of the DOC accumulating during degradation of salt marsh grass (Spartina alternif7oru) from coastal wetlands of the southeastern U.S. fits the

MARY ANN MORAN; ROBERT E. HODSON

1994-01-01

353

Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the community is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland community. 63 references.

Hobbie, J.E.

1984-06-01

354

Denitrifier Community Composition along a Nitrate and Salinity Gradient in a Coastal Aquifer  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen flux into the coastal environment via submarine groundwater discharge may be modulated by microbial processes such as denitrification, but the spatial scales at which microbial communities act and vary are not well understood. In this study, we examined the denitrifying community within the beach aquifer at Huntington Beach, California, where high-nitrate groundwater is a persistent feature. Nitrite reductase-encoding gene fragments (nirK and nirS), responsible for the key step in the denitrification pathway, were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced from DNAs extracted from aquifer sediments collected along a cross-shore transect, where groundwater ranged in salinity from 8 to 34 practical salinity units and in nitrate concentration from 0.5 to 330 ?M. We found taxonomically rich and novel communities, with all nirK clones exhibiting <85% identity and nirS clones exhibiting <92% identity at the amino acid level to those of cultivated denitrifiers and other environmental clones in the database. Unique communities were found at each site, despite being located within 40 m of each other, suggesting that the spatial scale at which denitrifier diversity and community composition vary is small. Statistical analyses of nir sequences using the Monte Carlo-based program ?-Libshuff confirmed that some populations were indeed distinct, although further sequencing would be required to fully characterize the highly diverse denitrifying communities at this site. PMID:16517659

Santoro, Alyson E.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Francis, Christopher A.

2006-01-01

355

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips.  

PubMed

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO(2) production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO(2) in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685

Nieminen, T T; Välitalo, H; Säde, E; Paloranta, A; Koskinen, K; Björkroth, J

2012-01-01

356

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips  

PubMed Central

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685

Nieminen, T. T.; Välitalo, H.; Säde, E.; Paloranta, A.; Koskinen, K.; Björkroth, J.

2012-01-01

357

Mercury exposure as a function of fish consumption in two asian communities in coastal virginia, USA.  

PubMed

Fish consumption and associated mercury exposure were explored for two Asian-dominated church communities in coastal Virginia and compared with that of two non-Asian church communities. Seafood-consumption rates for the Chinese (36.9 g/person/day) and Vietnamese (52.7 g/person/day) church communities were greater than the general United States fish-consumption rate (12.8 g/person/day). Correspondingly, hair mercury concentrations for people from the Chinese (0.52 µg/g) and the Vietnamese church (1.46 µg/g) were greater than the overall level for United States women (0.20 µg/g) but lower than the published World Health Organization exposure threshold (14 µg/g). A conventional regression model indicated a positive relationship between seafood consumption rates and hair mercury concentrations suggesting the importance of mercury exposure through seafood consumption. The annual-average daily methylmercury intake rate for the studied communities calculated by Monte Carlo simulations followed the sequence: Vietnamese community > Chinese community > non-Asian communities. Regardless, their daily methylmercury intake rates were all lower than the United States Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 µg/kg body weight-day. In conclusion, fish-consumption patterns differed among communities, which resulted in different levels of mercury exposure. The greater seafood and mercury ingestion rates of studied Asian groups compared with non-Asian groups suggest the need for specific seafood consumption advice for ethnic communities in the United States. Otherwise the health benefits from fish consumption could be perceived as trivial compared with the ill-defined risk of mercury exposure. PMID:25430872

Xu, Xiaoyu; Newman, Michael C

2015-04-01

358

Seasonal Variations in Planktonic Community Structure and Production in an Atlantic Coastal Pond: The Importance of Nanoflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and summertime production of planktonic communities and the role of nondiatom planktonic cells were studied\\u000a in coastal ponds, which are areas traditionally used for fattening and greening table-sized oysters. The abundance and biomass\\u000a of nano–microplanktonic protists were determined at weekly intervals between February 1998 and February 1999 in a coastal\\u000a pond without oysters in the French Atlantic coast

C. Dupuy; M. Ryckaert; S. Le Gall; H. J. Hartmann

2007-01-01

359

Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (? 13C), nitrogen (? 15N) and sulphur (? 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

2008-04-01

360

Stratigraphic correlation of oligocene marginal marine and fluvial deposits across the middle and lower coastal plain, South Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age and stratigraphic relationship of the Upland Unit, which crops out at the Savannah River Site near Barnwell, South Carolina has been the focus of many recent investigations. The geological interpretation of the Upland Unit is particularly significant since it serves as the upper confining unit used in the storage of lowlevel radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site. The age and regional extent of the unit is also important in providing an accurate geological map of the upper coastal plain. The age of the Upland Unit has been in dispute because it lacks datable material. Extensive coring and seismic studies have been conducted to investigate the occurrence and regional distribution of this stratigraphic unit. Lithologically, the Upland Unit consists of poorly sorted, clayey to silty, medium- to coarse-grained sands and gravels of fluvial origin. Similar quartz gravel deposits have been reported from the Chandler Bridge Formation near Charleston, South Carolina. These 'Upland-like' gravels are the oldest gravels of Tertiary age reported in the lower coastal plain. The Chandler Bridge Formation is interpreted as a downdip marginal marine facies of an extensive fluvial drainage system which once extended from the upper to the lower coastal plain of South Carolina. Where present, the Chandler Bridge Formation is overlain by nodular phosphate deposits of the Edisto Formation (late Oligocene to early Miocene), and underlain by the Ashley Formation of late Oligocene age. Pollen and dinoflagellate analyses conducted on sediment samples also confirm a late Chattian age for the Chandler Bridge Formation. Consequently, if quartz clasts in the Chandler Bridge Formation represent fluvial transport of Upland Unit gravels from the upper coastal plain which seems likely, then the age of the Upland Unit can be no younger than late Oligocene. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the Upland Unit and the Chandler Bridge Formation are correlative and represent a sequence of fluvial and marginal marine deposits of late Oligocene age. The depositional history of these formational units provides additional information concerning the geological evolution of the middle and lower coastal plain of South Carolina.

Katuna, Michael P.; Geisler, Jonathan H.; Colquhoun, Donald J.

1997-02-01

361

Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), ?13CTOC, ?13C and ?18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The ?13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The ?18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture, conversion, storage and reuse through the coastal ocean of Taiwan: The biological pump.

Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

2012-12-01

362

Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning Guide on Marine Debris contains three online units with objectives, background, and hands-on interactive activities. Covers definitions, characteristics and sources of marine debris; its effects on wildlife, the coastal community and human health; and how to develop solutions, get involved and educate others about marine pollution prevention.

363

MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

Preston, Christine

2010-01-01

364

Effects of coastal upwelling on the structure of macrofaunal communities in SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of coastal upwelling on the structure of macrofaunal communities were investigated in two shallow bays in SE Brazil. Water, sediment and fauna samples were collected at four time-points corresponding to austral summer, fall, winter and spring, respectively. Water column temperature and salinity profiles indicated that upwelling occurred in summer-spring (December and November), but not in fall-winter (April and August). The structure of macrofaunal communities differed consistently between these periods. The sediment content of labile organic matter did not vary as a function of upwelling and could not explain the changes in macrofaunal communities. Rather it appeared that macrofaunal community structure was determined by organic matter quality (i.e. phytoplankton composition), physical disturbance regimes and bottom-water temperature. Physical disturbance caused by S-SE winds, warm water temperatures (up to 26 °C) and resuspension-driven phytoflagellate blooms during non-upwelling were associated to higher density (2511-2525 ind m- 2) and dominance of small opportunistic species such as spionid, paraonid and capitellid polychaetes. In contrast, stable hydrodynamic conditions, diatom blooms and lower water temperatures (down to 18 °C) during upwelling resulted in lower density of macrofauna (796-1387 ind m- 2) and a shift in species composition to relatively large-sized magelonids and carnivorous polychaetes. Therefore, organic matter quality, physical disturbance regimes, and bottom-water temperature were the major factors regulating the life-cycles, composition and density of macrofaunal communities in these less productive subtropical upwelling systems.

Quintana, Cintia O.; Bernardino, Angelo F.; de Moraes, Paula C.; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

2015-03-01

365

Effects of a coastal power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton community structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.  

PubMed

The effects of a thermal discharge from a coastal power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. PMID:24635985

Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li

2014-04-15

366

Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly envisaged as a tool to manage coastal ecosystems and fisheries. Assessment of their performance with respect to management objectives is therefore important. A number of MPAs provided conservation benefits for fished species. Observed benefits do not apply to all species at all times, and responses to protection are also highly variable among fish taxa.

J. Claudet; D. Pelletier; J.-Y. Jouvenel; F. Bachet; R. Galzin

2006-01-01

367

Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential influence of coastal development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI?community from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-community structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the community was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton community.

Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.

2014-01-01

368

Effects of marine reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While the species level effects of marine reserves are widely recognized, community level shifts due to marine reserves have only recently been documented. Protection from fishing of top predators may lead to trophic cascades, which have community-wide implications. Disease may act in a similar manner, regulating population levels of dominant species within a community. Two decades of data from the Channel Islands National Park Service's Kelp Forest Monitoring database allowed us to compare the effects of fishing and urchin disease on rocky reef community patterns and dynamics. Different size-frequency distributions of urchins inside and outside of reserves indicated reduced predation on urchins at sites where fishing removes urchin predators. Rocky reefs inside reserves were more likely to support kelp forests than were fished areas. We suggest that this results from cascading effects of the fishery on urchin predators outside the reserves, which releases herbivores (urchins) from predation. After periods of prevalent urchin disease, the reef community shifted more towards kelp forest assemblages. Specific groups of algae and invertebrates were associated with kelp forest and barrens communities. The community dynamics leading to transitions between kelp forests and barrens are driven by both fishing and disease; however the fishery effect was of greater magnitude. This study further confirms the importance of marine reserves not only for fisheries conservation, but also for the conservation of historically dominant community types.

Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

2004-01-01

369

Mercury exposure in two coastal communities of the Bay of Fundy, Canada.  

PubMed

There is a rising global concern with regard to mercury (Hg) exposure among coastal populations. Two communities on the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick, Canada) were assessed by hair monitoring and dietary methods. Average concentration of total Hg in hair was 0.70+/-0.55 mg/kg (N=91) at Grand Manan and 0.42+/-0.15 mg/kg (N=52) at St. Andrews/St. Stephen. Average daily consumption of fresh fish and shellfish was 50+/-40 g/day for Grand Manan and 19+/-19 g/day for St. Andrews/St. Stephen. Average daily total Hg intake estimated from the food frequency and 24-h recall questionnaires was 0.05+/-0.04 microg Hg/kg bw/day at Grand Manan and 0.03+/-0.04 microg Hg/kg bw/day at St. Andrews/St. Stephen. A significant correlation (r=0.47, P=0.002) between Hg intake and hair was observed for Grand Manan. Low Hg intakes and body burden can be attributed to the low Hg levels found in the species commonly consumed: haddock, canned tuna, lobster, and pollock (all below 0.2 microg/g wet weight). The results showed that Hg exposure in these Canadian coastal communities is low; fish with higher levels of Hg (shark, tuna, swordfish, pickerel, and bass) are not consumed locally. PMID:15721879

Legrand, Melissa; Arp, Paul; Ritchie, Charlie; Chan, Hing Man

2005-05-01

370

Diversity and Life Histories in Freshwater Mussel Communities of the Gulf Coastal Plain, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf Coastal Plain supports a diverse mussel fauna including many endemic species. Richness among drainages was associated strongly and positively with watershed size. Assemblage similarity among drainages identified three major faunal groupings: Pontchartrain-Pearl-Pascagoula-Mobile; Escambia-Choctawhatchee; and Apalachicola-Ochlockonee-Suwannee. The Escambia-Choctawhatchee showed greater affinity to the Apalachicola than to the Mobile Basin. Patterns of mussel assemblages among drainages were associated strongly with fish assemblages suggesting two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1) biogeographic history affected both groups similarly, and 2) the fish host relationship was important in shaping mussel communities. Based on interspecific variation in life history traits including host use, longevity, offspring size, and fecundity, we established seven guilds to represent regional diversity in life history strategies. The number of guilds decreased from west to east indicating reduced ecological complexity. For widely represented guilds, drainages showed either 1) similar guild composition because of replacement by ecologically similar species, or 2) a shift in dominance among guilds along a west-east continuum. This dichotomy cannot be reconciled currently because data are lacking for numerous species of Elliptio, a dominant genus in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain mussel communities. This information gap illustrates the abundant opportunities for ecological research in the region.

Haag, W. R.; Warren, M. L.

2005-05-01

371

Do Postfire Mulching Treatments Affect Plant Community Recovery in California Coastal Sage Scrub Lands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower ( P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed ( P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

McCullough, Sarah A.; Endress, Bryan A.

2012-01-01

372

Climate change projected effects on coastal foundation communities of the greater everglades using a 2060 scenario: need for a new management paradigm.  

PubMed

Rising sea levels and temperature will be dominant drivers of coastal Everglades' foundation communities (i.e., mangrove forests, seagrass/macroalgae, and coral reefs) by 2060 based on a climate change scenario of +1.5 °C temperature, +1.5 foot (46 cm) in sea level, ±10 % in precipitation and 490 ppm CO2. Current mangrove forest soil elevation change in South Florida ranges from 0.9 to 2.5 mm year(-1) and would have to increase twofold to fourfold in order to accommodate a 2060 sea level rise rate. No evidence is available to indicate that coastal mangroves from South Florida and the wider Caribbean can keep pace with a rapid rate of sea level rise. Thus, particles and nutrients from destabilized coastlines could be mobilized and impact benthic habitats of southern Florida. Uncertainties in regional geomorphology and coastal current changes under higher sea levels make this prediction tentative without further research. The 2060 higher temperature scenario would compromise Florida's coral reefs that are already degraded. We suggest that a new paradigm is needed for resource management under climate change that manages coastlines for resilience to marine transgression and promotes active ecosystem management. In the case of the Everglades, greater freshwater flows could maximize mangrove peat accumulation, stabilize coastlines, and limit saltwater intrusion, while specific coral species may require propagation. Further, we suggest that regional climate drivers and oceanographic processes be incorporated into Everglades and South Florida management plans, as they are likely to impact coastal ecosystems, interior freshwater wetlands and urban coastlines over the next few decades. PMID:25312295

Koch, M S; Coronado, C; Miller, M W; Rudnick, D T; Stabenau, E; Halley, R B; Sklar, F H

2015-04-01

373

Characterization of Coastal Urban Watershed Bacterial Communities Leads to Alternative Community-Based Indicators  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and ?-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC?A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health. PMID:20585654

Wu, Cindy H.; Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Wong, Jakk; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Holden, Patricia A.; Andersen, Gary L.

2010-01-01

374

Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

2010-03-01

375

Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

2008-08-01

376

Persistent Organic Pollutants in Singapore's Coastal Marine Environment: Part I, Seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to receive widespread attention as harmful contaminants in the global environment. Increasingly, there have been concerns regarding adverse effects on marine wildlife due to the potential of POPs to induce adverse health effects, including the disruption of endocrine systems. Marine water samples within one kilometer of the coastline of Singapore were analysed to determine prevalent

Chanbasha Basheer; Jeffrey Philip Obbard; Hian Kee Lee

2003-01-01

377

Hamel et al.: Coastal net fisheries and beached birds 41 Marine Ornithology 37: 4160 (2009)  

E-print Network

for marine birds (Wilcox & Donlan 2007, Finkelstein et al. 2008). Among the gear types known to capture INTRODUCTION Bycatch in fisheries gear is one of the most common sources of anthropogenic at-sea mortality marine birds, gillnets--with fisheries landings of nearly eight million metric tons per year worldwide

378

Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

2014-03-01

379

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

1972-01-01

380

Evaluating meteo marine climatic model inputs for the investigation of coastal hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the major aspects discussed in the recent works on climate change is how to provide information from the global scale to the local one. In fact the influence of sea level rise and changes in the meteorological conditions due to climate change in strategic areas like the coastal zone is at the base of the well known mitigation and risk assessment plans. The investigation of the coastal zone hydrodynamics, from a modeling point of view, has been the field for the connection between hydraulic models and ocean models and, in terms of process studies, finite element models have demonstrated their suitability in the reproduction of complex coastal morphology and in the capability to reproduce different spatial scale hydrodynamic processes. In this work the connection between two different model families, the climate models and the hydrodynamic models usually implemented for process studies, is tested. Together, they can be the most suitable tool for the investigation of climate change on coastal systems. A finite element model, SHYFEM (Shallow water Hydrodynamic Finite Element Model), is implemented on the Adriatic Sea, to investigate the effect of wind forcing datasets produced by different downscaling from global climate models in terms of surge and its coastal effects. The wind datasets are produced by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CIRA), and by EBU-POM model (Belgrade University), both downscaling from ECHAM4. As a first step the downscaled wind datasets, that have different spatial resolutions, has been analyzed for the period 1960-1990 to compare what is their capability to reproduce the measured wind statistics in the coastal zone in front of the Venice Lagoon. The particularity of the Adriatic Sea meteo climate is connected with the influence of the orography in the strengthening of winds like Bora, from North-East. The increase in spatial resolution permits the more resolved wind dataset to better reproduce meteorology and to provide a more realistic forcing for hydrodynamic simulations. After this analysis, effects on water level variations, under different wind forcing, has been analyzed to define what is the local effect on sea level changes in the coastal area of the North Adriatic. Surge statistics produced from different climate model forcings for the IPCC A1B scenario have been studied to provide local information on climate change effects on coastal hydrodynamics due to meteorological effect. This typology of application has been considered a suitable tool for coastal management and can be considered a study field that will increase its importance in the more general investigation on scale interaction processes as the effects of global scale climate phenomena on local areas.

Bellafiore, D.; Bucchignani, E.; Umgiesser, G.

2010-09-01

381

Coastal Resource Management in the Philippines: A Case Study in the Central Visayas Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing destruction of wild coastal resources in the Philippines is rendering vast tracts of coral reef and other marine habitats unable to support productive fisheries. Progressive approaches to coastal resource management integrate local resource users into management plans while seeking support and consistency of regulations from central government. This community-based or comanagement concept has spurred various interdisciplinary programs, including

Diane Antoinette “Toni” Parras

2001-01-01

382

Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

2010-01-01

383

Spatio-temporal distribution of net-collected phytoplankton community and its response to marine exploitation in Xiangshan Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explore the spatial-temporal distribution of the phytoplankton community and evaluate the combined effects of marine resource exploitation, net-collected phytoplankton and physical-chemical parameters were investigated in the Xiangshan Bay during the four seasons of 2010. A total of eight phyla, 97 genera, and 310 species were found, including 232 diatom species, 45 dinoflagellate species and 33 other taxa. The phytoplankton abundances presented a significant ( P<0.001) seasonal difference with the average of 60.66×104 cells/m3. Diatoms (mainly consisting of Coscinodiscus jonesianus, Cerataulina pelagica, Skeleto n ema costatum, and genus Chaetoceros) dominated the phytoplankton assemblage in all seasons. We found great spatio-temporal variation in community composition based on the multidimensional scaling and similarity analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis show that temperature, nutrition, illumination, and salinity were the main variables associated with microalgal assemblage. Compared with the previous studies, an increase in phytoplankton abundance and change in the dominant species coincided with increased exploitation activities in this bay (e.g. operation of coastal power plants, intensive mariculture, tidal flat reclamation, and industrial and agricultural development). The present findings suggest that the government should exercise caution when deciding upon developmental patterns in the sea-related economy.

Jiang, Zhibing; Zhu, Xuyu; Gao, Yu; Chen, Quanzhen; Zeng, Jiangning; Zhu, Genhai

2013-07-01

384

How does mesh-size selection reshape the description of zooplankton community structure in coastal lakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide evidence of the inadequacy of using conventional sampling methods to study mesozooplankton community structure in confined environments, samples from a Mediterranean meromictic coastal lake were taken using 80-?m and 200-?m mesh nets towed at three different depths (0-18 m). Mesh size significantly affected the description of the community structure of the collected zooplankton. The 80-?m-mesh catch revealed for the first time in such an environment the overwhelming abundance of the copepod species Oithona brevicornis, as two orders of magnitude greater than recorded for the 200-?m-mesh catch. The other dominant species were Paracartia latisetosa and Pseudodiaptomus marinus, which were more efficiently sampled with the 200-?m mesh. These showed a summer abundance peak for P. latisetosa near the surface layer, and for P. marinus in the deepest stratum, close to the anoxic layer. Copepod nauplii and bivalve larvae were more efficiently caught with the 80-?m-mesh, and accounted for most of the zooplankton in winter, and showed the highest loss percentage of abundance between the two mesh-size catches. The differences in the assemblages reflect different diversity patterns, with peaks in summer and winter for the communities collected with the 80-?m-mesh and 200-?m-mesh, respectively. These findings imply the need for the development of a commonly used sampling method with paired nets, to correctly take into account both the large and small fractions of the mesozooplankton in the study of closed and semi-enclosed coastal environments, and to obtain data that can be better compared across studies.

Pansera, Marco; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Minutoli, Roberta; Zagami, Giacomo; Brugnano, Cinzia

2014-12-01

385

A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-marine ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In eastern coastal Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-marine deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-marine delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local marine highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during marine regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.

2007-01-01

386

Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

2014-11-01

387

The chemical changes of DOM from black waters to coastal marine waters by HPLC combined with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How dissolved organic matter (DOM) undergoes chemical changes during its transit from river to ocean remains a challenge due to its complex structure. In this study, DOM along a river transect from black waters to marine waters is characterized using an offline combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS), as well as tandem ESI-FTICR-MS. In addition, a water extract from degraded wood that mainly consists of lignins is used for comparison to the DOM from this transect. The HPLC chromatograms of all DOM samples and the wood extract show two major well-separated components; one is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic, based on their elution order from the C 18 column. From the FTICR-MS analysis of the HPLC fractions, the hydrophilic components mainly contain low molecular weight compounds (less than 400 Da), while the hydrophobic fractions contain the vast majority of compounds of the bulk C 18 extracted DOM. The wood extract and the DOM samples from the transect of black waters to coastal marine waters show strikingly similar HPLC chromatograms, and the FTICR-MS analysis further indicates that a large fraction of molecular formulas from these samples are the same, existing as lignin-like compounds. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments show that several representative molecules from the lignin-like compounds have similar functional group losses and fragmentation patterns, consistent with modified lignin structural entities in the wood extract and these DOM samples. Taken together, these data suggest that lignin-derived compounds may survive the transit from the river to the coastal ocean and can accumulate there because of their refractory nature.

Liu, Zhanfei; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.

2011-04-01

388

Linking activity and function to ecosystem dynamics in a coastal bacterioplankton community  

PubMed Central

For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP) as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1–3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4–7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter). Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs), photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes), and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria). The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating a strong diel activity rhythm at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment. PMID:24795712

Gifford, Scott M.; Sharma, Shalabh; Moran, Mary Ann

2014-01-01

389

Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity. PMID:24577740

He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

2014-05-01

390

Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks  

E-print Network

- tation. In general, the fluorescence bands of oil and aquatic humic substance overlap. At oil concen is considerably lower than that of humic substances at concentrations that typically are present in coastal waters the humic substance background in the spectrum. The problem is complicated because of possible interac

Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

391

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

392

The marine atmospheric boundary layer jet in the coastal ocean dynamics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric boundary layer near the northern California coast was investigated during spring upwelling conditions as part of the 1981 Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment. Two daytime aircraft flights were devised to measure mean and turbulent quantities for 25-km tracks along and across the continental shelf from 30- to 1200-m altitude. The Pacific high offshore

Jan Zemba; Carl A. Friehe

1987-01-01

393

Community-based coastal resource management in the Philippines: A review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1984 and 1994, a total of 43 Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CBCRM) programs and projects were implemented throughout the Philippines. This paper presents a review and evaluation of these programs and projects, which provide a wealth of experience and “lessons learned” to guide the design and implementation of CBCRM policy and local-level initiatives. A range of institutions and processes

Robert S Pomeroy; Melvin B Carlos

1997-01-01

394

Agency, Isolation, and the Coming of New Technologies: Exploring "Dependency" in Coastal Communities of Newfoundland Through Participatory Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How does one effectively and ethically conduct research with community members who are steeped in histories of economic and social dependency, so that the people themselves take charge of their futures? This question is explored in a Canadian context as the authors study the potential of new technologies to bring hope to traditional coastal…

Clover, Darlene; Harris, Carol E.

2005-01-01

395

Garden of the Coastal Plain at GSU Community Service Worker/Garden Volunteer Agreement P. O. Box 8039  

E-print Network

Garden of the Coastal Plain at GSU Community Service Worker/Garden Volunteer Agreement P. O. Box of hours. For a CSW position, contact the Garden and schedule an interview with the Education Coordinator to discuss the job duties and set up a possible work schedule. The Garden does NOT guarantee hours

Hutcheon, James M.

396

The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

397

A new method for detecting pollution effects on marine macrobenthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described by which the pollution status of a marine macrobenthic community may be assessed without reference to a temporal or spatial series of control samples. Theoretical considerations suggest that the distribution of numbers of individuals among species should behave differently from the distribution of biomass among species when influenced by pollution-induced disturbance. Combined k-dominance plots for species

R. M. Warwick

1986-01-01

398

Bottom-Up Control of Macrobenthic Communities in a Guanotrophic Coastal System  

PubMed Central

Soft bottom macrobenthic communities were studied seasonally in three coastal ponds (Marinello ponds, Italy) at increasing distances from a gull (Larus michahellis) colony to investigate the effect of seabird-induced eutrophication (i.e. guanotrophication) on macrobenthic fauna. We hypothesized that enhanced nutrient concentration and organic load caused by guano input significantly alter the trophic and sedimentological condition of ponds, affecting benthic fauna through a bottom-up control. The influence of a set of environmental features on macrobenthic assemblages was also tested. Overall, the lowest macrobenthic abundances and functional group diversity were found in deeper sites, especially in the pond characterised by severe guanotrophication, where the higher disturbance resulted in a decline in suspension feeders and carnivores in favour of deposit feeders. An increase in opportunistic/tolerant taxa (e.g. chironomid larvae and paraonids) and totally azoic sediments were also found as an effect of the harshest environmental conditions, resulting in a very poor ecological status. We conclude that macrobenthic assemblages of the Marinello coastal system display high spatial variability due to a synergistic effect of trophic status and the geomorphological features of the ponds. The macrobenthic response to guanotrophication, which was a clear decrease in abundance, diversity and trophic functional groups, was associated with the typical response to severe eutrophication, magnified by the geomorphological features. PMID:25679400

Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Costa, Valentina; Vizzini, Salvatrice

2015-01-01

399

Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.  

SciTech Connect

Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

2010-07-01

400

Bottom-up control of macrobenthic communities in a guanotrophic coastal system.  

PubMed

Soft bottom macrobenthic communities were studied seasonally in three coastal ponds (Marinello ponds, Italy) at increasing distances from a gull (Larus michahellis) colony to investigate the effect of seabird-induced eutrophication (i.e. guanotrophication) on macrobenthic fauna. We hypothesized that enhanced nutrient concentration and organic load caused by guano input significantly alter the trophic and sedimentological condition of ponds, affecting benthic fauna through a bottom-up control. The influence of a set of environmental features on macrobenthic assemblages was also tested. Overall, the lowest macrobenthic abundances and functional group diversity were found in deeper sites, especially in the pond characterised by severe guanotrophication, where the higher disturbance resulted in a decline in suspension feeders and carnivores in favour of deposit feeders. An increase in opportunistic/tolerant taxa (e.g. chironomid larvae and paraonids) and totally azoic sediments were also found as an effect of the harshest environmental conditions, resulting in a very poor ecological status. We conclude that macrobenthic assemblages of the Marinello coastal system display high spatial variability due to a synergistic effect of trophic status and the geomorphological features of the ponds. The macrobenthic response to guanotrophication, which was a clear decrease in abundance, diversity and trophic functional groups, was associated with the typical response to severe eutrophication, magnified by the geomorphological features. PMID:25679400

Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Costa, Valentina; Vizzini, Salvatrice

2015-01-01

401

Characterization of marine prokaryotic communities via DNA and RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We know very little about species distributions in prokaryotic marine plankton. Such information is very interesting in its own right, and ignorance of it is also beginning to hamper process studies, such as those on viral infection. New DNA- and RNA-based approaches avoid many prior limitations. Here we discuss four such applications: (1) cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes

J. A. Fuhrman; S. H. Lee; Y. Masuchi; A. A. Davis; R. M. Wilcox

1994-01-01

402

Neighbourhood association of Cortaderia selloana invasion, soil properties and plant community structure in Mediterranean coastal grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasion by alien species is threatening the conservation of native plant communities and the integrity of ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of such impacts, many studies have examined the traits that make alien species successful invaders as well as the factors involved in community invasibility. However, it is necessary to link invader effects on community structure and on ecosystem processes in order to unravel the mechanisms of impact. Cortaderia selloana is a perennial grass native to South America that is invading abandoned agricultural lands close to coastal human settlements in Catalonia (NE Spain). In invaded pastures, we examined the association between C. selloana invasion, soil properties and vegetation structure changes in pastures, comparing the neighbourhood area of influence of C. selloana with areas far from C. selloana. Areas under the influence of C. selloana had lower total soil nitrogen values and higher C/N values than in areas far from C. selloana. Furthermore, the areas affected by C. selloana had lower species, family and life form richness and diversity, and less plant cover. In addition, C. selloana also increased the vertical vegetation structure and changed species composition (only 44% similarity between invaded and non-invaded areas). Our results point out that C. selloana has an effect on its neighbourhood leading to an increase in small-scale variability within invaded fields.

Domènech, Roser; Vilà, Montserrat; Gesti, Josep; Serrasolses, Isabel

2006-03-01

403

Mammalian mesopredators on islands directly impact both terrestrial and marine communities.  

PubMed

Medium-sized mammalian predators (i.e. mesopredators) on islands are known to have devastating effects on the abundance and diversity of terrestrial vertebrates. Mesopredators are often highly omnivorous, and on islands, may have access not only to terrestrial prey, but to marine prey as well, though impacts of mammalian mesopredators on marine communities have rarely been considered. Large apex predators are likely to be extirpated or absent on islands, implying a lack of top-down control of mesopredators that, in combination with high food availability from terrestrial and marine sources, likely exacerbates their impacts on island prey. We exploited a natural experiment--the presence or absence of raccoons (Procyon lotor) on islands in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada--to investigate the impacts that this key mesopredator has on both terrestrial and marine prey in an island system from which all native apex predators have been extirpated. Long-term monitoring of song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) nests showed raccoons to be the predominant nest predator in the Gulf Islands. To identify their community-level impacts, we surveyed the distribution of raccoons across 44 Gulf Islands, and then compared terrestrial and marine prey abundances on six raccoon-present and six raccoon-absent islands. Our results demonstrate significant negative effects of raccoons on terrestrial, intertidal, and shallow subtidal prey abundance, and point to additional community-level effects through indirect interactions. Our findings show that mammalian mesopredators not only affect terrestrial prey, but that, on islands, their direct impacts extend to the surrounding marine community. PMID:25234377

Suraci, Justin P; Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana Y; Currie, Christopher M A; Dill, Lawrence M

2014-12-01

404