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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Analysis of the relationship between sediment composition and benthic community structure in coastal deposits: Implications for marine aggregate dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seiderer, L. J. and Newell, R. C. 1999. Analysis of the relationship between sediment composition and benthic community structure in coastal deposits: Implications for marine aggregate dredging. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56: 757-765. The relationship between biological community structure and particle size composition is investigated in coastal deposits off the southeast of England. Sediments in the survey area

L. J. Seiderer; R. C. Newell

1999-01-01

2

Bacterioplankton community structure: Protists control net production and the proportion of active bacteria in a coastal marine community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of dialysis experiments was performed to study the relative importance of substrate limitation and grazing in controlling the proportion of active cells of coastal marine bacterioplankton. The grazer community was manipulated by filling dialysis bags with unfiltered water and water serially passed through 150-, 40-, and O.&pm pore-size filters. The total number of bacteria, the number of metabolically

Josep M. Gasol; Dolors Vaqub; Paola Mura; Susana Agustl; Carlos M. Duarte

3

Bacterioplankton community structure: Protists control net production and the proportion of active bacteria in a coastal marine community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A series of dialysis experiments,was,performed,to study the relative importance,of substrate limitation and,grazing in controlling the proportion,of active cells of coastal marine,bacterioplankton. The grazer community,was manipulated,by filling dialysis bags with unfiltered water and water serially passed through 150-, 40-, and O.&pm pore-size filters. The total number of bacteria, the number of metabolically active bacterial loss rates, and the abundances of

Josep M. Gasol; Dolors Vaqub

4

Seasonal Variations in Virus-Host Populations in Norwegian Coastal Waters: Focusing on the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are ubiquitous components of the marine ecosystem. In the current study we investigated seasonal variations in the viral community in Norwegian coastal waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results demonstrated that the viral community was diverse, displaying dynamic seasonal variation, and that viral populations of 29 different sizes in the range from 26 to 500 kb were present.

Ruth-Anne Sandaa; Aud Larsen

2006-01-01

5

An untapped bacterial cellulolytic community enriched from coastal marine sediment under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions.  

PubMed

A bacterial community with strong cellulose [filter paper (FP) and microcrystalline cellulose] degradation ability was isolated from the coastal marine environment. They were isolated under thermophilic (60 °C) and anaerobic cultivation conditions. The library of 16S rRNA gene clones revealed a total of 16 operational taxonomic units after 50 clones were surveyed. Sixty percent of the clones were most related to the type strain of Clostridium thermocellum with 16S rRNA gene identity around 87-89%. All of them showed extremely low sequence similarities and were novel at least in species level. The gene clone libraries of glycosyl hydrolase family 48 showed low gene and amino acid sequence similarities around 70-72%. The results indicated that the cellulose degradation systems in the specific environment have not been well studied. The enrichment could disrupt FP within 3 days in a basal medium. The cellulase activity of the community was comparable to that of C. thermocellum LQR1. The main fermentation products were ethanol, acetic acid and butyric acid. This work identified a novel microbial resource with a potential in lignocellulose conversion and biofuel production. PMID:22788522

Ji, Shiqi; Wang, Shian; Tan, Yang; Chen, Xiaohua; Schwarz, Wolfgang; Li, Fuli

2012-07-30

6

Spatio-temporal variability of richness estimators: coastal marine fish communities as examples.  

PubMed

We assessed the performance of two estimators of species richness, the Chao2 and the Coleman 'random placement curve'. Using a dataset of intertidal fish from the Norwegian Skagerrak coast, we found that Chao2 was effective for low sampling intensity, often reaching asymptotic values for few samples, but for higher sampling intensity the performance deteriorated. For large samples, the Coleman random placement curve was more effective than the Chao2 estimates when comparing spatio-temporal patterns of species richness. Spatial patterns were clearly and consistently identified by both methods, whereas the coastal fish communities displayed too much variability in the early summer for any sensible measure of temporal patterns of fish-species richness to be made. To control for spurious results due to systematic differences in mean abundance of the samples the analyses were performed also on data standardised by the number of individuals in the samples, without any significant change in the results. We conclude that modest sampling effort is sufficient to characterise spatial patterns of coastal fish-species richness, while a detailed and high-precision description of seasonal patterns could not be obtained with any reasonable sampling effort. PMID:15800740

Lekve, Kyrre; Ellingsen, Kari E; Lingjaerde, Ole Chr; Gjøsaeter, Jakob; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2005-05-11

7

Resilience of a zooplankton community subjected to marine intrusion in a tropical coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main disturbances on Imboassica Lagoon is the occasional artificial opening of its sand bar. Following two such events, two environmental gradients were observed. One was directly related to entry of marine water (salinity gradient); and the other to a decrease in dilution of the nutrient load, because of water level reduction (trophic status gradient). Two stations were

Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki; Reinaldo Luiz Bozelli

2004-01-01

8

Genetic Diversity and Temporal Variation in the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus Species in Rhode Island's Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanophage community in Rhode Island's coastal waters is genetically diverse and dynamic. Cyano- phage abundance ranged from over 104 phage ml1 in the summer months to less then 102 phage ml1 during the winter months. Thirty-six distinct cyanomyovirus g20 genotypes were identified over a 3-year sampling period; however, only one to nine g20 genotypes were detected at any one

Marcia F. Marston; Jennifer L. Sallee

2003-01-01

9

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth

R. A. Herbert

1999-01-01

10

Enrichment using an up-flow column reactor and community structure of marine anammox bacteria from coastal sediment.  

PubMed

We established an enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria using an up-flow column reactor fed with artificial sea water supplemented with nitrogen and minerals and inoculated with coastal surface sediment collected from Hiroshima Bay. After 2 months of reactor operation, simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) was observed, suggesting that an anammox reaction was proceeding. A total nitrogen removal rate of 2.17 g-N L(-1) day(-1) was attained on day 594 while the nitrogen loading rate was 3.33 g-N L(-1) day(-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least two dominant "Candidatus Scalindua" species were present in this reactor. Moreover, many uncultured bacteria and archaea, including candidate division or ammonia-oxidizing archaea, were present. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that anammox bacteria accounted for 85.5 ± 4.5% of the total bacteria at day 393. We also designed two oligonucleotide probes specific to each dominant "Candidatus Scalindua" species. A simultaneous FISH analysis using both probes showed that two different "Candidatus Scalindua" species were clearly recognizable and coexisted during reactor operation, although there was some variation in their abundance. The marine anammox bacteria enriched in this study have potential applications to the treatment of industrial wastewater containing high levels of ammonium and salt. PMID:21487205

Kindaichi, Tomonori; Awata, Takanori; Suzuki, Yuji; Tanabe, Katsuichiro; Hatamoto, Masashi; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

2011-01-01

11

Davidson Laboratory: Marine Hydrodynamics & Coastal Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Davidson Laboratory, a hydrodynamic and ocean engineering research center, is part of the Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering department at the Stevens Institute of Technology. This laboratory is focused on marine craft and testing as well as coastal engineering, marine environmental engineering, and underwater acoustics. Ongoing research projects in areas such as marine hydrodynamics, coastal engineering, acoustics, turbulence, and computational fluid dynamics are explained in greater detail in the Departments section. A highlight of the Davidson Laboratory site is the Coastal Monitoring Network section, where users have the opportunity to view and read about the coastal conditions (atmosphere pressure, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at locations such as Avalon, New Jersey. The image and data on this page are updated on a regular basis. Although some parts of this site are under construction, the currently available information makes it worth a visit.

12

FOOD WEB AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE COASTAL SYSTEMS (ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WETLANDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Our research will investigate the mechanisms by which increased loading of nutrients to coastal waters alters the structure and dynamics of food webs, resulting in declines in populations of ecologically and commercially important organisms. Research across NHEERL Divisions will...

13

Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, IMCS provides national and international leadership in marine science and is New Jersey's focal point for education, research, and service efforts in estuarine, coastal, and ocean environments. Site features all the latest IMCS news, information on seminars and internships, faculty, students, and IMCS research. Also includes information on the academic programs, facilities, and professional development for teachers.

14

USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

Usgs

15

76 FR 46753 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial Fireworks Displays at Monterey Bay National Marine...incidental to permitting professional fireworks displays within the sanctuary in California...marine mammals incidental to coastal fireworks displays conducted at MBNMS under...

2011-08-03

16

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Infobank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse provides organized access to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) coastal and marine data and metadata. The facilities section features material on Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) regional centers such as maps and information about staff, facilities, labs, research libraries and archives. The Atlas includes maps for specific geographic areas and information about specific types of data within the area such as bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, sampling, and others. The Field Activities section provides information about specific data collection activities (date, place, crew, equipment used, data collected, publications). The Field Activity Collection System (FACS) provides information about field activities (overviews, crew lists, equipment lists, and events). The "Geology School" provides general, broad-based information about earth science concepts, processes and terminology, indexed to keywords. There is also a set of links to additional databases, software tools and viewers, and to related topics.

17

Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in…

Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

18

Hyperspectral imaging sensors and the marine coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

Richardson, Laurie L.

2001-01-01

19

Endless Summer: Managing Character in Coastal Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings present essays and workshop session notes from a three-day conference held in October 2004, entitled Endless Summer: Managing Character in Coastal Communities. The event brought together over 120 community members and people from across ...

2004-01-01

20

Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

Holm, Amy E.

21

Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual neutral sugars in sediments, sediment trap materials and major biological sources of a coastal marine environment (Dabob Bay, Washington State) were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography of equilibrated isomeric mixtures. Plankton, bacteria, and vascular plant tissues of different types yielded reproducible and biochemically consistent compositional patterns. These patterns, when expressed in simple parameters, allowed distinctions between marine and terrestrial carbohydrate sources as well as among the major different types of vascular plant tissues. Plankton and bacteria, due to their compositional diversity, were not further distinguishable by carbohydrate compositions alone. Carbohydrate compositions of Dabob Bay sediments and sediment trap materials, interpreted using source-indicator parameters, indicate a predominantly marine origin with increased relative input of terrestrially-derived carbohydrates in winter periods of low phytoplankton productivity. Both plankton and grasses are indicated as major carbohydrate sources during spring. Glucose yield enhancement factors, determined by comparative acid pretreatments, confirm the general predominance of ?-cellulose-poor marine polysaccharides and increased levels of ?-cellulose-rich vascular plant remains in winter sediment trap samples.

Cowie, Gregory L.; Hedges, John I.

1984-10-01

22

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed Central

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-01-01

23

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

Bhj, Premathilake

2010-05-01

24

Compliance and Enforcement of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Regulations in North Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal resources management has become a popular approach to marine conservation and sustainable fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific region. One premise of this approach is that enforcement of community management initiatives is the primary responsibility of the community and that, in most instances, they have the capability to effectively enforce locally developed regulations and rules. The socioeconomic theory of

BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; AUDRIE SIAHAINENIA; CHRISTOVEL ROTINSULU; ASEP SUKMARA

2004-01-01

25

Metal speciation in coastal marine sediments from Singapore using a modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in marine sediments from two coastal regions of Singapore (Kranji in the NW, and Pulau Tekong in the NE) was determined using the latest version of the 3-step sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). To obtain a mass balance, a

Dang The Cuong; Jeffrey Philip Obbard

2006-01-01

26

PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

27

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in

C. Harley; R. Crim; R. Gooding; S. Nienhuis; E. Tang

2010-01-01

28

A Coastal and Marine National Park for Scotland in partnership with Integrated Coastal Zone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential benefits and constraints of a Coastal and Marine National Park (CMNP) for the entire Scottish coastline have yet to be fully debated. This paper recommends using Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as a process to develop a CMNP. Converting the principles of ICZM into practice could be strengthened using the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000. This Act provides the

Selina M. Stead; Derek J. McGlashan

2006-01-01

29

COASTAL COMMUNITY COLIFORM AND NUTRIENT CONTROL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent water sampling conducted by the Suwannee River Water Management District has shown that coliform counts in waters adjacent to several coastal communities exceed the water quality standards for surface waters with respect to fecal and total coliform counts. Also, sampling c...

30

Restructuring and Health in Canadian Coastal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and socioeconomic restructuring has had profound consequences for coastal communities in Canada. The decline of traditional resource-based industries—fisheries, forestry, and mining—and the emergence of new economic activities, such as tourism and aquaculture, compounded by concurrent shifts in social programs, have affected the health of environments, communities, and people. Drawing on research conducted as part of the interdisciplinary major collaborative

A. Holly Dolan; Martin Taylor; Barbara Neis; Rosemary Ommer; John Eyles; David Schneider; Bill Montevecchi

2005-01-01

31

75 FR 34700 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial Fireworks Displays at Monterey Bay National Marine...vitulina) incidental to professional fireworks displays within the MBNMS. DATES: This...harassment, incidental to commercial fireworks displays within the Monterey Bay...

2010-06-18

32

Utilization of marine resources in developing coastal states: A cooperative international marine affairs program  

Microsoft Academic Search

If developing coastal countries are to develop their ocean resources in a timely and efficient manner, they will require assistance from developed coastal states. The best form of assistance is probably the transfer of managerial and technical expertise\\/technology. This paper describes a program designed to provide such assistance being developed by the Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program of the

M. Silva; J. Broadus; D. Ross; R. Knecht

1982-01-01

33

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the inten- sive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35)

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2009-01-01

34

Defining seasonal marine microbial community dynamics  

PubMed Central

Here we describe, the longest microbial time-series analyzed to date using high-resolution 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing of samples taken monthly over 6 years at a temperate marine coastal site off Plymouth, UK. Data treatment effected the estimation of community richness over a 6-year period, whereby 8794 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified using single-linkage preclustering and 21?130 OTUs were identified by denoising the data. The Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant Class, and the most frequently recorded OTUs were members of the Rickettsiales (SAR 11) and Rhodobacteriales. This near-surface ocean bacterial community showed strong repeatable seasonal patterns, which were defined by winter peaks in diversity across all years. Environmental variables explained far more variation in seasonally predictable bacteria than did data on protists or metazoan biomass. Change in day length alone explains >65% of the variance in community diversity. The results suggested that seasonal changes in environmental variables are more important than trophic interactions. Interestingly, microbial association network analysis showed that correlations in abundance were stronger within bacterial taxa rather than between bacteria and eukaryotes, or between bacteria and environmental variables.

Gilbert, Jack A; Steele, Joshua A; Caporaso, J Gregory; Steinbruck, Lars; Reeder, Jens; Temperton, Ben; Huse, Susan; McHardy, Alice C; Knight, Rob; Joint, Ian; Somerfield, Paul; Fuhrman, Jed A; Field, Dawn

2012-01-01

35

Defining seasonal marine microbial community dynamics.  

PubMed

Here we describe, the longest microbial time-series analyzed to date using high-resolution 16S rRNA tag pyrosequencing of samples taken monthly over 6 years at a temperate marine coastal site off Plymouth, UK. Data treatment effected the estimation of community richness over a 6-year period, whereby 8794 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified using single-linkage preclustering and 21?130 OTUs were identified by denoising the data. The Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant Class, and the most frequently recorded OTUs were members of the Rickettsiales (SAR 11) and Rhodobacteriales. This near-surface ocean bacterial community showed strong repeatable seasonal patterns, which were defined by winter peaks in diversity across all years. Environmental variables explained far more variation in seasonally predictable bacteria than did data on protists or metazoan biomass. Change in day length alone explains >65% of the variance in community diversity. The results suggested that seasonal changes in environmental variables are more important than trophic interactions. Interestingly, microbial association network analysis showed that correlations in abundance were stronger within bacterial taxa rather than between bacteria and eukaryotes, or between bacteria and environmental variables. PMID:21850055

Gilbert, Jack A; Steele, Joshua A; Caporaso, J Gregory; Steinbrück, Lars; Reeder, Jens; Temperton, Ben; Huse, Susan; McHardy, Alice C; Knight, Rob; Joint, Ian; Somerfield, Paul; Fuhrman, Jed A; Field, Dawn

2011-08-18

36

Acoustic classification of marine habitats in coastal Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital acoustic seabed classification system, QTC View (Series IV) was used in the coastal waters of Newfoundland to characterize and classify marine benthic habitats. The QTC View system was calibrated in Placentia Bay at sites identified independently during a submersible research program. Four different habitats were used for calibration of the QTC View system: mud, gravel, rock, and macroalgae

John T. Anderson; Robert S. Gregory; William T. Collins

2002-01-01

37

Coastal Capers: A Marine Education Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a part of the University of North Carolina Sea Grant Marine Education Manual series, this document is intended to provide elementary grade teachers with activities (or capers) that introduce students to the marine environment. It may also be used with remedial or special education students, and by youth group leaders in such organizations as…

Spence, Lundie; Cox, Vivian Barbee

38

THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS,…

Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

39

Baruch Institute for Marine & Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Found in Columbia, South Carolina, the Baruch Institute conducts basic research on environmental processes, tidal, estuarine and coastal ocean environments. Collectively the studies span the molecular to landscape level, including the effects of human activities. Site includes information on current research projects, faculty, facilities, and outreach initiatives. Also features downloadable data, imagery, and maps.

40

Ecological and biogeochemical aspects of microbial degradation of phenolic materials in the California coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic materials are found in numerous environments, particularly in coastal environments due to anthropogenic pollution, in situ production by marine organisms, and from riverine humic materials flowing into estuaries. They are used as model compounds for the study of microbially mediated organic carbon dynamics in coastal systems. To determine the rates and utilization dynamics of phenolic materials by coastal marine

1993-01-01

41

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

change in species richness of each trophic level and functional feeding group. Our results suggest that invasions are biased towards lower trophic levels whereas extinctions occur higher in the food web. We discuss the potential implications of these changes in trophic skew (9) for marine ecosystems.

Webs Jarrett; E. Byrnes; Pamela L. Reynolds; John J. Stachowicz

42

Coastal marine biodiversity in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean coastline of mainland Africa is over 9 500 km long and comprises the tropical coasts of Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, plus the subtropical and warm-temperate Indian Ocean coastline of South Africa. The regional marine fisheries catch (Indian Ocean catch only for South Africa) is about 200 000 t, more than 80 % of which is taken

Charles L. Griffiths

2005-01-01

43

Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone  

SciTech Connect

An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

1980-11-01

44

Speciation and Concentrations of Mercury in Certain Coastal Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury (Hg), methyl Hg and Hg(II) were determined in coastal marine sediments collected from the Baltic, South China and the Bering Seas. Methyl Hg concentrations in sediments were between 0.01 and 2 ng g-1 on a dry weight basis, accounting for only <1% of the total Hg concentrations. The percentage of Hg(II) (i.e. available Hg) in total

K. Kannan; J. Falandysz

1998-01-01

45

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of

John I. Hedges; K. Weliky

1989-01-01

46

A COMPARISON OF LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AMONG COASTAL AND NON-COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTH SULAWESI AND SOUTH SUMATRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

his paper examines the question as to whether coastal communities and fishers in Indonesia are the poorest of the poor. It reviews recent socio-economic studies on coastal communities in Indonesia, and provides a quantitative analysis of secondary data on coastal and non-coastal communities in North Sulawesi in relation to IDT and Swa development classifications, as well as percent and density

BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; PRICIELLA KUSSOY; RICHARD B. POLLNAC

47

The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

2003-01-01

48

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

49

Developing Partnerships with the Community for Coastal ESD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community-university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data collected from two coastal community outreach projects were analyzed. Findings: The outreach projects improved the…

Kawabe, Midori; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Reiko; Ishimaru, Takashi; Baba, Osamu; Horimoto, Naho; Kanda, Jota; Matsuyam, Masaji; Moteki, Masato; Oshima, Yayoi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Yap, Minlee

2013-01-01

50

COMPARING MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COASTAL MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes re- sponsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how hu- mans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment

Mark H. Carr; Joseph E. Neigel; James A. Estes; Sandy Andelman; Robert R. Warner; John L. Largier

2003-01-01

51

75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration...administer the approximately 3 percent of funding that remains from the original...

2010-02-04

52

Oceanic rafting by a coastal community  

PubMed Central

Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400–600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa.

Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

53

Genomic Analysis of Uncultured Marine Viral Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. Diversity of these viruses undoubtedly plays an important role in controlling bacterial populations and biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment. However, very little is known about the diversity of marine viral communities. Here we report the first genomic analysis of uncultured viral communities from two nearshore marine water samples and one marine sediment sample. In all three marine libraries, over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is novel. The most common significant hits amongst the known sequences were to viruses. The viral hits included sequences from all the major families of dsDNA tailed phage, as well as some algal viruses. BLAST analysis of the sequence data suggested fundamental differences between the viral communities. Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2-3% of the total population in the water communities, which were estimated to contain between 374 and 7114 viral types. Diversity of the sediment community was significantly higher. The results also showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community.

Breitbart, M.; Salamon, P.; Andresen, B.; Mahaffy, J. M.; Segall, A. M.; Mead, D.; Azam, F.; Rohwer, F.

2002-12-01

54

Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean.

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

2011-01-01

55

Late Pleistocene marine transgression of North Slope coastal plain  

SciTech Connect

Two late Pleistocene marine transgressions of contrasting character are recorded by deposits of the Arctic coastal plain. Deposits of the oldest trangression extend from Harrison Bay west to near Barrow and contain a fauna that documents interglacial conditions. Five thermoluminescence (TL) dates on the marine deposits average 127 Ka and indicate a correlation with oxygen isotope stage 5e. Sedimentary structures characteristic of the swash zone occur at altitudes within the commonly accepted range (6 not equal 4m) for eustatic high sea level at that time, showing that this part of the coastal plain has been tectonically stable for the past 125,000 years. Deposits of the youngest transgression are glaciomarine sediments that contain ice-rafted erratics of Canadian provenance. They compose the flaxman member of the Gubik Formation and occur locally along the Beaufort Sea coast and inland to altitudes of about 7 m. TL dates on these sediments suggest that the Flaxman transgression occurred between 70 and 80 ka and is correlative with deposits dated to this interval that are exposed near sea level on the North Carolina coastal plain. However, the deep-sea oxygen-isotope record is commonly interpreted to indicate that sea level was below its modern position at that time. The present altitude of the Flaxman deposits cannot be attributed to tectonism because their distribution includes the part of the coastal plain determined to be tectonically stable for the past 125 ka. Isostatic depression and subsequent elevation are unlikely considering the correlative deposits of North Carolina. This paradox could be explained if enormous volumes of floating glacial ice were produced by the rapid breakup of a large part of the Laurentide ice sheet, and recent work indeed suggests that the Hudson Bay lowlands were ice free at this time.

Carter, L.D.

1985-04-01

56

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation\\u000a and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities\\u000a are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In

A. Diedrich

2007-01-01

57

Microarray-Based Characterization of Microbial Community Functional Structure and Heterogeneity in Marine Sediments from the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments of coastal margins are important sites of carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling. To determine the metabolic potential and structure of marine sediment microbial communities, two cores were collected each from the two stations (GMT at a depth of 200 m and GMS at 800 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, and six subsamples representing different depths were analyzed

Liyou Wu; Laurie Kellogg; Allan H. Devol; James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou

2008-01-01

58

Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areas—in particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areas—of species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapes—should be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and

Biliana Cicin-Sain; Stefano Belfiore

2005-01-01

59

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions (?70%) occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores), while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes.

Byrnes, Jarrett E.; Reynolds, Pamela L.; Stachowicz, John J.

2007-01-01

60

Top-Down Regulation, Climate and Multi-Decadal Changes in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic Sea Areas  

PubMed Central

The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities.

Olsson, Jens; Bergstrom, Lena; Gardmark, Anna

2013-01-01

61

Recruitment limitation of native species in invaded coastal dune communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment limitation may limit the ability of sites to regenerate after disturbances such as weed invasion and weed management.\\u000a We investigated seed bank constraints and dispersal limitation in coastal dune communities on the east coast of Australia.\\u000a The ability of sites to regenerate naturally following weed removal was assessed in coastal dune communities invaded by the\\u000a invasive alien, bitou bush

Kris French; Tanya J. Mason; Natalie Sullivan

2011-01-01

62

Anthropogenic perturbations in marine microbial communities.  

PubMed

Human activities impact marine ecosystems at a global scale and all levels of complexity of life. Despite their importance as key players in ecosystem processes, the stress caused to microorganisms has been greatly neglected. This fact is aggravated by difficulties in the analysis of microbial communities and their high diversity, making the definition of patterns difficult. In this review, we discuss the effects of nutrient increase, pollution by organic chemicals and heavy metals and the introduction of antibiotics and pathogens into the environment. Microbial communities respond positively to nutrients and chemical pollution by increasing cell numbers. There are also significant changes in community composition, increases in diversity and high temporal variability. These changes, which evidence the modification of the environmental conditions due to anthropogenic stress, usually alter community functionality, although this aspect has not been explored in depth. Altered microbial communities in human-impacted marine environments can in turn have detrimental effects on human health (i.e. spread of pathogens and antibiotic resistance). New threats to marine ecosystems, i.e. related to climate change, could also have an impact on microbial communities. Therefore, an effort dedicated to analyse the microbial compartment in detail should be made when studying the impact of anthropogenic activities on marine ecosystems. PMID:20738403

Nogales, Balbina; Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Piña-Villalonga, Juana M; Bosch, Rafael

2011-03-01

63

Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts,

Shari Matzner; Mark E. Jones

2011-01-01

64

Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Carrying Virulence Genes in Coastal Marine Sediments? †  

PubMed Central

Despite the recognized potential of long-term survival or even growth of fecal indicators bacteria (FIB) in marine sediments, this compartment is largely ignored by health protection authorities. We conducted a large-scale study over approximately 50 km of the Marche coasts (Adriatic Sea) at depths ranging from 2 to 5 m. Total and fecal coliforms (FC) were counted by culture-based methods. Escherichia coli was also quantified using fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting specific 16S rRNA sequences, which yielded significantly higher abundances than culture-based methods, suggesting the potential importance of viable but nonculturable E. coli cells. Fecal coliforms displayed high abundances at most sites and showed a prevalence of E. coli. FC isolates (n = 113) were identified by API 20E, additional biochemical tests, and internal transcribed spacer-PCR. E. coli strains, representing 96% of isolates, were then characterized for genomic relatedness and phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, and D) of origin by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and multiplex-PCR. The results indicated that E. coli displayed a wide genotypic diversity, also among isolates from the same station, and that 44 of the 109 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B2 and D. Further characterization of B2 and D isolates for the presence of 11 virulence factor genes (pap, sfa/foc, afa, eaeA, ibeA, traT, hlyA, stx1, stx2, aer, and fyuA) showed that 90% of B2 and 65% of D isolates were positive for at least one of these. Most of the variance of both E. coli abundance and assemblage composition (>62%) was explained by a combination of physical-chemical and trophic variables. These findings indicate that coastal sediments could represent a potential reservoir for commensal and pathogenic E. coli and that E. coli distribution in marine coastal sediments largely depends upon the physical and trophic status of the sediment. We conclude that future sampling designs aimed at monitoring the microbiological quality of marine coastal areas should not further neglect the analysis of the sediment and that monitoring of these environments can be improved by including molecular methods as a complement of culture-based techniques.

Luna, G. M.; Vignaroli, C.; Rinaldi, C.; Pusceddu, A.; Nicoletti, L.; Gabellini, M.; Danovaro, R.; Biavasco, F.

2010-01-01

65

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to

Janelle R. Thompson; Mark A. Randa; Luisa A. Marcelino; Aoy Tomita-Mitchell; Eelin Lim; Martin F. Polz

2004-01-01

66

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine viral communities  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. However, very little is known about their diversity. Here we report a genomic analysis of two uncultured marine viral communities. Over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is previously uncharacterized. The most common significant hits among the known sequences were to viruses. The viral hits included sequences from all of the major families of dsDNA tailed phages, as well as some algal viruses. Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2–3% of the total population in both communities, which was estimated to contain between 374 and 7,114 viral types. Overall, diversity of the viral communities was extremely high. The results also showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community.

Breitbart, Mya; Salamon, Peter; Andresen, Bjarne; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Segall, Anca M.; Mead, David; Azam, Farooq; Rohwer, Forest

2002-01-01

67

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernandez, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

2010-01-01

68

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.  

PubMed

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

2010-09-13

69

Resilience to climate change in coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Ecological resilience to climate change is a combination of resistance to increasingly frequent and severe disturbances, capacity for recovery and self-organization, and ability to adapt to new conditions. Here, we focus on three broad categories of ecological properties that underlie resilience: diversity, connectivity, and adaptive capacity. Diversity increases the variety of responses to disturbance and the likelihood that species can compensate for one another. Connectivity among species, populations, and ecosystems enhances capacity for recovery by providing sources of propagules, nutrients, and biological legacies. Adaptive capacity includes a combination of phenotypic plasticity, species range shifts, and microevolution. We discuss empirical evidence for how these ecological and evolutionary mechanisms contribute to the resilience of coastal marine ecosystems following climate change-related disturbances, and how resource managers can apply this information to sustain these systems and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22809195

Bernhardt, Joanna R; Leslie, Heather M

2012-07-30

70

A coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations.The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

Lightsom, Fran

71

Diversity and Dynamics of a North Atlantic Coastal Vibrio Community  

PubMed Central

Vibrios are ubiquitous marine bacteria that have long served as models for heterotrophic processes and have received renewed attention because of the discovery of increasing numbers of facultatively pathogenic strains. Because the occurrence of specific vibrios has frequently been linked to the temperature, salinity, and nutrient status of water, we hypothesized that seasonal changes in coastal water bodies lead to distinct vibrio communities and sought to characterize their level of differentiation. A novel technique was used to quantify shifts in 16S rRNA gene abundance in samples from Barnegat Bay, N.J., collected over a 15-month period. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers specific for the genus Vibrio was combined with separation and quantification of amplicons by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE). Vibrio populations identified by QPCR-CDCE varied between summer and winter samples, suggesting distinct warm-water and year-round populations. Identification of the CDCE populations by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from two summer and two winter samples confirmed this distinction. It further showed that CDCE populations corresponded in most cases to ?98% rRNA similarity groups and suggested that the abundance of these follows temperature trends. Phylogenetic comparison yielded closely related cultured and often pathogenic representatives for most sequences, and the temperature ranges of these isolates confirmed the trends seen in the environmental samples. Overall, this suggests that temperature is a good predictor of the occurrence of closely related vibrios but that considerable microdiversity of unknown significance coexists within this trend.

Thompson, Janelle R.; Randa, Mark A.; Marcelino, Luisa A.; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Lim, Eelin; Polz, Martin F.

2004-01-01

72

Hypoxia and benthic community recovery in Korean coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia and\\/or anoxia) has become a major cause of change to the benthic component of ecosystems around the world. We present the response of a benthic community to hypoxia in organically enriched environments in Korean coastal waters. Disturbances due to low dissolved oxygen (DO), and organic enrichment altered community dynamics, result in defaunation during summer hypoxia with

Hyun-Sig Lim; Robert J. Diaz; Jae-Sang Hong; Linda C. Schaffner

2006-01-01

73

Estimating Biomass in Coastal Baccharis pilularis Dominated Plant Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities dominated by Baccharis pilularis (coyote brush) are expanding in coastal California, altering fuel load on a landscape scale, yet there is no standard method for estimating biomass in this vegetation type. In an attempt to develop a non -destructive field method for estimating biomass in Baccharis- dominated communities, we compared three indirect measures including crown canopy height, basal stem

Will Russell; Ryan Tompkins

2005-01-01

74

A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species.

Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

2013-01-01

75

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

76

Initiation of Callus Cultures and Plantlet Regeneration from Seagrasses and Marine Coastal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies indicated that it was possible to initiate callus cultures from marine and freshwater seagrasses and coastal plants. Further investigation into media formulations and environmental conditions were necessary to promote continued callus exp...

J. I. Jones R. D. Ellender

1991-01-01

77

Fine-scale temporal variation in marine extracellular enzymes of coastal southern california.  

PubMed

Extracellular enzymes are functional components of marine microbial communities that contribute to nutrient remineralization by catalyzing the degradation of organic substrates. Particularly in coastal environments, the magnitude of variation in enzyme activities across timescales is not well characterized. Therefore, we established the MICRO time series at Newport Pier, California, to assess enzyme activities and other ocean parameters at high temporal resolution in a coastal environment. We hypothesized that enzyme activities would vary most on daily to weekly timescales, but would also show repeatable seasonal patterns. In addition, we expected that activities would correlate with nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and that most enzyme activity would be bound to particles. We found that 34-48% of the variation in enzyme activity occurred at timescales <30?days. About 28-56% of the variance in seawater nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations, and ocean currents also occurred on this timescale. Only the enzyme ?-glucosidase showed evidence of a repeatable seasonal pattern, with elevated activities in the spring months that correlated with spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Most enzyme activities were weakly but positively correlated with nutrient concentrations (r?=?0.24-0.31) and upwelling (r?=?0.29-0.35). For the enzymes ?-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase, most activity was bound to particles. However, 81.2% of alkaline phosphatase and 42.8% of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was freely dissolved. These results suggest that enzyme-producing bacterial communities and nutrient dynamics in coastal environments vary substantially on short timescales (<30?days). Furthermore, the enzymes that degrade carbohydrates and proteins likely depend on microbial communities attached to particles, whereas phosphorus release may occur throughout the water column. PMID:22912628

Allison, Steven D; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D; Hatosy, Stephen; Martiny, Adam C

2012-08-17

78

Characterization of marine isoprene-degrading communities.  

PubMed

Isoprene is a volatile and climate-altering hydrocarbon with an atmospheric concentration similar to that of methane. It is well established that marine algae produce isoprene; however, until now there was no specific information about marine isoprene sinks. Here we demonstrate isoprene consumption in samples from temperate and tropical marine and coastal environments, and furthermore show that the most rapid degradation of isoprene coincides with the highest rates of isoprene production in estuarine sediments. Isoprene-degrading enrichment cultures, analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and by culturing, were generally dominated by Actinobacteria, but included other groups such as Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, previously not known to degrade isoprene. In contrast to specialist methane-oxidizing bacteria, cultivated isoprene degraders were nutritionally versatile, and nearly all of them were able to use n-alkanes as a source of carbon and energy. We therefore tested and showed that the ubiquitous marine hydrocarbon-degrader, Alcanivorax borkumensis, could also degrade isoprene. A mixture of the isolates consumed isoprene emitted from algal cultures, confirming that isoprene can be metabolized at low, environmentally relevant concentrations, and suggesting that, in the absence of spilled petroleum hydrocarbons, algal production of isoprene could maintain viable populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes. This discovery of a missing marine sink for isoprene is the first step in obtaining more robust predictions of its flux, and suggests that algal-derived isoprene provides an additional source of carbon for diverse microbes in the oceans. PMID:19807779

Alvarez, Laura Acuña; Exton, Daniel A; Timmis, Kenneth N; Suggett, David J; McGenity, Terry J

2009-10-05

79

Discharge of nitrate-containing groundwater into a coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of nitrate-containing fresh groundwater from a sandy coastal aquifer and into the adjacent shallow marine environment was investigated near Esbjerg at the northern end of the Wadden Sea in Denmark. The geological structure of the coastal site was determined from drilling data and geoelectrical methods such as multi-electrode profiling (MEP). The distribution of shoreface sediment containing freshwater was

Martin Søgaard Andersen; Ludovic Baron; Jacob Gudbjerg; Jesper Gregersen; Dominique Chapellier; Rasmus Jakobsen; Dieke Postma

2007-01-01

80

Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection of data for mapping; * seek innovative solutions to the primary obstacles identified; * identify the steps needed to move mapping of Florida's oceans and coasts forward, in preparation for a better coordinated, more cost-effective mapping program to allow State and Federal agencies to make better decisions on coastal-resource issues. Over 90 invited participants representing more than 30 State and Federal agencies, universities, NGOs, and private industries played a large role in the success of this two-day workshop. State of Florida agency participants created a ranked priority order for mapping 13 different regions around Florida. The data needed for each of the 13 priority regions were outlined. A matrix considering State and Federal priorities was created, utilizing input from all agencies. The matrix showed overlapping interests of the entities and will allow for partnering and leveraging of resources. The five most basic mapping needs were determined to be bathymetry, high-vertical resolution coastline for sea-level rise scenarios, shoreline change, subsurface geology, and benthic habitats at sufficient scale. There was a clear convergence on the need to coordinate mapping activities around the state. Suggestions for coordination included: * creating a glossary of terms: a standard for specifying agency data-mapping needs; * creating a geographic information officer (GIO) position or permanent organizing group to maintain communications established at this workshop and to maintain progress on the issues identified during the workshop. The person or group could develop a website, maintain a project-status matrix, develop a list of contacts, create links to legislative updates and links to funding sources; * developing a web portal and one-stop/clearinghouse of data. There was general consensus on the need to adopt a single habitat classification system and a strategy to accommodate existing systems smoothly. Unresolve

Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

2008-01-01

81

A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited

Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang

2010-01-01

82

Macroalgal Chemical Defenses in Polar Marine Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroalgae are considerably less diverse at polar latitudes than in most temperate and tropical regions but they can still\\u000a be very important components of benthic marine communities in polar waters (Dayton 1990; Wiencke et al. 2007). In fact, at\\u000a some locations they can rival the biomass present in temperate kelp forests (e.g., Amsler et al. 1995). Wiencke et al. (2007)

Bill J. Baker; Charles D. Amsler; James B. McClintock

83

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox): Implications for N 2 production in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory reduction of nitrate (denitrification) is acknowledged as the most important process that converts biologically available nitrogen to gaseous dinitrogen (N2) in marine ecosystems. Recent findings, however, indicate that anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox) may be an important pathway for N2 formation and N removal in coastal marine sediments and in anoxic water columns of the oceans. In

Pia Engström; Tage Dalsgaard; Stefan Hulth; Robert C. Aller

2005-01-01

84

Isolation and characterization of marine luminous bacteria from shallow coastal waters of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Marine luminous bacteria were isolated and identified from samples in shallow coastal waters of Taiwan during the relatively warm seasons. Methods: Identification of the luminous isolates was performed based on differences of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics together with data from phylogenetic analysis. Results: Twenty seven strains of marine luminous bacteria were isolated. They were divided into five

Hsiu-Hui Chiu; Hsiao-Hui Chou; Wen-Dar Jean; Wung-Yang Shieh

85

Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated using a three-stage filtration process to remove larger detritus and biological particles before collecting the bacterial population on a 0.2um filter, for re-suspension in a small volume of filter-sterilized seawater. To ensure eventual carbon limitation in microbial incubations, the samples were spiked with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Oxygen measurements were made as a proxy for community carbon uptake with an Ocean Optics FOXY-R fluorescence probe. Post irradiation, 15 samples were immediately sacrificed to take t=0 oxygen measurements, and the remainder were incubated in the dark for 10-12 days. Seasonal biolabile carbon photoproduction values ranged from -1.8E-2 to 9.2E-2 mol C produced/mol photons absorbed. To compare seasonal and spatial variations over this large data set, irradiations were set at a photon dose of 3.2 mol photons/m^2. Progressive photon dose experiments shows that irradiation length strongly influences the total biolabile product as assayed with microbial measurements. A conceptual model is presented to explain this dependence on photon dose. This varying dependence on photon dose is different from other photochemical products such as CO, and further complicates attempts to quantify the effect of photochemistry on the bioavailability of carbon in marine environments.

Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

2010-12-01

86

Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in /sup 210/Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column does not accumulate in the top 2 cm of sediment. Surface sediment pigment profiles indicate that pheophoribides are the dominant pheopigments observed, with concentrations decreasing rapidly with depth. Concentrations of chlorophyll c derivatives also decrease rapidly, but ratios of a/c pheopigments remain within ranges reported for natural and cultured phytoplankton. Sharp pheopigment concentrations decreases within the bioturbated surface sediments were modeled using a one dimensional mixing model. Sedimentary humic acid, fulvic acid, and residual humin associated pheopigments in sediments which had been previously acetone extracted to remove the lipophilic pheopigment fraction were typed by chromic acid oxidation and release of pyrrole derived maleimides. This humic associated pyrrole derived nitrogen, while a small fraction of total sedimentary or humic nitrogen, accounted for 16-75% of the total sedimentary pheopigment accumulation, and may be significant in understanding the diagenetic fate and transformation of pheopigments to petroporphyrins.

Furlong, E.T.; Carpenter, R.

1988-01-01

87

Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

1991-01-01

88

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial viability (culturability) of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable (culturable) microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-09-01

89

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2012-02-01

90

Marine Metadata Interoperability: A Community Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a number of independent metadata projects throughout the ocean science community, each developing some combination of standards, tools, and ontologies. Some are project-specific, and others address entire disciplines. Few of these efforts have engaged the wider ocean science community, or provided a coordinated set of resources that can guide the development of distributed, integrated and interoperable ocean-data systems. The Marine Metadata Interoperability team plans to implement a community-based framework to coordinate developmens in usable, interoperable marine metadata. The project will build from the myriad existing efforts, encourage widespread community participation (national and international), and demonstrate the use and benefits of metadata standardization through development of prototype interoperable data management solutions. Our goals are to engage the ocean science community by: a) providing technical guidance and reference documentation on using and developing metadata solutions; b) encouraging community involvement in the development and evaluation of those documents, and c) establishing two test-bed activities to demonstrate cross- platform, cross-disciplinary, interoperable distributed data systems. The two coordinated test-bed demonstrations will leverage metadata work across at least three different types of data acquisition systems: (1) cabled or moored platforms, (2) mobile autonomous systems, and (3) remote-sensing platforms. Multiple instances of each system, from different institutions, will be included in the application of existing, modular and scalable data systems. The proposed work will provide resources for metadata development to the ocean science community, building from developments in computer science and other geosciences. It will support the NSF emphasis on needed interoperability between data systems, as demonstrated through ORION and several recent interoperability workshops. It will also address a top priority in the OceanUS Data Management and Communications (DMAC) plan.

Graybeal, J. B.; Watson, S.; Bogden, P. S.

2004-12-01

91

Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

2013-03-15

92

Estimating Biomass in Coastal Baccharis Pilularis Dominated Plant Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communities dominated by Baccharis pilularis are expanding in coastal California altering fuel load on a landscape scale, yet there is no standard method for estimating biomass in this vegetation type. In an attempt to develop a non-destructive field meth...

R. Tompkins W. Russell

2006-01-01

93

Gender Issues within the Population-Environment Nexus in Philippine Coastal Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty percent of the Philippine's population resides in the coastal zone. Women and men in coastal communities depend chiefly on the sea for subsistence. Over fifty percent of the dietary protein requirements of coastal communities are derived from municipal fisheries and shallow coastal habitats (reef fishes, marine plants, and mangroves). Coastal populations are young and expanding at rates that exceed

Heather DAgnes; Joan Castro; Leona DAgnes; Rhona Montebon

2005-01-01

94

Gender Issues within the Population-Environment Nexus in Philippine Coastal Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty percent of Philippine's population resides in the coastal zone. Women and men in coastal communities depend chiefly on the sea for subsistence. Over fifty percent of the dietary protein requirements of coastal communities are derived from municipal fisheries and shallow coastal habitats (reef fishes, marine plants and mangroves). Coastal populations are young and expanding at rates that exceed regional

Heather D'Agnes; Joan Castro; Leona D'Agnes; Rhona Montebon

2005-01-01

95

Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.  

PubMed Central

Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others.

Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

1992-01-01

96

Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

2010-12-01

97

Community perspectives on integrated coastal management: Voices from the Annapolis Basin area, Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to address the missing dimension of the place of Maritime communities in Canadian Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). This work is part of a larger network of projects on ICM through the participatory Coastal Community University Research Alliance. The implementation of ICM with full community involvement is a challenge, for example: communities are not unified or homogenous units,

Lisette Wilson; Melanie G. Wiber

2009-01-01

98

Coastal bioluminescent marine snow: fine structure of bioluminescence distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if bioluminescent organisms were differentially concentrated within marine snow relative to ambient water, individual aggregates were photographed in situ and collected by hand using SCUBA, and mechanically stimulable bioluminescence (BL) was measured with an integrating sphere photomultiplier system. These are among the first measurements of BL on marine snow, and are the first quantitative estimates of BL marine

Christen M. Herren; Alice L. Alldredge; James F. Case

2004-01-01

99

Building Community Based Initiatives in Rural Coastal Communities. Staff Paper 95.2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In rural coastal communities, trade-offs between conserving and developing environmentally sensitive resources are acute. At the community level, part-time volunteers and citizen officials are asked to make complex decisions based on ambiguous and frequently contradictory "scientific" evidence of economic and environmental relationships. The…

Behr, Chris; Lamb, Greg; Miller, Al; Sadowske, Sue; Shaffer, Ron

100

North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Three: Coastal Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two dozen activities on the ecology of coastal areas, with special emphasis on North Carolina's coastline, comprise this manual for junior high school science teachers. Provided are a table correlating these lessons with state curriculum guidelines, and a summary of the unit's goals and behavioral objectives. Among the topics included are coastal

Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

101

Quantifying the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect for U.S. mid-Atlantic coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine radiocarbon reservoir effect is an offset of 14C age between terrestrial and marine samples of the same calendar age due to delay in atmosphere-ocean exchange of CO2 and dilution with older deep waters. Currently, the global average marine reservoir age of surface waters is ~400 radiocarbon years. However, this value can differ regionally based upon climate, ocean circulation, and coastal morphology. Accurate quantification of the local marine reservoir effect is crucial in determining precise chronologies in paleoenvironmental studies that rely heavily on marine samples. This also requires samples collected live prior to the onset of extensive nuclear testing in the 1950s, which greatly increased atmospheric radiocarbon. Regional marine reservoir offset values (?R) are poorly known for the U.S. mid-Atlantic. Currently, there are only three specimens from New Jersey to North Carolina for which ?R values have been calculated. The average marine reservoir correction for these samples is ?R = 142 ± 34 years. To extend this database, we obtained 19 live-collected marine mollusks spanning coastal areas from New York to North Carolina from museum collections and submitted them for AMS radiocarbon dating. The calibrated 14C ages will be compared to the date of collection, ranging from 1884 to 1945, in order to determine ?R values for each specimen. Historical maps of each sample location, showing the local physiographic settings at the time of collection, will improve knowledge of what factors control spatial variations of the regional marine reservoir effect.

Masteller, C.; Thieler, E. R.; Horton, B. P.

2011-12-01

102

Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine

W. L. Miller; H. E. Reader; L. C. Powers

2010-01-01

103

Managing Marine Ecosystems and Development: Experiences from the Chesapeake Bay and Other Coastal Ecosystems in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to maintain the biotic integrity and performance of coastal marine ecosystems affected by human population growth and economic development an ecosystem approach to management is required. This is par- ticularly challenging when, as is the case for many coastal ecosystems, development activities on land, often far removed from the coast, have a major impact on the coastal environment.

Donald F. Boesch

104

Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.  

PubMed Central

For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments.

Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

1996-01-01

105

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

106

Administering Marine Spaces: The Problem of Coastal Erosion in Nigeria, a Case Study of Forcados South Point, Delta State  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Coastal erosion is a global problem facing both developing and developed Countries. In Nigeria, Coastal erosion is experienced in almost all the sections of the country's coastal zone, thus the quest for a lasting solution. The social and economic consequences of coastal erosion can be substantial in many cases. It may cause displacement of a whole community, including the

Angela Kesiena ETUONOVBE

107

Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a\\u000a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years.\\u000a The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates\\u000a them with new

Josep Lloret; Victòria Riera

2008-01-01

108

Coral microbial communities, zooxanthellae and mucus along gradients of seawater depth and coastal pollution.  

PubMed

The high incidence of coral disease in shallow coastal marine environments suggests seawater depth and coastal pollution have an impact on the microbial communities inhabiting healthy coral tissues. A study was undertaken to determine how bacterial communities inhabiting tissues of the coral Montastraea annularis change at 5 m, 10 m and 20 m water depth in varying proximity to the urban centre and seaport of Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) of 16S rRNA gene sequences show significant differences in bacterial communities of polluted and control localities only at the shallowest seawater depth. Furthermore, distinct differences in bacterial communities were found with increasing water depth. Comparisons of TRFLP peaks with sequenced clone libraries indicate the black band disease cyanobacterium clone CD1C11 is common and most abundant on healthy corals in less than 10 m water depth. Similarly, sequences belonging to a previously unrecognized group of likely phototrophic bacteria, herein referred to as CAB-I, were also more common in shallow water. To assess the influence of environmental and physiologic factors on bacterial community structure, canonical correspondence analysis was performed using explanatory variables associated with: (i) light availability; (ii) seawater pollution; (iii) coral mucus composition; (iv) the community structure of symbiotic algae; and (v) the photosynthetic activity of symbiotic algae. Eleven per cent of the variation in bacterial communities was accounted for by covariation with these variables; the most important being photosynthetically active radiation (sunlight) and the coral uptake of sewage-derived compounds as recorded by the delta(15)N of coral tissue. PMID:17472641

Klaus, James S; Janse, Ingmar; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Sanford, Robert A; Fouke, Bruce W

2007-05-01

109

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their

Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

2010-01-01

110

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

Diedrich, A.

2007-12-01

111

Marine fish communities in shallow volcanic habitats.  

PubMed

This survey of the marine ichthyofauna of the Piton de La Fournaise volcano at Reunion Island is the first explanatory study of fish community structures in this area. It describes and analyses the main qualitative descriptors of the fish communities (i.e. species richness, diet, life history and geographical distribution) and their spatio-temporal organization. This investigation in 2011 examined lava flows of different ages, including the most recent flows that entered the ocean between 1977 and 2007. In all, 263 species belonging to 45 families were observed. Overall, the fish community was notable for an absence of top predators and a predominance of opportunistic small-bodied species, with dietary flexibility and high reproductive rates, characteristic of the early stages of ecological succession. Between-site analysis indicated that the fish assemblages differed essentially according to the intensity of the last volcanic disturbances. Fish communities in the most disturbed sites showed the highest numbers of Serranidae and the highest proportions of omnivores and small-bodied opportunistic carnivores, including a high proportion of endemic south-western Indian Ocean species. The spatial pattern of this last category of species could be the result of convergent biological traits, and their adaptation to unstable environments at the expense of their competitiveness in more biodiverse, mature communities. Conversely, fish communities in the less disturbed sites showed the highest number of Holocentridae and the highest proportion of browsers of sessile invertebrates. This last characteristic could be a consequence of higher ecological maturity, illustrated by a more specialized trophic network, for assemblages in areas with less intense disturbances. Otherwise, high structural complexity, either in unconsolidated lava boulders, rocks and rubble or high coral-covered sites, could favour the increase of the total number of species independent of disturbance intensity. Regarding the broader effects, this study helps better understand how ecosystems can resist or recover from acute disturbances and the process of ecological succession that leads to the establishment of fish communities in newly submerged habitats. PMID:23731139

Pinault, M; Loiseau, N; Chabanet, P; Durville, P; Magalon, H; Quod, J P; Galzin, R

2013-04-30

112

A comparison of oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate respiration in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic respiration with oxygen and anaerobic respiration with nitrate (denitrification) and sulfate (sulfate reduction) were measured during winter and summer in two coastal marine sediments (Denmark). Both aerobic respiration and denitrification took place in the oxidized surface layer, whereas sulfate reduction was most significant in the deeper, reduced sediment. The low availability of nitrate apparently limited the activity of denitrification

Jan Sørensen; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Niels Peter Revsbech

1979-01-01

113

Coastal and marine wetlands in Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia: understanding their loss and degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the vastness of South Australia's coastline, approximately 95% of the state's population of 1.4 million is on the Adelaide metropolitan coast of Gulf St. Vincent. The concentration of human activity around this shallow, sheltered gulf ecosystem has led to conflict and competition over the use of marine and coastal resources. The gulf supports extensive areas of ecologically significant subtidal

K. S. Edyvane

1999-01-01

114

Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton by a marine sponge ( Callyspongia sp.) within an oligotrophic coastal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sponges are key players in the transfer of carbon from the pelagic microbial food web into the benthos. Selective uptake of prokaryotic picoplankton (<2?m) by a demosponge (Callyspongia sp.), and carbon flux through this process, were examined for the first time in the oligotrophic coastal waters of southwestern Australia, where sponge abundance and biodiversity ranks among the highest in

Christine E. Hanson; M. James McLaughlin; Glenn A. Hyndes; Joanna Strzelecki

2009-01-01

115

238Pu Heat Source in Marine Coastal Sediment: Formation of a Protective Concretion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of the marine environment upon a vented Iridium-encapsulated Plutonium 238 heat source was investigated. The heat source was emplaced in coastal submarine feldspathic sediment. In less than a month it became encased in a rock-like concretion. T...

H. V. Weiss D. Pavone

1986-01-01

116

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

117

Preliminary Studies on the Iodine Content of some Marine Algae from Coastal Areas of Jaffna Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iodine content of twenty seven species of marine algae collected from different coastal regions of the Jaffna Peninsula was determined. Of the species analysed, Gracilaria opuntia (1277 ppm), Gracilaria crassa (889 ppm) and Turbinaria ornata (810 ppm) have relatively high iodine contents. The iodine content of Graci- laria opuntia is comparable with the amount of iodine present in caliche

RAJESWARY MAGESWARAN; S. SIVASUBRAMANIAM

118

Estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystem restoration: Confusing management and science – A revision of concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor;

Michael Elliott; Daryl Burdon; Krystal L. Hemingway; Sabine E. Apitz

2007-01-01

119

ECOSYSTEM LEVEL EXPERIMENT ON NUTRIENT LIMITATION IN TEMPERATE COASTAL MARINE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Which nutrients limit primary production in coastal marine environments? Using large (13 000 1) mesocosms with sediments we explored nutrient limitation in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA, over a 9 wk period. eparate and combined additions of phosphorus and nitrogen were made...

120

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Global Climate Change: Potential Effects on U.S. Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Global Climate Change is the eighth in a series of Pew Center reports examining the potential impacts of climate change on the U.S. environment. It details the likely impacts of climate change over the next century on U.S...

V. S. Kennedy R. R. Twilley J. A. Kleypas J. H. Cowan S. R. Hare

2002-01-01

121

Directory of Facilities. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this directory are marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The facilities for each state are described within these categories: educational institutions, state agencies, federal agencies, and industrial…

Hill, Philip G.

122

Role of Fungi in Carbon Flow and Nitrogen Immobilization in Coastal Marine Plant Litter Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review presents some of the direct and indirect evidence that implicates fungi in the decomposition of coastal plant litter with the hope of stimulating further research in an area that is vital to understanding of marine food webs. 86 references. (E...

J. W. Fell S. Y. Newell

1984-01-01

123

Barium in southern California coastal waters: a potential indicator of marine drilling contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present barium content of Southern California coastal waters was determined to be 11 to 22 micrograms per kilograms of seawater. These values may be used as base-line concentrations to monitor marine contamination during future off-shore oil and gas explorations.

T. J. CHOW

1976-01-01

124

Pleistocene marine deposits in the coastal areas of Kola Peninsula (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of field data, datings from both electron spin resonance – and optically stimulated luminescence, and micro- and macrofauna, in addition to presence of diatoms, three Late Pleistocene marine units have been identified in the coastal areas of the Kola Peninsula. The stratigraphically lowest sequence is correlated to the Ponoi Beds and the Boreal transgression, attributed to the

Olga P. Korsakova

2009-01-01

125

Out-migration of Tagged Fishes from Marine Reef National Parks to Fisheries in Coastal Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated movements of 25 species of coral reef fishes from Malindi and Watamu Marine National Parks (created 1968) in coastal Kenya from February 2001 to March 2002. Only three species, the commercially important whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, the sky emperor (SEM), Lethrinus mahsena and the trumpet emperor, L. miniatus, exhibited consistent movements from the parks. At Malindi Park, more

Boaz Kaunda-Arara; George A. Rose

2004-01-01

126

Terrestrial Sediment Delivery to Coastal and Marine Environments: US Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding terrestrial sediment dynamics in high-relief, tropical island settings, such as St. Thomas and St. John, USVI, has become a critical issue, as sediments are a potential threat to the health of down-slope environments. The primary depositional sinks of terrestrial sediments are 1) coastal buffer zones such as salt ponds, which trap sediments and keep them from being input into the marine environment, and 2) near-shore marine environments (coral reefs, seagrasses, algal flats etc.), many of which are adversely affected by terrestrial sedimentation. Land use change by anthropogenic activities has been shown to alter terrestrial sediment dynamics and greatly increase sediment delivery and accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Sediment cores collected in salt ponds and the near-shore marine environment were used to determine the sedimentology (texture and composition) and geochronology (using 14C, and 210Pb) prior to anthropogenic activities to define the "natural signal", or "baseline", as well as recent deviations from the "natural signal", which may be attributed to anthropogenic activities. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds without anthropogenic activities exhibit no deviations from the "natural signal" in sedimentology or accumulation rate. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds with anthropogenic activities contain a deviation from the "natural signal" manifested as an increase in accumulation rate within the last 100 yrs (most likely within the last 25-50 yrs) ranging from 3 -10 times greater than the "natural" accumulation rate. Sedimentologically, salt ponds reflect no recent change, where as marine sediments do show a recent deviation in sedimentology. This marine deviation is represented by an increase in organic content, a decrease in grain size, and a decrease in carbonate content (marine-derived) compared to the "natural signal". This change reflects an increase in terrestrial (non- carbonate, finer-grained) sediment input to the marine environment. Anthropogenic activities result in major impacts on sediment dynamics and sediment delivery to coastal and marine environments. Increased terrestrial sediment input may cause premature infilling of coastal buffer zones such as salt ponds (see companion poster, Wallace et al). Once buffer zones are completely filled, terrestrial sediments are input directly to the near-shore marine environment, increasing the threat to sensitive environments such as coral reefs and seagrasses.

Larson, R. A.; Brooks, G. R.; Devine, B.; Wallace, L. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Schwing, P. T.

2007-05-01

127

Ecological and biogeochemical aspects of microbial degradation of phenolic materials in the California coastal marine environment  

SciTech Connect

Phenolic materials are found in numerous environments, particularly in coastal environments due to anthropogenic pollution, in situ production by marine organisms, and from riverine humic materials flowing into estuaries. They are used as model compounds for the study of microbially mediated organic carbon dynamics in coastal systems. To determine the rates and utilization dynamics of phenolic materials by coastal marine bacteria, a sequential approach was used in which marine bacteria were first assayed to determine their ability to utilize phenolics, various sites in the California coastal zone were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for phenolic materials, a method was developed to determine microbial utilization rates of phenolic materials and finally, utilization rates of p-cresol were determined at ambient concentrations. Phenol, cresol isomers (o-, m-, and p-), catechols, and methoxyphenols were the predominant phenolic materials identified. Concentrations ranged from about 2.5 to 370 ng[center dot]1[sup [minus]1]. Biodegradation rates of p-cresol were measured in five coastal areas. Rates of microbial utilization were high, up to 35.5 ng[center dot]1[sup [minus]1][center dot]hr[sup [minus]1] in San Francisco Bay. Turnover times were calculated using the measured ambient concentration of p-cresol and ranged from 1.72 hours (San Francisco Bay) to 37 hours (at Spanish Landing in San Diego Bay). Utilization kinetics indicated microbial degradation of more complex, humic type material containing phenolic moieties. It is concluded biodegradation of phenolic compounds plays a major role in the biogeochemistry of organic materials in coastal marine environments. Rates for the breakdown of the phenolic component of humic materials in estuarine environments indicate that microbially mediated turnover times are considerably faster than for other means suggested, such as photodegradation or sedimentation.

Boyd, T.J.

1993-01-01

128

The Marine Realms Information Bank Family of Digital Libraries: Access to Free Online Information for Coastal and Marine Science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

2007-01-01

129

Coastal habitats as surrogates for taxonomic, functional and trophic structures of benthic faunal communities.  

PubMed

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-10-22

130

Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities  

PubMed Central

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning.

Tornroos, Anna; Nordstrom, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

131

Temporal variations in abundance and composition of intact polar lipids in North Sea coastal marine water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but possible phosphorous limitation during the spring bloom did not result in changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, whilst IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year did not result in major shifts in IPL composition. This shows that the most commonly occurring IPLs have limited chemotaxonomic potential, and highlights the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

2011-09-01

132

Community Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: North Sulawesi Early Stage Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), is a cooperative initiative between the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), aimed at decentralized and strengthened coastal resources management in Indonesia. It has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Proyek

J. Johnnes Tulungen; Priciellia Kussoy; Brian R. Crawford

133

Canada's Atlantic Coastal Action Program: A community-based approach to collective governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP) is a community-based coastal management initiative that has been underway on Canada's east coast for the past 6 years. Coalitions of local stakeholders have been assisted by government in taking a lead role for the planning and management activities in 13 coastal ecosystems throughout Atlantic Canada. The program was initiated and originally facilitated by

James P. Ellsworth; Lawrence P. Hildebrand; E. Anne Glover

1997-01-01

134

Marine lipids in a cold coastal ecosystem: Gilbert Bay, Labrador  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some organisms living in coastal bays in Newfoundland and Labrador have to contend with sub-zero temperatures for most of the year. The goal of this study was to examine the lipid composition of the food web in such an environment in order to obtain information on essential nutrients and trophic relations. In August 2000, plankton, 16 species of macroinvertebrates, and

L. A. Copeman; C. C. Parrish

2003-01-01

135

North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Four: Coastal Beginnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are simulations, puzzles, class discussions, crafts and other activities designed to introduce the past cultures of North Carolina's coastal peoples to elementary and secondary students. The manual is one of several produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under the "Man and the Seacoast" project with Sea Grant…

Mauldin, Lundie, Ed.; And Others

136

Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)|

Wallace, Bruce

1974-01-01

137

Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

Wallace, Bruce

1974-01-01

138

Forecasting Effects of Sewage Solids on Marine Benthic Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solids from marine municipal discharges settle to the sea bottom where they cause major but potentially reversible changes in the biomass and trophic structure of macrobenthic communities. The relationships may be useful in forecasting changes in the size...

A. J. Mearns J. Q. Word

1982-01-01

139

The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters\\/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282–16.891) items\\/km2, with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size

Peng Zhou; Chuguang Huang; Hongda Fang; Weixu Cai; Dongmei Li; Xiaomin Li; Hansheng Yu

2011-01-01

140

The role of the Australian Coastcare program in community-based coastal management: a case study from South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal management (CBCM) is recognised globally as an integral feature of integrated coastal management. There are numerous and varied examples of CBCM programs ranging from community driven models to government implemented and coordinated ones. Little evaluation has been undertaken on such coastal programs so there is limited information about the performance of local coastal projects. This paper examines Australia's

Nick Harvey; Beverley D Clarke; Patricia Carvalho

2001-01-01

141

Atmospheric Deposition and Nitrogen Pollution in Coastal Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first appreciation of the widespread occurrence of acid rain in North America (Likens and Bormann 1974), most public attention has focused on the acid component rather than effects from the associated elements in atmospheric\\u000a deposition. The emphasis has been on freshwater ecosystems and forests in sensitive regions with relatively low buffering\\u000a capacity. Effects of acid deposition on coastal

Robert W. Howarth

142

Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.  

PubMed

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2012-03-01

143

Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

2012-03-01

144

Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

2012-08-01

145

The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.  

PubMed

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4) metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J

2010-10-11

146

Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical evacuation methodology was intended to provide key information to better understand and mitigate risk caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, thus it is possible to mitigate hazard for a community with only several large vertical evacuation shelters. It is able to provide a framework for a vertical evacuation plan and for the mitigation of collapse risk and fatalities of structures and a community based on a limited amount of information.

Park, Sangki

147

Quarternary Deformation of Western Baja California, Mexico, as Indicated by Marine Terraces and Associated Deposits. Coastal Dune Systems of Northwest Baja California, Mexico. Coastal Salt Marshes of Northwest Baja California, Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Quaternary deformation of Western Baja California, Mexico, as Indicated by Marine Terraces and Associated Deposits; Coastal dune systems of Northwest Baja California, Mexico; Coastal salt marshes of Northwest Baja California, Mexico.

A. R. Orme

1973-01-01

148

Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

2008-12-01

149

Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System: images portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System promotes quantitative Earth Science education with models through its images portal, which has collections of images of terrestrial, coastal, and marine environments.

System, Community S.

150

Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life  

SciTech Connect

Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

2011-07-01

151

The record of climatic change in the geological archives of shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas of Northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The record of climatic change in shallow marine, coastal, and adjacent lowland areas has been investigated by three different approaches. A mass balance study focused on the interaction between sea-level rise and Holocene sediment accumulation in the coastal lowland area between the Ems and Weser rivers on the German North Sea coast. This region, which comprises various sedimentary environments, such

G. Gerdes; B. E. M Petzelberger; B. M Scholz-Böttcher; H Streif

2003-01-01

152

Development of a Late Quaternary Marine Terraced Landscape during On-Going Tectonic Contraction, Crescent City Coastal Plain, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crescent City coastal plain is a low-lying surface of negligible relief that lies on the upper plate of the Cascadia subduction zone in northernmost California. Whereas coastal reaches to the north in southern Oregon and to the south near Cape Mendocino contain flights of deformed marine terraces from which a neotectonic history can be deduced, equivalent terraces on the

Michael Polenz; Harvey M. Kelsey

1999-01-01

153

Microalgal communities epibiontic on the marine hydroid Eudendrium racemosum in the Ligurian Sea during an annual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microalgal community associated with Eudendrium racemosum, a marine hydroid widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea, was studied during an annual cycle, at monthly frequency,\\u000a in a coastal station of the Ligurian Sea. Microalgae were represented mainly by diatoms, which exhibited higher abundance\\u000a and biomass values between autumn and spring (max 46,752 cells mm?2 and 1.94 ?g C mm?2, respectively), while during summer a

Tiziana Romagnoli; Giorgio Bavestrello; Emellina M. Cucchiari; Mario De Stefano; Cristina G. Di Camillo; Chiara Pennesi; Stefania Puce; Cecilia Totti

2007-01-01

154

Coastal Marsh Sediments from Bodega Harbor: Archives of Environmental Changes at the Terrestrial-Marine Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal marsh sediments provide an important archive of environmental changes at the terrestrial-marine interface. Over the last century, humans have significantly altered the coastal environment near Bodega Bay, California, through changes in hydrology, sediment sources, and the dominant ecosystem. Previous investigations of recent coastal marsh sediments (< 50 years) suggest that physical barriers, such as roads, which limit the connection between Bodega Bay and the marshes, alters biogeochemical cycling (including carbon storage) in the coastal environment. The present study extends the record of changes in biogeochemical cycling in the coastal marshes back more than 100 years (approximately 90 cm) through the use of grain size analysis, C and N isotopes, and age dating. Sediments were analyzed for grain size distribution, the amount of carbon and nitrogen, and the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in 1 cm intervals throughout the core. In addition, a subset of eight samples was analyzed for sediment age using a combination of Pb-210 and Cs-137 techniques. Sediments from >40 cm and <55 cm depth have a higher percentage of fine-grained sediment (>2%). In addition, these sediments also contain higher levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen, higher C:N ratios, we well as heavier carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. The sediments likely correspond to a pre-1900 depositional environment based on Pb-210 dates, when development in the region was increasing. These results suggest a stronger influence of the marine environment during that time. Interestingly, smaller transitions in sediment properties toward what appears to reflect a more marine environment also occur near the top of the core (<10 cm depth) and near the bottom of the core (>75 cm depth). Although these transitions are less pronounced, the significant shift in sediment properties suggests a less stable environment with greater communication between the terrestrial and marine environments. Results from this investigation suggest that the Bodega Bay coastal marshes are continually evolving in response to environmental changes, and insights from this research will lead to greater understanding of the impacts of increasing population, construction, and changing vegetation and hydrology on the coastal environment.

Rademacher, L. K.; Rong, Y.; Hill, T. M.; Hiromoto, C.; Fisher, A.

2010-12-01

155

A multicomponent reactive transport model of early diagenesis: Application to redox cycling in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

STEADYSED is a multicomponent reactive transport code for steady-state early diagenesis which fully incorporates the reaction couplings among the elements, C, O, N, S, Fe, and Mn. The model is tested against extensive datasets collected by Canfield et al. (1993a,b) at three coastal marine sites that exhibit high rates of combined iron and manganese (hydr)oxide reduction. It is shown that

Yifeng Wang; Philippe Van Cappellen

1996-01-01

156

Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Marine Environments in Coastal Waters of Galicia (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from marine environments were character- ized by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic resistance, and the distribution of the different types in the coastal waters were subsequently analyzed. Five phage types were identified among the isolates (PT41, PT135, PT99, DT104, and DT193). PT135 isolates were exclusively detected during the

Jaime Martinez-Urtaza; Ernesto Liebana; Lourdes Garcia-Migura; Pelayo Perez-Pineiro; Montserrat Saco

2004-01-01

157

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in blue mussel from marine coastal water in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are tricyclic aromatic compounds containing 75 specific isomers. Some of the isomers with chlorine substitutions at 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions in their molecules have been reported to be extraordinary toxic. In this paper, the pollution degree of PCDDs in marine coastal water in our country was examined by using blue mussel as a biological indicator because it provided an effective trapping mechanism for many environmental pollutants.

Miyata, H.; Takayama, K.; Ogaki, J.; Kashimoto, T.; Fukushima, S.

1987-11-01

158

Holocene marine terraces and tectonic uplift in the Waimarama coastal plain, eastern North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waimamma coastal plain, eastern North Island. New Zealand. is a sheltered progradational plain preserving two marine terraces (terrace I and terrace II) partly overlain by sand dunes. Paleoshoreline heights of terrace I decrease southwards from c. 10 m to 5 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.1.), and those of terrace II decrease from 4 to 1.5 m a.m.s.1. Four

Takahiro Miyauchi; Yoko Ota; Alan G. Hull

1989-01-01

159

Significance of Mn and Fe for growth of coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of Mn and Fe for the growth of a coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii was investigated by performing culture experiments containing macronutrients with either Mn or Fe, or both. Only the addition\\u000a of both Mn and Fe induced the highest growth rates and maximal cell yields. Maximal growth was maintained in continuous culture\\u000a media, which were repeatedly prepared

Satomi Ushizaka; Kohji Sugie; Masumi Yamada; Mariko Kasahara; Kenshi Kuma

2008-01-01

160

Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches.  

PubMed

We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution. PMID:19458658

Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke

2009-05-21

161

Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the inertinite and vascular tissue facies. The vascular tissue facies occurs in the proximal prodelta and nearshore shallow shelf lithofacies of early Maestrichtian age. Baed in the sequence of organuic facies, dinoflagellate species abundance, and lithofacies in the investigated wells, the nonmarine and coastal inertinite facies was first deposited and was followed during the late Campanian by a marine trangression when the nearshore amorphous debris facies was deposited. This was followed in the early Maestrichtian by the influx of terrigenous organic matter (vascular tissue facies) in response to deltaic progradation on the shallow shelf. A marine regression occured towards the close of the early Maestrichtian, emplacing the coastal inertinite facies. The major marine transgression occured near the end of the early Maestrichtian, developing a farther offshore amorphous debris facies on an expanded continental shelf which persisted through the late Maestrichtian. The inertinite facies returned during marine regression in the approximate position of the Maestrichtian/Danian boudnary. ?? 1989.

Habib, D.; Miller, J. A.

1989-01-01

162

Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing  

PubMed Central

In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process.

DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Brauer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

2012-01-01

163

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

Microsoft Academic Search

California's coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate

G. B. Griggs; N. Russell

2010-01-01

164

Invasion of toxic marine cyanobacteria in to the tsunami affected coastal villages of southern India.  

PubMed

This documentation explores the facts about the invasion of marine cyanobacteria in to the tsunami affected coastal villages of Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu and Karaikkal district of Pondicherry Union Territory (UT) in southern India. Water samples were collected from eight tsunami-hit coastal villages in different open water sources. The collected samples were processed for detecting marine cyanobacterial growth. Totally 110 water samples were processed, three samples were positive for the toxic cyanobacteria, Lyngbya sp., and nine for nontoxic species such as Epithemia sp.,, Johannesbaptistia pellucida, Oscillatoria princeps, Phormidium fragile, Synechocystis sp. Besides posing a public health risk because of the toxic cyanobacteria, the bloom formation by the cyanobacterial species such as Anabaena, Microcystis, Lyngbya, Plectonema, Phormidium contaminated the water bodies and deteriorated the water quality in the tsunami affected villages. The study revealed that another kind of public health risk from the invasion of toxic cyanobacteria to the costal ecosystem during the tsunami. It is necessary, in this context, that the surveillance mechanism, which is geared up during or after natural disasters, should have a provision to monitor the transportation of toxic elements/organisms from marine system to coastal/inland ecosystems and to control such organisms. PMID:22471172

Muthukumaravel, S; Padmanabhan, V; Boopathidoss, P S; Sadanandane, C; Srinivasan, R; Gunasekaran, K; Sabesan, S; Balaraman, K

2010-06-01

165

Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the measurements that were made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially exposed

G. McFiggans; C. S. E. Bale; S. M. Ball; J. M. Beames; W. J. Bloss; L. J. Carpenter; J. Dorsey; R. Dunk; M. J. Flynn; K. L. Furneaux; M. W. Gallagher; D. E. Heard; A. M. Hollingsworth; K. Hornsby; T. Ingham; C. E. Jones; R. L. Jones; L. J. Kramer; J. M. Langridge; C. Leblanc; J.-P. Lecrane; J. D. Lee; R. J. Leigh; I. Longley; A. S. Mahajan; P. S. Monks; H. Oetjen; A. J. Orr-Ewing; J. M. C. Plane; P. Potin; A. J. L. Shillings; F. Thomas; R. von Glasow; R. Wada; L. K. Whalley; J. D. Whitehead

2009-01-01

166

Iodine-mediated coastal particle formation: an overview of the Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) Roscoff coastal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of the measurements made during the heavily-instrumented Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) coastal study in Roscoff on the North West coast of France throughout September 2006. It was clearly demonstrated that iodine-mediated coastal particle formation occurs, driven by daytime low tide emission of molecular iodine, I2, by macroalgal species fully or partially

G. McFiggans; C. S. E. Bale; S. M. Ball; J. M. Beames; W. J. Bloss; L. J. Carpenter; J. Dorsey; R. Dunk; M. J. Flynn; K. L. Furneaux; M. W. Gallagher; D. E. Heard; A. M. Hollingsworth; K. Hornsby; T. Ingham; C. E. Jones; R. L. Jones; L. J. Kramer; J. M. Langridge; C. Leblanc; J.-P. Lecrane; J. D. Lee; R. J. Leigh; I. Longley; A. S. Mahajan; P. S. Monks; H. Oetjen; A. J. Orr-Ewing; J. M. C. Plane; P. Potin; A. J. L. Shillings; F. Thomas; R. von Glasow; R. Wada; L. K. Whalley; J. D. Whitehead

2010-01-01

167

Hypoxia and benthic community recovery in Korean coastal waters.  

PubMed

Low dissolved oxygen (hypoxia and/or anoxia) has become a major cause of change to the benthic component of ecosystems around the world. We present the response of a benthic community to hypoxia in organically enriched environments in Korean coastal waters. Disturbances due to low dissolved oxygen (DO), and organic enrichment altered community dynamics, result in defaunation during summer hypoxia with delayed recolonization occurring in winter. As DO decreased, the number of taxa, their abundance and biomass of macrofauna dropped significantly at inner bay stations in Chinhae Bay and Youngsan River estuarine bay affected by hypoxia. With the return of normoxic conditions in Chinhae Bay, recolonization was initiated by opportunistic species, with a 1-4months lag. The polychaetes, Sigambra tentaculata, Mesochaetopterus sp., and Lumbrineris longifolia, were most persistent under hypoxia. The first recolonizers were the polychaetes Paraprionospio pinnata, S. tantaculata, Glycinde gurjanovae and Nectoneanthes multignatha and the bivalve Theora fragilis. The second group of colonizers included the polychaetes Capitella capitata, Mesochaetopterus sp. and L. longifolia, and the bivalve Raetellops pulchella. Hypoxic and near anoxic conditions resulted in mass mortality in Chinhae Bay and Youngsan River estuarine bay, but communities did partially recover after return to normoxic conditions despite delayed recolonization. PMID:16860829

Lim, Hyun-Sig; Diaz, Robert J; Hong, Jae-Sang; Schaffner, Linda C

2006-05-22

168

Environmental contamination using accumulation of metals in marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata inhabiting the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marine ecosystems in many parts of the world are under unrelenting stress caused by urban development, pollutants and other ecological impacts such as building of infrastructure, land reclamation for port and industrial development, habitat modification, tourism and recreational activities. The present work is a first extensive field study using the marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata as a bioindicator to detect

J. Venkateswara Rao; P. Kavitha; K. Srikanth; P. K. Usman; T. Gnaneshwar Rao

2007-01-01

169

Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India.  

PubMed

The data on the fallout (137)Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of (137)Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The (137)Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m(-3). The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III). PMID:22652195

Jha, S K; Gothankar, S S; Sartandel, S; Pote, M B; Hemalatha, P; Rajan, M P; Vidyasagar, D; Indumati, S P; Shrivastava, R; Puranik, V D

2012-05-30

170

Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume II  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Thirty-one papers were selected for the database from Volume 2 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 2 include: optics and models; air-sea interactions and sea ice; sensors and information systems; hyperspectral sensors and applications; charting and mapping; and color imagery.

NONE

1997-08-01

171

Estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystem restoration: Confusing management and science A revision of concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor; and habitat enhancement or creation. A conceptual framework for restoration and recovery of marine marginal and semi-enclosed areas is presented after exploring and refining the plethora of terms used in restoration science and management. Examples of management action are given including managed realignment and the restoration of docks, biogenic reefs, saltmarsh, seagrass, beaches and upper estuarine water quality. We emphasise that although recovery techniques are worthwhile if they can be carried out, they rarely (if ever) fully replace lost habitat. Moreover, while they may have some success in marginal or semi-enclosed areas such as coastal bays, estuaries and fringing habitats, they are less relevant to open coastal and marine habitats. Therefore the best option available in the latter can only be to remove the stressor, as the cause of any change, to prevent other stressors from operating and to allow the conditions suitable for natural recovery. This review emphasises that whereas some ecological concepts related to restoration are well understood, for example, the nature of ecosystem structure and functioning, others such as carrying capacity, resilience and ecosystem goods and services are still poorly quantified for the marine and estuarine environments. The linking between these ecological concepts and the management framework is also relatively recent but is required to give a holistic approach to understanding, managing and manipulating these environments.

Elliott, Michael; Burdon, Daryl; Hemingway, Krystal L.; Apitz, Sabine E.

2007-09-01

172

Traditional authority and community leadership: Key factors in community-based marine resource management and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based marine resource management (CBMRM) is more widespread in Oceania than in other tropical region. In this article, I examine the relationship between community leadership and CBMRM, based on a Fijian example. During 2004, sociological community surveys were conducted in five commu- nities on two remote islands, to investigate the status of local traditional authority, with strong leadership being deemed

Annette Muehlig-Hofmann

2007-01-01

173

Field Evaluation of Seepage Meters in the Coastal Marine Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of seepage meters was evaluated in a nearshore marine environment where water motion effects are more pronounced than in lake settings, where these meters have been used traditionally. Temporal and spatial variations of seepage, as well as potential artifacts, were evaluated using empty and 1000-ml pre-filled bag measurements. Time-series measurements confirmed earlier observations that anomalously high fluxes occur during the early stages (?10 min) of collection. As deployment times increased (30-60 min), measured flow rates stabilized at a level thought to represent the actual seepage flux. Pre-filling the plastic measurement bags effectively alleviated this anomalous, short-term influx. Reliable seepage measurements required deployment times sufficient to allow a net volume of at least 150 ml into the collection bag. Control experiments, designed by placing seepage meters inside sand-filled plastic swimming pools, served as indicators of external effects on these measurements, i.e. they served as seepage meter blanks. When winds were under 15 knots, little evidence was found that water motion caused artifacts in the seepage measurements. Tidal cycle influences on seepage rates were negligible in the present study area, but long-term temporal variations (weeks to months) proved substantial. Observed long-term changes in groundwater flux into the Gulf of Mexico correlated with water table elevation at a nearby monitoring well.

Cable, J. E.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Cable, P. H.

1997-09-01

174

Use of a Phytoplankton Community Index to assess the health of coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of marine-ecosystem status and health requires indicators of community structure and function. As a structural indicator, we propose a Phytoplankton Community Index (PCI) based on the abundance of \\

P. Tett; C. Carreira; D. K. Mills; S. van Leeuwen; J. Foden; E. Bresnan; R. J. Gowen

2008-01-01

175

Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), a cooperative initiative of the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Many of the issues in the province, and models being es- tablished through

Brian R. Crawford; I. M. Dutton; C. Rotinsulu; L. Z. Hale

176

Jasmine growers of coastal Karnataka: Grassroots sustainable community-based enterprise in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of the jasmine flower growers in coastal Karnataka is an example of a local successful grassroots enterprise that has proved robust for over 70 years. The aim of this research is to examine the history, mechanisms, interconnectedness, and success of the jasmine growing program in coastal Karnataka and assess its compatibility with the community-based enterprise (CBE) model as

Femida Handy; Ram A. Cnaan; Ganesh Bhat; Lucas C. P. M. Meijs

2011-01-01

177

Managed retreat of coastal communities: understanding responses to projected sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed retreat – the relocation of homes and infrastructure under threat from coastal flooding – is one of the few policy options available for coastal communities facing long-term risks from accelerated sea level rise. At present, little is known about how the Australian public perceives policy options to mitigate sea level rise risks. This paper explores a range of different

Kim S. Alexander; Anthony Ryan; Thomas G. Measham

2011-01-01

178

Managed retreat of coastal communities: understanding responses to projected sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed retreat – the relocation of homes and infrastructure under threat from coastal flooding – is one of the few policy options available for coastal communities facing long-term risks from accelerated sea level rise. At present, little is known about how the Australian public perceives policy options to mitigate sea level rise risks. This paper explores a range of different

Kim S. Alexander; Anthony Ryan; Thomas G. Measham

2012-01-01

179

New Sequence Types and Multidrug Resistance among Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Coastal Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

The spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is widely recognized, but data about their sources, presence, and significance in marine environments are still limited. We examined 109 Escherichia coli strains from coastal marine sediments carrying virulence genes for antibiotic susceptibility, specific resistance genes, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons, and sequence type. Antibiotic resistance was found in 35% of strains, and multiple resistances were found in 14%; the resistances detected most frequently were against tetracycline (28%), ampicillin (16.5%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13%), and streptomycin (7%). The highest prevalence of resistant strains was in phylogenetic group A, whereas phylogroup B2 exhibited a significantly lower frequency than all the other groups. Sixty percent of multiresistant strains harbored class 1 or 2 integrase genes, and about 50% carried resistance genes (particularly dfrA and aadA) linked to a class 1 integron. Multilocus sequence typing of 14 selected strains identified eight different types characteristic of extraintestinal pathogens and three new allelic combinations. Our data suggest that coastal marine sediment may be a suitable environment for the survival of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains capable of contributing to resistance spread via integrons among benthic bacteria, and they highlight a role for these strains in the emergence of new virulent genotypes.

Luna, G. M.; Rinaldi, C.; Di Cesare, A.; Danovaro, R.; Biavasco, F.

2012-01-01

180

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox): Implications for N2 production in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The respiratory reduction of nitrate (denitrification) is acknowledged as the most important process that converts biologically available nitrogen to gaseous dinitrogen (N2) in marine ecosystems. Recent findings, however, indicate that anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox) may be an important pathway for N2 formation and N removal in coastal marine sediments and in anoxic water columns of the oceans. In the present study, we explored this novel mechanism during N mineralization by 15N amendments (single and coupled additions of 15NH4+, 14NO3- and 15NO3-) to surface sediments with a wide range of characteristics and overall reactivity. Patterns of 29/30N2 production in the pore water during closed sediment incubations demonstrated anammox at all 7 of the investigated sites. Stoichiometric calculations revealed that 4% to 79% of total N2 production was due to this novel route. The relative importance of anammox for N2 release was inversely correlated with remineralized solute production, benthic O2 consumption, and surface sediment Chl a. The observed correlations indicate competition between reductants for pore water nitrite during early diagenesis and that additional factors (e.g. availability of Mn-oxides), superimposed on overall patterns of diagenetic activity, are important for determining absolute and relative rates of anammox in coastal marine sediments.

Engström, Pia; Dalsgaard, Tage; Hulth, Stefan; Aller, Robert C.

2005-04-01

181

Microbial genetic diversity and ciliate community structure along an environmental gradient in coastal soil.  

PubMed

We investigated the microbial genetic diversity and ciliate community in coastal soil from five sites with an environmental gradient using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene sequencing and the Ludox-QPS method. The analyses of both the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 18S rRNA gene DGGE resulted in equal or even a higher number of bands found in the samples taken from the high-salinity sites IV and V than in those taken from the low-to-moderate-salinity sites I-III. Cluster analysis of both DGGE profiles classified the five sites into three main groups (sites I, II and III and IV and V), which corresponded well to the analysis of environmental factors. There were 13 species observed at site I, three species at site II and nine species at site III, while no active ciliates were observed at the high-salinity sites IV and V. By contrast, the ciliate-specific DGGE revealed a higher number of bands in the samples taken from the high-salinity soil. Furthermore, gene sequencing suggested that the ciliates in the high-salinity soil comprised forms originating not only from soil but also from marine environments. The data indicate that saline soil may maintain a high diversity of ciliates and soil salinity might be the most influential factor regulating the community structure of ciliates. PMID:23639872

Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

2013-04-30

182

Understanding the role of organic aerosol in the coastal and remote Pacific marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected over three field experiments in the remote and coastal marine boundary layer of the eastern Pacific Ocean from aircraft, ship, and stationary platforms and were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge Absorption Fine Structure (STXM-NEXAFS) for organic functional groups and organic mass fragments. X-ray uorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to investigate the elemental composition of the analyzed particles. The aim of these studies was to better characterize particle sources and composition in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL), where aerosol-cloud interactions play an important role in controlling the reflectivity of the large cloud decks. Particle composition was linked to distinct particle sources including primary marine emissions, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion. Fossil fuel combustion particles were characterized by large contributions from saturated alkane and carboxylic acid groups. Biomass burning aerosol particles were characterized as mixtures of alkane, carboxylic acid, and ketone groups, consistent with biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles observed in chamber studies. Photochemical aging of the transported smoke particles was observed on diurnal and multi-day timescales as an increase in the relative amount of oxygenated groups and oxygen-containing molecular fragments. Marine primary organic aerosol (POA) particles were observed in shipboard samples and were characterized by large contributions from organic hydroxyl groups, suggesting a carbohydrate-containing source in the ocean surface emitted during bubble bursting. Marine particles were also identified in single particle STXM-NEXAFS and were classified into four distinct categories including soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, proteins, and calcareous phytoplankton fragments. The presence of oxidized (polar) organic components---ketone, organic hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid groups---in submicron particles suggests that many of the measured particles could contribute to cloud condensation nuclei number concentration and mass in both open ocean and coastal regions. Together, these measurements show that marine POA provides a significant contribution to submicron particle mass in the clean MBL, whereas fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning emissions contribute the majority of the organic mass in coastal regions.

Hawkins, Lelia Nahid

183

North Carolina Marine Education Manual. Connections: Guide to Marine Resources, Living Marine Systems and Coastal Field Trips.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of teaching and resource materials is designed to help middle school teachers put marine perspectives into their lessons. Materials are organized into three parts. Part 1 describes the preparation and maintenance of brackish water aquariums, marine aquariums, and touch tanks. Activities related to and sources of information on…

Spence, L.; Medlicott, J.

184

Fish communities and river alteration in the Seine Basin and nearby coastal streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variation of quality of fish communities in the whole Seine basin and nearby coastal streams were examined by the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). The relationship between quality of fish communities and river alteration was also studied. A trend of fish community degradation was found from the periphery to the centre of the basin and from upstream to downstream.

Jérôme Belliard; Romuald Berrebi dit Thomas; David Monnier

1999-01-01

185

Ethnobotany of Atlantic Forest Coastal Communities: II. Diversity of Plant Uses at Sepetiba Bay (SE Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an ethnobotanical study of Atlantic Forest coastal communities located at Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Atlantic Forest remnants are top priority conservation areas, and include native communities that depend on fish and small-scale agriculture. We conducted fieldwork in the community of Calhaus (Jaguanum Island) from 1989 to 1991, and interviewed adults on their use of plants.

Gisela M. Figueiredo; Hermógenes F. Leitão-Filho; Alpina Begossi

1997-01-01

186

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY ALTERED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN COASTAL WATERS. (R825243)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human-based (anthropogenic) nutrient and other pollutant enrichment of the world's coastal waters is causing unprecedented changes in microbial community structure and function. Symptoms of these changes include accelerating eutrophication, the proliferation of harmful microal...

187

FORECASTING EFFECTS OF SEWAGE SOLIDS ON MARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Solids from marine municipal discharges settle to the sea bottom where they cause major but potentially reversible changes in the biomass and trophic structure of macrobenthic communities. The relationships may be useful in forecasting changes in the size and structure of benthic...

188

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

189

Do anthropogenic or coastal aerosol sources impact on a clean marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head North East (N.E.) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station to that of aerosol over the open ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to enhanced coastal sources, thereby leading to artificially high values to aerosol parameters, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol and its potential dominance over, or drowning-out of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here we review the results of previous experimental studies into marine aerosols over the N.E. Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of an open ocean aerosol with negligible anthropogenic influence. Particular focus is given to organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations up to peak values of 3.8 ?g m-3 are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing corroborate the natural source of OM with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean air conditions, rising to 98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak concentrations >3 ?g m-3 are observed. A range of other experiments are discussed which corroborate the dominance of a marine signal under Mace Head clean air criteria along. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head clean air criteria ensures anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a dominant, if not at times, an overwhelming natural marine aerosol signal.

O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2013-03-01

190

Victims or vectors: a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1-4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5-13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health. PMID:18828560

Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Ellis, Julie C; Dennett, Mark; Pugliares, Katie R; Lentell, Betty J; Moore, Michael J

2008-08-19

191

Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the July/August pages of BioScience is about the need for a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. The conservation and sustainable use of marine resources is a highlighted goal on a growing number of national and international policy agendas. Unfortunately, efforts to assess progress, as well as to strategically plan and prioritize new marine conservation measures, have been hampered by the lack of a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. Here we report on a new global system for coastal and shelf areas: the Marine Ecoregions of the World, or MEOW, a nested system of 12 realms, 62 provinces, and 232 ecoregions. This system provides considerably better spatial resolution than earlier global systems, yet it preserves many common elements and can be cross-referenced to many regional biogeographic classifications. The designation of terrestrial ecoregions has revolutionized priority setting and planning for terrestrial conservation; we anticipate similar benefits from the use of a coherent and credible marine system.

MARK D. SPALDING, HELEN E. FOX, GERALD R. ALLEN, NICK DAVIDSON, ZACH A. FERDAÃÂA, MAX FINLAYSON, BENJAMIN S. HALPERN, MIGUEL A. JORGE, AL LOMBANA, SARA A. LOURIE, KIRSTEN D. MARTIN, EDMUND MCMANUS, JENNIFER MOLNAR, CHERI A. RECCHIA, JAMES ROBERTSON (;)

2007-07-01

192

Effects of thermal effluents on communities of benthic marine macroalgae  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of marine benthic macro-algae were made at two study areas receiving thermal effluents from power plants. A third, at an area where a natural thermal gradient exists, was investigated for comparison. Ordination analysis of the algal communities indicated changes in species composition of about 10% for each degree of temperature change up to 3/sup 0/C. Temperatures 7/sup 0/C above ambient altered the algal community by eliminating the large phaeophytes. Temperatures 10/sup 0/C above ambient left only a species-poor community of ephemeral populations.

Devinny; J.S.

1980-11-01

193

Geographical patterns of dominant bivalves and a polychaete in Europe: no metapopulations in the marine coastal zone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genetic diversity, differentiation and performance of some dominant invertebrates in the marine coastal zone of Europe are reviewed in order to discuss the use of the metapopulation concept in the marine coastal realm. A consistently high genetic diversity of the species studied (mussels of the Mytilus edulis complex, Baltic clams Macoma balthica and lugworms Arenicola marina), a low differentiation and an almost uniform ecophysiological performance (determined by growth, maximum length, level reserve constituents or stress resistance) all along the coast of Europe do not support the use of the metapopulation concept.

Hummel, Herman

2002-12-01

194

Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

Hay, Mark E.

2012-01-01

195

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California’s coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate change and sea level rise, local government staff is typically removed from this information and often lack the time or resources necessary for keeping up with the most recent information. Specifically, there is a disconnect between the latest science and the practice of coastal planners in dealing with sea level rise issues. Improving the transfer of relevant information and resources from scientists to decision-makers should encourage and assist local governments in their responses to this developing issue. Designing and implementing adaptation plans and developing policies for sea level rise are challenging. Each coastal community is unique in its geographic setting and demographics and therefore faces vulnerabilities that differ from those of other communities. Uplift and subsidence, for example, cause regional variations in the rate of sea level rise. Planning staff needs to understand the local impacts of sea level rise in order to take appropriate actions. Even when the potential threats are reasonably well understood, the gradual nature of sea level rise can make it hard to formulate, approve and implement policies that may not affect communities for decades to come. Fortunately, there are tools and resources available to assist planners. Several communities in California have recently completed climate change adaptation plans or are in the process of preparing such plans. However, these documents are not focused solely upon the specific issues associated with sea level rise. A study is underway to fill that void, which includes the development of an informative guide for local government agencies to use in the preparation of sea level rise vulnerability studies and in formulating adaptation plans. This project will identify: 1) the range of sea level rise hazards and issues facing California’s coastal cities and counties in the decades ahead; 2) the types of information or data needed for making vulnerability assessments; 3) the range of adaptation strategies available based upon the severity of the hazards and potential future impacts; and 4) appropriate response recommendations. Two communities have been selected for specific sea level rise vulnerability assessment studies, which involves working with agency staff from the selected communities to identify the current issues, concerns and problem areas. The experience and information gained from working with local government agencies will inform the guidebook’s development. The final products of this research include sea level rise adaptation plans for two local coastal communities as well as a guide to be made available to all of California’s coastal cities and counties.

Griggs, G. B.; Russell, N.

2010-12-01

196

New algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and marine parameters in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and marine parameters in coastal waters from ocean color data using a new inversion algorithm, Ocean Color: Simultaneous Marine and Aerosol Retrieval Tool (OC-SMART). The OC-SMART algorithm uses a one-step nonlinear optimal estimation/Levenberg-Marquardt method instead of the traditional two-step look-up table approach to improve retrieval accuracy, and a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) to replace the forward radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-water system and thereby increase retrieval speed without loss of accuracy. Previous results have shown that the retrieval speed of OC-SMART was increased by a factor of about 1,500 due to the RBF-NN training. We will discuss applications of OC-SMART to analyze SeaWiFS. MERIS, and MODIS images obtained over coastal waters. Five parameters are obtained from the retrieval: aerosol optical depth, aerosol bi-modal fraction, chlorophyll concentration, CDOM absorption, and backscattering coefficient. The water leaving radiance is provided as a by-product. The retrieval results will be compared with in situ and match-up data as well as with retrieval results obtained from the standard MERIS algorithm or produced by the SeaDAS software package.

Stamnes, K.; Li, W.; Fan, Y.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Folkestad, A.; Sørensen, K.; Stamnes, J. J.

2012-04-01

197

Two Decades of Community Researchon Gas in Shallow Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments; Listvyanka, Russia, 6-12 September 2010 ; The Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments was held near Irkutsk, Russia, and was attended by 120 participants from 19 countries. The GIMS conference series has provided biannual discussions that have knit disparate researchers into a scientific community. The setting was important because the adjacent Lake Baikal contains the only documented freshwater hydrate methane seepage (methane hydrate is a metastable ice at high pressures and low temperatures) due to its great depth (1637 meters). The conference included 72 oral and 47 poster presentations and a day cruise during which gas hydrates were retrieved.

Leifer, Ira; Hovland, Martin; Zemskaya, Tamara

2011-04-01

198

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

199

Floating marine debris in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (Chile).  

PubMed

Herein we report on the abundance and composition of floating marine debris (FMD) in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific (off the Chilean coast) during the austral summer 2002. The observed FMD consisted mainly of plastic material (86.9%). Densities of FMD were highest between 20 degrees S and 40 degrees S, corresponding to the main concentrations of human population and activities. Low densities of FMD were found in the south between 40 degrees S and 50 degrees S (<1 item km(-2)). Generally, the highest densities were recorded in nearshore waters of major port cities (>20 items km(-2)), but occasionally high concentrations of debris were also found 50 km offshore. Densities of FMD in coastal waters of the SE-Pacific are of similar magnitudes as those found in coastal waters or inland seas of highly populated regions in the northern hemisphere, indicating the need for improved regulation and legislation in the countries of the SE-Pacific. PMID:12586118

Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I; Vásquez, N; Macaya, E

2003-02-01

200

Marine natural hazards in coastal zone: observations, analysis and modelling (Plinius Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant surface waves approaching the coast frequently cause extensive coastal flooding, destruction of coastal constructions and loss of lives. Such waves can be generated by various phenomena: strong storms and cyclones, underwater earthquakes, high-speed ferries, aerial and submarine landslides. The most famous examples of such events are the catastrophic tsunami in the Indian Ocean, which occurred on 26 December 2004 and hurricane Katrina (28 August 2005) in the Atlantic Ocean. The huge storm in the Baltic Sea on 9 January 2005, which produced unexpectedly long waves in many areas of the Baltic Sea and the influence of unusually high surge created by long waves from high-speed ferries, should also be mentioned as examples of regional marine natural hazards connected with extensive runup of certain types of waves. The processes of wave shoaling and runup for all these different marine natural hazards (tsunami, coastal freak waves, ship waves) are studied based on rigorous solutions of nonlinear shallow-water theory. The key and novel results presented here are: i) parameterization of basic formulas for extreme runup characteristics for bell-shape waves, showing that they weakly depend on the initial wave shape, which is usually unknown in real sea conditions; ii) runup analysis of periodic asymmetric waves with a steep front, as such waves are penetrating inland over large distances and with larger velocities than symmetric waves; iii) statistical analysis of irregular wave runup demonstrating that wave nonlinearity nearshore does not influence on the probability distribution of the velocity of the moving shoreline and its moments, and influences on the vertical displacement of the moving shoreline (runup). Wave runup on convex beaches and in narrow bays, which allow abnormal wave amplification is also discussed. Described analytical results are used for explanation of observed extreme runup of tsunami, freak (sneaker) waves and ship waves on different coasts along different bottom profiles.

Didenkulova, Ira

2010-05-01

201

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 1: Temporal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive analysis was conducted using long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo), reactive mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) sites from the AIRMAP Observatories. Decreasing trends in background Hgo were identified in the 7- and 5-yr records at TF and PM with decline rates of 3.3 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv) yr-1 and 6.3 ppqv yr-1, respectively. Common characteristics at these sites were the reproducible annual cycle of Hgo with its maximum in winter-spring and minimum in fall as well as a decline/increase trend in the warm/cool season. The coastal site TF differed from the other two sites with its exceptionally low levels (as low as below 50 ppqv) in the nocturnal inversion layer probably due to dissolution in dew water. Year-to-year variability was observed in the warm season decline in Hgo at TF varying from a minimum total seasonal loss of 20 ppqv in 2010 to a maximum of 92 ppqv in 2005, whereas variability remained small at AI and PM. Measurements of Hgo at PM, an elevated inland rural site, exhibited the smallest diurnal to annual variability among the three environments, where peak levels rarely exceeded 250 ppqv and the minimum was typically 100 ppqv. It should be noted that summertime diurnal patterns at TF and AI are opposite in phase indicating strong sink(s) for Hgo during the day in the marine boundary layer, which is consistent with the hypothesis of Hgo oxidation by halogen radicals there. Mixing ratios of RGM in the coastal and marine boundary layers reached annual maximum in spring and minimum in fall, whereas at PM levels were generally below the limit of detection (LOD) except in spring. RGM levels at AI were higher than at TF and PM indicating a stronger source strength(s) in the marine environment. Mixing ratios of HgP at AI and TF were close in magnitude to RGM levels and were mostly below 1 ppqv. Diurnal variation in HgP was barely discernible at TF and AI in spring and summer with higher levels during the day and smaller but above the LOD at night.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.

2011-12-01

202

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 1: Temporal variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive analysis was conducted using long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) sites from the AIRMAP Observatories in southern New Hampshire, USA. Decreasing trends in background Hg0 were identified in the 7.5- and 5.5-yr records at TF and PM with decline rates of 3.3 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv) yr-1 and 6.3 ppqv yr-1, respectively. Common characteristics at these sites were the reproducible annual cycle of Hg0 with its maximum in winter-spring and minimum in fall, comprised of a positive trend in the warm season (spring - early fall) and a negative one in the cool season (late fall - winter). Year-to-year variability was observed in the warm season decline in Hg0 at TF varying from a minimum total (complete) seasonal loss of 43 ppqv in 2009 to a maximum of 92 ppqv in 2005, whereas variability remained small at AI and PM. The coastal site TF differed from the other two sites with its exceptionally low levels (as low as below 50 ppqv) in the nocturnal inversion layer possibly due to dissolution in dew water. Measurements of Hg0 at PM exhibited the smallest diurnal to annual variability among the three environments, where peak levels rarely exceeded 250 ppqv and the minimum was typically 100 ppqv. It should be noted that summertime diurnal patterns at TF and AI were opposite in phase indicating strong sink(s) for Hg0 during the day in the marine boundary layer, which was consistent with the hypothesis of Hg0 oxidation by halogen radicals there. Mixing ratios of RGM in the coastal and marine boundary layers reached annual maxima in spring and minima in fall, whereas at PM levels were generally below the limit of detection (LOD) except in spring. RGM levels at AI were higher than at TF and PM indicating a stronger source strength in the marine environment. Mixing ratios of HgP at AI and TF were close in magnitude to RGM levels and were mostly below 1 ppqv. Diurnal variation in HgP was barely discernible at TF and AI in spring and summer. Higher levels of HgP were observed during the day, while values that were smaller, but above the LOD, occurred at night.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.

2012-06-01

203

Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats.The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored.Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another.An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal environmental variation and stochastic events. The long-term monitoring of mat communities on Highborne Cay stromatolites and the resulting model are an important step in understanding morphogenesis of modern marine stromatolites, with implications for interpreting patterns of stromatolite lamination in the geologic record.

Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

2012-07-01

204

Salt spray and edaphic factors maintain dwarf stature and community composition in coastal sandplain heathlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American coastal sandplain heathlands are unique in species composition and vegetation, but the extent to which edaphic factors influence the structure of these communities is currently debated. It was hypothesized that salt spray and edaphic factors maintain the dwarf stature and community composition of heathlands by limiting plant growth and excluding competitively dominant woody species close to the ocean.

Megan E. Griffiths

2006-01-01

205

Bacterial community structure in two sediments with different organic matter content of a tropical coastal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial community structure in two sediments with different organic matter content of a tropical coastal lagoon (Brazil). The size structure of the bacterial benthic communities was studied in two distinct sediments with different organic matter contents (clay and sand) from a shallow eutrophic lagoon (Barra Lagoon), located in the southeastern of Brazil. Samples of sediments were taken from the pelagic

Paulo de Góes

206

Bird community structure across riparian buffer strips of varying width in a coastal temperate forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buffer strips are strips of forest retained along streamsides after harvesting to mitigate negative impacts of forestry on aquatic and riparian fauna and water quality. The capacity of riparian buffer strips of old-growth forest to maintain species richness and abundance of natural bird communities was explored in coastal montane forest on Vancouver Island, Canada. Breeding bird communities in buffer strips

Susan M. Shirley; James N. M. Smith

2005-01-01

207

Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica  

EPA Science Inventory

In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

208

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from exposed seaweed during low tide. Although these events were usually only detected as a mode of particles at a certain size, we were able to link the size of the mode to the growth time of these particles after the initial formation by combining data from several events measured between January 2006 and November 2007 with an air ion spectrometer. Typically, the early growth rates were extremely high, reaching values of several hundred nanometers per hour during the first seconds. The growth rates rapidly decreased and reached values below 1 nm h-1 within 1 h after nucleation. Our results were reproduced with box model calculations. All the obtained growth rates could be explained by the model either by varying the precursor formation time (typically a few seconds) or allowing multiple precursor vapor additions. From the ship-borne measurements, we report the first observations of purely open ocean new particle formation detected in this region. In total, four events were detected during this period, with three having a variable continental influence. An estimated average growth rate in marine conditions was 3 nm h-1 for these events.

Ehn, Mikael; Vuollekoski, Henri; PetäJä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Vana, Marko; Aalto, Pasi; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ceburnis, Darius; Dupuy, Regis; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Kulmala, Markku

2010-09-01

209

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

210

Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era  

PubMed Central

Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling.

Vermeij, Geerat J.

2011-01-01

211

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-02-15

212

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hgp) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the

H. Mao; R. Talbot; J. Hegarty; J. Koermer

2011-01-01

213

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

214

Overcoming Governance and Institutional Barriers to Integrated Coastal Zone, Marine Protected Area, and Tourism Management in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major barriers to addressing complex social–ecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area

Robert B. Powell; Ariel Cuschnir; Prakash Peiris

2009-01-01

215

Investigation of the Ground-Based High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (GB-HIS) in a Coastal Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vertical temperature and moisture profiles from the Ground-Based High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (GB-HIS) are studied for the coastal marine atmosphere. In May 1991 and 1992 the GB-HIS instrument was operated on the Research Vessel Point Sur during...

S. A. Rugg

1992-01-01

216

Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported

Megan E. Moore; Fred A. Goetz; Donald M. van Doornik; Eugene P. Tezak; Thomas P. Quinn; Jose J. Reyes-Tomassini; Barry A. Berejikian; Mark Briffa

2010-01-01

217

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hgo), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hgp) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hgo, RGM, and Hgp from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hgo, RGM, and Hgp) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hgo and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hgo at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hgo. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and Hgp was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and Hgp increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and Hgp through deposition. RGM and Hgp levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. In the coastal region relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3-4 higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD) during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of Hgp at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of Hgp in all seasons in the marine environment.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Hegarty, J.; Koermer, J.

2011-10-01

218

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3-4 to two orders of magnitude higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD) during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of HgP at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Hegarty, J.; Koermer, J.

2012-05-01

219

Community-Scale Wind-Powered Desalination for Selected Coastal Mekong Provinces in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate destabilization is exacerbating water problems in Vietnam, most acutely in the South and Central regions where\\u000a the majority of the inhabited area lies in the low elevation coastal zone. Off-grid community-scale reverse osmosis desalination\\u000a powered by small wind turbines offers a solution to this problem for the coastal fringe of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Using a\\u000a geographical information system

Ha T. Nguyen; Joshua M. Pearce

220

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica).  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M; de Santana, Charles N; Duarte, Carlos M; Marbà, Núria

2012-09-21

221

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marba, Nuria

2012-01-01

222

Spatial patterns in community structure of motile epibenthic fauna in coastal habitats along the Skagerrak - Baltic salinity gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns in community structure and functioning of motile epibenthic fauna were investigated in shallow (0-1 m) sediment habitats along the Skagerrak-Baltic estuarine gradient (salinity range from 4 to 34). The study area was divided into five regions, reflecting different sea-basins along the 1260 km coastline, and fauna was collected at six sites within each region. Ten replicate samples of motile epibenthic fauna were taken randomly at each site with a portable drop trap (bottom area 1 m 2) in June and September in 2004. All together, 110 taxa were found, of which 45 had a marine and 65 a limnic origin. The marine species decreased along the salinity gradient while the limnic showed the opposite pattern. Number of species and abundance of epibenthic fauna exhibited considerable local and regional variation, with a trend of increase with decreasing salinity. Fauna biomass, on the other hand was significantly higher (six times) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area compared to the Baltic. There was a significant difference in fauna composition among regions and season, but with high similarity within the five regions, which implies that management of such coastal habitats should preferably be based on scales of a region (ca. 100 km) or smaller. Predators were the dominant functional group in all coastal regions, with a species shift from Crustacea to Insecta along the salinity gradient and with gobid fish occurring in all regions. Grazers were the second most important group in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area, but planktovores were more important in two of the Baltic regions. The importance of shallow sediment bottoms as feeding and nursery grounds for coastal fish assemblages is discussed and compared throughout the investigated area.

Nohrén, Emma; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2009-08-01

223

Diversity of Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia Ciliates in Coastal Marine Sediments and in Overlying Plankton?  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the relationship between ciliate communities in the benthos and the plankton is critical to understanding ciliate diversity in marine systems. Although data for many lineages are sparse, at least some members of the dominant marine ciliate clades Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia can be found in both plankton and benthos, in the latter either as cysts or active forms. In this study, we developed a molecular approach to address the relationship between the diversity of ciliates in the plankton and those of the underlying benthos in the same locations. Samples from plankton and sediments were compared across three sites along the New England coast, and additional subsamples were analyzed to assess reproducibility of methods. We found that sediment and plankton subsamples differed in their robustness to repeated subsampling. Sediment subsamples (i.e., 1-g aliquots from a single ?20-g sample) gave variable estimates of diversity, while plankton subsamples produced consistent results. These results indicate the need for additional study to determine the spatial scale over which diversity varies in marine sediments. Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them.

Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Vriezen, Jan A. C.; McManus, George B.; Katz, Laura A.

2010-01-01

224

Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound's private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea

B. Gilmer; A. Whelchel; S. Newkirk; M. Beck; C. Shepard; Z. Ferdana

2010-01-01

225

Post-glacial regional climate variability along the East Antarctic coastal margin—Evidence from shallow marine and coastal terrestrial records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the post-glacial climate variability along the East Antarctic coastline using terrestrial and shallow marine geological records and compare these reconstructions with data from elsewhere. Nearly all East Antarctic records show a near-synchronous Early Holocene climate optimum (11.5-9 ka BP), coinciding with the deglaciation of currently ice-free regions and the optimum recorded in Antarctic ice and marine sediment cores. Shallow marine and coastal terrestrial climate anomalies appear to be out of phase after the Early Holocene warm period, and show complex regional patterns, but an overall trend of cooling in the terrestrial records. A Mid to Late Holocene warm period is present in many East Antarctic lake and shallow coastal marine records. Although there are some differences in the regional timing of this warm period, it typically occurs somewhere between 4.7 and 1 ka BP, which overlaps with a similar optimum found in Antarctic Peninsula terrestrial records. The differences in the timing of these sometimes abrupt warm events in different records and regions points to a number of mechanisms that we have yet to identify. Nearly all records show a neoglacial cooling from 2 ka BP onwards. There is no evidence along the East Antarctic coastline for an equivalent to the Northern Hemisphere Medieval Warm Period and there is only weak circumstantial evidence in a few places for a cool event crudely equivalent in time to the Northern Hemisphere's Little Ice Age. There is a need for well-dated, high resolution climate records in coastal East Antarctica and particularly in Terre Adélie, Dronning Maud Land and Enderby Land to fully understand the regional climate anomalies, the disparity between marine and terrestrial records, and to determine the significance of the heterogeneous temperature trends being measured in the Antarctic today.

Verleyen, Elie; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Sabbe, Koen; Cremer, Holger; Emslie, Steven D.; Gibson, John; Hall, Brenda; Imura, Satoshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Marshall, Gareth J.; McMinn, Andrew; Melles, Martin; Newman, Louise; Roberts, Donna; Roberts, Steve J.; Singh, Shiv M.; Sterken, Mieke; Tavernier, Ines; Verkulich, Sergey; de Vyver, Evelien Van; Van Nieuwenhuyze, Wim; Wagner, Bernd; Vyverman, Wim

2011-02-01

226

Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation. PMID:20057166

Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

2009-08-01

227

Marine Aquaculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Marine aquaculture and the promotion of coastal fisheries; The present state of marine aquaculture; Techniques in shallow sea cultivation; Environmental factors in marine aquaculture; Ecological factors in the propagation of marine organisms; Ar...

T. Tamura

1970-01-01

228

How a Bacterial Community Originating from a Contaminated Coastal Sediment Responds to an Oil Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities inhabiting coastal sediments are subjected to oil spills. In order to examine the early structural response\\u000a of a complex bacterial community to oil pollution, a kinetic study of the crude oil impact on bacterial communities inhabiting\\u000a sediments from the contaminated Etang-de-Berre lagoon was performed. The sediments were maintained in slurries in presence\\u000a or absence of crude oil and

Sandrine Païssé; Marisol Goñi-Urriza; Frédéric Coulon; Robert Duran

2010-01-01

229

Soil chemical features as key predictors of plant community occurrence in a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the relationships between soil chemical factors and vegetation in coastal areas provides a significant contribution to understanding the ecology and conservation of these ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. The present study relates coastal plant communities and soil chemistry using multivariate analysis and generalized additive models (GAMs) in order (a) to determine the relationships between soil factors and plant community occurrence along a coastline-lagoon gradient; (b) to build best models of soil chemical predictors for coastal plant community occurrence. Distance from coastline was the primary driver of changes in plant community composition and soil factors on the Mediterranean coast. Field capacity, pH, CaCO3, NaCl and soil organic matter were the major parameters related to the pattern of vegetation distribution. Along the costaline-lagoon gradient, however, plant community and soil changes agreed for two main sequences of habitats. The first was in the sand dune environment, involving plant communities, the species composition of which varied in response to increasing soil development. The second was near lagoons, where vegetation responded to soil salinity, acting independently of other soil factors. Coastal plant community occurrence was explained by GAMs, using a few soil chemical predictors: pH and CaCO3 were the main predictors for dune communities but only partly explained their occurrence, whereas NaCl was the key factor for salt marsh community occurrence and largely contributed to the model. The results suggest that soil chemical changes can be detected through vegetation distribution, particularly in saline habitats. Thus, habitat-based models could be a useful tool to identify the key factors for different types of vegetation occurrence in coastal habitats.

Angiolini, Claudia; Landi, Marco; Pieroni, Giorgia; Frignani, Flavio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Gaggi, Carlo

2013-03-01

230

Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but no changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition due to nutrient limitation were observed. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers, in particular Phaeocystis globosa, were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, while IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year resulted in only minor shifts in the IPL composition. Principal component analysis showed that the IPLs were derived from multiple sources, and that no IPL species could be exclusively assigned to a particular algal taxa or (cyano)bacteria. Thus, the most commonly occurring IPLs appear to have limited chemotaxonomic potential, highlighting the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

2012-03-01

231

Temporal dynamics in the free-living bacterial community composition in the coastal North Sea  

PubMed Central

The coastal North Sea is characterized by strong seasonal dynamics in abiotic and biotic variables. Hence, pronounced temporal changes in the bacterioplankton community composition can be expected. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a seasonal succession, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating before the spring phytoplankton bloom, Bacteroidetes increasing during the bloom (up to 60% of the prokaryotic community) and being replaced by Gammaproteobacteria during the postbloom period (on average 30% of prokaryotic cells). Daily changes in similarity of the bacterioplankton community assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism averaged 0.08 day?1 (Whittaker similarity index) for the free-living bacterial community, resulting in a decreasing similarity between samples with increasing time up to approximately 150 days. After about 150 days, the community composition became increasingly similar to the initial composition. Changes in the bacterial community showed periods of fairly stable composition, interrupted by periods of rapid changes. Taken together, our results support the notion of a recurring bacterioplankton community in the coastal North Sea and indicate a tight coupling between the resources, the bacterial community metabolism, physiological structure and community composition throughout the seasonal cycle in the coastal North Sea.

Sintes, Eva; Witte, Harry; Stodderegger, Karen; Steiner, Paul; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

232

Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

2013-02-01

233

Magnetic mineral distribution in coastal marine sediments collected from off the southwestern Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reveal magnetic mineral distributions in coastal marine sediments taken from off the southwestern Chile, we studied rock magnetic characteristics of surface sediments and performed chemical analysis in bottom water. The samples analyzed were unlithified terrigenous and calcareous sediments recovered by a multiple corer at five stations. Results show that rock magnetic parameters of sediments change with iron and oxygen concentrations in bottom water. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and goethite (?FeOOH) were common in the samples, whereas (titeno)maghemite (rFe2O3) and hematite (?Fe2O3) were recognized at the oxic stations. Results also indicate a general change in mean grain size of magnetic minerals with iron and oxygen concentrations in bottom water. Fine grained magnetic minerals are distributed under anoxic condition. It is suggested that preferential dissolution of magnetic mineral grains occurred.

Kawamura, Noriko; Ishikawa, Naoto; Kurasawa, Atsushi

2013-04-01

234

Plasmids isolated from marine sediment microbial communities contain replication and incompatibility regions unrelated to those of known plasmid groups.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred ninety-seven bacteria carrying plasmids that range in size from 5 to 250 kb were identified from more than 1,000 aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from coastal California marine sediments. While some isolates contained numerous (three to five) small (5- to 10-kb) plasmids, the majority of the natural isolates typically contained one large (40- to 100-kb) plasmid. By the method of plasmid isolation used in this study, the frequency of plasmid incidence ranged from 24 to 28% depending on the samples examined. Diversity of the plasmids occurring in the marine sediment bacterial populations was examined at the molecular level by hybridization with 14 different DNA probes specific for the incompatibility and replication (inc/rep) regions of a number of well-characterized plasmid incompatibility groups (repB/O, FIA, FII, FIB, HI1, HI2, I1, L/M, X, N, P, Q, W, and U). Interestingly, we found no DNA homology between the plasmids isolated from the culturable bacterial population of marine sediments and the replicon probes specific for numerous incompatibility groups developed by Couturier et al. (M. F. Couturier, F. Bex, P. L. Bergquist, and W. K. Maas, Microbiol. Rev. 52:375-395, 1988). Our findings suggest that plasmids in marine sediment microbial communities contain novel, as-yet-uncharacterized, incompatibility and replication regions and that the present replicon typing system, based primarily on plasmids derived from clinical isolates, may not be representative of the plasmid diversity occurring in some marine environments. Since the vast majority of marine bacteria are not culturable under laboratory conditions, we also screened microbial community DNA for the presence of broad- and narrow-host-range plasmid replication sequences. Although the replication origin of the conjugally promiscuous broad-host-range plasmid RK2 (incP) was not detectable in any of the plasmid-containing culturable marine isolates, DNA extracted from the microbial community and amplified by PCR yielded a positive signal for RK2 oriV replication sequences. The strength of the signal suggests the presence of a low level of the incP replicon within the marine microbial community. In contrast, replication sequences specific for the narrow-host-range plasmid F were not detectable in DNA extracted from marine sediment microbial communities. With the possible exception of mercuric chloride, phenotypic analysis of the 297 plasmid-bearing isolates did not demonstrate a correlation between plasmid content and antibiotic or heavy metal resistance traits.

Sobecky, P A; Mincer, T J; Chang, M C; Helinski, D R

1997-01-01

235

Ectoenzyme activity in coastal marine waters: response to temperature and metal ion availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ectoenzymes in the ocean are vital for the breakdown of complex organic substrates and for the uptake of nutrients by marine organisms. The activity levels of these enzymes affect the turnover rate of nutrient pools within the ocean, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical nutrient cycles. This study measured the activity of extracellular enzymes from seawater samples under different environmental conditions. Samples were collected daily from coastal waters in the subtropical North Pacific (Lat.: 33°). Ambient seawater temperatures were between 18° and 20° C for the duration of the study. The activity response of four enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, ?-glucosidase, ?-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase) was measured over a range of temperatures (4° to 40° C). The optimal temperatures of all four enzymes were above the ambient seawater temperature of the samples: optimal temperatures of ?-glucosidase, ?-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the seawater samples were between 28° and 34° C, while alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the temperature over the range tested. Enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was further investigated under several metal ion conditions. Activity was highest in the presence of Co2+ ions, while the availability of other ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+/Zn2+) had a lesser effect. The influence of Co2+ on alkaline phosphatase activity indicates the presence of a Co2+-dependent alkaline phosphatase in coastal marine waters. These results suggest that variations in environmental conditions (such as temperature and ion concentration) have discernable effects on enzyme activity, and thus affect turnover rates of nutrient pools in the ocean.

Wiedenbeck, J. K.; Neino, V.; Allison, S. D.; Martiny, A.

2009-12-01

236

A new coastal marine ecosystem model study coupled with hydrodynamics and tidal flat ecosystem effect.  

PubMed

A new coastal marine ecosystem model was developed, which was composed of pelagic and benthic ecosystems, and was applied to Mikawa Bay, Japan. This model deals with variations of biochemical and physical interactions among dissolved oxygen and C-N-P species (composition formed out of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus elements) so that it resolves the flux dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen elements. The physical and biochemical mechanism figured in this model is constructed for the purpose of simulating the estuarine lower trophic ecosystem, in areas where the sea was too deep for light to reach the sea-bottom. As a result of coupling the benthic with pelagic system, the effect of process of sedimentation and nutrient diffusion back to the pelagic system could be indicated. In addition, by implementing the tidal flat ecosystem model's calculation result, the integrated model can include the effect of water purification in tidal flats where the light can reach the sea-bottom, and where seaweed, sea grass and benthic algae exist. In this study, the model indicates that oxygen-depleted water exists at the sea-bottom especially in summer mainly caused by an increase of oxygen consumption in the benthic system and a decrease of the vertical mixing water process. Furthermore, by comparing the case--with the tidal flat ecosystem model and the case without it, the effect of water purification of tidal flat estuaries was indicated. From the viewpoint of a short time scale, the tidal flat has the potential to restrict red tide (rapid increase of phytoplankton), and from the viewpoint of a long time scale, it restricts the sedimentation of detritus. Restricting the sedimentation prevents oxygen-depleted water occurring in the coastal marine system of Mikawa Bay. PMID:11760185

Sohma, A; Sekiguchi, Y; Yamada, H; Sato, T; Nakata, K

237

EXPERIENCE WITH COASTAL AND MARINE PROTECTED AREA PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Perspective on coastal management in the Philippines Coastal management has been practiced in the Philippines over the last two decades to try to stem the increasing tide of destruction to coastal habitats and the decline of fisheries. Unfortunately, after 20 years of practice, coastal resources continue to decline and deteriorate at alarming rates. While numerous experiments in coastal management

Alan T. White; Albert Salamanca; Catherine A. Courtney

238

High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.  

PubMed

The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system. PMID:15173911

Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

2004-04-07

239

Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters? †  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species.

Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araujo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

2009-01-01

240

Contrasting effects of variable species recruitment on marine sessile communities.  

PubMed

The species composition, density, and frequency of recruitment into any given habitat are highly variable in most biological systems that rely on dispersive propagules (larvae, seeds, spores, etc.). There are few direct experimental studies of how recruitment variation between single species influences the composition and assembly of whole communities in many of these systems. We manipulated recruitment of a variety of single taxa and followed their effects on the subsequent development of hard-substrate communities of sessile animals living in temperate marine waters. The effects of recruitment on communities were complex. Patterns of recruitment of individual species influenced community structure, but these effects varied greatly depending on the identity of species recruits, the time of community development, and location across three different sites. Variable recruitment of arborescent bryozoans and didemnid ascidians had little effect on community structure. At one site, recruitment of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri had short-lived effects on community structure, while barnacles had more persistent effects. At another site, recruitment of B. schlosseri and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata had strong persistent effects on community structure, dominating space where they recruited and influencing the abundances of a variety of different taxa. Differences in the effects of species recruitment on communities appear to be caused by differences between the ecology and life history of recruiting species as well as differences in background processes between sites. These results demonstrate that discrete recruitment events that vary between single species can be important drivers of community composition but are likely to be heavily influenced by the local environment, even within a single species. PMID:22764501

Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

2012-05-01

241

Effects of pulse versus steady recruitment on sessile marine communities.  

PubMed

Variation in patterns of propagule establishment (recruitment) has important effects on population dynamics and the structure of some communities. Most experimental studies have varied recruitment by changing the nature of a single event early in community development, but recruitment can also vary from steady rates of arrival to highly episodic 'pulse' events, causing differences in the temporal spacing of individuals recruiting into patches. We examined whether two different temporal patterns of recruitment of sessile invertebrates affected temperate marine communities in southeastern Australia in two experiments that were run at different times at the same site and that manipulated several different species. Target species entered communities as either a single pulse of recruits within a 2-week period or steady input of the same total number of recruits over a longer time period (5-6 weeks). The pattern of recruitment had variable effects on community structure. The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri did not have a strong influence on community structure whether it recruited in a single pulse or steadily. The cover of B. schlosseri was higher when recruitment occurred as a single pulse. In a second experiment, botryllid ascidians caused changes in the composition of communities when they recruited steadily compared to when they did not recruit or didemnids recruited, but caused no differences in communities when they recruited in a shorter pulse. In contrast, recruitment frequency of didemnid ascidians had little effect, though their presence/absence caused community differences. Though we found that different temporal recruitment patterns can alter community composition, the life history and ecology of particular taxa as well as differences in environmental background processes are likely to influence the strength of these effects. PMID:22392762

Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

2012-03-04

242

Coastal terrorism: using tabletop discussions to enhance coastal community infrastructure through relationship building.  

PubMed

The unique vulnerability of the nation's ports to terrorist attacks and other major disasters requires development of specialized training approaches that integrate and connect critical stakeholders. In 2003, the University of South Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness developed and held its first Coastal Terrorism workshop in conjunction with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Key federal, regional, state, and coastal agency leaders were invited to the 2-day event to explore, in a no-risk environment, the crucial role that public health agencies would play in a covert biological agent incident aboard a cruise ship. The incident began as a possible outbreak of a Norwalk-like viral agent; however, as the scenario unfolded, evidence of a terrorist plot emerged. This immediately shifted the scenario from a public health-dominated incident to one directed by law enforcement. Communication and coordination issues surfaced illustrating potential conflicts between disciplines and jurisdictions in terms of roles and responsibilities of responding agencies. The goals of the workshop were to facilitate communication and interagency networking among coastal stakeholders while assessing their training and research needs and increasing their familiarity with resources and protocols regarding a bioterrorist coastal event. Positive systems changes were observed. PMID:16205543

Richter, Jane; Livet, Melanie; Stewart, Jill; Feigley, Charles E; Scott, Geoff; Richter, Donna L

2005-11-01

243

The Effect of Nutrition and Physical Activity Counseling on Knowledge and Behavior of Elementary Students in a Rural, Coastal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge level of nutrition and physical activity among rural school-age children in a north Florida coastal community. There is evidence to support a correlation between nutrition and physical activity with obesity in children. The children who participated were living in a rural, coastal community in north Florida. They were school-age ranging

Dana Omega Duncan-Whaley

2005-01-01

244

Plant community structure of the coastal vegetation of peninsular Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation study on the natural vegetation along the sandy coasts of peninsular Thailand was conducted from October 2006 to May 2008. Thirteen sites along the sandy coast were selected as representatives of each subtype. The coastal vegetation on the sandy ground can be divided into two groups: I. sandbar vegetation due to the sedimentation from sea current comprising three categories:

CHUKIAT LAONGPOL; KUNIO SUZUKI; KLAUS KATZENSTEINER; KITICHATE SRIDITH

245

Community–habitat relationships in coastal streams in Big Sur, California, USA: travertine influences macroinvertebrate abundance and community structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Travertine deposition occurs in streams worldwide but its effects on stream communities are poorly understood. I sampled benthic\\u000a macroinvertebrates, periphyton, and reach-scale environmental variables in coastal streams in Big Sur, central California,\\u000a USA, to determine the specific effects of travertine that occurred at some sites as well as to provide a broader assessment\\u000a of community–habitat relationships. Total density and biomass

David E. Rundio

2009-01-01

246

Nitryl chloride and molecular chlorine in the coastal marine boundary layer.  

PubMed

The magnitude and sources of chlorine atoms in marine air remain highly uncertain but have potentially important consequences for air quality in polluted coastal regions. We made continuous measurements of ambient ClNO(2) and Cl(2) concentrations from May 15 to June 8 aboard the Research Vessel Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 field study. In the Los Angeles region, ClNO(2) was more ubiquitous than Cl(2) during most nights of the study period. ClNO(2) and Cl(2) ranged from detection limits at midday to campaign maximum values at night reaching 2100 and 200 pptv, respectively. The maxima were observed in Santa Monica Bay when sampling the Los Angeles urban plume. Cl(2) at times appeared well correlated with ClNO(2), but at other times, there was little to no correlation implying distinct and varying sources. Well-confined Cl(2) plumes were observed, largely independent of ClNO(2), providing support for localized industrial emissions of reactive chlorine. Observations of ClNO(2), Cl(2), and HCl are used to constrain a simple box model that predicts their relative importance as chlorine atom sources in the polluted marine boundary layer. In contrast to the emphasis in previous studies, ClNO(2) and HCl are dominant primary chlorine atom sources for the Los Angeles basin. PMID:22443276

Riedel, Theran P; Bertram, Timothy H; Crisp, Timia A; Williams, Eric J; Lerner, Brian M; Vlasenko, Alexander; Li, Shao-Meng; Gilman, Jessica; de Gouw, Joost; Bon, Daniel M; Wagner, Nicholas L; Brown, Steven S; Thornton, Joel A

2012-04-06

247

Comparative phylogeography of coastal limpets across a marine disjunction in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Cook Strait, which separates the North and South Island of New Zealand, has been a transient, but re-occurring feature of the New Zealand land mass throughout the Pleistocene, maintaining its current width and depth for the past 5000 years. Historic land fragmentation coupled with the complex hydrography of the Greater Cook Strait region has created both biogeographic and phylogeographic disjunctions between the North and South Island in several marine species. Here we use mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences of three endemic intertidal limpets, Cellana ornata, Cellana radians and Cellana flava to assess intraspecific phylogeographic patterns across Cook Strait and to look for interspecific concordance of ecological and evolutionary processes among closely related taxa. We sequenced 328-359 bp in 85-321 individuals from 8-31 populations spanning the biogeographic range of the three species. Intraspecific phylogeographic analyses show moderate to strong genetic discontinuity among North and South Island populations due to allopatric fragmentation. This pattern was broadly concordant across the three species and the observed divergence among this group of intertidal limpets (0.3-2.0%) is similar to that of previously studied subtidal organisms. For each species, divergence time calculations suggest contemporary North and South Island lineages diverged from their respective most recent common ancestor approximately 200 000 to 300 000 years before present (bp), significantly earlier than previous estimates in other coastal marine taxa that arose from a miscalculation of divergence time. PMID:16968269

Goldstien, Sharyn J; Schiel, David R; Gemmell, Neil J

2006-10-01

248

Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology.

Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2013-01-01

249

Strong seasonality and interannual recurrence in marine myovirus communities.  

PubMed

The temporal community dynamics and persistence of different viral types in the marine environment are still mostly obscure. Polymorphism of the major capsid protein gene, g23, was used to investigate the community composition dynamics of T4-like myoviruses in a North Atlantic fjord for a period of 2 years. A total of 160 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the gene g23. Three major community profiles were identified (winter-spring, summer, and autumn), which resulted in a clear seasonal succession pattern. These seasonal transitions were recurrent over the 2 years and significantly correlated with progression of seawater temperature, Synechococcus abundance, and turbidity. The appearance of the autumn viral communities was concomitant with the occurrence of prominent Synechococcus blooms. As a whole, we found a highly dynamic T4-like viral community with strong seasonality and recurrence patterns. These communities were unexpectedly dominated by a group of persistently abundant viruses. PMID:23913432

Pagarete, A; Chow, C-E T; Johannessen, T; Fuhrman, J A; Thingstad, T F; Sandaa, R A

2013-08-02

250

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

PubMed Central

Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies.

Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

2008-01-01

251

The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

1993-03-15

252

Inventory of non-federally funded marine-pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: South Atlantic and Gulf coastal region  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, NMPPO published a summary of non-Federally funded projects. This inventory report includes projects in or related to the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, as well as the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In addition to oceanic, coastal, and estuarine studies, projects specific to freshwater areas have been included if these areas are being studied for the purpose of determining sources of pollutants to estuarine and coastal areas or the effects of changes in freshwater areas on the marine environment.

Not Available

1984-11-01

253

Proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium on Coastal and Marine Tourism: Balancing Tourism and Conservation: April 26-29, 1999 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal tourism development is an inherently controversial and increasingly complex phenomenon that forces deliberation over marine life and habitat conservation, economic improvement, and quality of life objectives. With this situation, the ideal of sust...

J. Auyong M. L. Miller N. P. Hadley

1999-01-01

254

Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

2010-01-01

255

Impacts of temperature and nutrients on coastal lagoon plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the independent and interactive effects of nutrient loading and summer water temperature on phytoplankton,\\u000a drift macroalgae, and eelgrass (Zostera marina) in a coastal lagoon mesocosm experiment conducted from May through August 1999. Temperature treatments consisted of controls\\u000a that approximated the 9-yr mean daily temperatures for Ninigret and Point Judith Lagoons in Rhode Island (United States) and\\u000a treatments approximately

Joanne C. Bintz; Scott W. Nixon; Betty A. Buckley; Stephen L. Granger

2003-01-01

256

Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.  

PubMed

Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns. PMID:23785512

Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

2013-06-13

257

California's Coastal Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

Commission, California C.

258

A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.  

PubMed

Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences. PMID:23500022

Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

2013-03-22

259

Development of north sea coastal plankton communities in separate plastic bags under identical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments lasting 4 to 6 weeks, communities of North Sea coastal plankton kept in separate plastic bags (of about 1400 l) and exposed to the same environmental conditions showed very similar patterns of growth and decline. This result means that the method is suitable for the evaluation of toxic effects of environmental pollutants at low concentrations on complex

J. Kuiper

1977-01-01

260

Tsunami Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment for Alaska Coastal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami waves are a real threat for many Alaska coastal locations, and community preparedness plays an important role in saving lives and property. The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys collaborated with the Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management in forming the Alaska Tsunami Mapping Team (ATMT).

E. Suleimani; R. Hansen; R. Combellick

2005-01-01

261

Assessment of Coastal Lagoon Quality with Taxonomic Diversity Indicesof Fish, Zoobenthos and Macrophyte Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoons and marshes account for more than 50% of the coastal area in the Languedoc Roussillon region (South of France, Mediterranean Sea). The lagoons are very different in their physical and chemical characteristics, eutrophication level and resource exploitation mode. In this study, different levels of taxonomic diversity and two indices (?+ and ?+) based on macrophyte, zoobenthos and fish communities

David Mouillot; Julie Laune; Jean-Antoine Tomasini; Catherine Aliaume; Patrice Brehmer; Eric Dutrieux; Thang Do Chi

2005-01-01

262

Disentangling Access and View Amenities in Access-Restricted Coastal Residential Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal communities with uniform flood risk, amenity value is comprised of two components – view and access. Having controlled for view, it is assumed that any residual amenity value represents the benefit derived from accessing the beach for leisure\\/recreational purposes. However, as properties closer to the beach typically have improved viewsheds, the two amenities are highly correlated, and disentangling

O. Ashton Morgan; Stuart E. Hamilton

2011-01-01

263

Disentangling Access and View Amenities in Access-restricted Coastal Residential Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In small coastal communities with uniform flood risk, amenity value is comprised of two components – view and access. Having controlled for view, it is assumed that any residual amenity value represents the benefit derived from households from accessing the beach for leisure or recreational purposes. However, as properties closer to the beach typically have improved viewsheds, the two amenities

O. Ashton Morgan; Stuart E. Hamilton

2009-01-01

264

Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on beetle communities of French Mediterranean coastal dunes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal dunes, influenced by anthropogenic activities such as tourism, it is important to determine the relative influence\\u000a of environmental factors at different spatial scales to evaluate the sensitivity of local communities to disturbances. We\\u000a analyzed beetle communities of 14 dunes of the French Mediterranean coast: four in the relatively preserved Camargue area,\\u000a and ten in the Var department, where

Vincent Comor; Jérôme Orgeas; Philippe Ponel; Christiane Rolando; Yannick R. Delettre

2008-01-01

265

Microarray-based characterization of microbial community functional structure and heterogeneity in marine sediments from the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Marine sediments of coastal margins are important sites of carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling. To determine the metabolic potential and structure of marine sediment microbial communities, two cores were collected each from the two stations (GMT at a depth of 200 m and GMS at 800 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, and six subsamples representing different depths were analyzed from each of these two cores using functional gene arrays containing approximately 2,000 probes targeting genes involved in carbon fixation; organic carbon degradation; contaminant degradation; metal resistance; and nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous cycling. The geochemistry was highly variable for the sediments based on both site and depth. A total of 930 (47.1%) probes belonging to various functional gene categories showed significant hybridization with at least 1 of the 12 samples. The overall functional gene diversity of the samples from shallow depths was in general lower than those from deep depths at both stations. Also high microbial heterogeneity existed in these marine sediments. In general, the microbial community structure was more similar when the samples were spatially closer. The number of unique genes at GMT increased with depth, from 1.7% at 0.75 cm to 18.9% at 25 cm. The same trend occurred at GMS, from 1.2% at 0.25 cm to 15.2% at 16 cm. In addition, a broad diversity of geochemically important metabolic functional genes related to carbon degradation, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, sulfur reduction, phosphorus utilization, contaminant degradation, and metal resistance were observed, implying that marine sediments could play important roles in biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate, and various metals. Finally, the Mantel test revealed significant positive correlations between various specific functional genes and functional processes, and canonical correspondence analysis suggested that sediment depth, PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+), Mn(II), porosity, and Si(OH)(4) might play major roles in shaping the microbial community structure in the marine sediments. PMID:18515485

Wu, Liyou; Kellogg, Laurie; Devol, Allan H; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

2008-05-30

266

Building Community and Governance of Metadata and Ontologies Within the Marine Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three years the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project has been explicitly building a metadata community for the marine sciences. Toward that goal, the organization identified technical resources, developed tools, provided guidance, held workshops, gave scores of presentations, led and participated in interoperability demonstrations, and contributed to standards development activities. All of this information has been presented on the organization's web site, and is used to increase awareness and participation of the community. As a successful community-building project with many accomplishments to date, MMI is keenly aware of the opportunities -- and the need -- for further progress. In this talk, we will frankly present the successes, challenges, and lessons of the project to date; consider MMI in the context of like-minded organizations; consider opportunities for MMI and similar organizations to achieve semantic interoperability objectives; and envision a more thoroughly collaborative and effective marine science community. Finally, with this background in mind, the presentation will discuss how to best manage the standards and ontologies needed for earth science data systems interoperability.

Graybeal, J.

2007-12-01

267

Trace element levels in mollusks from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean, Red and North Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element contamination levels in mollusks were evaluated for different marine coastal sites in the Mediterranean\\u000a (Israeli coast), Red (Israeli coast) and North (German coast) Seas. Three bivalve species (Mactra corallina, Donax sp, and Mytilus\\u000a edulis) and two gastropod species (Patella sp.and Cellana rota) were sampled at polluted and relatively clean sites, and their soft tissue analyzed for Hg,

Barak Herut; Nurit Kress; Edna Shefer; Hava Hornung

1999-01-01

268

delta15N changes during Paleogene climatic events in organic-rich, marine clays from coastal Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mid- to outer-shelf, passive margin sequence, consisting of organic-rich marine clays, has been cored by the Tanzanian Drilling Project (TDP) on southern coastal Tanzania. Drilling recovered an expanded Paleogene section -- from latest Cretaceous to early Oligocene. Intervals cored include at least two periods of global climatic change: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), and the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. The organic-

A. O'Halloran; C. J. Nicholas; R. Goodhue

2007-01-01

269

Prey depletion caused by overfishing and the decline of marine megafauna in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters (central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys primarily aimed at determining dolphin encounter rates were conducted from small inflatable craft in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters between 1997 and 2004. During 633 surveys totalling 21,276km of effort, observations of cetaceans and other marine species spotted in a study area of 480km2 were systematically recorded. Common dolphin encounter rates declined 25-fold across the study period, steadily decreasing

Giovanni Bearzi; Elena Politi; Stefano Agazzi; Arianna Azzellino

2006-01-01

270

Phylogenetically and spatially close marine sponges harbour divergent bacterial communities.  

PubMed

Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family--Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis--in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other--with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus--and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These findings suggest a pivotal host-driven effect on the shape of the marine sponge microbiome, bearing implications to our current understanding of the distribution of microbial genetic resources in the marine realm. PMID:23300853

Hardoim, Cristiane C P; Esteves, Ana I S; Pires, Francisco R; Gonçalves, Jorge M S; Cox, Cymon J; Xavier, Joana R; Costa, Rodrigo

2012-12-27

271

Enhanced marine CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by coastal upwelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane in surface waters and marine air off Oregon (44°24'N-44°54'N, 124°36'W-125°24'W) was continuously surveyed in July 1999. During a high-resolution survey after a period of steady winds from the north, CH4 concentrations were high in the northeastern region, near the shelf edge. The highest CH4 concentrations were 2.5 times higher than equilibrium with the atmospheric partial pressure. In contrast, concentrations were near equilibrium in the western part of the survey area, the Hydrate Ridge. The increase in CH4 from southwest to northeast correlates with a drop in sea surface temperature (SST), from 16.5°C to <13.5°C, toward the shelf edge. The observed SST pattern was caused by summer upwelling off Oregon. The results suggest that CH4 derived from bottom sources near the shelf/slope break and methane found in connection with shallow (100-300 m) turbidity layers is transported to the surface by coastal upwelling, which causes an enhanced net flux of CH4 to the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of the methane distribution on the shelf in October demonstrate the accumulation of methane introduced by shelf sources. Surface concentrations at these stations in October (during nonupwelling conditions) were lower than in July (during upwelling) and were only slightly oversaturated with respect to the atmosphere. An acoustic Doppler current profiler survey indicates that the observed trend cannot be attributed to a surface flow reversal in the area. The low-salinity waters in the core of the Columbia River plume (S < 31) showed no enhanced CH4 concentrations. The trend of higher CH4 concentrations at lower temperatures existed over the whole 17-day survey, but large spatial and temporal variations existed. The presence of methane sources in regions of coastal upwelling worldwide, such as shallow seeps, gas hydrates, and intermediate nepheloid layers, suggests that the enhancement of CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere by coastal upwelling occurs on a global scale.

Rehder, G.; Collier, R. W.; Heeschen, K.; Kosro, P. M.; Barth, J.; Suess, E.

2002-07-01

272

Ecosystem Services Transcend Boundaries: Estuaries Provide Resource Subsidies and Influence Functional Diversity in Coastal Benthic Communities  

PubMed Central

Background Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the ‘outwelling hypothesis’). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (?13C, ?15N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of integrative ecosystem-based management that maintains the connectivity of estuarine and coastal ecosystems.

Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Hewitt, Judi E.

2012-01-01

273

Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there today). Potiki-roa and his wife escaped the disaster because their home was further inland and on higher ground. This purakau contains many elements of value to help us understand the societal and ecological significance of this event. Coastal resources (and probably canoes) are lost, buildings further inland and on higher ground survive the inundation while those at the coast and on lower ground are destroyed. This is a representative example of what can be recognised through the archaeological record as an almost nationwide abandonment of coastal settlements, the movement of people from the coast to inland and uphill areas, coastal resource depletion and increased warfare. Not all of this happened immediately after inundation but rather reflects the longer term human and environmental response to tsunami inundation and associated geological processes.

Goff, J. R.

2011-12-01

274

Variations of phytoplankton community structure related to water quality trends in a tropical karstic coastal zone.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton community structure in coastal areas is a result of various environmental factors such as nutrients, light, grazing, temperature, and salinity. The Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic tropical region that is strongly influenced by submerged groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone. Phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with regional and local water quality variables were studied in four ports of the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. Water quality was strongly related to SGD, and variations in phytoplankton community structure were related to local nutrient loading and hydrographic conditions, turbulence, and human impacts. Our study provides an ecological baseline for the Yucatan Peninsula and serves as a basis for establishing monitoring programs to predict changes at sites with high hydrological variation and in developing an early alert system for harmful toxic algal blooms. PMID:16194550

Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A

2005-09-27

275

Changes in the composition of a tropical marine fouling community at a power plant discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The settlement rates of macrofouling organisms and the structure of marine fouling communities at the seawater intake and cooling water discharge of Madras Atomic Power Station, India were studied for a period of 2 years. The fouling community at the intake was composed of diverse groups of marine organisms. Of the 139 species observed at the intake, barnacles, mussels, hydroids,

N. Sasikumar; Jayapaul Azariah; K. V. K. Nair

1993-01-01

276

Rapid community change at a tropical upwelling site ´ in the Galapagos Marine Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high biodiversity of tropical marine communities has attracted considerable interest, yet we still lack a clear understanding of the tempo of diversity change in these systems (Jackson (1991) BioScience 41: 475-482; National Research Council (1995) Understanding Marine Biodiversity, National Academic Press, Washington, DC). Knowledge of the conditions associated with fast or slow community assembly in the tropics would enhance

JON D. WITMAN; FRANZ SMITH

2003-01-01

277

Effects of Artisanal Fishing on Marine Communities in the Galápagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galápagos Islands harbor some of the least impacted marine ecosystems in the tropics, but there are indications that local artisanal fishing is affecting exploited marine communities. To quantify these effects, I sampled communities of fishes and sea urchins at a number of heavily fished and lightly fished sites throughout the central islands of the archipelago. Sites were selected based

Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

2001-01-01

278

Marine microbial diversity studied via 16S rRNA sequences: cloning results from coastal waters and counting of native archaea with fluorescent single cell probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

New molecular approaches relying on 16S rRNA sequences allow qualitative and quantitative analysis of marine microbial diversity. Here we report on (1) continued development of ‘lists’ of taxa present in marine environments, in temperate coastal waters, and (2) new fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches to quantify taxonomic compositions, with an initial focus on archaea. Our cloning results come from

Jed A. Fuhrman; Cleber C. Ouverney

1998-01-01

279

Selenium: an essential element for growth of the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae)  

SciTech Connect

An obligate requirement for selenium is demonstrated in axenic culture of the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (clone 3H) (Hust.) Hasle and Heimdal grown in artificial seawater medium. Selenium deficiency was characterized by a reduction in growth rate and eventually by a cessation of cell division. The addition of 10 M Na2SeO3 to nutrient enriched artificial seawater resulted in excellent growth of T. pseudonana and only a slight inhibition of growth occurred at Na2SeO3 concentrations of 10 T and 10 S M. By contrast, Na2SeO4 failed to support growth of T. pseudonana when supplied at concentrations less than 10 X M and the growth rate at this concentration was only one quarter of the maximum growth rate. The addition of 10 T and 10 S M Na2SeO4 to the culture medium was toxic and cell growth was completely inhibited. Eleven trace elements were tested for their ability to replace the selenium requirement by this alga and all were without effect. In selenium-deficient and selenium-starved cultures of T. pseudonana cell volume increased as much as 10-fold as a result of an increase in cell length (along the pervalvar axis) but cell width was constant. It is concluded that selenium is an indispensable element for the growth of T. pseudonana and it should be included as a nutrient enrichment to artificial seawater medium when culturing this alga.

Price, N.M.; Thompson, P.A.; Harrison, P.J.

1987-03-01

280

Quantification of Diatom and Dinoflagellate Biomasses in Coastal Marine Seawater Samples by Real-Time PCR?  

PubMed Central

Two real-time PCR assays targeting the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were designed to assess the proportional biomass of diatoms and dinoflagellates in marine coastal water. The reverse primer for the diatom assay was designed to be class specific, and the dinoflagellate-specific reverse primer was obtained from the literature. For both targets, we used universal eukaryotic SSU rDNA forward primers. Specificity was confirmed by using a BLAST search and by amplification of cultures of various phytoplankton taxa. Reaction conditions were optimized for each primer set with linearized plasmids from cloned SSU rDNA fragments. The number of SSU rDNA copies per cell was estimated for six species of diatoms and nine species of dinoflagellates; these were significantly correlated to the biovolumes of the cells. Nineteen field samples were collected along the Swedish west coast and subjected to the two real-time PCR assays. The linear regression of the proportion of SSU rDNA copies of dinoflagellate and diatom origin versus the proportion of dinoflagellate and diatom biovolumes or biomass per liter was significant. For diatoms, linear regression of the number of SSU rDNA copies versus biovolume or biomass per liter was significant, but no such significant correlation was detected in the field samples for dinoflagellates. The method described will be useful for estimating the proportion of dinoflagellate versus diatom biovolume or biomass and the absolute diatom biovolume or biomass in various aquatic disciplines.

Godhe, Anna; Asplund, Maria E.; Harnstrom, Karolina; Saravanan, V.; Tyagi, Anuj; Karunasagar, Indrani

2008-01-01

281

Ecology of delta marshes of coastal Louisiana: a community profile  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and synthesizes ecological information and data on the extensive marshes of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Over the past 6000 years the river has built a delta onto the Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico covering about 23,900 km/sup 2/. This low land is primarily marshes and represents about 22% of the total coastal wetland area of the 48 conterminous United States. The delta is notable for its high primary productivity, its valuable fishery and fur industry, and the recreational fishing and hunting it supports. The Mississippi River delta marshes are subject to the unique problem of extremely rapid marsh degradation due to a complex mixture of natural processes and human activities that include worldwide sea-level rise; subsidence; navigation and extractive industry canal dredging; flood control measures that channel the river; and pollution from domestic sewage, exotic organic chemicals, and heavy metals. 262 references, 75 figures, 34 tables.

Gosselink, J.G.

1984-05-01

282

Genomic island genes in a coastal marine Synechococcus strain confer enhanced tolerance to copper and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Highly variable regions called genomic islands are found in the genomes of marine picocyanobacteria, and have been predicted to be involved in niche adaptation and the ecological success of these microbes. These picocyanobacteria are typically highly sensitive to copper stress and thus, increased copper tolerance could confer a selective advantage under some conditions seen in the marine environment. Through targeted gene inactivation of genomic island genes that were known to be upregulated in response to copper stress in Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, we found two genes (sync_1495 and sync_1217) conferred tolerance to both methyl viologen and copper stress in culture. The prevalence of one gene, sync_1495, was then investigated in natural samples, and had a predictable temporal variability in abundance at a coastal monitoring site with higher abundance in winter months. Together, this shows that genomic island genes can confer an adaptive advantage to specific stresses in marine Synechococcus, and may help structure their population diversity. PMID:23344240

Stuart, Rhona K; Brahamsha, Bianca; Busby, Kayla; Palenik, Brian

2013-01-24

283

Observational and numerical studies of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the impacts of meteorological factors and aerosol indirect effects on the costal marine stratocumulus (Sc) variations in the southeast Pacific, a region that has been largely unexplored and is a major challenge of the modeling community, through both observational and numerical studies. This study provides a unique dataset for documenting the characteristics of the marine Sc-topped BL off the coast of Northern Chile. The observational study shows that the boundary layer (BL) over this region was well mixed and topped by a thin and non-drizzling Sc layer on days synoptically-quiescent with little variability between this region and the coast. The surface wind, the surface fluxes and the BL turbulence appeared to be weaker than those over other ocean regions where stratocumulus clouds exist. The weaker turbulence in the BL may contribute to a relatively low entrainment rate calculated from the near cloud top fluxes. This in-situ data set can help us better understand cloud processes within this coastal regime, and also be valuable for the calibration of the satellite retrievals and the evaluation of numerical models operating at a variety of scales. A strong positive correlation between the liquid water path (LWP) and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was observed under similar boundary layer conditions. This correlation cannot be explained by some of the hypotheses based on previous modeling studies. The satellite retrievals obtained upstream one day prior to the flight observations reveal some sign that the clouds under the high CCN concentrations have minimal LWP loss due to precipitation suppression effects. The results from large eddy simulations with a two-momentum bulk microphysics scheme under different idealized environment scenarios based on aircraft observations indicate that (1) the simulated Sc responds more quickly to changes in large-scale subsidence than to those changes in surface fluxes, free-tropospheric humidity, and the BL-top stability; (2) large-scale vertical wind shear clearly induces cloud-top mixing and enhances entrainment rate; (3) the solar radiation could weaken the BL turbulence, reduce the entrainment rate and decouple the BL; and (4) the impact of the reduced cloud sedimentation due to increasing aerosol on the cloud is small.

Zheng, Xue

284

Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities.

Timothy Beatley

1991-01-01

285

Protecting biodiversity in coastal environments: Introduction and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much less attention has been paid in recent years to the threats to coastal and marine biodiversity, compared to biodiversity in more terrestrial habitats. The tremendous biodiversity at risk and the severity and magnitude of the pressures being exerted on coastal habitats suggest the need for much greater attention to be focused here by both the policy and scientific communities.

Beatley

2009-01-01

286

Numerical Dominance and Phylotype Diversity of Marine Rhodobacter Species during Early Colonization of Submerged Surfaces in Coastal Marine Waters as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early stages of surface colonization in coastal marine waters appear to be dominated by the marine Rhodobacter group of the subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (-Proteobacteria). However, the quanti- tative contribution of this group to primary surface colonization has not been determined. In this study, glass microscope slides were incubated in a salt marsh tidal creek for 3 or 6

Hongyue Dang; Charles R. Lovell

2002-01-01

287

Quaternary tectonics of the southeastern coastal area, Korea: subsidence of marine terrace and late Quaternary faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong earthquake has rarely occurred in Korean peninsula and a few events were recorded since 27 A.D. Historical and recent earthquakes are concentrated in the southeastern area of Korean peninsula, where more than 30 Quaternary fault exposures have recently been founded. The southern tip of the southeastern coastal area has been known as a stable block: quaternary fault and micro-earthquakes haven’t occurred. To clarify whether the active tectonic movement is or not, digital marine terrace mapping and fracture mapping have been done for the southeastern coastal area. The area is composed of the Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks and the Early Tertiary granite. Wave-cut platform in the area is comparatively smaller and narrower than that of other southeastern parts. Most of platforms have no Quaternary sediments and or very thin sediments. Platforms except the Holocene are generally divided into three steps. The lowest platform has a height of 8-11m. The middle one is broad with a height of 17 to 22m. The highest is narrowly scattered with a height of 33-41m. The lowest platform is correlated to the 2nd terrace of the northern area, which has been attributed to the isotopic substage, 5a. The uplift rate based on the altimetrical and indirect chronological data ranges from 0.072-0.108 m/ky. Such a low uplift rate indicates that the area is very stable because of belonging to intra-plate or continental block. The elevation of platform is getting lower from the north to the south. Reducing altitude of platform towards the south might be interpreted to a local block tilting within Yangsan Fault Belt during the Latest Pleistocene or an active tectonic subsidence to the south throughout the whole Korean peninsula. Several Quaternary faults supporting the active tectonic movement have been found from marine terrace feature mapping. Two sites have been proved the presence of fault by geophysical survey and cut-slope. Flight of marine terrace at two fault sites inclines slowly to the inland side and shows topographically vertical offset with small amount. Local block tilting and subsiding platforms from the north to the south are both due to the active tectonic fault movement of the Latest Pleistocene. Accompanied reverse Pleistocene faults dip to the east and show the top-up-to-the-west reverse movement sense. GPS measurement revealed the west of northwestern vector. Differential tectonic stress regime to the west has occurred to Korean peninsula during the Latest Pleistocene. Stronger tectonic force from the Pacific Ocean Plate gave an effect of high platform to the northern area. Weaker dynamic force due to the Philippine Plate caused low elevation to the southern area.

Choi, S.-J.; Ota, Y.; Chwae, U.

2003-04-01

288

Earthquake-caused coastal uplift and its effects on rocky intertidal kelp communities.  

PubMed

The coastal uplift(approximately 40 to 60 centimeters) associated with the Chilean earthquake of 3 March 1985 caused extensive mortality of intertidal organisms at the Estación Costera de Investigaciones Marinas, Las Cruces. The kelp belt of the laminarian Lessonia nigrescens was particularly affected. Most of the primary space liberated at the upper border of this belt was invaded by species of barnacles, which showed an opportunistic colonization strategy. Drastic modifications in the environment such as coastal uplift, subsidence, or the effects of the El Niño phenomenon are characteristic of the southern Pacific. Modifications in the marine ecosystem that generate catastrophic and widespread mortalities of intertidal organisms can affect species composition, diversity, or local biogeography. PMID:17789814

Castilla, J C

1988-10-21

289

CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & MARINE HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...

290

Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65–90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m?3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL?1) occurred 4–7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

2013-06-01

291

Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

2011-12-01

292

Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with aphoAhybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this ''indigenous'' genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phos- phorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol

PATRICIA A. SOBECKY; MARK A. SCHELL; MARY ANN MORAN; ANDROBERT E. HODSON

1996-01-01

293

A New Monitoring Network For The Integrated Knowledge of Marine Coastal Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Cluster 10 MIUR, a program funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research, an integrated coastal monitoring network is being developed and installed in selected areas of Southern Italy. The network comprises seven monitoring buoys and a small equipped boat. The buoys will be deployed on 15-25 meters depth in positions chosen to investigate coastal waters state and quality in areas subjected to human induced alterations (both of industrial or urban origin) in Messina Strait (Messina), Southern Tyrrhenian (Gioia Tauro, Milazzo, Palermo), Southern Adriatic (Manfredonia) and Ionian (Taranto, Augusta) Seas. Each buoy will be equipped with real time and pseudo (about 15 minutes) real time data acquisition and transmission system, based on GSM data transmission, SMS and e_mail procedures. Physical and Physico-Chemical parameters (T, C, DO, Turbidity, Fluorescence), Nutrients (NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4) will be monitored on water samples pumped from various depths. These measurements will be integrated with meteorological and ADCP observations and with laboratory bacteriological analysis of water samples collected using an ex- pressly designed water sampler. The use of such a device will support the develop- ment of new bacteriological methods rapid enough to be applied in the monitoring of seawater pollution. In particular, microscopical detection by immunofluorescence which has previously proved to be a useful technique for detection and quantification of the microorganism Escherichia coli, will be applied as the choice method for the determination of the most usual indicator of faecal contamination. Collected data will be included in a specifically-developed database with a client/server internet-like ar- chitecture. The data and metadata format complies with those stated at international level for marine and oceanographic data exchange. Software procedures will allow data entry and retrieval via browser. A GIS application will enable to merge the newly collected info with existing basic ones. In situ parameters will be used as calibration factors for tele-detected data, so enabling to expand in time and space punctual obser- vations. The overall application is multi-purposes: the final user of the system could have scientific objectives as well as environmental management ones. The network will represent the most flexible and integrated monitoring system available along the Italian coasts.

Zappalà, G.; Azzaro, F.; Bergamasco, A.; Caruso, G.; Decembrini, F.; Crisafi, E.

294

Analysis of macrozoobenthic community structure after severe dystrophic crises in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrozoobenthic assemblages of the Orbetello lagoon was studied in 1994. This basin, one of the widest western Mediterranean lagoons, showed, at the end of 1970s, very rich and highly structured communities, mainly due to the heterogeneity of its habitats and also presented large prairies of marine phanerogams. An increase in organic pollution over recent years has progressively brought about

C. Lardicci; F. Rossi; A. Castelli

1997-01-01

295

Marine Environmental Research Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.

296

Soil microbial community composition and land use history in cultivated and grassland ecosystems of coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were used to evaluate soil microbial community composition for 9 land use types in two coastal valleys in California. These included irrigated and non-irrigated agricultural sites, non-native annual grasslands and relict, never-tilled or old field perennial grasslands. All 42 sites were on loams or sandy loams of similar soil taxa derived from granitic and

Kerri L. Steenwerth; Louise E. Jackson; Francisco J. Calderón; Mark R. Stromberg; Kate M. Scow

2003-01-01

297

Soil microbial community composition and land use history in cultivated and grassland ecosystems of coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were used to evaluate soil microbial community composition for 9 land use types in two coastal valleys in California. These included irrigated and non-irrigated agricultural sites, non-native annual grasslands and relict, never-tilled or old field perennial grasslands. All 42 sites were on loams or sandy loams of similar soil taxa derived from granitic and

Kerri L. Steenwerth; Louise E. Jackson; Francisco J. Calderón; Mark R. Stromberg; Kate M. Scow

2002-01-01

298

The Ecological Importance of Horseshoe Crabs in Estuarine and Coastal Communities: A Review and Speculative Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Beyond their commercial importance for LAL and bait, and their status as a living fossil, it is often asserted that horseshoe\\u000a crabs play a vital role in the ecology of estuarine and coastal communities. How would the various ecological relationships\\u000a involving horseshoe crabs be affected if these animals were no longer abundant? Attempts to understand and generalize the\\u000a ecological importance

Mark L. Botton

299

Benthic community response to a passive fishing gear in a coastal lagoon (South Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a passive shrimp fishing gear on benthic communities was studied at Laguna Estuarine System (South Brazil),\\u000a a shallow choked coastal lagoon. The gear is composed by a group of fyke nets (25 mm mesh size) set in contact to the bottom,\\u000a fixed with stakes forming a cage-like structure (around 30 m2). Samplings were conducted in the two main fishery

Sérgio A. Netto; Tiago J. Pereira

2009-01-01

300

Effects of Fragmentation and Invasion on Native Ant Communities in Coastal Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We investigated,the roles of habitat fragmentation,and,the invasion,of an exotic species,on the structure of ground-foraging,ant communities,in 40 scrub,habitat fragments in coastal southern California. In particular, we asked: how do fragment age, fragment size, amount of urban edge, percentage of native vegetation, degree of isolation, and the relative abundance of an exotic species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, affect native ants?

Andrew V. Suarez; Douglas T. Bolger; Ted J. Case

1998-01-01

301

The Role of Pre-Existing Disturbances in the Effect of Marine Reserves on Coastal Ecosystems: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives.

Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

302

Radiocarbon constraints on tephrochronology of Quaternary marine sequences in the coastal regions of the Eastern Tyrrhenian sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is the understanding of the timing and the impacts on the sedimentary environment of explosive volcanic events that occurred over the coastal zone of the Campania region, southern Italy, during the latest Quaternary. The research work consisted in the stratigraphic study of eight marine sediment cores collected in the Naples and Salerno Bays, Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea. Accurate dating and correlation have been essential for the construction of reliable depositional models in this area, as well as for establishing the links between stratigraphic changes and palaeoenvironmental events. In case of deep marine sequences distal ash layers may offer a significant potential for accurate geochronology. In the case of shallow (continental shelf to upper slope) marine deposits radiocarbon dating revealed to be also important in order to refine correlation among clusters of marine tephra layers with the equivalent proximal pyroclastic deposit onland, particularly where depositional rates are high and the chemistry and age of tephra layers is relatively homogeneous. The integrated use of AMS 14C dating on marine materials and the tephrostratigraphic approach built on reconstructions of historical volcanic events was important in order to minimize the uncertainties that affect chronologic constraints derived from radiocarbon-based age models.

Molisso, Flavia; Insinga, Donatella; Lubritto, Carmine; Sacchi, Marco

2010-05-01

303

The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach.  

PubMed

We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432

Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A; Fulton, Elizabeth A

2013-04-12

304

Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments.

Reed, David William; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark Edmond; Blackwelder, David Bradley; Colwell, Frederick Scott; Uchida, T.

2002-08-01

305

Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.  

PubMed

Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896

Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

2013-03-09

306

Changes in habitat heterogeneity alter marine sessile benthic communities.  

PubMed

Habitat heterogeneity is considered an important mechanism influencing diversity patterns in spatially structured habitats. However, spatial heterogeneity is not static and it can change along temporal scales. These changes, whether gradual or rapid, have the potential of forcing species extinctions or facilitating the introduction of nonnative species. Here, we present modeling results that show how changes in spatial heterogeneity over several generations can produce strong changes in benthic species composition residing in eastern Long Island Sound, USA. For many benthic species, hard substrate is a limiting resource which can vary in availability among different coastal areas. We modeled gradual changes from a heterogeneous landscape (mimicking patches of natural hard and soft substrate) to a homogenous one (analogous to a fully developed coast with hard, manmade substrate) and followed the abundance and distribution patterns of species possessing four different life histories. We also modeled changes from homogeneous to heterogeneous landscapes. We found that as regions become more homogeneous, species extinctions become more frequent and poor dispersers dominate locally. In contrast, as habitats become more heterogeneous, species distributing across localities leads to regional species coexistence and fewer extinctions. These results suggest that focusing on changing habitat heterogeneity can be a useful management strategy to prevent poor dispersing species, such as invasive ascidians, from driving communities to monocultures. PMID:21639055

Munguia, Pablo; Osman, Richard W; Hamilton, John; Whitlatch, Robert; Zajac, Roman

2011-04-01

307

Application of an integrated community analysis approach for microbial source tracking in a coastal creek.  

PubMed

High fecal indicator bacterial (FIB) concentrations signal urban coastal water quality impairments that can threaten public health. However, FIB (total and fecal coliform plus Enterococcus sp.) concentrations are not specific to human waste, and thus, microbial source tracking (MST) is employed to assess public health risks and remediation alternatives. Currently, water quality diagnosis requires several simultaneous MST assays. Relatively unexplored is a community analysis approach for MST where the overall microbial community composition is compared, through multivariate analysis, to link sources and sinks of microbial pollution. In this research, an urban coastal creek and drain sampling transect, previously diagnosed as human-waste-contaminated, were evaluated for bacterial community composition relative to fecal sources; a laboratory spiking study was also performed to assess method sensitivity and specificity. Multivariate statistical analysis of community profiles clearly distinguished different fecal sources, indicated a high sensitivity for sewage spikes, and confirmed creek contamination sources. This work demonstrates that molecular microbial community analysis combined with appropriate multivariate statistical analyses is an effective addition to the MST tool box. PMID:21786742

Cao, Yiping; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Sercu, Bram; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

2011-08-16

308

Coastal Strains of Marine Synechococcus Species Exhibit Increased Tolerance to Copper Shock and a Distinctive Transcriptional Response Relative to Those of Open-Ocean Strains? †  

PubMed Central

Copper appears to be influencing the distribution and abundance of phytoplankton in marine environments, and cyanobacteria are thought to be the most sensitive of the phytoplankton groups to copper toxicity. By using growth assays of phylogenetically divergent clades, we found that coastal strains of marine Synechococcus species were more tolerant to copper shock than open-ocean strains. The global transcriptional response to two levels of copper shock were determined for both a coastal strain and an open-ocean strain of marine Synechococcus species using whole-genome expression microarrays. Both strains showed an osmoregulatory-like response, perhaps as a result of increasing membrane permeability. This could have implications for marine carbon cycling if copper shock leads to dissolved organic carbon leakage in Synechococcus species. The two strains additionally showed a common reduction in levels of photosynthesis-related gene transcripts. Contrastingly, the open-ocean strain showed a general stress response, whereas the coastal strain exhibited a more specifically oxidative or heavy-metal acclimation response that may be conferring tolerance. In addition, the coastal strain activated more regulatory elements and transporters, many of which are not conserved in other marine Synechococcus strains and may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Thus, tolerance to copper shock in some marine Synechococcus strains may in part be a result of a generally increased ability to sense and respond in a more stress-specific manner.

Stuart, Rhona K.; Dupont, Chris L.; Johnson, D. Aaron; Paulsen, Ian T.; Palenik, Brian

2009-01-01

309

Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

2012-11-01

310

Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that

L. Wantiez; P. Thollot; M. Kulbicki

1997-01-01

311

Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.

Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.

2012-01-01

312

Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high variability in physical, biological, and chemical properties in coastal waters have limited our ability to sample the appropriate timescale and space scale to resolve physical forcing of the ecosystem. To improve our understanding, a multiplatform adaptive sampling program at the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the coast of New Jersey examined the relationship between episodic summertime upwelling and downwelling events and the corresponding dynamics in bulk phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Inherent and apparent optical properties were concurrently measured to evaluate the use of optics to improve future sampling coverage in coastal regions. Results indicate peak chlorophyll biomass tracked the maximum density gradient and that increasing surface phytoplankton biomass was associated with decreasing stratification offshore over time. Diatoms dominated the study site; however, significant shifts in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate communities were observed. Dinoflagellate and cyanobacteria communities responded inversely to episodic events, with cyanobacteria being favored during intense downwelling. Differences in phytoplankton absorption properties significantly changed the corresponding in water inherent optical properties, allowing for characterization of the community structure from measurements of above water hyperspectral reflectance.

Moline, Mark A.; Blackwell, Shelley M.; Chant, Robert; Oliver, Matthew J.; Bergmann, Trisha; Glenn, Scott; Schofield, Oscar M. E.

2004-12-01

313

BEHAVIORALLY MEDIATED INDIRECT INTERACTIONS IN MARINE COMMUNITIES AND THEIR CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of density-mediated indirect effects (e.g., keystone preda- tors) in marine communities has been widely recognized. Behaviorally mediated indirect interactions (BMIIs) may be equally important in marine systems, but have received rel- atively little attention. BMIIs occur when a change in an ''initiator'' species causes a behavioral shift in a ''transmitter'' species that, in turn, affects a ''receiver'' species.

Lawrence M. Dill; Michael R. Heithaus; Carl J. Walters

2003-01-01

314

Regional climatic warming drives long-term community changes of British marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in marine fish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole communities are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore marine (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had

Martin J. Genner; David W. Sims; Victoria J. Wearmouth; Emily J. Southall; Alan J. Southward; Peter A. Henderson; Stephen J. Hawkins

2004-01-01

315

Mariner Model: Charting the Course for Health-Promoting School Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mariner Model provides a step-by-step systems-building process and tool by which schools, school districts, and communities can develop capacity and create an infrastructure that supports continuous improvement in health-promoting environments for children. The Mariner Model follows a public health program planning development model that is…

Hoyle, Tena Bostrom

2007-01-01

316

Microbial Communities of Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments: Molecular and Cultivation Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent molecular analyses show that microbial communities of deep marine sediments harbor members of distinct, uncultured bacterial and archaeal lineages, in addition to Gram-positive bacteria and Proteobacteria that are detected by cultivation surveys. Several of these subsurface lineages show cosmopolitan occurrence patterns; they can be found in cold marine sediments and also in hydrothermal habitats, suggesting a continuous deep subsurface

Andreas P. Teske

2006-01-01

317

Starting point or solution? Community-based marine protected areas in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, in response to declining coral reef conditions, local residents and officials established small, no-take marine sanctuaries on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands through a community-based process. The implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands has been a partial success. As a direct result of protection, living hard coral cover has increased by 119% in Balicasag's

P. Christie; A. White; E. Deguit

2002-01-01

318

The importance of marine subsidies for terrestrial consumers in coastal Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peruvian coast is one the best examples of cross-ecosystem food web exchanges, in which resources from one of the richest marine ecosystems subsidize consumers in one of the driest deserts on Earth. Marine subsidies are resources that originate in the marine ecosystem, and that contribute to increase the density of consumers in the recipient ecosystem. I examined the effects

Alessandro Catenazzi

2006-01-01

319

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized

Mariana Lozada; Juan P. Riva Mercadal; Leandro D. Guerrero; Walter D. Di Marzio; Marcela A. Ferrero; Hebe M. Dionisi

2008-01-01

320

Design of Marine Broadband Framework for coastal fishing and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on an evaluation of the Marine Broadband Framework that was implemented in 2008, as well as a real-time aquatic resources evaluation system that uses the Marine Broadband Framework. The Marine Broadband Framework is a wireless LAN environment with xDSL equivalent transmission speeds that can be used over a range of approximately 20 km from the

Masaaki Wada; Katsumori Hatanaka

2009-01-01

321

Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on animal distribution and abundance is integral to wildlife conservation and management. However abundance estimates have not been available for many cetacean species inhabiting the coastal waters of Canada's Pacific coast, including those species that were heavily depleted by commercial whaling. Systematic sightings surveys were conducted in the inshore coastal waters of the Inside Passage, between the British Columbia

ROB WILLIAMS; LEN THOMAS

2007-01-01

322

A New Monitoring Network For The Integrated Knowledge of Marine Coastal Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the framework of the Cluster 10 MIUR, a program funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research, an integrated coastal monitoring network is being developed and installed in selected areas of Southern Italy. The network comprises seven monitoring buoys and a small equipped boat. The buoys will be deployed on 15-25 meters depth in positions chosen to investigate coastal

G. Zappalà; F. Azzaro; A. Bergamasco; G. Caruso; F. Decembrini; E. Crisafi

2002-01-01

323

Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

Gough, L.; Grace, J. B.

1998-01-01

324

Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.  

PubMed

Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. PMID:24090881

Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

2013-10-03

325

Factors Influencing Progress in Establishing Community-Based Marine Protected Areas in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns are being raised about high failure rates of community-based small-scale no-take marine reserves that are proliferating in the Southeast Asian region. Factors hypothesized to influence success include intrinsic community characteristics, project input levels, and change agent characteristics. An empirical analysis of these hypotheses was conducted using a sample of 24 villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, where marine reserves were

Brian Crawford; Meidiarti Kasmidi; Florence Korompis; Richard B. Pollnac

2006-01-01

326

Evolution of coastal and marine environments during the Holocene transgression. Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal deposits are not prominent in the Ria de Vigo, high cliffs dominate the coast line, but several well-preserved sedimentary areas are observed. Beach and aeolian sand dunes are preserved in protected bays along margins between low cliffs, as Playa America, Patos and Samil. Several rivers form prominent estuaries such as the Verdugo-Oitaven, the Minor and the Lagares. Tidal flats are well preserved in the San Simon embayment and small areas of tidal flats and marshes can be found elsewhere associated with estuaries and protected by sandy spits as the Ramallosa tidal Complex, Moaña and San Simón. Four sedimentary areas were selected to study vertical sediment distribution. 6 cores were obtained. Sediment thicknesses range between 4.0m and 26.0 m. Vertical sediment distributions show 6 different lithologic units from basal fluvial (A), estuarine (B), tidal flat and peat fens (C), muddy subtidal bay (D), estuarine (E) and beach barrier (F). 10 14C age determinations were obtained from the longest core (Ladeira N) located at the Ramallosa beach barrier-lagoon complex. The oldest sample located at 22 m yields an age of 8177 y. BP in unit (B) allowing to constrain most of sediment evolution in the holocene transgressive context. The lower unit (A) composed mainly of fluvial gravels, and deposited in a palaeovalley, is attributed to the Younger Dryas although the LST could be also represented in these deposits. Units B, C and D configure the TST showing an initial rapid increase in water depth at 8177 y. BP and subsequent shallowing conditions due to progressive aggradation until 4809 y BP. Units E and F mark the HST eustatic stage being characterised by progradational shallow marine conditions and beach barrier progressive enclosing of the complex. Sedimentation rates were calculated at 7 intervals. An upward decrease is observed from 8177 y BP to 2001 y. BP, followed by a strong sudden increase, mostly in the last 500 years. Hydrology and geomorphology of river catchments were studied to evaluate sediment yields in modern conditions. 19 currents were selected on the basis of having permanent flow during the whole year and a minimum measurable discharge. Results show accelerated erosion and sediment yield which are attributed to anthropogenic causes, chiefly deforestation and soil degradation.

Clemente, F.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.; Méndez, G.; Francés, G.; Alejo, I.; González, D.; Nombela, M.

2003-04-01

327

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

328

Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending on magnetic mineralogy. Most of this iron is possibly in the form of nanophase magnetic particles, possibly associated with biologically induced mineralization processes occurring below the OAI. Still, the OAI is a narrow but intense zone of SD particle production. Despite using just a small fraction of available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column for magnetosome production, the total number of MB living within an OAI, such as at Salt Pond, is all that is needed to produce the biogenic SD concentrations observed in some sediments. We also observed that Verwey transition temperatures fell within a narrow range of values between 95 and 105 K that were independent of both water depth and geochemical conditions. Reduced Verwey transition temperatures (Tv < 120 K) appear to be an intrinsic property of magnetite magnetosomes whether grown in pure laboratory cultures or from a diverse population of magnetite-producing MB in the environment. This indicates that a limited amount of oxygen non-stoichiometry (<1 per cent) is present within magnetite magnetosomes, produced either initially during magnetosome formation or subsequently as an ``aging'' process in living magnetite-producing MB. Therefore, reduced values of the Verwey transition in biogenic SD magnetite in sediments do not necessarily indicate diagenetic alteration.

Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-07-01

329

Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert wastes on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properieties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. 30 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Colizza, E.; Fontolan, G.; Brambati, A. [Universita degli Studi, Trieste (Italy)

1996-06-01

330

Seasonal Variations in Planktonic Community Structure and Production in an Atlantic Coastal Pond: The Importance of Nanoflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and summertime production of planktonic communities and the role of nondiatom planktonic cells were studied\\u000a in coastal ponds, which are areas traditionally used for fattening and greening table-sized oysters. The abundance and biomass\\u000a of nano–microplanktonic protists were determined at weekly intervals between February 1998 and February 1999 in a coastal\\u000a pond without oysters in the French Atlantic coast

C. Dupuy; M. Ryckaert; S. Le Gall; H. J. Hartmann

2007-01-01

331

Community-Based Environmental Management in Atlantic Canada: The Impacts and Spheres of Influence of the Atlantic Coastal Action Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Coastal Action Program (ACAP) is a unique, community-based program initiated by Environment Canada in 1991 to help Atlantic Canadians restore and sustain watersheds and adjacent coastal areas. ACAP is the eastem-most Environment Canada Ecosystem Initiative. The ACAP family is currently made up of 14 ecosystem-based organizations in the four Atlantic provinces. Each one of these non-profit organizations operates

T. Colleen Mcneil; F. R. Rousseau; L. P. Hildebrand

2006-01-01

332

SAR-Derived coastal and marine applications: from research to operational products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has now successfully demonstrated its capacity to uniquely provide valuable high-resolution information for coastal applications (oil-spill monitoring, ship detection, shallow-water bathymetry mapping, sea-ice monitoring, high-resolution wind fields, coastal wave fields). However, it appears that the operational use of SAR-derived products still remains limited, particularly in Europe. Although costs and sampling rate are often invoked to

Vincent Kerbaol; Fabrice Collard

2005-01-01

333

Impaired megabenthic community structure caused by summer hypoxia in a eutrophic coastal bay.  

PubMed

Eutrophication and hypoxia are major problems affecting the health of coastal ecosystems throughout the world. Tokyo Bay, Japan, is a eutrophic coastal area where the abundance of the megabenthic community has been decreasing. To assess factors associated with the impaired biota, seasonal surveys of the megabenthic community and water and sediment quality were conducted in the bay. Cluster analysis showed a difference in the community structure between the northern and southern parts of the bay. The density of species and species diversity were high throughout the year in the southern part of the bay, whereas in the northern part of the bay species diversity was low and defaunation occurred in August. At this time, bottom hypoxia due to temperature and salinity stratification, and high concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and organic matter in the water column and/or sediment, dominated the northern part of the bay. In October, bottom hypoxia was less severe but was still present in the northern part of the bay, and recolonization by mobile fishes and sessile mussels occurred. Multivariate analyses of the megabenthic community and environmental parameters in August showed the spatial pattern of the community could be explained by concentrations of dissolved oxygen and particulate organic carbon in the bottom water, and total sulfide and total organic carbon in the sediments. In particular, impairment of the biota in the northern area could be explained by the threshold concentrations of dissolved oxygen < 1.7 mL L(-1) and total organic carbon > 20.3 mg g(-1). PMID:19936920

Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Kume, Gen; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Makoto; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

2010-03-01

334

Marine-related research at MIT, 1977: including projects on marine resources, ocean utilization and coastal zone management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research projects in departments throughout MIT investigate topics interesting to the National Sea Grant Program, although only 12% of these projects are sponsored by Sea Grant. In keeping with Sea Grant's role as a focal point for the Institute's marine-related research, each year, Sea Grant issues this directory. This report lists current research projects by broad subject areas and

Passero

1977-01-01

335

Jamaica bound? Marine resources and management at a crossroads in Antigua and Barbuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antigua and Barbuda is rapidly developing a tourism industry built around a marketed perception of a healthy marine and coastal environment. Yet economic indicators suggest that Antigua and Barbuda is overexploiting its marine resources, particularly its fish and coral reef communities. Although its marine resources remain relatively healthy, Antigua and Barbuda will jeopardise the ecological basis of its economic growth

LIAM M CARR; WILLIAM D HEYMAN

2009-01-01

336

MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

Preston, Christine

2010-01-01

337

MARINE SEAFOOD TOXIN DISEASES: ISSUES IN EPIDEMIOLOGY & COMMUNITY OUTREACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to increased seafood consumption and tourism, recent studies link global climate change with an apparent increasing incidence of the Marine Seafood Toxin diseases. However, the epidemiology of the human diseases caused by the harmful marine phytoplankton is still in its infancy. In general, the epidemiology of these diseases has consisted of case reports of acute illness, sometimes as

Lora E. Fleming; Daniel G. Baden; Judy A. Bean; Richard Weisman PharmD; Donna G. Blythe

338

Implications of a zoned fishery management system for marine benthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The impacts of trawls and dredges on marine benthic habitats and communities have been studied extensively, but mostly at small scales and over short time periods. To investigate the large-scale chronic impacts of towed fishing gears, zoned commercial fishery management systems allow comparison of habitats and communities between areas of seabed subjected to varying levels of towed-gear use.

ROBERT E. BLYTH; MICHEL J. KAISER; GARETH EDWARDS-JONES; PAUL J. B. HART

339

Different Marine Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates Affect Differentially the Composition of Enriched Bacterial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of predation on the cytometric and phylogenetic features of two enriched bacterial communities obtained from two cultures of marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates: Jakoba libera and a mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. Protists were harvested by flow cytometric cell sorting and eight different treatments were prepared. Each bacterial community was incubated with and without protists,

E. Vázquez-Domínguez; E. O. Casamayor; P. Català; P. Lebaron

2005-01-01

340

Advances In Understanding The Ability Of Marine Communities And Ecosystems To Cope With Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental management and legislation in the 1970's identified maintenance of the health of marine communities and ecosystems as fundamental goals. Although this led to extensive research, development of techniques and theory concerning the biotic components of ecosystems has lagged behind developments in physics, chemistry and laboratory biology, which consequently drive pollution research. Community and ecosystem research has been handicapped by

D. Boesch

1983-01-01

341

Rapid community change at a tropical upwelling site in the Galápagos Marine Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high biodiversity of tropical marine communities has attractedconsiderable interest, yet we still lack a clear understanding of the tempo ofdiversity change in these systems []. Knowledge of the conditions associated with fast or slow community assembly inthe tropics would enhance our ability to predict recovery from natural andanthropogenic disturbance and to conserve biodiversity. Here we report anunusually rapid doubling

Jon D. Witman; Franz Smith

2003-01-01

342

Assessment of benthic trophic status of marine coastal ecosystems: Significance of meiofaunal rare taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication enhances organic C inputs to the sea bottom, so that the quantity and biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are expected to change under different trophic status conditions. In turn, changes in the trophic status are often associated with shifts in the abundance and community structure of the benthos. We investigated the quantity and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phytopigment) of sedimentary organic matter together with abundance and community structure of meiofauna in two regions of the Mediterranean Sea characterized by different levels of primary productivity. At each region, five transects were randomly selected along the coastline. At each transect, three stations located at increasing distance from the shore and different water depth were investigated. Uni- and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter displayed the most relevant differences between stations, suggesting their potential use as descriptor of the benthic trophic state at the small spatial scale (i.e. <2 km). The correlation analyses, corroborated by nMDS dispersion plots and cluster analyses highlighted that the biopolymeric C content of the sediment and the algal fraction of sediment organic matter were inversely related and able to discriminate the trophic status at the scale of region, transect and station. Uni- and multivariate analyses on meiofaunal assemblages revealed that differences at different spatial scales were less evident in terms of abundance and richness of meiofaunal taxa but were more evident in terms of taxonomic composition. Furthermore, these differences were enhanced when the analyses were restricted using the meiofaunal rare taxa (i.e. those taxa representing <1% of the total meiofaunal abundance) as an input. The results of the multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that the taxonomic composition of meiofaunal assemblages was driven mostly by protein, biopolymeric C and chlorophyll-a concentrations but also by the algal fraction of biopolymeric C. We conclude that, the study of the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter coupled with an analysis of the rare meiofaunal taxa allows an ecosystem-oriented assessment of the trophic status of marine benthic environments.

Pusceddu, Antonio; Bianchelli, Silvia; Gambi, Cristina; Danovaro, Roberto

2011-07-01

343

Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of the directional variations and the polarization of the marine reflectance on the retrieval of the inherent optical properties (IOP) (i.e., absorption, scattering, and backscattering coefficients) of water constituents in coastal waters are examined. First, an inversion algorithm based on artificial neural network (NN) methodology is developed using a synthetic data set. The simulations were carried out using

Malik Chami; Michael Defoin Platel

2007-01-01

344

The Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS): A Context for Marine Aerosol Measurements Influenced by a Coastal Environment and Long-Range Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) was carried out in Hawaii on the southeast coast of Oahu in an area exposed to relatively steady onshore flow. This location provided favorable opportunities to test and evaluate new instrumentation designed to improve measurements of marine aerosol and its physical, chemical, and optical properties, including the remote sensing (lidar) of coastal aerosol fields.

Antony D. Clarke; Vladimir N. Kapustin

2003-01-01

345

Directory of Personnel in Research, Technology, Education, Administration and Management. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in this directory are individuals concerned currently with marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The categories for the listings include educational institutions, state and county agencies, and federal agencies. The…

Mecca, Christyna E.

346

Using Chemical Tracers To Evaluate Feeding Habits in Coastal Marine Ecosystems: Stable Isotopes and Organic Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical tracers to understand ecosystem interactions in the marine environment has gained increasing popularity over the past three decades. Carbon isotope abundances in organic matter sources in the marine system vary significantly making them a useful tracer for discriminating among such sources. Once taken up by primary producers, carbon isotope abundances are conservative throughout the food web.

Rachel Marie Wilson

2010-01-01

347

Integrating GIS, ECDIS and Web-based Marine Information System for Maritime Navigation and Coastal Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Over seventy percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water upon which world trade, fisheries, marine transportation and costal populations are relying and require safe navigation and environmental protection. This paper summarizes the principal components of a web- based Marine Information System (MIS); the data formats of electronic nautical chart (ENC), Digital Nautical Charts (DNC?) and raster nautical

Steve Y. W. LAM; Andrew E. LEYZACK

348

Fate and effects of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) on a marine plankton community in experimental enclosures  

SciTech Connect

The fate and effects of a single dose of 0.3 and 1.0 mg of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) per litre on a marine plankton community enclosed in large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m/sup 3/) were studied. The plankton community was derived from North Sea coastal waters, and the model ecosystems were anchored in the harbor of Den Helder, the Netherlands, where they were exposed to a natural light and temperature regimen. Two experimental units were polluted with NFA; a third served as a control. During four weeks the development of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacteria was followed, as were a set of physicochemical parameters including nutrients, light, and temperature. The nitro group was removed from the NFA within about one day of the addition of the compound to the model ecosystems, probably as a result of the exposure to light. The intact NFA inhibited the phytoplankton slightly; the remaining molecule produced no detectable effects in the system. The development of the enclosed community was very similar in the different bags.

Kuiper, J.

1981-10-01

349

Impact of polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) on carbon biogeochemistry in coastal marine sediments+  

PubMed Central

Known effects of bioturbation by common polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) in Northern European coastal waters on sediment carbon diagenesis is summarized and assessed. The physical impact of irrigation and reworking activity of the involved polychaete species is evaluated and related to their basic biology. Based on past and present experimental work, it is concluded that effects of bioturbation on carbon diagenesis from manipulated laboratory experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in situ conditions. The 45–260% flux (e.g., CO2 release) enhancement found in the laboratory is much higher than usually observed in the field (10–25%). Thus, the faunal induced enhancement of microbial carbon oxidation in natural sediments instead causes a reduction of the organic matter inventory rather than an increased release of CO2 across the sediment/water interface. The relative decrease in organic inventory (Gb/Gu) is inversely related to the relative increase in microbial capacity for organic matter decay (kb/ku). The equilibrium is controlled by the balance between organic input (deposition of organic matter at the sediment surface) and the intensity of bioturbation. Introduction of oxygen to subsurface sediment and removal of metabolites are considered the two most important underlying mechanisms for the stimulation of carbon oxidation by burrowing fauna. Introduction of oxygen to deep sediment layers of low microbial activity, either by downward irrigation transport of overlying oxic water or by upward reworking transport of sediment to the oxic water column will increase carbon oxidation of anaerobically refractory organic matter. It appears that the irrigation effect is larger than and to a higher degree dependent on animal density than the reworking effect. Enhancement of anaerobic carbon oxidation by removal of metabolites (reduced diffusion scale) may cause a significant increase in total sediment metabolism. This is caused by three possible mechanisms: (i) combined mineralization and biological uptake; (ii) combined mineralization and abiogenic precipitation; and (iii) alleviation of metabolite inhibition. Finally, some suggestions for future work on bioturbation effects are presented, including: (i) experimental verification of metabolite inhibition in bioturbated sediments; (ii) mapping and quantification of the role of metals as electron acceptors in bioturbated sediments; and (iii) identification of microbial community composition by the use of new molecular biological techniques. These three topics are not intended to cover all unresolved aspects of bioturbation, but should rather be considered a list of obvious gaps in our knowledge and present new and appealing approaches.

Kristensen, Erik

2001-01-01

350

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips  

PubMed Central

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland.

Nieminen, T. T.; Valitalo, H.; Sade, E.; Paloranta, A.; Koskinen, K.; Bjorkroth, J.

2012-01-01

351

The effect of marination on lactic acid bacteria communities in raw broiler fillet strips.  

PubMed

Marination with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of marination, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial communities in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The communities were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the marinated fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that marination changed the community composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. Marination increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO(2) production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO(2) in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in marinated meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with marinated and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685

Nieminen, T T; Välitalo, H; Säde, E; Paloranta, A; Koskinen, K; Björkroth, J

2012-10-18

352

Diversity and Life Histories in Freshwater Mussel Communities of the Gulf Coastal Plain, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf Coastal Plain supports a diverse mussel fauna including many endemic species. Richness among drainages was associated strongly and positively with watershed size. Assemblage similarity among drainages identified three major faunal groupings: Pontchartrain-Pearl-Pascagoula-Mobile; Escambia-Choctawhatchee; and Apalachicola-Ochlockonee-Suwannee. The Escambia-Choctawhatchee showed greater affinity to the Apalachicola than to the Mobile Basin. Patterns of mussel assemblages among drainages were associated strongly with fish assemblages suggesting two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1) biogeographic history affected both groups similarly, and 2) the fish host relationship was important in shaping mussel communities. Based on interspecific variation in life history traits including host use, longevity, offspring size, and fecundity, we established seven guilds to represent regional diversity in life history strategies. The number of guilds decreased from west to east indicating reduced ecological complexity. For widely represented guilds, drainages showed either 1) similar guild composition because of replacement by ecologically similar species, or 2) a shift in dominance among guilds along a west-east continuum. This dichotomy cannot be reconciled currently because data are lacking for numerous species of Elliptio, a dominant genus in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain mussel communities. This information gap illustrates the abundant opportunities for ecological research in the region.

Haag, W. R.; Warren, M. L.

2005-05-01

353

Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

2010-01-01

354

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

1997-01-01

355

Ooid Accreting Diatom Communities from the Modern Marine Stromatolites at Highborne Cay, Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The modern marine stromatolites at Highborne Cay, Bahamas are inhabited by diverse surface microbial communities. Although\\u000a these communities are most often dominated by cyanobacteria (e.g., Schizothrix gebeleinii, Solentia sp., Oscillatoria sp. etc.), diatoms can be abundant and have been implicated in stromatolite biogenesis. We have identified two distinct surface\\u000a diatom communities involved in sediment deposition: (1) a thick (0.5–1 cm)

Jonathan Franks; R. Pamela Reid; Rebecca J. Aspden; Graham J. C. Underwood; David M. Paterson; Lee Prufert-Bebout; John F. Stolz

356

Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

2010-03-01

357

Reversing the Tide: Restoring the Nation's Coastal and Marine Natural Resources (Second Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NOAA established the Damage Assessment and Restoration Program in 1990 to fulfill the natural resource trustee responsibilities assigned in the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Superfund Act, OPA, and the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (NMSA). The Program cons...

1998-01-01

358

Trophic impact, metabolism, and biogeochemical role of the marine cladoceran Penilia avirostris and the co-dominant copepod Oithona nana in NW Mediterranean coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the trophic ecology and feeding impact of the cladoceran Penilia avirostris and the cyclopoid copepod Oithona nana, the two dominant zooplankters in the summer communities of the coastal NW Mediterranean, on the naturally occurring microbial communities. In order to ascertain carbon surplus for growth and reproduction and the contribution to carbon and nitrogen recycling of

Dacha Atienza; Albert Calbet; Enric Saiz; Miquel Alcaraz; Isabel Trepat

2006-01-01

359

The chemical changes of DOM from black waters to coastal marine waters by HPLC combined with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How dissolved organic matter (DOM) undergoes chemical changes during its transit from river to ocean remains a challenge due to its complex structure. In this study, DOM along a river transect from black waters to marine waters is characterized using an offline combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS), as well as tandem ESI-FTICR-MS. In addition, a water extract from degraded wood that mainly consists of lignins is used for comparison to the DOM from this transect. The HPLC chromatograms of all DOM samples and the wood extract show two major well-separated components; one is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic, based on their elution order from the C 18 column. From the FTICR-MS analysis of the HPLC fractions, the hydrophilic components mainly contain low molecular weight compounds (less than 400 Da), while the hydrophobic fractions contain the vast majority of compounds of the bulk C 18 extracted DOM. The wood extract and the DOM samples from the transect of black waters to coastal marine waters show strikingly similar HPLC chromatograms, and the FTICR-MS analysis further indicates that a large fraction of molecular formulas from these samples are the same, existing as lignin-like compounds. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments show that several representative molecules from the lignin-like compounds have similar functional group losses and fragmentation patterns, consistent with modified lignin structural entities in the wood extract and these DOM samples. Taken together, these data suggest that lignin-derived compounds may survive the transit from the river to the coastal ocean and can accumulate there because of their refractory nature.

Liu, Zhanfei; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.

2011-04-01

360

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

361

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

362

Complex system for optical monitoring of coastal marine water areas: concept and methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of a system for continuous express monitoring of coastal sea water areas is presented. According to the suggested concept, the monitoring system should consist, in general, of three parts, in which the key role should belong to laser devices: (1) shore-based lidar that performs continuous monitoring of water surface and sub-surface layer of water (and, possibly, of atmosphere) in the selected water area; (2) patrol boat equipped with submerged portable devices, including laser spectrometer with submerged optical fiber probe; (3) coastal laboratory equipped with devices for detailed (but express enough) analysis of water samples, specially chosen by the results of remote laser sensing and submerged device data. Some features of remote sensing by means of shore-based lidar are considered. The main feature is sliding incidence of laser beam to water surface. The coastal sea waters have much more complex and variable composition than open sea water. The possibilities of different versions of laser fluorimetry in diagnostics of organic compounds in coastal sea waters are analyzed.

Fadeev, Viktor V.; Kompitsas, M.; Reuter, Rainer

1999-09-01

363

Rare earth elements as provenance indicators in North Australian estuarine and coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth elements (REE) in three grain size fractions of clay-dominated estuarine and coastal sediments from the North Australian coastline have been investigated for use as potential provenance indicators. Comparisons of data based on instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed that HF digestions of zircon-bearing samples resulted in unsatisfactory recovery of REE. Instead, a relatively

Niels Crosley Munksgaard; Kezia Lim; David Livingstone Parry

2003-01-01

364

Marine log transportation and handling systems in british columbia: Impacts on coastal management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 90 percent of British Columbia's annual log harvest enters into complex water?based systems of transportation, storage, and handling. These systems have considerable impacts on a wide range of coastal resources and uses. A number of site?specific conflicts have arisen between forestry and preexisting or emerging values including fisheries, mariculture, recreational boating, and harbor redevelopment. Specific data on the impacts

Michael C. R. Edgell; William M. Ross

1983-01-01

365

Cross-Ocean Distribution of Rhodobacterales Bacteria as Primary Surface Colonizers in Temperate Coastal Marine Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial surface colonization is a universal adaptation strategy in aquatic environments. However, neither the identities of early colonizers nor the temporal changes in surface assemblages are well understood. To determine the identities of the most common bacterial primary colonizers and to assess the succession process, if any, of the bacterial assemblages during early stages of surface colonization in coastal water

Hongyue Dang; Tiegang Li; Mingna Chen; Guiqiao Huang

2008-01-01

366

Can Spatial Distribution of Ichthyofauna Describe Marine Influence on Coastal Lagoons? A Central Mediterranean Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resident and migrant fish species inhabiting two adjacent Central Mediterranean coastal lagoons were sampled over one year. Qualitative data were analysed with respect to the separate sampling stations, and fish distribution patterns were studied using multivariate statistical methods. Results obtained by means of cluster analysis and by two different ordination techniques were remarkably consistent. Moreover, it was noticed that the

S. Mariani

2001-01-01

367

Spectral absorption by marine particles of coastal waters of Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

During March 1979 spectral absorptance for the suspended particles of the coastal waters of Baja California was determined by measuring the diffuse transmittance of filters containing the particles with a simply designed spectrophotometer. The absorptancc for the upper water of 20 stations varied by over an order of magnitude, but the spectra were generally similar in shape and indicated that

DALE A. KIEFER; JANICE BEELER SOOHOO

1982-01-01

368

Quaternary tectonics of the southeastern coastal area, Korea: subsidence of marine terrace and late Quaternary faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong earthquake has rarely occurred in Korean peninsula and a few events were recorded since 27 A.D. Historical and recent earthquakes are concentrated in the southeastern area of Korean peninsula, where more than 30 Quaternary fault exposures have recently been founded. The southern tip of the southeastern coastal area has been known as a stable block: quaternary fault and micro-earthquakes

S.-J. Choi; Y. Ota; U. Chwae

2003-01-01

369

The complete genomes of three viruses assembled from shotgun libraries of marine RNA virus communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: RNA viruses have been isolated that infect marine organisms ranging from bacteria to whales, but little is known about the composition and population structure of the in situ marine RNA virus community. In a recent study, the majority of three genomes of previously unknown positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses were assembled from reverse-transcribed whole-genome shotgun libraries. The present contribution

Alexander I Culley; Andrew S Lang; Curtis A Suttle

2007-01-01

370

Long-term changes in the benthic community on the coastal shelf of Palos Verdes, Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1972 and 1982, both wastewater discharge and natural perturbations played important roles in directing marine benthic community structure on the Palos Verdes Shelf in Southern California, USA. Community succession was traced along a gradient of eleven 60 m-depth stations extending from the submarine outfalls. Spatial and temporal biological patterns were identified via direct gradient, clustering and principal-coordinates analyses. Species

J. K. Stull; C. I. Haydock; R. W. Smith; D. E. Montagne

1986-01-01

371

75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS...Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES:...

2010-07-30

372

Effect of environmental gradient in coastal vegetation on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community. PMID:22476581

Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji

2012-04-03

373

Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2??m phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2??m) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

374

Oleispira antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacterium isolated from Antarctic coastal sea water.  

PubMed

The taxonomic characteristics of two bacterial strains, RB-8(T) and RB-9, isolated from hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures obtained from Antarctic coastal marine environments (Rod Bay, Ross Sea), were determined. These bacteria were psychrophilic, aerobic and Gram-negative with polar flagella. Growth was not observed in the absence of NaCl, occurred only at concentrations of Na+ above 20 mM and was optimal at an NaCl concentration of 3-5% (w/v). The major cellular fatty acids were monounsaturated straight-chain fatty acids. The strains were able to synthesize the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5omega3) at low temperatures. The DNA G + C contents were 41-42 mol%. The strains formed a distinct phyletic line within the gamma-Proteobacteria, with less than 89.6% sequence identity to their closest relatives within the Bacteria with validly published names. Both isolates exhibited a restricted substrate profile, with a preference for aliphatic hydrocarbons, that is typical of marine hydrocarbonoclastic micro-organisms such as Alcanivorax, Marinobacter and Oleiphilus. On the basis of ecophysiological properties, G + C content, 16S rRNA gene sequences and fatty acid composition, a novel genus and species within the gamma-Proteobacteria are proposed, Oleispira antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain RB-8(T) (= DSM 14852(T) = LMG 21398(T)) is the type strain. PMID:12807200

Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Gentile, Gabriella; Crisafi, Ermanno; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

2003-05-01

375

Impacts of an alien species ( Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spartina alterniflora, a species vegetating on inter-tidal flats that was introduced from the eastern coast of United States, has become a hot topic, focusing on its invasion within local species in the coastal zone of China. Impacts of S. alterniflora on the inter-tidal macrobenthos community in the Jiangsu coastland are addressed by comparing the macrobenthos characteristics in a mudflat and

Hong-Xia Zhou; Jin-e Liu; Pei Qin

2009-01-01

376

Factors structuring temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities in a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aimed to identify the main environmental drivers shaping temporal and spatial dynamics of macrobenthic communities within a eutrophic coastal lagoon. Sediments in the Óbidos lagoon showed a gradient of increasing metal contamination from the inlet area to inner branches. The mid-lower lagoon area exhibited an intermediate contaminated condition between the inlet and upstream areas, suggesting that the

Susana Carvalho; Patrícia Pereira; Fábio Pereira; Hilda de Pablo; Carlos Vale; Miguel B. Gaspar

2011-01-01

377

Performance of community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) programs in the Philippines: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM) is a major conservation and fisheries management strategy in the tropics. In this study, the performance of 16 CBCRM programs in the Philippines was assessed using a meta-analysis of eight indicators that represented the perceptions of local resource users. Overall, the CBCRM programs in the Philippines were perceived to have a significant positive impact. However,

Ronald J. Maliao; Robert S. Pomeroy; Ralph G. Turingan

2009-01-01

378

Identifying sharp hydrographical changes in phytoplankton community structure using HPLC pigment signatures in coastal waters along Jeju Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to characterize the distribution and community structure of phytoplankton, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, nutrients, and hydrographic variables were measured in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea, during 11-13 May 2005. The photosynthetic pigments were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and were used to calculate the algal class abundances using the CHEMTAX program. There was a distinct difference in phytoplankton abundance and community composition between the northern coastal water (NCW) and the southern coastal water (SCW) of this island. The chlorophyll a concentrations were ˜26% higher in NCW than in SCW. Diatoms were predominant (> 50%) in NCW, while the phytoplankton composition was more diverse in SCW. Considering the hydrographic conditions and nutrient distributions in the study region, the sharp structural change in phytoplankton community seems to be mainly due to the slight difference in the origin of NCW and SCW. This study shows that HPLC-pigment measurements are useful for identifying sharp structural changes in phytoplankton communities in dynamic coastal environments.

Lee, Yong-Woo; Lee, Jong-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

2009-03-01

379

Hurricane storm surge and amphibian communities in coastal wetlands of northwestern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isolated wetlands in the Southeastern United States are dynamic habitats subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Wetlands located near marine environments are subject to alterations in water chemistry due to storm surge during hurricanes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on wetland amphibian communities. Thirty-two wetlands in northwestern Florida were sampled over a 45-month period to assess amphibian species richness and water chemistry. During this study, seven wetlands were overwashed by storm surge from Hurricane Dennis which made landfall 10 July 2005 in the Florida panhandle. This event allowed us to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on water chemistry and amphibian communities of the wetlands. Specific conductance across all wetlands was low pre-storm (<100 ??S/cm), but increased post-storm at the overwashed wetlands (x?? = 7,613 ??S/cm). Increased specific conductance was strongly correlated with increases in chloride concentrations. Amphibian species richness showed no correlation with specific conductance. One month post-storm we observed slightly fewer species in overwashed compared with non-overwashed wetlands, but this trend did not continue in 2006. More species were detected across all wetlands pre-storm, but there was no difference between overwashed and non-overwashed wetlands when considering all amphibian species or adult anurans and larval anurans separately. Amphibian species richness did not appear to be correlated with pH or presence of fish although the amphibian community composition differed between wetlands with and without fish. Our results suggest that amphibian communities in wetlands in the southeastern United States adjacent to marine habitats are resistant to the effects of storm surge overwash. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Gunzburger, M. S.; Hughes, W. B.; Barichivich, W. J.; Staiger, J. S.

2010-01-01

380

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

381

Sequence Analysis of Marine Virus Communities Reveals that Groups of Related Algal Viruses Are Widely Distributed in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal-virus-specific PCR primers were used to amplify DNA polymerase (pol) gene fragments from geo- graphically isolated natural virus communities. Natural algal virus communities were obtained from coastal sites in the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia, Canada, and the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic peninsula. Genetic fingerprints of algal virus communities were generated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sequencing efforts

Steven M. Short; Curtis A. Suttle

2002-01-01

382

Neighbourhood association of Cortaderia selloana invasion, soil properties and plant community structure in Mediterranean coastal grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasion by alien species is threatening the conservation of native plant communities and the integrity of ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of such impacts, many studies have examined the traits that make alien species successful invaders as well as the factors involved in community invasibility. However, it is necessary to link invader effects on community structure and on ecosystem processes in order to unravel the mechanisms of impact. Cortaderia selloana is a perennial grass native to South America that is invading abandoned agricultural lands close to coastal human settlements in Catalonia (NE Spain). In invaded pastures, we examined the association between C. selloana invasion, soil properties and vegetation structure changes in pastures, comparing the neighbourhood area of influence of C. selloana with areas far from C. selloana. Areas under the influence of C. selloana had lower total soil nitrogen values and higher C/N values than in areas far from C. selloana. Furthermore, the areas affected by C. selloana had lower species, family and life form richness and diversity, and less plant cover. In addition, C. selloana also increased the vertical vegetation structure and changed species composition (only 44% similarity between invaded and non-invaded areas). Our results point out that C. selloana has an effect on its neighbourhood leading to an increase in small-scale variability within invaded fields.

Domènech, Roser; Vilà, Montserrat; Gesti, Josep; Serrasolses, Isabel

2006-03-01

383

Mapping benthic macroalgal communities in the coastal zone using CHRIS-PROBA mode 2 images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological importance of benthic macroalgal communities in coastal ecosystems has been recognised worldwide and the application of remote sensing to study these communities presents certain advantages respect to in situ methods. The present study used three CHRIS-PROBA images to analyse macroalgal communities distribution in the Seno de Corcubión (NW Spain). The use of this sensor represent a challenge given that its design, build and deployment programme is intended to follow the principles of the "faster, better, cheaper". To assess the application of this sensor to macroalgal mapping, two types of classifications were carried out: Maximum Likelihood and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). Maximum Likelihood classifier showed positive results, reaching overall accuracy percentages higher than 90% and kappa coefficients higher than 0.80 for the bottom classes shallow submerged sand, deep submerged sand, macroalgae less than 5 m and macroalgae between 5 and 10 m depth. The differentiation among macroalgal groups using SAM classifications showed positive results for green seaweeds although the differentiation between brown and red algae was not clear in the study area.

Casal, G.; Kutser, T.; Domínguez-Gómez, J. A.; Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Freire, J.

2011-09-01

384

Rapid environmental assessment of marine coastal areas for naval operations using sequential space filling designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thorough understanding of environmental variability greatly increases the likelihood of naval mission success. Present-day naval operations are increasingly focused on coastal-littoral waters rather than the open ocean. Historical data records may be sparse or inexistent in these areas. Survey methodologies to rapidly collect data in unknown, dangerous and contested shallow territorial seas are required.This work applies space filling designs

A. Alvarez; B. Garau; S. Ruiz; J. Tintoré

2009-01-01

385

Variability in the summertime coastal marine atmospheric boundary-layer off California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of boundary-layer structure and surface-layer turbulence from measurements off the California coast is presented from data collected by research aircraft during two field experiments: the Coastal Waves 1996 (CW96) and the Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiments. CW96 covers the near-coast region, in particular in the vicinity of major headlands, whereas MAST extends offshore. Along the US west

Linda Ström; Michael Tjernström

2004-01-01

386

Extracellular enzyme activity: Indications for high short-term variability in a coastal marine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular a-glucosidase, ß-glucosidase, and aminopeptidase activity variations (measured by use of fluorogenic substrate analogs) at a coastal station in the Mediterranean Sea were investigated over a 1-year period. A 27-h cycle and daily measurements were made in a summer situation. We observed strong relative diurnal variations, compared to seasonal variations, in a- and ß-glucosidase. Within 24 h, 0–100% of both

M. Karner; F. Rassoulzadegan

1995-01-01

387

Assessment of the levels of coastal marine pollution of Chennai city, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of hydrological pollution of Chennai coastal zone in the southeastern part of India have been increased in the\\u000a recent years by an uncontrolled disposal of wastewater and pollutants due to human activities. This study gave a special emphasis\\u000a on the determination of the levels of pollution, the identification of vulnerable zones and providing some probable remedial\\u000a measures for

Palanisamy Shanmugam; S. Neelamani; Yu-Hwan Ahn; Ligy Philip; Gi-Hoon Hong

2007-01-01

388

[Characteristics of soil nematode communities in coastal wetlands with different vegetation types].  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted on the characteristics of soil nematode communities in different vegetation belts (Spartina alterniflora belt, Sa; Suaeda glauca belt, Sg; bare land, B1; Phragmites australis belt, Pa; and wheat land, Wl) of Yancheng Wetland Reserve, Jiangsu Province of East China. A total of 39 genera and 20 families of soil nematodes were identified, and the individuals of dominant genera and common genera occupied more than 90% of the total. The total number of the nematodes differed remarkably with vegetation belts, ranged from 79 to 449 individuals per 100 grams of dry soil. Wheat land had the highest number of soil nematodes, while bare land had the lowest one. The nematode ecological indices responded differently to the vegetation belts. The Shannon index (H) and evenness index (J) decreased in the order of Pa > Sg > Wl > Sa > Bl, and the dominance index (lambda) was in the order of Bl > Sa > Wl > Sg > Pa, suggesting that the diversity and stability of the nematode community in bare land were lower than those in the other vegetation belts, and the nematode community in the bare land tended to be simplified. The maturity index (MI) was higher in uncultivated vegetation belts than in wheat land, suggesting that the wheat land was disturbed obviously. The nematode community structure differed significantly with vegetation belts, and the main contributing species in different vegetation belts also differed. There existed significant correlations between the soil physical and chemical characteristics and the nematode numbers, trophic groups, and ecological indices. Our results demonstrated that the changes of soil nematode community structure could be used as an indicator well reflecting the diversity of vegetation belt habitat, and an important bio-indicator of coastal wetland ecosystem. PMID:23431791

Liu, Bei-Bei; Ye, Cheng-Long; Yu, Li; Jiao, Jia-Guo; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

2012-11-01

389

Comparison of microbial communities in marinated and unmarinated broiler meat by metagenomics.  

PubMed

Most raw poultry sold in Finland at the retail level is mixed with marinades containing oil, sugar, spices and acetic acid and packaged under modified atmosphere. Premature spoilage of marinated poultry preparations has been observed and associated with high levels of Leuconostoc spp. in meat. In this study we investigated whether marination of broiler fillet strips increased the proportion of Leuconostoc spp. in the microbial communities. To obtain a comprehensive view of the microbiota, we sequenced total DNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the microbial communities. The lactic acid bacterial communities were characterized also by identification of colonies. The results showed that marinade increased the proportions of the spoilage-associated Leuconostoc gasicomitatum in the communities as well as the proportions of Leuconostoc gelidum and Lactobacillus spp. The proportions of Carnobacterium, Vagococcus, Brochothrix thrermosphacta, Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio were diminished in marinated meat. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons resulted in 312 and 284 operational taxonomical units (dissimilarity 0.03) in unmarinated and marinated meat, respectively, indicating that the meat communities were more diverse than hitherto shown. Metagenomic analysis revealed a number of bacterial taxa that have not been associated with late shelf-life meat before, including Vagococcus and Vibrio that belonged to the predominating part of the microbial community in unmarinated meat. According to the functional analysis of the metagenomes, the communities in both marinated and unmarinated poultry were characterized by high proportions (15.6% or 17.9%) of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22626965

Nieminen, T T; Koskinen, K; Laine, P; Hultman, J; Säde, E; Paulin, L; Paloranta, A; Johansson, P; Björkroth, J; Auvinen, P

2012-04-29

390

Detection of alternative stable states in marine communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years there have been several attempts to test the theory of alternative stable states using marine systems. The results have been mixed, and there have been conflicting interpretations of the outcomes. In an attempt to resolve some of the problems, the theory and evidence for alternative stable states are reviewed. There are several different views of

Peter S. Petraitis; Steve R. Dudgeon

391

Co-occurrence patterns for abundant marine archaeal and bacterial lineages in the deep chlorophyll maximum of coastal California.  

PubMed

Microorganisms remineralize and respire half of marine primary production, yet the niches occupied by specific microbial groups, and how these different groups may interact, are poorly understood. In this study, we identify co-occurrence patterns for marine Archaea and specific bacterial groups in the chlorophyll maximum of the Southern California Bight. Quantitative PCR time series of marine group 1 (MG1) Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA genes varied substantially over time but were well-correlated (r(2)=0.94, P<0.001) with ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, and were more weakly related to 16S rRNA genes for all Archaea (r(2)=0.39), indicating that other archaeal groups (for example, Euryarchaeota) were numerically important. These data sets were compared with variability in bacterial community composition based on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). We found that archaeal amoA gene copies and a SAR11 (or Pelagibacter) group Ib operational taxonomic unit (OTU) displayed strong co-variation through time (r(2)=0.55, P<0.05), and archaeal amoA and MG1 16S rRNA genes also co-occurred with two SAR86 and two Bacteroidetes OTUs. The relative abundance of these groups increased and decreased in synchrony over the course of the time series, and peaked during periods of seasonal transition. By using a combination of quantitative and relative abundance estimates, our findings show that abundant microbial OTUs-including the marine Crenarchaeota, SAR11, SAR86 and the Bacteroidetes-co-occur non-randomly; they consequently have important implications for our understanding of microbial community ecology in the sea. PMID:21228895

Beman, J Michael; Steele, Joshua A; Fuhrman, Jed A

2011-01-13

392

Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), South America and Selected Island Coastal Marine Areas, West Coast. Volume 4. Area 25 - Magellan Strait West, Area 26 - Gulf of Penas, Area 27 - Valdivia, Area 28 - Valparaiso, Area 29 - Coquimbo, Area 30 - Antofagasta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents marine climatological data for specific coastal areas in 21 different tables including weather occurrence, wind direction and speed, cloud amount, ceiling height, visibility, precipitation, dry bulb, relative humidity, air-sea tempera...

1979-01-01

393

Synthesis of Information on Marine and Coastal Birds of the Atlantic Coast: Abundance, Distribution, and Potential Risks from Oil and Gas Activities. Volume 3. Potential Effects and Risks from Oil and Gas Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume discusses potential effects of oil and gas development on marine and coastal birds that occur in the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) Region. Potential effects were divided into two categories, direct and indirect. Topics discussed incl...

E. M. Hoopes P. M. Cavanagh C. R. Griffin J. T. Finn

1994-01-01

394

Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-term goal of this research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral reef cnidarians in particular. We wish to determine both how b...

C. H. Mazel

1998-01-01

395

A glimpse of lignicolous marine fungi occurring in coastal water bodies of Tamil Nadu (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present investigation, a total of 51 marine fungi were obtained from wood samples collected from four locations of Tamil Nadu (Tuthukudi, Chennai, Kanyakumari and Pichavaram), India. Out of these 51, 28 were ascomycetes, one was basidiomycete and 22 were mitosporic fungi. Maximum fungal diversity was encountered from Tuthukudi, followed by Chennai, Kanyakumari, and the minimum from Pichavaram. Periconia

Gayatri R. Nambiar; Kalathil Raveendran; Zhao Changxing; Cheruth Abdul Jaleel

2008-01-01

396

Marine notches in coastal cliffs: indicators of relative sea-level change, Perachora Peninsula, central Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sites in the complex faulted western part of Perachora Peninsula, central Greece, three principal marine notches in rocky coasts are present. In each site, no Holocene notches occur above the upper of the three notches; only subaerial weathering affected the rocks. Lateral variation in the heights of notches demonstrates differential uplift due to fault control, and illustrates the

Steve Kershaw; Li Guo

2001-01-01

397

Implications of Trends in Marine-derived Nutrient Influx to South Coastal British Columbia Salmonid Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine nutrients and carbon transported by adult salmon are important to the productivity of the oligotrophic lakes and streams in which salmon spawn. Reduced carcass availability results in a decline in nutrient and carbon sources for stream-rearing salmonids. We examined 42 years of escapement records for five species of Pacific salmon for Georgia Strait, the west coast of Vancou- ver

Gillian A. Larkin; Pat A. Slaney

1997-01-01

398

Anadromous alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) contribute marine-derived nutrients to coastal stream food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diadromous fish are an important link between marine and freshwater food webs. Pacific salmon (Oncorhyn- chus spp.) strongly impact nutrient dynamics in inland waters and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) may play a similar ecological role along the Atlantic coast. The annual spawning migration of anadromous alewife contributes, on average, 1050 g of nitrogen and 120 g of phosphorus to Bride

Annika W. Walters; Rebecca T. Barnes; David M. Post

2009-01-01

399

International cooperation for the prevention of marine oil pollution. ocean and coastal law program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although this paper examines specifically the problem of oil pollution of the marine environment by vessels, the underlying theme concerns the interdependence of everything on the Earth. This paper provides an overview of the problem as it exists prior to the 1976 New York Law of the Sea Conference. To examine the question properly, initial definitions must be provided concerning

A. W. Anderson; W. K. Bissell

1975-01-01

400

Methane oxidation potential in the water column of two diverse coastal marine sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane oxidation in the water column was investigated at two nearshore marine environments with relatively high concentrations of dissolved methane. In the northern Gulf of Mexico, high methane oxidation rates were observed at the pycnocline, with the highest oxidation rate corresponding to the most negative bacterial d13C values. These low isotopic values occurred during the winter when overall bacterial productivity

Cheryl Kelley

2003-01-01

401

Purification and Characterization of the Hepatic Microsomal Monooxygenase System from the Coastal Marine Fish 'Stenotomus chrysops'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three cytochrome P-450 forms (P-450A, P-450B, and P-450E) were highly purified (8-12 nmol/mg) from liver of untreated marine fish S. chrysops (scup). Scup NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, had a specific activit...

A. V. Klotz

1983-01-01

402

The Kelp Highway Hypothesis: Marine Ecology, the Coastal Migration Theory, and the Peopling of the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high

Jon M. Erlandson; Michael H. Graham; Bruce J. Bourque; Debra Corbett; James A. Estes; Robert S. Steneck

2007-01-01

403

Using DNA Technology to Explore Marine Bacterial Diversity in a Coastal Georgia Salt Marsh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An important aspect of teaching biology is to expose students to the concept of biodiversity. For this purpose, bacteria are excellent examples. The advanced placement (AP) biology class at Cedar Shoals High School in Athens, Georgia, learned how to explore bacterial biodiversity using molecular fingerprinting. They collected marine water…

Dong, Yihe; Guerrero, Stella; Moran, Mary Ann

2008-01-01

404

The control of the development of a marine benthic community by predation on recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment is an important process in regulating many marine benthic communities and many studies have examined factors controlling the dispersal and distribution of larval immigrants. However, benthic species also have early post-settlement life-stages that are dramatically different from adult and larval stages. Predation on these stages potentially impacts measured recruitment and the benthic populations and communities that ultimately develop.We examined

Richard W. Osman; Robert B. Whitlatch

2004-01-01

405

A comparison of DNA and RNA-based clone libraries from the same marine bacterioplankton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clones from the same marine bacterioplankton community were sequenced, 100 clones based on DNA (16S rRNA genes) and 100 clones based on RNA (16S rRNA). This bacterioplankton community was dominated by ?-Proteobacteria in terms of repetitive DNA clones (52%), but ?-Proteobacteria dominated in terms of repetitive RNA clones (44%). The combined analysis led to a characterization of phylotypes otherwise uncharacterized

Markus M. Moeseneder; Jesus M. Arrieta; Gerhard J. Herndl

2005-01-01

406

Kinetic Bias in Estimates of Coastal Picoplankton Community Structure Obtained by Measurements of Small-Subunit rRNA Gene PCR Amplicon Length Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Marine bacterioplankton diversity was examined by quantifying natural length variation in the 5? domain of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified by PCR from a DNA sample from the Oregon coast. This new technique, length heterogeneity analysis by PCR (LH-PCR), determines the relative proportions of amplicons originating from different organisms by measuring the fluorescence emission of a labeled primer used in the amplification reaction. Relationships between the sizes of amplicons and gene phylogeny were predicted by an analysis of 366 SSU rDNA sequences from cultivated marine bacteria and from bacterial genes cloned directly from environmental samples. LH-PCR was used to compare the distribution of bacterioplankton SSU rDNAs from a coastal water sample with that of an SSU rDNA clone library prepared from the same sample and also to examine the distribution of genes in the PCR products from which the clone library was prepared. The analysis revealed that the relative frequencies of genes amplified from natural communities are highly reproducible for replicate sets of PCRs but that a bias possibly caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values.

Suzuki, Marcelino; Rappe, Michael S.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

407

Survey of marine communities in Panama and experiments with oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline surveys were conducted on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. The structure of macroinvertebrate communities along the Caribbean transect are presented from data collected for over 500 identified species in 108 samples including a total of over 50,000 specimens. Recruitment to benthic communities was investigated with settling plates. The Caribbean was found to be seasonal in species

C. Birkeland; A. A. Reimer; J. R. Young

1976-01-01

408

Short-term meso-scale variability of mesozooplankton communities in a coastal upwelling system (NW Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term, meso-scale variability of the mesozooplankton community present in the coastal upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has been analysed. Three well-defined communities were identified: coastal, frontal and oceanic, according to their holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, richness, and total abundance. These communities changed from summer to autumn due to a shift from downwelling to upwelling-favourable conditions coupled with taxa dependent changes in life strategies. Relationships between the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton and the resemblance matrices of meteorologic, hydrographic and community-derived biotic variables were determined with distance-based linear models (DistLM, 18 variables), showing an increasing amount of explained variability of 6%, 16.1% and 54.5%, respectively. A simplified model revealed that the variability found in the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton was mainly described by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, the total abundance, the influence of lunar cycles, the upwelling index and the richness; altogether accounting for 64% of the total variability. The largest variability of the mesozooplankton resemblance matrix (39.6%) is accounted by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, a simple index that describes appropriately the coastal-ocean gradient. The communities described herein kept their integrity in the studied upwelling and downwelling episodes in spite of the highly advective environment off the Ría de Vigo, presumably due to behavioural changes in the vertical position of the zooplankton.

Roura, Álvaro; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; González, Ángel F.; Gregori, María; Rosón, Gabriel; Guerra, Ángel

2013-02-01

409

Research on Coastal Marine Systems. Review and Recommendations for Unesco Programme 1987-1989. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 52. Report of the Meeting of the Unesco/SCOR/IABO Consultative Panel on Coastal Systems (4th, Dakar, Senegal, December 15-17, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains a detailed analysis, both retrospective and prospective, of the Unesco Major Interregional Coastal Marine (COMAR) Project. The report cites achievements during the period 1985-1986 and reviews plans for the various COMAR components for the triennium 1987-1989. Activities under review include: (1) co-operation with ICSU and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

410

Effects of periodic addition of lead on a marine protistan community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protist communities developed in laboratory microecosystems have been used to study lead tolerance and toxicity. Lead was added at periodic intervals during 240 h. 1 mg · 1-1 was the concentration tested. The lead caused a decrease of the total number of protist species, a phenomenon reflected in the diversity values. The general trophic structure remained unchanged. Bacterivores and

G. Fernandez-Leborans; A. Novillo

1994-01-01

411

Women in the United States Marine Corps CI/HUMINT Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the researchers Masters of Military Arts and Science thesis is to explore the possibility of including women in the Marine Corps CI/HUMINT community without diminishing the overall unit cohesion and combat effectiveness of combat arms units...

J. L. Reese

2008-01-01

412

The Power of Computer-aided Tomography to Investigate Marine Benthic Communities  

EPA Science Inventory

Utilization of Computer-aided-Tomography (CT) technology is a powerful tool to investigate benthic communities in aquatic systems. In this presentation, we will attempt to summarize our 15 years of experience in developing specific CT methods and applications to marine benthic co...

413

Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments in a Forearc Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass

David W. Reed; Yoshiko Fujita; Mark E. Delwiche; D. Brad Blackwelder; Peter P. Sheridan; Takashi Uchida; Frederick S. Colwell

2002-01-01

414

Organic UV filter concentrations in marine mussels from French coastal regions.  

PubMed

The accumulation of EHMC, OCT and OD-PABA, three common UV filter compounds, was investigated in marine mussels. Wild Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled in ten sites along the French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts from June to November. In mussel tissues, 100% of the samples had quantifiable EHMC concentrations ranging from 3 to 256ngg(-1) dry weight, while 55% of the samples had detectable OCT concentrations ranging from under 2 to 7 112ngg(-1) dry weight. These concentrations significantly increased with the rising air temperature in summer, the recreational pressure and the geomorphological structure of the sampling sites (its lack of openness to the wide). This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of UV filters in marine mussels, thus highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. PMID:22330425

Bachelot, Morgane; Li, Zhi; Munaron, Dominique; Le Gall, Patrik; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena

2012-02-11

415

Comparison of Different Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Primer Sets for the Study of Marine Bacterioplankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual seasonal cycle of composition of a bacterioplankton community in an oligotrophic coastal system was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using five different primer sets. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed that primer set 357fGC-907rM grouped samples according to seasons. Addition- ally, we used the set of 16S rRNA genes archived in the RDPII database to check the

Olga Sanchez; Josep M. Gasol; Ramon Massana; Jordi Mas; Carlos Pedros-Alio

2007-01-01

416

Assessment of the eutrophication status of transitional, coastal and marine waters within OSPAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and subsequent processes) and its adverse ecosystem effects have been discussed as main\\u000a issues over the last 20 years in international conferences and conventions for the protection of the marine environment such\\u000a as the North Sea Conferences and the 1992 OSPAR Convention (OSPAR; which combined and updated the 1972 Oslo Convention on\\u000a dumping waste at the sea

Ulrich Claussen; Wanda Zevenboom; Uwe Brockmann; Dilek Topcu; Peter Bot

417

Assessment of the eutrophication status of transitional, coastal and marine waters within OSPAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and subsequent processes) and its adverse ecosystem effects have been discussed as main\\u000a issues over the last 20 years in international conferences and conventions for the protection of the marine environment such\\u000a as the North Sea Conferences and the 1992 OSPAR Convention (OSPAR; which combined and updated the 1972 Oslo Convention on\\u000a dumping waste at the sea and

Ulrich Claussen; Wanda Zevenboom; Uwe Brockmann; Dilek Topcu; Peter Bot

2009-01-01

418

Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral radiometry: The Marine Optical System ROV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water-leaving spectral radiance is a basic ocean color remote sensing parameters required for the vicarious calibration. Determination of water-leaving spectral radiance using in-water radiometry requires measurements of the upwelling spectral radiance at several depths. The Marine Optical System (MOS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is a portable, fiber-coupled, high-resolution spectroradiometer system with spectral coverage from 340 nm to 960 nm.

Mark Yarbrough; Michael Feinholz; Stephanie Flora; Terrance Houlihan; B. Carol Johnson; Yong S. Kim; Marilyn Y. Murphy; Michael Ondrusek; Dennis Clark

2007-01-01

419

Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.  

PubMed

In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

2011-11-09

420

Picoplankton seasonal variation and community structure in the northeast Adriatic coastal zone.  

PubMed

The bacterial community in coastal waters of northeastern Adriatic Sea was dominated by SAR11 and Sulfitobacter taxa throughout the year. The seasonal distribution of bacterioplankton taxa showed continual differences between surface (0 m) and bottom (27 m) layers. The surface assemblage was represented by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, while the bottom assemblage was made up of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. As SAR11 was more dominant in the bottom layer, its appearance may be linked to northward transport of oligotrophic waters of higher salinity from the south. Gammaproteobacteria appeared only in the surface layer during summer, influenced by higher amounts of nutrients, brought in by the Po River. Synechococcus was the most abundant taxon at the genus level. Dominance of Synechococcus during the whole season agrees with its dominance in terms of abundance determined by flow cytometry, and confirms its utmost importance in the picoplankton community of this area. We found two different types of Synechococcus: one type with high similarity to Synechococcus CC9902, present in the surface and bottom layers, and another one similar to Synechococcus WH7803, present only in the surface layer. Oligotrophic conditions together with complex hydrological features of this area were reflected in diversification and dynamic shifts of surface and bottom assemblages. PMID:22748097

Silovi?, Tina; Balagué, Vanessa; Orli?, Sandi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-07-24

421

Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.  

PubMed

Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. PMID:21864861

Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

2011-08-23

422

PAHs and n-alkanes in Mediterranean coastal marine sediments: aquaculture as a significant point source.  

PubMed

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in fish feed, sediment trap material and marine sediments was examined at two fish farms in the eastern Mediterranean. The average (min-max) concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish feed and particulate effluents were 316 (287-351) ng g(-1) DW and 487 (475-499) ng g(-1) DW, respectively. Lower PAH levels were determined in the underlying marine sediments. In the surface sediments under the farms (0 m distance from the edge of the cages) and in the immediate vicinity, the concentration levels of n-alkanes and PAHs were significantly higher than in the surrounding sediments in both sites. PAHs and n-alkanes individual component profiles of fish feed and sinking material were similar with the corresponding profiles of the sediment samples collected in the immediate vicinity around the cages. On a daily basis, the average PAH sedimentation fluxes under the cages was 24.4 microg m(-2) d(-1), which is considerably higher compared with the observed PAH sedimentary fluxes in the open eastern Mediterranean. Our results imply that fish farming is a significant source of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine environment and therefore a likely change in the scale of production might introduce new sources of environmental risk. Further work is required in order to develop an appropriate monitoring system for the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector. PMID:20383378

Tsapakis, Manolis; Dakanali, Eva; Stephanou, Euripides G; Karakassis, Ioannis

2010-02-08

423

Observations of Cl2, Br2, and I2 in coastal marine air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cl2, Br2, and I2 were measured in coastal Pacific air from 2 to 29 January 2006. Air was sampled at 10 m over the sea surface near the end of Scripps Pier (La Jolla, California). The measurements were made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI/MS/MS). Over the course of this study, Cl2, Br2, and I2 levels ranged from below detection limits of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2 ppt, respectively, to maxima of 26, 19, and 8 ppt, respectively. Mean dihalogen levels for the study period were 2.3 ± 1 ppt for Cl2, 2.3 ± 0.4 ppt for Br2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppt for I2 (expressed as geometric me