Note: This page contains sample records for the topic marine coastal communities from Science.gov.
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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Coastal marine communities: trends and perspectives from human-exclusion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological roles of humans in marine communities have been poorly studied. Humans have special characteristics, such as culture, and are perceived as complex ecological actors. Observations and experiments conducted in coastal (rocky intertidal and nearshore) ‘no-take’ areas or reserves in Chile and around the world have permitted a better understanding of the role played by humans as top predators

Juan Carlos Castilla

1999-01-01

2

Bacterioplankton community structure: Protists control net production and the proportion of active bacteria in a coastal marine community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of dialysis experiments was performed to study the relative importance of substrate limitation and grazing in controlling the proportion of active cells of coastal marine bacterioplankton. The grazer community was manipulated by filling dialysis bags with unfiltered water and water serially passed through 150-, 40-, and O.&pm pore-size filters. The total number of bacteria, the number of metabolically

Josep M. Gasol; Dolors Vaqub; Paola Mura; Susana Agustl; Carlos M. Duarte

3

Seasonal changes in the abundance and composition of marine heterotrophic bacterial communities in an Antarctic coastal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 1-year period, systematic observations of the Antarctic coastal marine bacterioplankton were recorded. Three field stations were sampled weekly in 1989 in “Terre Adélie” area. The survey included physicochemical (temperature and particulate organic matter) and bacteriological (total and heterotrophic counts, estimation of bacterial production) measurements. The bacterial community structure was investigated by carrying out 27 morphological and biochemical tests

D. Delille; M. Curie

1993-01-01

4

Shifts in coastal Antarctic marine microbial communities during and after melt water-related surface stratification.  

PubMed

Antarctic coastal waters undergo major physical alterations during summer. Increased temperatures induce sea-ice melting and glacial melt water input, leading to strong stratification of the upper water column. We investigated the composition of micro-eukaryotic and bacterial communities in Ryder Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, during and after summertime melt water stratification, applying community fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing analysis of partial 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Community fingerprinting of the eukaryotic community revealed two major patterns, coinciding with a period of melt water stratification, followed by a period characterized by regular wind-induced breakdown of surface stratification. During the first stratified period, we observed depth-related differences in eukaryotic fingerprints while differences in bacterial fingerprints were weak. Wind-induced breakdown of the melt water layer caused a shift in the eukaryotic community from an Actinocyclus sp.- to a Thalassiosira sp.-dominated community. In addition, a distinct transition in the bacterial community was found, but with a few days' delay, suggesting a response to the changes in the eukaryotic community rather than to the mixing event itself. Sequence analysis revealed a shift from an Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to a Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides-dominated community under mixed conditions. Our results show that melt water stratification and the transition to nonstabilized Antarctic surface waters may have an impact not only on micro-eukaryotic but also bacterial community composition. PMID:21303395

Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Meredith, Michael P; Buma, Anita G J

2011-06-01

5

Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities  

SciTech Connect

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

1989-01-06

6

Field Center for Coastal and Marine Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is located in Woods Hole Massachusetts, and is one of three teams conducting coastal and marine research. The project pages include research information about Boston Harbor, Stellwagen Bank, New York Bight, North Carolina, gas hydrates, coastal vulnerability, glacier studies, coastal sediments, transport, and erosion. Operations include coastal observations, modeling, videos, seafloor mapping, and a sediment transport lab. Also included is a photo and information archive with old samples, publications, seismic records, and field activities, as well as links to more information about USGS coastal studies.

7

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Materials available here include links to news articles and publications, topics of study, and regions of study. Search choices include topic, region or content type (research project, educational material, datasets, etc.). Study topics are grouped by coastal issues, marine/deep sea issues, environmental issues, and hazards, disasters, and events. Regional materials are accessible through an interactive map or by an alphabetic listing of areas. Search results are accompanied by a brief metadata description and a symbol indicating the content type.

8

Archaea in Coastal Marine Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents

Edward F. Delong

1992-01-01

9

Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

Carr, M. H.; Neigel, J. E.; Estes, J. A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R. R.; Largier, J. L.

2003-01-01

10

Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

11

Coastal Marine Institute, Annual Report 19, Calendar Year 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) is a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the U. S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM, formerly Minerals Management Service) to study coastal to...

R. Gradinger

2013-01-01

12

Coastal and Marine Bird Data Base  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: This report discusses the development of a coastal and marine bird data base at the Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory. The system is compared with other data bases, and suggestions for future development, such as possible adaptations for other taxonomic groups, are included. The data base is based on the Statistical Analysis System but includes extensions programmed in PL/I. The Appendix shows how the system evolved. Output examples are given for heron data and pelagic bird data which indicate the types of analyses that can be conducted and output figures. The Appendixes include a retrieval language user's guide and description of the retrieval process and listing of translator program.

Anderson, S.H.;Geissler, P.H.;Dawson, D.K.

1980-01-01

13

Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

Holm, Amy E.

14

Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

Tilton, E. L., III

1974-01-01

15

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

Bhj, Premathilake

2010-05-01

16

Compliance and Enforcement of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Regulations in North Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal resources management has become a popular approach to marine conservation and sustainable fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific region. One premise of this approach is that enforcement of community management initiatives is the primary responsibility of the community and that, in most instances, they have the capability to effectively enforce locally developed regulations and rules. The socioeconomic theory of

BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; AUDRIE SIAHAINENIA; CHRISTOVEL ROTINSULU; ASEP SUKMARA

2004-01-01

17

Species diversity and community structure of pelagic copepods in the marine lakes of Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community structure and diversity patterns of pelagic copepods were investigated for the coastal areas and in the marine lakes\\u000a of the Palau islands in the West Pacific. We conducted field surveys during 2004–2007 and collected zooplankton samples from\\u000a eight coastal areas and 16 marine lakes. The marine lakes in the islands of Palau are limnologically classified into two types,\\u000a meromictic

Shin-ichi Saitoh; Hidekatsu Suzuki; Naoto Hanzawa; Hidetoshi B. Tamate

2011-01-01

18

PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

19

77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...endorsed the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard...provides a means of classifying ecological and habitat units using a...characterizing and naming ecological units in support of monitoring...Center--Gulf Coast Region, Building 1100, Suite 232,...

2012-08-31

20

The Impact of Marine Organic Emissions on Coastal Air Quality of the Western US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that organic carbon aerosols (OC) are a major component of aerosols found in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two distinct sources for these aerosols have been isolated using vertical gradients: 1) water insoluble OC aerosolized through bubble bursting of the organic surface layer, and 2) water soluble OC produced primarily from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Additionally, these marine-source BVOC can also participate in ozone formation in coastal urban areas with high NOx concentrations. At the present, there has been little work quantifying the impact of marine BVOC emissions on coastal air quality, despite many coastal urban areas having some of the world’s most polluted air. In this work, we examine the impact of marine biogenic emissions to air quality over the Pacific coast of the US. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model Version 4.7, we simulate both marine primary organic aerosols and SOA formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene. The CMAQ model simulations are performed for the months of June, July, and August 2005 over a domain including the western US at a horizontal resolution of 12 × 12 km2. A combination of remotely sensed data, laboratory measurements, and model meteorology are used to calculate the marine biogenic emissions, with marine isoprene added offline and primary OC simulated online. Our preliminary results show small increases in the surface concentrations of ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) near the coast when marine organic emissions are added. For coastal urban areas like Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, average ozone concentrations increase ~0.1-0.2%, while PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3% across much of the Pacific coastline. Organic aerosols with a marine source account for up to 50% (0.15 µg m-3) of the simulated average surface OC concentration over the open ocean, and contribute up to 30% (~0.1 µg m-3) over the coastal areas. The atmospheric chemistry of the marine boundary layer of the open ocean is also affected by marine emissions, resulting in a 0.02% decrease in the average ozone concentration and a 3% decrease in the average chlorine concentration. Comparison with coastal aerosol and isoprene measurements shows an improvement in the model-predicted OC and isoprene concentration when marine organic emissions are included. Ongoing research into this topic includes refining the marine isoprene emission function based on the measurements and creating an improved mechanism for marine primary OC emissions through the comparison of aerosol concentrations with satellite winds and back trajectory analysis.

Gantt, B.; Meskhidze, N.; Carlton, A. G.

2009-12-01

21

75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY...for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Projects...mitigate risks to the original habitat restoration investments and ensure program...

2010-02-04

22

Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

Phillips, Ronald C.

1978-01-01

23

Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D. (eds.)

1985-01-01

24

Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6?m) in Singapore’s coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and

K. L. Ng; J. P. Obbard

2006-01-01

25

Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: Ecological and geochemical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification occurs in essentially all river, lake, and coastal marine ecosystems that have been studied. In general, the range ofdenitrification rates measured in coastal marine sediments is greater than that measured in lake or river sediments. In various estuarine and coastal marine sediments, rates commonly range between 50 and 250 pmol N m--:! h-l, with extremes from 0 to 1,067.

Sybil P. Seitzinger

1998-01-01

26

THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

27

Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 210 Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column

Edward T. Furlong; Roy Carpenter

1988-01-01

28

Acoustic classification of marine habitats in coastal Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital acoustic seabed classification system, QTC View (Series IV) was used in the coastal waters of Newfoundland to characterize and classify marine benthic habitats. The QTC View system was calibrated in Placentia Bay at sites identified independently during a submersible research program. Four different habitats were used for calibration of the QTC View system: mud, gravel, rock, and macroalgae

John T. Anderson; Robert S. Gregory; William T. Collins

2002-01-01

29

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google

C. Reiss; C. Steele; A. Ma; J. Chin

2006-01-01

30

Phytoplankton seasonal dynamics in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon: emphasis on the picoeukaryote community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of the phytoplankton community were investigated in a marine coastal lagoon (Thau, NW Mediterranean) from February 1999 to January 2000. Dilution experiments, chlorophyll a (Chl a) size-fractionation and primary production measurements were conducted monthly. Maximum growth and microzooplankton grazing rates were estimated from Chl a biomass fractions to separate pico- from nano- and microphytoplankton and by flow cytometry

Béatrice Bec; Yves Collos; Philippe Souchu; André Vaquer

2005-01-01

31

Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based marine protected areas have become a popular coastal resources management method advocated in many projects and programs. While many case studies have been written about factors contributing to project success, few empirical studies using quantitative methods have been employed. A study was conducted of 45 community-based marine protected areas in Philippines. Several success measures were developed and analyzed in

Richard B. Pollnac; Brian R. Crawford; Maharlina L. G. Gorospe

2001-01-01

32

Field Activities for Coastal and Marine Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of field investigations was developed by the Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) in a field-based workshop for educators. The activities focus on field work on beaches and rocky headlands (beach and cliff landscapes, wave activity, rocks and sand), and on vegetation and plant ecosystems (algae, plants, estuaries and creeks). There is also an introductory guide for teachers on how to conduct field work, a discussion of moral issues involving student behavior on outings, and a checklist of equipment for use in marine areas.

33

Genomic Analysis of Uncultured Marine Viral Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. Diversity of these viruses undoubtedly plays an important role in controlling bacterial populations and biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment. However, very little is known about the diversity of marine viral communities. Here we report the first genomic analysis of uncultured viral communities from two nearshore marine water samples and one marine sediment sample. In all three marine libraries, over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is novel. The most common significant hits amongst the known sequences were to viruses. The viral hits included sequences from all the major families of dsDNA tailed phage, as well as some algal viruses. BLAST analysis of the sequence data suggested fundamental differences between the viral communities. Several independent mathematical models based on the observed number of contigs predicted that the most abundant viral genome comprised 2-3% of the total population in the water communities, which were estimated to contain between 374 and 7114 viral types. Diversity of the sediment community was significantly higher. The results also showed that it would be possible to sequence the entire genome of an uncultured marine viral community.

Breitbart, M.; Salamon, P.; Andresen, B.; Mahaffy, J. M.; Segall, A. M.; Mead, D.; Azam, F.; Rohwer, F.

2002-12-01

34

Changes in Scottish coastal fishing communities—Understanding socio-economic dynamics to aid management, planning and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates how coastal areas, socio-economically dependent on marine capture fisheries, are working towards long-term sustainable community development. Two case studies (Shetland Islands and the North East region) were selected from Scotland, on the basis of their geographical (island versus mainland) and sectoral representation. The challenges facing these areas are typical for many coastal communities around the world.An outline

Selina M. Stead

2005-01-01

35

Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone  

SciTech Connect

An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

1980-11-01

36

Phosphorus cycling in a coastal marine sediment, Aarhus Bay, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in P sedimentation, sediment P release, and sediment P pools was studied in a coastal marine sediment at 16-m water depth. Net sedimentation of P amounted to 5 l-63 mmol m-2 yr- l, compared to a sediment P release of 34 mmol m-2 yr- l. The resulting deficit corresponded with a burial flux of 18 mmol P m-2

HENNING S. JENSEN; P. B. MORTENSEN; F. O. ANDERSEN; E. RASMUSSEN; A. JENSEN

1995-01-01

37

Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied. PMID:20615603

Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

2010-11-01

38

Review and Summary of Human Use Mapping in the Marine and Coastal Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a project that researched and synthesized methods and approaches to map human uses of the coastal and marine environment. The purpose of this project is to inform the NOAA Coastal Services Center's (CSC's) understandin...

2010-01-01

39

Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

Kaza, Stephanie

1988-01-01

40

The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for an ecologically-relevant ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes, creating a potential connection between water and air quality in the coastal environment.

Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-12-01

41

Oceanic rafting by a coastal community  

PubMed Central

Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400–600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa.

Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

42

Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean.

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

2011-01-01

43

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

44

Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOLAN, A.H., and WALKER, I.J., 2003. Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 39 (Proceedings of the 8th International Coastal Symposium), pg - pg. Itajaí, SC - Brazil, ISSN 0749-0208 This paper discusses the concept of vulnerability as characterized in the climate change literature and presents a framework for assessing adaptive capacity.

A. H. Dolan; I. J. Walker

2004-01-01

45

75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...this draft standard for public review at its July 20, 2010 meeting. The FGDC invites all stakeholders in coastal and marine ecology and management to comment on this standard to ensure that the standard meets their needs. The draft Coastal and Marine...

2010-08-23

46

Genomic analysis of uncultured marine viral communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are the most common biological entities in the oceans by an order of magnitude. However, very little is known about their diversity. Here we report a genomic analysis of two uncultured marine viral communities. Over 65% of the sequences were not significantly similar to previously reported sequences, suggesting that much of the diversity is previously uncharacterized. The most common

Mya Breitbart; Peter Salamon; Bjarne Andresen; Joseph M. Mahaffy; Anca M. Segall; David Mead; Farooq Azam; Forest Rohwer

2002-01-01

47

Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 microm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 microm) and subsurface layer (1m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping. PMID:16388828

Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

2006-07-01

48

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

49

Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areas—in particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areas—of species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapes—should be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and

Biliana Cicin-Sain; Stefano Belfiore

2005-01-01

50

Top-down regulation, climate and multi-decadal changes in coastal zoobenthos communities in two Baltic Sea areas.  

PubMed

The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998

Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Gårdmark, Anna

2013-01-01

51

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.  

PubMed

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

52

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era  

PubMed Central

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying “omics” approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field.

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

53

Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk  

PubMed Central

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

54

Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.  

PubMed

Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

55

Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts,

Shari Matzner; Mark E. Jones

2011-01-01

56

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources  

PubMed Central

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernandez, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

2010-01-01

57

Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.  

PubMed

Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

2010-09-28

58

Community Education in Eastern Chinese Coastal Cities: Issues and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first reviews the development of community education in Shanghai, one of China's eastern coastal cities. Then the development of community education in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, especially its management system and operational mechanisms, school operating systems and networks, curriculum systems, and team building are presented.…

Lu, Suju

2009-01-01

59

A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water.  

PubMed

Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

Haaijer, Suzanne C M; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

2013-01-01

60

Initiation of Callus Cultures and Plantlet Regeneration from Seagrasses and Marine Coastal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies indicated that it was possible to initiate callus cultures from marine and freshwater seagrasses and coastal plants. Further investigation into media formulations and environmental conditions were necessary to promote continued callus exp...

J. I. Jones R. D. Ellender

1991-01-01

61

A Meta-Analysis of Contingent Valuation Studies in Coastal and NearShore Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecosystem services provided by coastal and near-shore marine systems contribute significantly to human welfare. However, studies that document values of these services are widely scattered in the peer-reviewed literature. We collected 39 contingent valuation papers with 120 observations to conduct the first meta-analysis of the ecosystem service values provided by the coastal and near-shore marine systems. Our results show

Shuang Liu; David I. Stern

2008-01-01

62

Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection of data for mapping; * seek innovative solutions to the primary obstacles identified; * identify the steps needed to move mapping of Florida's oceans and coasts forward, in preparation for a better coordinated, more cost-effective mapping program to allow State and Federal agencies to make better decisions on coastal-resource issues. Over 90 invited participants representing more than 30 State and Federal agencies, universities, NGOs, and private industries played a large role in the success of this two-day workshop. State of Florida agency participants created a ranked priority order for mapping 13 different regions around Florida. The data needed for each of the 13 priority regions were outlined. A matrix considering State and Federal priorities was created, utilizing input from all agencies. The matrix showed overlapping interests of the entities and will allow for partnering and leveraging of resources. The five most basic mapping needs were determined to be bathymetry, high-vertical resolution coastline for sea-level rise scenarios, shoreline change, subsurface geology, and benthic habitats at sufficient scale. There was a clear convergence on the need to coordinate mapping activities around the state. Suggestions for coordination included: * creating a glossary of terms: a standard for specifying agency data-mapping needs; * creating a geographic information officer (GIO) position or permanent organizing group to maintain communications established at this workshop and to maintain progress on the issues identified during the workshop. The person or group could develop a website, maintain a project-status matrix, develop a list of contacts, create links to legislative updates and links to funding sources; * developing a web portal and one-stop/clearinghouse of data. There was general consensus on the need to adopt a single habitat classification system and a strategy to accommodate existing systems smoothly. Unresolve

Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

2008-01-01

63

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation.

Ghiglione, Jean-Francois; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedros-Alio, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

2012-01-01

64

Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated using a three-stage filtration process to remove larger detritus and biological particles before collecting the bacterial population on a 0.2um filter, for re-suspension in a small volume of filter-sterilized seawater. To ensure eventual carbon limitation in microbial incubations, the samples were spiked with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Oxygen measurements were made as a proxy for community carbon uptake with an Ocean Optics FOXY-R fluorescence probe. Post irradiation, 15 samples were immediately sacrificed to take t=0 oxygen measurements, and the remainder were incubated in the dark for 10-12 days. Seasonal biolabile carbon photoproduction values ranged from -1.8E-2 to 9.2E-2 mol C produced/mol photons absorbed. To compare seasonal and spatial variations over this large data set, irradiations were set at a photon dose of 3.2 mol photons/m^2. Progressive photon dose experiments shows that irradiation length strongly influences the total biolabile product as assayed with microbial measurements. A conceptual model is presented to explain this dependence on photon dose. This varying dependence on photon dose is different from other photochemical products such as CO, and further complicates attempts to quantify the effect of photochemistry on the bioavailability of carbon in marine environments.

Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

2010-12-01

65

California Coastal Commission Public Education Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This education program presents materials and information designed to increase public knowledge of California's coastal and marine resources and to engage the public in coastal protection and restoration activities. Visitors may access information on programs and contests, cleanup activities, "green" boating, and grants for public marine education programs. For educators, there is a selection of classroom and community activities that addresses issues such as endangered species, marine debris, and coastal geology, as well as a curriculum of hands-on activities to help students understand the effects of marine debris on coastal wildlife and habitats. An extensive directory of links to other marine, coastal, and watershed resources is also included.

2004-12-10

66

Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH4/sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH4/sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH4/sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle.

Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bartlett, K. B.; Bartlett, D. S.

1982-01-01

67

Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments  

SciTech Connect

Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in /sup 210/Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column does not accumulate in the top 2 cm of sediment. Surface sediment pigment profiles indicate that pheophoribides are the dominant pheopigments observed, with concentrations decreasing rapidly with depth. Concentrations of chlorophyll c derivatives also decrease rapidly, but ratios of a/c pheopigments remain within ranges reported for natural and cultured phytoplankton. Sharp pheopigment concentrations decreases within the bioturbated surface sediments were modeled using a one dimensional mixing model. Sedimentary humic acid, fulvic acid, and residual humin associated pheopigments in sediments which had been previously acetone extracted to remove the lipophilic pheopigment fraction were typed by chromic acid oxidation and release of pyrrole derived maleimides. This humic associated pyrrole derived nitrogen, while a small fraction of total sedimentary or humic nitrogen, accounted for 16-75% of the total sedimentary pheopigment accumulation, and may be significant in understanding the diagenetic fate and transformation of pheopigments to petroporphyrins.

Furlong, E.T.; Carpenter, R.

1988-01-01

68

Widespread occurence of mariner transposons in coastal crabs.  

PubMed

Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are ubiquitous DNA mobile elements found in almost all eukaryote genomes. Nevertheless most of the known copies are inactive and the question of the genome invasion by MLEs remains largely hypothetical. We have previously reported the presence of highly homologous copies of MLEs in the genome of phylogenetically distant crustacea living in the same hydrothermal environment suggesting the possibility of horizontal transfer. In order to further support the hypothesis that horizontal transmission of MLEs might occur between crustacean sympatric species, we described here 85 MLE sequences found in the genome of a large spectrum of coastal crab species. The number of the MLEs copies in genomes was variable. Half of these MLEs fit with the irritans subfamily of MLEs whereas the second half grouped in a new subfamily called marmoratus. In addition, a molecular phylogeny of crabs was established by using the 16S information. The comparison between 16S and MLEs based trees reveals their incongruence, and suggests either the existence of horizontal transfer events between phylogenetically distant species, or an ancestral MLE polymorphism followed by different evolution and stochastic loss. PMID:18455443

Bui, Q-T; Casse, N; Leignel, V; Nicolas, V; Chénais, B

2008-06-01

69

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

2012-01-01

70

Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 210Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column does not accumulate in the top 2 cm of sediment. Surface sediment pigment profiles indicate that pheophorbides are the dominant pheopigments observed, with concentrations decreasing rapidly with depth. Concentrations of chlorophyll c derivatives also decrease rapidly, but ratios of a/c pheopigments remain within ranges reported for natural and cultured phytoplankton. Sharp pheopigment concentration decreases within the bioturbated surface sediments (as defined by 210Pb activities) were modeled using a one dimensional mixing model. The in situ pheopigment decomposition rate, corrected for bioturbation and sediment accumulation, corresponds to an approximate half-life of 40 days. Sedimentary humic acid, fulvic acid, and residual humin associated pheopigments in sediments which had been previously acetone extracted to remove the lipophilic pheopigment fraction were typed by chromic acid oxidation and release of pyrrole derived maleimides. This humic associated pyrrole derived nitrogen, while a small fraction of total sedimentary or humic nitrogen, accounted for 16-75% of the total sedimentary pheopigment accumulation, and may be significant in understanding the diagenetic fate and transformation of pheopigments to petroporphyrins.

Furlong, Edward T.; Carpenter, Roy

1988-01-01

71

Isolation and characterization of marine luminous bacteria from shallow coastal waters of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Marine luminous bacteria were isolated and identified from samples in shallow coastal waters of Taiwan during the relatively warm seasons. Methods: Identification of the luminous isolates was performed based on differences of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics together with data from phylogenetic analysis. Results: Twenty seven strains of marine luminous bacteria were isolated. They were divided into five

Hsiu-Hui Chiu; Hsiao-Hui Chou; Wen-Dar Jean; Wung-Yang Shieh

72

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent

Joe Roman; James J. McCarthy

2010-01-01

73

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R\\/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from

Mikael Ehn; Henri Vuollekoski; Tuukka Petäjä; Veli-Matti Kerminen; Marko Vana; Pasi Aalto; Gerrit de Leeuw; Darius Ceburnis; Regis Dupuy; Colin D. O'Dowd; Markku Kulmala

2010-01-01

74

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial viability (culturability) of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable (culturable) microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-09-01

75

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2012-02-01

76

Estimating Biomass in Coastal Baccharis Pilularis Dominated Plant Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communities dominated by Baccharis pilularis are expanding in coastal California altering fuel load on a landscape scale, yet there is no standard method for estimating biomass in this vegetation type. In an attempt to develop a non-destructive field meth...

R. Tompkins W. Russell

2006-01-01

77

Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

1991-01-01

78

Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities

C. C. P. Hardoim; R. Costa; F. V. Araujo; E. Hajdu; R. Peixoto; U. Lins; A. S. Rosado; J. D. van Elsas

2009-01-01

79

Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

2013-06-15

80

Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.  

PubMed

Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

1992-04-01

81

Detached breakwaters: communities' preferences for sustainable coastal protection.  

PubMed

Detached breakwaters have been implemented for coastal protection. As society evolves and community livelihood has been acknowledged as an ingredient for sustainable coastal development, the breakwaters must do more than just dissipate wave forces. Using detached breakwaters in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand as a case study, this research provides empirical proof of such a concept. Interviewing coastal communities who have lived with the breakwaters revealed numerous expectations. Since each community's requirement might be entangled with other functions and incur more costs, coastal engineers had to prioritize preferences. Seven breakwater scenarios were synthesized based on the interview results. For each scenario, the shoreline position was simulated using calibrated LITPACK software, the construction cost was estimated, and a set of illustrations was drawn in order to standardize respondents' perceptions. An analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was applied. The AHP results suggested that the preferred breakwater scenarios were those that promoted the existing ways of life. Other aspects such as construction practice, environmental, and social aspects should also be thoroughly considered. PMID:23246771

Saengsupavanich, Cherdvong

2013-01-30

82

Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.  

PubMed Central

For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments.

Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

1996-01-01

83

A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a 1.5 m surface penetrating mast which currently limits the operational depth, although the core vehicle can be deployed to depths in excess of 10 m. Propulsion is accomplished with two DC brushless motors driving six wide heavy tread pneumatic wheels, three on each side. Power is provided by NiMH batteries. An onboard computer controls propulsion, navigation and communications. Guidance and navigation utilize inertial sensors, an electronic compass and a GPS unit mounted on the mast. A scientist onshore can monitor data from the scientific payload as well as command the robot through a mast-mounted radio Ethernet bridge. Standard, off the shelf oceanographic sensors such as sondes and ADCPs can easily be integrated onto the robot making it a versatile sensing platform. We have successfully deployed the vehicle off a sandy beach in Lake Michigan where it has performed lawn-mower surveys in the surf zone. LMAR's design and field test results will be presented along with a discussion of how to further harden the vehicle for deployment in storms.

Consi, T. R.

2012-12-01

84

Marine debris ingestion by coastal dolphins: What drives differences between sympatric species?  

PubMed

This study compared marine debris ingestion of the coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis in a sympatric area in Atlantic Ocean. Among the 89 stomach contents samples of P. blainvillei, 14 (15.7%) contained marine debris. For S. guianensis, 77 stomach contents samples were analyzed and only one of which (1.30%) contained marine debris. The debris recovered was plastic material: nylon yarns and flexible plastics. Differences in feeding habits between the coastal dolphins were found to drive their differences regarding marine debris ingestion. The feeding activity of P. blainvillei is mainly near the sea bottom, which increases its chances of ingesting debris deposited on the seabed. In contrast, S. guianensis has a near-surface feeding habit. In the study area, the seabed is the main zone of accumulation of debris, and species with some degree of association with the sea bottom may be local bioindicators of marine debris pollution. PMID:24746357

Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda

2014-06-15

85

Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by fluorescence spectroscopy technique as DOM fluorescence is a property furnishing valuable information for its composition and biogeochemical cycling. Fluorescence spectra were recorded using a Perkin-Elmer LS 55 luminescence spectrophotometer equipped with the WinLab 4.00.02 software for data processing. Conventional mono-dimensional emission, excitation and synchronous-scan excitation spectra were recorded. Mono dimensional emission spectra were recorded over the range 380-600 nm at a constant excitation wavelength of 360 nm. Excitation spectra were recorded over the range 300-500 nm at a fixed emission wavelength of 520 nm. Synchronous-scan excitation spectra were measured by scanning simultaneously both the excitation and the emission wavelengths (from 300 to 550 nm), while maintaining a constant, optimised wavelength difference ?? (?em - ?exc) = 18 nm. (Senesi et al., 1991). Total Luminescence Spectra (3D fluorescence spectra) were obtained in the form of excitation/emission matrix spectra (or contour maps) by scanning the wavelength emission over the range 300 to 600 nm, while the excitation wavelength was increased sequentially by 5-nm steps from 250 to 500 nm. In comparison with the limited provided information from the conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, EEM analysis seems to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between the various types of marine gelbstoff as well as to help estimating the contribution of each of them. Humification indices according to Ohno (2002) and Zsolnay (1999) were calculated. The Humification index (HIX) according to Ohno is calculated by dividing the emission intensity in the 435 to 480 nm region by the emission intensity in the 300 to 345 nm region; HIX quantifies the red shift of the emission spectra toward longer wavelengths with increasing humification. The HI index according to Zsolnay is defined as the area in the upper quarter (?435-480nm) of the usable emission peak divided by the area in the lower usable quarter (?300-445nm). All fluorescence spectra were thoroughly evaluated for the classification of chr

Sakellariadou, F.

2012-04-01

86

Building Community Based Initiatives in Rural Coastal Communities. Staff Paper 95.2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In rural coastal communities, trade-offs between conserving and developing environmentally sensitive resources are acute. At the community level, part-time volunteers and citizen officials are asked to make complex decisions based on ambiguous and frequently contradictory "scientific" evidence of economic and environmental relationships. The…

Behr, Chris; Lamb, Greg; Miller, Al; Sadowske, Sue; Shaffer, Ron

87

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

88

[The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].  

PubMed

The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem. PMID:12820576

Di Girolamo, Irene

2003-01-01

89

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

Diedrich, A.

2007-12-01

90

[Identification of marine and coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica].  

PubMed

Costa Rica is recognized as one of the most diverse countries in species and ecosystems, in their terrestrial realm as well as in the marine. Besides this relevance, the country presents a delay on conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity, with respect to terrestrial. For 2006, the marine protected surface was 5,208.8 km2, with 331.5 km of coastline, in 20 protected areas. The country has made progress on the conservation priority sites identification for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, with few efforts on marine planning. This research presents the analysis and results of the gap identification process, for marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the protected areas system of Costa Rica. The analysis was built with the spatial information available on the presence and distribution of coastal and marine biodiversity, the establishment of the conservation goals and a threat analysis over the ecological integrity of this biodiversity. The selection of high-priority sites was carried out using spatial optimization techniques and the superposition over the current shape of marine protected areas, in order to identify representation gaps. A total of 19,076 km2 of conservation gaps were indentified, with 1,323 km2 in the Caribbean and 17,753 km2 in the Pacific. Recommendations are aimed at planning and strengthening the marine protected areas system, using the gaps identified as a framework. It is expected that the results of this study would be the scientific base needed for planning and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in the country. PMID:21721241

Alvarado, Juan José; Herrera, Bernal; Corrales, Lenin; Asch, Jenny; Paaby, Pía

2011-06-01

91

Darwin's naturalization hypothesis: scale matters in coastal plant communities  

PubMed Central

Darwin proposed two seemingly contradictory hypotheses for a better understanding of biological invasions. Strong relatedness of invaders to native communities as an indication of niche overlap could promote naturalization because of appropriate niche adaptation, but could also hamper naturalization because of negative interactions with native species (‘Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis’). Although these hypotheses provide clear and opposing predictions for expected patterns of species relatedness in invaded communities, so far no study has been able to clearly disentangle the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that conflicting past results are mainly due to the neglected role of spatial resolution of the community sampling. In this study, we corroborate both of Darwin’s expectations by using phylogenetic relatedness as a measure of niche overlap and by testing the effects of sampling resolution in highly invaded coastal plant communities. At spatial resolutions fine enough to detect signatures of biotic interactions, we find that most invaders are less related to their nearest relative in invaded plant communities than expected by chance (phylogenetic overdispersion). Yet at coarser spatial resolutions, native assemblages become more invasible for closely-related species as a consequence of habitat filtering (phylogenetic clustering). Recognition of the importance of the spatial resolution at which communities are studied allows apparently contrasting theoretical and empirical results to be reconciled. Our study opens new perspectives on how to better detect, differentiate and understand the impact of negative biotic interactions and habitat filtering on the ability of invaders to establish in native communities.

Carboni, Marta; Munkemuller, Tamara; Gallien, Laure; Lavergne, Sebastien; Acosta, Alicia; Thuiller, Wilfried

2014-01-01

92

Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem. PMID:17334056

Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

2006-12-01

93

The Gulf of Mexico: towards an integration of coastal management with large marine ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the introductory paper to the special issue on Coastal Management in the Gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest open water body of internationally protected habitats in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a semi-enclosed sea and is the ninth largest body of water in the world. The Gulf region covers more than

Alejandro Yáñez-Arancibia; John W. Day

2004-01-01

94

Barium in Southern California Coastal Waters: A Potential Indicator of Marine Drilling Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present barium content of Southern California coastal waters was determined to be 11 to 22 micrograms per kilogram of seawater. These values may be used as base-line concentrations to monitor marine contamination during future offshore oil and gas explorations.

Tsaihwa J. Chow

1976-01-01

95

Barium in southern California coastal waters: a potential indicator of marine drilling contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present barium content of Southern California coastal waters was determined to be 11 to 22 micrograms per kilograms of seawater. These values may be used as base-line concentrations to monitor marine contamination during future off-shore oil and gas explorations.

T. J. CHOW

1976-01-01

96

Citizen's Guide to Sources for Marine and Coastal Information in Massachusetts (Seventh Revised Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Citizen's Guide to Sources for Marine and Coastal Information in Massachusetts is a project of the MIT Sea Grant College Program. The work was funded by the MIT Sea Grant College Program under a federal grant from the National Sea Grant College Progra...

M. Hall-Arber

1998-01-01

97

Preparedness of key coastal and marine sectors in Ireland to adapt to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparedness to adapt to the impacts of climate change was assessed for three important sectors of activity within the Irish coastal and marine environment, namely tourism, fisheries, and conservation of biodiversity. Information on the current status of each sector is a valuable point of reference in terms of accessing contribution to the implementation of future national adaptation efforts. A modified

Kathrin Kopke; Cathal O'Mahony

2011-01-01

98

The solubility of Pb in coastal marine rainwaters: pH-dependent relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the particulate ? dissolved speciation of total Pb (?Pb) in 175 rainwater samples from a variety of coastal marine environments have been used to construct a composite ‘pH–% Pb solubility’ plot which covers the pH range found in natural rainwaters. The % ?Pb solubility values of the samples display large variations, ranging from >90 to <10%. The ‘pH–%

R Chester; M Nimmo; G. R Fones; S Keyse; J Zhang

2000-01-01

99

University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute Annual Report No. 5, Fiscal Year 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 199...

V. Alexander

1998-01-01

100

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.  

PubMed

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

2012-10-23

101

The Marine Realms Information Bank Family of Digital Libraries: Access to Free Online Information for Coastal and Marine Science  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

2007-01-01

102

[Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].  

PubMed

Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. PMID:22720565

Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

2012-04-01

103

Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities  

PubMed Central

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning.

Tornroos, Anna; Nordstrom, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

104

Coastal habitats as surrogates for taxonomic, functional and trophic structures of benthic faunal communities.  

PubMed

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

105

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

2013-02-01

106

North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Four: Coastal Beginnings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are simulations, puzzles, class discussions, crafts and other activities designed to introduce the past cultures of North Carolina's coastal peoples to elementary and secondary students. The manual is one of several produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under the "Man and the Seacoast" project with Sea Grant funding.…

Mauldin, Lundie, Ed.; And Others

107

Short-term variability of the phytoplankton community in coastal ecosystem in response to physical and chemical conditions' changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The short-term dynamics (time scale of a few days) of phytoplankton communities in coastal ecosystems, particularly those of toxic species, are often neglected. Such phenomena can be important, especially since these very species can endanger the sustainability of shellfish farming. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in phytoplankton community structure (species succession) in two coastal zones in parallel with physical and chemical conditions. Mixing events with allochtonous waters could thus be distinguished from local processes associated with population growth when it was associated with a change in light or nutrient limitation. Mixing events and water advection influenced fluctuations in total phytoplankton biomass and concentration of dominant species, while local processes influenced delayed changes in community structure. The estuarine species Asterionellopsis glacialis increased in concentration when the water mass mixed with the nearest estuarine water masses. The biological response, measured as photosynthetic capacity, occurred after a time-lag of a few hours, while the changes in community structure occurred after a time-lag of a few days. Finally, the coastal water mass was constantly mixed with both the nearest estuarine and marine water masses, leading in turn to delayed changes in phytoplankton community structure. These changes in species composition and dominance were observed on a time scale of a few days, which means that some toxic species may be missed with a bi-weekly sampling strategy.

Pannard, Alexandrine; Claquin, Pascal; Klein, Cécile; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

2008-11-01

108

Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume I  

SciTech Connect

The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Sixty-nine papers were selected for the database from Volume 1 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 1 include: oil spills and marine pollution; Florida ecosystems; air-sea interaction and sea ice; living resources; optics and models; hyperspectral sensors and applications; and charting and mapping.

NONE

1997-06-01

109

75 FR 63443 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting of the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee...Officer, MPA FAC, National Marine Protected Areas Center, 1305 East West Highway...the Subcommittees (Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning and Communities and...

2010-10-15

110

Community structure and function in prokaryotic marine plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular biodiversity studies of microbial communities have provided invaluable information on the existence of heretofore\\u000a unknown organisms and on community composition. Cloning and ‘fingerprinting’ techniques have been used many times to study\\u000a prokaryote community composition of marine plankton. There are still many opportunities for new discoveries in this area,\\u000a but the results have also opened new questions about the activities

Jed A. Fuhrman

2002-01-01

111

Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical evacuation methodology was intended to provide key information to better understand and mitigate risk caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, thus it is possible to mitigate hazard for a community with only several large vertical evacuation shelters. It is able to provide a framework for a vertical evacuation plan and for the mitigation of collapse risk and fatalities of structures and a community based on a limited amount of information.

Park, Sangki

112

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed Central

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the ‘cell water conservation hypothesis’, may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant–water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below ?1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above ?1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis.

Touchette, Brant W.; Marcus, Sarah E.; Adams, Emily C.

2014-01-01

113

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

2014-01-01

114

Levels of toxic metals in marine organisms collected from Southern California coastal waters.  

PubMed Central

Emission of toxic trace metals into southern California coastal waters has resulted in the extensive accumulation of the elements within marine sediments. The current study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of trace metals in bottom-dwelling marine fauna collected from two sampling areas. Analyses carried out on muscle samples of the dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) and the crab (Cancer anthonyi) by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis showed considerable concentrations of arsenic and selenium. Samples of gonads, digestive gland, and muscle from the crab Mursia gaudichaudii analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy showed elemental concentrations in muscle similar to the crab Cancer anthonyi and much higher metal levels in gonad and digestive gland. These findings suggest the need for further studies concerning the relationship between emission of metals into the marine environment and their abundance in marine fauna.

Fowler, B A; Fay, R C; Walter, R L; Willis, R D; Gutknecht, W F

1975-01-01

115

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE FOULING COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constitutes an examination of the sedentary communities found on float bottoms and other submerged objects in Newport Harbor, California. Par ticular attention has been paid to the changes in composition of such communities with time. The basic problem in the development of a sequence of communities in a limited environment is that of distinguishing between seasonal progression and

BRADLEY T. SCHEER

116

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

Microsoft Academic Search

California's coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate

G. B. Griggs; N. Russell

2010-01-01

117

Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches.  

PubMed

We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution. PMID:19458658

Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke

2009-11-01

118

Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life  

SciTech Connect

Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

2011-07-01

119

U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

2000-01-01

120

Quarternary Deformation of Western Baja California, Mexico, as Indicated by Marine Terraces and Associated Deposits. Coastal Dune Systems of Northwest Baja California, Mexico. Coastal Salt Marshes of Northwest Baja California, Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Quaternary deformation of Western Baja California, Mexico, as Indicated by Marine Terraces and Associated Deposits; Coastal dune systems of Northwest Baja California, Mexico; Coastal salt marshes of Northwest Baja California, Mexico.

A. R. Orme

1973-01-01

121

Coastal Marine Mapping as an Ecosystem Based Management - the case study of the Baixada Santista Region - São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

SARTOR, S.M., HANS, M.F.P., PALM, L., SARTOR, L.M., LEÃO, A.L., 2007. Coastal Marine Mapping as an Ecosystem Based Management - the case study of the Baixada Santista Region - São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50 (Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium), 1178 - 1182. Gold Coast, Australia, ISSN 0749.0208 Despite the enormous environmental impact occurring in

S. M. Sartor; M. F. P. Hans; L. Palm; L. M. Sartor; A. L. Leão; Centro Universitário Monte

122

Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing  

PubMed Central

In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process.

DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Brauer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

2012-01-01

123

Ubiquitous dissolved inorganic carbon assimilation by marine bacteria in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean as determined by stable isotope probing.  

PubMed

In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM (13)C-NaHCO(3), doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process. PMID:23056406

DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L; Edgmont, Chelsea A; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M; Zuber, Peter

2012-01-01

124

Climate change impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global\\u000a air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001)\\u000a was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector\\u000a review of

Donald Scavia; John C. Field; Donald F. Boesch; Robert W. Buddemeier; Virginia Burkett; Daniel R. Cayan; Michael Fogarty; Mark A. Harwell; Robert W. Howarth; Curt Mason; Denise J. Reed; Thomas C. Royer; Asbury H. Sallenger; James G. Titus

2002-01-01

125

Screening for marine nanoplanktic microalgae from Greek coastal lagoons (Ionian Sea) for use in mariculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediterranean mariculture uses imported strains of marine phytoplankton, raising questions of ecological risk and ability\\u000a to adapt to local conditions for mass culture outdoors. In this context, we report here on the mass-culture potential and\\u000a chemical composition of six strains of Prasinophyceae (five strains of Tetraselmis sp. and one Pyramimonas sp.) isolated from a Greek coastal lagoon. Proximate composition had

I. Tzovenis; E. Fountoulaki; N. Dolapsakis; I. Kotzamanis; I. Nengas; I. Bitis; Y. Cladas; A. Economou-Amilli

2009-01-01

126

A bio-physical coastal ecosystem model for assessing environmental effects of marine bivalve aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple lower trophic level, bio-physical marine ecosystem model is developed for the purpose of assessing the environmental effects of bivalve aquaculture in coastal embayments. The ecosystem box model includes pelagic and benthic components and describes the cycling of a most-limiting nutrient. The pelagic compartment is comprised of phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients and detritus. These populations interact following predator–prey dynamics and

Michael Dowd

2005-01-01

127

Life in the "plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris.  

PubMed

Plastics are the most abundant form of marine debris, with global production rising and documented impacts in some marine environments, but the influence of plastic on open ocean ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly for microbial communities. Plastic marine debris (PMD) collected at multiple locations in the North Atlantic was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and next-generation sequencing to characterize the attached microbial communities. We unveiled a diverse microbial community of heterotrophs, autotrophs, predators, and symbionts, a community we refer to as the "Plastisphere". Pits visualized in the PMD surface conformed to bacterial shapes suggesting active hydrolysis of the hydrocarbon polymer. Small-subunit rRNA gene surveys identified several hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, supporting the possibility that microbes play a role in degrading PMD. Some Plastisphere members may be opportunistic pathogens (the authors, unpublished data) such as specific members of the genus Vibrio that dominated one of our plastic samples. Plastisphere communities are distinct from surrounding surface water, implying that plastic serves as a novel ecological habitat in the open ocean. Plastic has a longer half-life than most natural floating marine substrates, and a hydrophobic surface that promotes microbial colonization and biofilm formation, differing from autochthonous substrates in the upper layers of the ocean. PMID:23745679

Zettler, Erik R; Mincer, Tracy J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

2013-07-01

128

Effects of Land Use Change on Tropical Coastal Systems are Exacerbated by the Decline of Marine Mega-Herbivores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use changes in tropical regions such as deforestation, mining activities, and shrimp farming, not only affect freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, but also have a strong impact on coastal marine ecosystems. The increased influx of sediments and nutrients affects these ecosystems in multiple ways. Seagrass meadows that line coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services, e.g. sediment trapping, coastal protection and fisheries. Based on studies in East Kalimantan (Indonesia) we have shown that seagrass meadow parameters may provide more reliable indicators of land use change than the sampling of either marine sediments or water quality chemical parameters. Observations of changes in ecosystem functioning are particularly valuable for those areas where flux values are lacking and rapid surveys are needed. Time series of estuarine seagrass transects can show not only the intensity, but also the radius of action of land use change on coastal marine systems. Marine mega-herbivores pose a strong top-down control in seagrass ecosystems. We will provide a conceptual model, based on experimental evidence, to show that the global decline of marine mega-herbivore populations (as a result of large-scale poaching) may decrease the resilience of seagrass systems to increased anthropogenic forcing including land use changes. These outcomes not only urge the need for better regulation of land use change, but also for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPA's) in tropical coastal regions.

Lamers, L. P.; Christianen, M. J.; Govers, L. L.; Kiswara, W.; Bouma, T.; Roelofs, J. G.; Van Katwijk, M. M.

2011-12-01

129

The sociological perspective in coastal management and geoengineering approach: effects of hydraulic structures on the resilience of fishing communities (NW Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast plays an important role in global transportation and is the most popular tourist destination around the world. During the years coastal scientists "walking on the shore", have tried to understand the shoreline in relation to the processes that shape it, and its interrelationships with the contiguous superficial marine and terrestrial hinterland environments. Those factors encourage the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), because of its possible use in identifying coastal management issues to take into account in policy strategies, measures and planning. Therefore this research presents an integrated strategy and a holistic approach to researching and studying coastal areas involving a wide number of sciences including sociology. Because of the numerous types of hazards in coastal areas the only possible response involves a holistic, integrated and long term approach. Combining marine sociological research, resilience and flexibility of a particular coastal community with other scientific fields will help to understand and manage marine social problems. This study also shows an integrative and "eclectic" methodology and adapts it to coastal management. Hence a new integrated coastal geoengineering approach for maritime environments was proposed, which is the core foundation of this approach. Also it was important to incorporate in a broader sense coastal geosciences and geoengineering GIS mapping to this final equation resulting in conceptual models. In Portugal there are several areas buffeted by sea invasions, coastal erosion and severe storms. The Portuguese coastal zone is one of Europe's most vulnerable regarding coastal erosion. The case study presented herein is an example of one of the most vulnerable sites in Portugal in terms of coastal erosion and sea invasions and how the meeting of local fishing community and coastal projects are extremely important. The coastal stretch between Figueira da Foz and Espinho (Centre and NW Portugal) case shows the link between governance - stakeholders - contractors - researchers - local community as a necessary management strategy and more, such as the holistic synergy. It defined a "social mesh" embracing a platform or a project which comprises different vectors and combines social aspects, economic factors, culture and heritage with activities, upgrading the traditions in fishing communities, to somehow forget and accept the sea invasions and the hard solutions like coastal protection structures (e.g. groynes, seawalls) as well as the reinforcement and requalification of the urban areas and the improvement in the seashore area. In the course of this project and during this period, the community worked as a live laboratory and as an experimental field. The study takes advantage of GIS tools to contribute to the understanding of the geomorphological dynamics of Espinho (NW Portugal) presented here as one of the examples (already addressed by the authors in several publications and works). This type of framework can be adapted and applied in other geographical settings and other coastal environments to develop innovative sustainability paths and help to solve coastal issues.

Rocha, Fernando; Pires, Ana; Chamine, Helder

2014-05-01

130

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

2012-02-28

131

Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning should be present in all the countries or locations. As this study shows, community resiliency can be measured but any such measurement must be both location- and hazard-specific. PMID:22576136

Kafle, Shesh Kanta

2012-01-01

132

Comments on and implications of a steady-state in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal ecosystems can be thought of as being established by a number of physico-geochemical drivers, e.g. geochemistry and bathymetry of the basins, climate, tidal and freshwater flows, natural and anthropogenic inputs of nutrients and toxins, all of which exert an influence on the resulting communities of organisms. Depending on the interactions among the major drivers, ecosystems may occur on both

Alberto Zirino; Carlos Neira; Francesco Maicu; Lisa A. Levin

2012-01-01

133

Hygroscopic behavior of partially volatilized coastal marine aerosols using the volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marine nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation mode aerosol particles with back trajectories indicative of marine origin were examined using a volatilization and humidification tandem differential mobility analyzer (VHTDMA) to reveal the volatilization temperatures of the various component species. The diameter hygroscopic growth factors of the residue particles were continually examined throughout the volatilization process. In each of the three modes

G. R. Johnson; Z. D. Ristovski; B. D'Anna; L. Morawska

2005-01-01

134

Environmental contamination using accumulation of metals in marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata inhabiting the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal marine ecosystems in many parts of the world are under unrelenting stress caused by urban development, pollutants and other ecological impacts such as building of infrastructure, land reclamation for port and industrial development, habitat modification, tourism and recreational activities. The present work is a first extensive field study using the marine sponge, Sigmadocia fibulata as a bioindicator to detect

J. Venkateswara Rao; P. Kavitha; K. Srikanth; P. K. Usman; T. Gnaneshwar Rao

2007-01-01

135

Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes.

2012-01-01

136

Community Composition of Marine Bacterioplankton Determined by 16S rRNA Gene Clone Libraries and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

We determined the compositions of bacterioplankton communities in surface waters of coastal California using clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to compare the community structures inferred from these two culture-independent approaches. The compositions of two clone libraries were quite similar to those of clone libraries of marine bacterioplankton examined by previous studies. Clones from ?-proteobacteria comprised ca. 28% of the libraries, while approximately 55% of the clones came from ?-proteobacteria, which dominated the clone libraries. The Cytophaga-Flavobacter group and three others each comprised 10% or fewer of the clone libraries. The community composition determined by FISH differed substantially from the composition implied by the clone libraries. The Cytophaga-Flavobacter group dominated 8 of the 11 communities assayed by FISH, including the two communities assayed using clone libraries. On average only 10% of DAPI (4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole)-stained bacteria were detected by FISH with a probe for ?-proteobacteria, but 30% of DAPI-stained bacteria appeared to be in the Cytophaga-Flavobacter group as determined by FISH. ?-Proteobacteria were greatly overrepresented in clone libraries compared to their relative abundance determined by FISH, while the Cytophaga-Flavobacter group was underrepresented in clone libraries. Our data show that the Cytophaga-Flavobacter group can be a numerically dominant component of coastal marine bacterioplankton communities.

Cottrell, Matthew T.; Kirchman, David L.

2000-01-01

137

Chlorine loss from marine aerosol in a coastal atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal gradient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured on the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula. In summer, a large fraction of particulate sea-salt chlorine (67% for fine particles and 24% for coarse particles) is already lost during the sea breezes by the time marine air masses arrive to the coast. The volatilization values increase to 86% and 68%, 30 km inland. Acidic sulphur compounds are responsible for 64-71% of the degassing of Cl from fine particles, while nitric acid is the main cause of the coarse particles, contributing with 60-68% for the particulate chlorine loss. There is more or less an 11% chlorine degassing per hour during the air mass transport inland. Thermodynamic equilibrium is not attained during the first 3 hours of aerosol transport inland for both fine and coarse sea-salt particles.

Pio, Casimiro A.; Lopes, Diamantino A.

1998-10-01

138

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats  

PubMed Central

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs.

Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

2014-01-01

139

MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

2010-12-01

140

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats.  

PubMed

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D A; Edgar, Robert J

2014-01-01

141

The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

Paola, Carrara; Lorenzo, Corgnati; Cosoli, Simone; Annalisa, Griffa; Alkiviadis, Kalampokis; Carlo, Mantovani; Alessandro, Oggioni; Monica, Pepe; Francesco, Raffa; Francesco, Serafino; Marco, Uttieri; Enrico, Zambianchi

2014-05-01

142

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.  

PubMed

Nine species of marine fish, including teleost fishes, sharks, and stingrays, and two species of marine mammals (dolphins) collected from Florida coastal waters were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate biomagnification factors (BMF) of these contaminants in a coastal foodweb. In addition, bottlenose dolphins and bull sharks collected from the Florida coast during the 1990s and the 2000s were analyzed for evaluation of temporal trends in PBDE and PCB levels in coastal ecosystems. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle tissues of teleost fishes ranged from 8.0 ng/g, lipid wt (in silver perch), to 88 ng/g, lipid wt (in hardhead catfish), with an overall mean concentration of 43 +/- 30 ng/g, lipid wt. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle of sharks ranged from 37.8 ng/g, lipid wt, in spiny dogfish to 1630 ng/g, lipid wt, in bull sharks. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins and striped dolphins were 1190 +/- 1580 and 660 ng/g, lipid wt, respectively. Tetra-BDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-) was the major congener detected in teleost fishes and dolphin samples, followed by BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-100, and BDE-154. In contrast, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in sharks. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in dolphins and sharks were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those in lower trophic-level fish species, indicating biomagnification of both of these contaminants in the marine foodweb. Based on the analysis of sharks and dolphins collected over a 10-year period, an exponential increase in the concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs has occurred in these marine predators. The doubling time of PBDE and PCB concentrations was estimated to be 2-3 years for bull sharks and 3-4 years for bottlenose dolphin. PMID:16294860

Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Addink, Rudolf; Adams, Douglas H

2005-11-01

143

Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Columbia River is experiencing a far too common problem of disastrous coastal erosion that has been causing grave concern in its community. Because of this, the US Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Washington Department of Ecology created the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study to predict management scale coastal change, and provide "coastal communities with decision support tools for integrating scientific research with coastal decision making and long-term land use planning efforts." Visitors can discover the study's approach, findings, and participants. The lengthy, informative research link provides information about the study's five key components: coastal change, sediment budget, coastal processes, predictive modeling, and management support. The authors are currently compiling the data collected. Presently, researchers can find data about the beach profiles and the shorelines. The website offers a great, thorough glossary to assist users with unfamiliar terminology. This site is also reviewed in the June 11, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

144

Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

Hay, Mark E.

2012-01-01

145

Marine and coastal environmental awareness building within the context of UNESCO's activities in Asia and the Pacific.  

PubMed

UNESCO is one of the specialized agencies under the United Nations charged with the advancement and improvement of education, social and natural sciences, culture and communication. This global mandate translates into programmes in the field tailored to the member states' specific requirements that build on the full breadth of expertise available in UNESCO. Environmental awareness building is an integral component of many of UNESCO's programmes. This paper describes how UNESCO addresses the need for awareness building in a variety of settings under different programmes and sectors. A first example is taken from the work of the education sector, which aims at introducing innovative learning methods and curricula that change or cultivate the perspective of people of all ages on sustainable development. The second example is taken from the Man and Biosphere Programme. The Biosphere Reserve concept has had a long history within UNESCO and is increasingly applied to protected areas in the coastal zone. Notable examples are Ranong Biosphere Reserve in Thailand, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve in Vietnam and the Island of Palawan in the Philippines. The concept is currently experiencing a revival as more and more countries realize the importance of striking a balance between human development and strict conservation. Many people know about UNESCO through the so-called World Heritage Sites. These are sites that are recognized by the world community as particular monuments, either natural or cultural, that warrant preservation for the whole of mankind. In the Asia-Pacific region, there are quite a number of coastal and marine sites that have been designated as natural world heritage sites, e.g. Halong Bay in Vietnam, the Komodo marine national park, Indonesia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, East-Rennell Island in the Solomon Islands, and Tubbataha Reef in the Philippines. The need for a cross-sectoral approach is evident under the so-called Coastal Zone and Small Islands endeavour, which aims at assisting Member States towards environmentally sound, socially equitable and culturally appropriate development in coastal regions and in small islands. Four examples of current pilot projects (Surin Island, Thailand, Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, Upolo Island, Samoa and Ulugan Bay, the Philippines) are highlighted. Each setting and each audience requires a different strategy. UNESCO's strength is to learn from all these experiences and make such new insights universally available and to put novel concepts into practice. PMID:12787630

Kuijper, Maarten W M

2003-01-01

146

State of knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity of Indian Ocean countries.  

PubMed

The Indian Ocean (IO) extends over 30% of the global ocean area and is rimmed by 36 littoral and 11 hinterland nations sustaining about 30% of the world's population. The landlocked character of the ocean along its northern boundary and the resultant seasonally reversing wind and sea surface circulation patterns are features unique to the IO. The IO also accounts for 30% of the global coral reef cover, 40,000 km² of mangroves,some of the world's largest estuaries, and 9 large marine ecosystems. Numerous expeditions and institutional efforts in the last two centuries have contributed greatly to our knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity within the IO. The current inventory, as seen from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, stands at 34,989 species, but the status of knowledge is not uniform among countries. Lack of human, institutional, and technical capabilities in some IO countries is the main cause for the heterogeneous level of growth in our understanding of the biodiversity of the IO. The gaps in knowledge extend to several smaller taxa and to large parts of the shelf and deep-sea ecosystems, including seamounts. Habitat loss, uncontrolled developmental activities in the coastal zone, over extraction of resources, and coastal pollution are serious constraints on maintenance of highly diverse biota, especially in countries like those of the IO, where environmental regulations are weak. PMID:21297949

Wafar, Mohideen; Venkataraman, Krishnamurthy; Ingole, Baban; Ajmal Khan, Syed; Lokabharathi, Ponnapakkam

2011-01-01

147

Microbial genetic diversity and ciliate community structure along an environmental gradient in coastal soil.  

PubMed

We investigated the microbial genetic diversity and ciliate community in coastal soil from five sites with an environmental gradient using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), gene sequencing and the Ludox-QPS method. The analyses of both the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 18S rRNA gene DGGE resulted in equal or even a higher number of bands found in the samples taken from the high-salinity sites IV and V than in those taken from the low-to-moderate-salinity sites I-III. Cluster analysis of both DGGE profiles classified the five sites into three main groups (sites I, II and III and IV and V), which corresponded well to the analysis of environmental factors. There were 13 species observed at site I, three species at site II and nine species at site III, while no active ciliates were observed at the high-salinity sites IV and V. By contrast, the ciliate-specific DGGE revealed a higher number of bands in the samples taken from the high-salinity soil. Furthermore, gene sequencing suggested that the ciliates in the high-salinity soil comprised forms originating not only from soil but also from marine environments. The data indicate that saline soil may maintain a high diversity of ciliates and soil salinity might be the most influential factor regulating the community structure of ciliates. PMID:23639872

Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

2013-11-01

148

Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa.  

PubMed

The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal cells shaped North Sea bacterial community composition and enhanced bacterial substrate assimilation. Infected algal cultures of Phaeocystis globosa grown in coastal North Sea water contained gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes that were distinct from those in the non-infected control cultures 5?h after infection. The gammaproteobacterial population at this time mainly consisted of Alteromonas sp. cells that were attached to the infected but still intact host cells. Nano-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) showed ?20% transfer of organic matter derived from the infected (13)C- and (15)N-labelled P. globosa cells to Alteromonas sp. cells. Subsequent, viral lysis of P. globosa resulted in the formation of aggregates that were densely colonised by bacteria. Aggregate dissolution was observed after 2 days, which we attribute to bacteriophage-induced lysis of the attached bacteria. Isotope mass spectrometry analysis showed that 40% of the particulate (13)C-organic carbon from the infected P. globosa culture was remineralized to dissolved inorganic carbon after 7 days. These findings reveal a novel role of viruses in the leakage or excretion of algal biomass upon infection, which provides an additional ecological niche for specific bacterial populations and potentially redirects carbon availability. PMID:23949664

Sheik, Abdul R; Brussaard, Corina P D; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Musat, Niculina; Krupke, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2014-01-01

149

Ecology of Tundra Ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain: A Community Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arctic Coastal Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire coastal region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland community on...

J. E. Hobbie

1984-01-01

150

Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), a cooperative initiative of the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Many of the issues in the province, and models being es- tablished through

Brian R. Crawford; I. M. Dutton; C. Rotinsulu; L. Z. Hale

151

Understanding the role of organic aerosol in the coastal and remote Pacific marine boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected over three field experiments in the remote and coastal marine boundary layer of the eastern Pacific Ocean from aircraft, ship, and stationary platforms and were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge Absorption Fine Structure (STXM-NEXAFS) for organic functional groups and organic mass fragments. X-ray uorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-rays (SEM-EDX) analyses were used to investigate the elemental composition of the analyzed particles. The aim of these studies was to better characterize particle sources and composition in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL), where aerosol-cloud interactions play an important role in controlling the reflectivity of the large cloud decks. Particle composition was linked to distinct particle sources including primary marine emissions, biomass burning, and fossil fuel combustion. Fossil fuel combustion particles were characterized by large contributions from saturated alkane and carboxylic acid groups. Biomass burning aerosol particles were characterized as mixtures of alkane, carboxylic acid, and ketone groups, consistent with biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles observed in chamber studies. Photochemical aging of the transported smoke particles was observed on diurnal and multi-day timescales as an increase in the relative amount of oxygenated groups and oxygen-containing molecular fragments. Marine primary organic aerosol (POA) particles were observed in shipboard samples and were characterized by large contributions from organic hydroxyl groups, suggesting a carbohydrate-containing source in the ocean surface emitted during bubble bursting. Marine particles were also identified in single particle STXM-NEXAFS and were classified into four distinct categories including soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, proteins, and calcareous phytoplankton fragments. The presence of oxidized (polar) organic components---ketone, organic hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid groups---in submicron particles suggests that many of the measured particles could contribute to cloud condensation nuclei number concentration and mass in both open ocean and coastal regions. Together, these measurements show that marine POA provides a significant contribution to submicron particle mass in the clean MBL, whereas fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning emissions contribute the majority of the organic mass in coastal regions.

Hawkins, Lelia Nahid

152

Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats. The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored. Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another. An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal environmental variation and stochastic events. The long-term monitoring of mat communities on Highborne Cay stromatolites and the resulting model are an important step in understanding morphogenesis of modern marine stromatolites, with implications for interpreting patterns of stromatolite lamination in the geologic record.

Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

2012-07-01

153

An operational forecasting system for the meteorological and marine conditions in Mediterranean regional and coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling of a suite of meteorological limited area models with a wave prediction system based on the nesting of different wave models provides for medium-range sea state forecasts at the Mediterranean, regional and coastal scale. The new system has been operational at ISPRA since September 2012, after the upgrade of both the meteorological BOLAM model and large-scale marine components of the original SIMM forecasting system and the implementation of the new regional and coastal (WAM-SWAN coupling) chain of models. The coastal system is composed of nine regional-scale high-resolution grids, covering all Italian seas and six coastal grids at very high resolution, capable of accounting for the effects of the interaction between the incoming waves and the bathymetry. A preliminary analysis of the performance of the system is discussed here focusing on the ability of the system to simulate the mean features of the wave climate at the regional and sub-regional scale. The results refer to two different verification studies. The first is the comparison of the directional distribution of almost one year of wave forecasts against the known wave climate in northwestern Sardinia and central Adriatic Sea. The second is a sensitivity test on the effect on wave forecasts of the spatial resolution of the wind forcing, being the comparison between wave forecast and buoy data at two locations in the northern Adriatic and Ligurian Sea during several storm episodes in the period autumn 2012-winter 2013.

Casaioli, M.; Catini, F.; Inghilesi, R.; Lanucara, P.; Malguzzi, P.; Mariani, S.; Orasi, A.

2014-05-01

154

Impaired megabenthic community structure caused by summer hypoxia in a eutrophic coastal bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication and hypoxia are major problems affecting the health of coastal ecosystems throughout the world. Tokyo Bay,\\u000a Japan, is a eutrophic coastal area where the abundance of the megabenthic community has been decreasing. To assess factors\\u000a associated with the impaired biota, seasonal surveys of the megabenthic community and water and sediment quality were conducted\\u000a in the bay. Cluster analysis showed

Keita KodamaMasaaki OyamaGen Kume; Masaaki Oyama; Gen Kume; Shigeko Serizawa; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Shibata; Makoto Shimizu; Toshihiro Horiguchi

2010-01-01

155

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

156

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

157

Hydrologic signals and patterns in coastal mangrove communities using space-borne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal mangrove ecotone, along the southern edge of the Florida Everglades, is the transition zone between the marine waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay, and the freshwater from the "River of Grass". Hydrologically-dependent ecosystems, like the Florida Everglades, have been experiencing greater threats in the past decade from climate change, increased fresh water demand, and urban growth and development. Identifying changes to water chemistry and evapotranspiration (ET) over the coastal landscape is important to understanding the ecosystem response and adaptation with respect to environmental restoration projects, water management practices and sea-level rise. Space-borne remote sensing can be a cost-effective tool to remotely measure water chemistry and ET changes in remote areas of the coastal Everglades on a regional scale. The objectives of this research were to; 1) to measure surface and subsurface water chemistry by building relationships between satellite-based mangrove reflectance data and the ionic and nutrient concentrations in the surface water and groundwater across the coastal mangrove ecotone; and 2) to estimate ET across the coastal everglades. Water chemistry and Landsat 5TM satellite data were used to develop a linear model to quantitatively predict water chemistry on the landscape scale within the coastal mangrove communities of south Florida on seasonal and annual timescales. A satellite-based energy balance approach was used to determine regional scale ET estimates. Using this satellite-energy balance approach, we were able to account for the spatial variability in surface temperature, changes in albedo, and vegetation reflectance. Water samples were collected from the surface water and groundwater from five Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that spanned a variety of mangrove communities and biomass production. Surface water samples were collected from 2008-2012 and groundwater samples were collected from 2009-2012. All water samples analyzed for major ion (e.g., Cl-, SO42-, Na2+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+) and nutrient (e.g., TOC, TN and TP) concentrations. Satellite spectra were extracted from the five LTER and used to calculate a number of biophysical indices. Seasonal patterns in both Cl- concentrations and ET were identified using the satellite reflectance data which correspond to the wet and dry seasons in south Florida. Chloride concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the dry season as compared to the end of the wet season. In addition, the ion concentrations in the water tended to increase down river. However, there were some exceptions when higher ion concentrations were exhibited upstream and may be a result increased flushing times and salt exclusion by the mangroves. Evapotranspiration estimates coincided well with previous site-specific and other satellite methods. Changes in the evapotranspiration varied seasonally with respect to mangrove phenology and net radiation and ranged between 6-7 mm day-1 in the dry season to 3-5 mm day-1 in the wet season. Ultimately, this research could provide a method to remotely monitor and detect water chemistry and water budget changes to the environment with respect to natural or man-made modifications.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

158

Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (?, ?, and ? subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marba, Nuria

2012-01-01

159

Overview of the Coastal Marine Discovery Service: data discovery, visualization, and understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many resources available for coastal ocean research and management remain underutilized. Typically, the emphasis in the past has been on increasing access and usability of remote sensing satellite products from NASA data centers. Significant progress has been made in this regard although access and discovery mechanisms still remain disjointed. Less attention has been paid to discovery and usability to ocean in situ records and circulation model products, because typically these are organized and maintained on a smaller regional level such as a university or smaller division of a larger national agency. The NASA Coastal Marine Discovery Service, a NASA ACCESS funded activity, focuses on improving discovery of these regional coastal ocean web services and data portals, including databases for satellite imagery, in situ and field measurements, ocean circulation models, and GIS coverages as a few examples. Beyond resource discovery, the CMDS integrated system (http://cmds.jpl.nasa.gov) leverages open source technology for unifying coastal ocean data within the framework on a GIS web client, the Easy GIS Net Viewer. In sum, CMDS consists of an online catalog of coastal resources that allows users to quickly discover the availability of data for their region of interest, physical parameter of interest or specific regional project of interest, or any combination of these. After discovery, data can be transparently linked to Netviewer client to view, overlay and interrogate products, and make GIS-like queries on the data layers to investigate statistical relationships. In this presentation, we will review the CMDS system, it architecture and resource harvesting approach, and more importantly demonstrate real world use of cases of data exploration, visualization and ultimately understanding.

Armstrong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cinquini, L.; O'Brien, F. J.; Resneck, G.; Siegrist, Z.

2012-12-01

160

New algorithm for simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and marine parameters in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and marine parameters in coastal waters from ocean color data using a new inversion algorithm, Ocean Color: Simultaneous Marine and Aerosol Retrieval Tool (OC-SMART). The OC-SMART algorithm uses a one-step nonlinear optimal estimation/Levenberg-Marquardt method instead of the traditional two-step look-up table approach to improve retrieval accuracy, and a radial basis function neural network (RBF-NN) to replace the forward radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-water system and thereby increase retrieval speed without loss of accuracy. Previous results have shown that the retrieval speed of OC-SMART was increased by a factor of about 1,500 due to the RBF-NN training. We will discuss applications of OC-SMART to analyze SeaWiFS. MERIS, and MODIS images obtained over coastal waters. Five parameters are obtained from the retrieval: aerosol optical depth, aerosol bi-modal fraction, chlorophyll concentration, CDOM absorption, and backscattering coefficient. The water leaving radiance is provided as a by-product. The retrieval results will be compared with in situ and match-up data as well as with retrieval results obtained from the standard MERIS algorithm or produced by the SeaDAS software package.

Stamnes, K.; Li, W.; Fan, Y.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Folkestad, A.; Sørensen, K.; Stamnes, J. J.

2012-04-01

161

Simulation of the dynamics and composition of secondary and marine inorganic aerosols in the coastal atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an extended version of the three-dimensional Eulerian Mesoscale Transport, Chemistry, and Stream Model (METRAS) for simulating size-segregated inorganic aerosols are presented. The extended version of METRAS includes aerosol transport by advection, diffusion, gravitational settling, and dry deposition. Aerosols are produced by homogeneous nucleation and by sea spray. They are modified by condensation and evaporation of inorganic aerosol precursor gases. Altogether, 73 inorganic and organic gas species are treated in the model by taking into account transport, deposition, emissions, and gas-phase reactions. The model is applied to simulate the mixing of marine and continental air in the coastal atmosphere over the German Bight. The simulation results give evidence for the importance of the uptake of nitric acid and ammonia by sea-salt aerosol for the dynamics of nitrogen compounds in the coastal atmosphere. As a result of the mixing of polluted continental air masses with marine air masses, the pH of the sea-salt aerosol reaches values as low as pH=2.1.

von Salzen, Knut; Schlünzen, K. Heinke

162

Prenatal exposure to manganese in South African coastal communities.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental sources and altered physiological processes of manganese uptake during pregnancy and its possible effect on prenatal and postnatal development are of concern. This study investigates manganese blood levels at the time of delivery across four cohorts of pregnant women residing in coastal communities of South Africa and examines birth outcomes and environmental factors that could influence manganese levels in the study population. The geometric mean (GM) manganese blood levels (MnB) for all women at delivery was 15.2 ?g L(-1). Collectively, rural women reported higher MnB concentrations (GM, 16.1 ?g L(-1)) than urban women (GM, 13.5 ?g L(-1), p < 0.001). Of the 302 cord blood samples drawn from the study participants (rural women only), GM MnB levels reported for three rural sites were 25.8 ?g L(-1) (Rural 1), 33.4 ?g L(-1) (Rural 2) and 43.0 ?g L(-1) (Rural 3) and were twice as high as their respective maternal levels. However, no significant correlations were found between maternal and cord MnB levels across the 3 study areas. Factors associated with elevated maternal MnB levels, after adjusting for gestational age were: women living in a rural area (Rural 2) (p = 0.021); women drinking potable water from an outdoor/communal tap sourced from municipality (p = 0.021); drinking water from river/stream (p = 0.036); younger maternal age (p = 0.026); consuming leafy vegetables once a week (p = 0.034); and elevated maternal blood lead concentrations (PbB) (p = 0.002). The results indicate that MnB concentration in rural women during pregnancy is higher compared to urban women and increases with manganese intake from food and water. PMID:24912024

Röllin, Halina B; Kootbodien, Tahira; Theodorou, Penny; Odland, Jon Ø

2014-07-23

163

Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on the groundwater model, scenarios will be evaluated considering various target figures (i.e. agricultural water demand, drinking water supply, "beautification", tourism, industry etc.). Within these scenarios, marine saltwater encroachment should be minimized or saline groundwater should even be pushed back into the coastal direction, thus stabilizing the natural equilibrium between continental freshwater flux and seawater intrusion and ensuring a long-term, stable usage of the agricultural areas. Literature KOLDITZ O., DELFS J.-O., BÜRGER C.-M., BEINHORN M., PARK C.-H. (2008): Numerical analysis of coupled hydrosystems based on an object-oriented compartment approach. J. Hydroinformatics, 10(3): 227-244, DOI: 10.2166/hydro.2008.003.

Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

2010-05-01

164

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

165

Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning - Efforts to Bring Law and Order to Ocean Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years a number of coastal states have engaged in planning and resource stewardship efforts that go markedly beyond single sector resource-oriented management. In some cases, proponents of such efforts have laid claim to the banner of "first" in characterizing their respective ocean (and Great Lakes) management plans. In particular, California, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island have each engaged in coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) management approaches that can be characterized as "firsts" in one way or another. This project will outline the bases upon which these claims have been made. It will employ a set of five chronologies designed to inform policy-makers, researchers, resource users and the general public with the context and contents of various state ocean management regimes. For each state, the impetus, apparatus, and status of the state's ocean (and Great Lakes) planning efforts will be examined. In each case CMSP has been legally authorized by the state. But the construction and discretion related to those legal authorizations varies. We will also examine whether there are any early 'signals' suggesting that stricter statutory control of the principles and constraints of a state's coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) effort might provide political "insulation" to executive branch personnel charged with implementing such plans but that benefit will come at the expense of a loss of employing valuable expertise and discretion of executive branch administrators. The researchers will assess each state's CMSP apparatus, in detail, to identify how the five states exert legislative control over their respective CMSP efforts. To the degree that substantial variation is identified among the five states, researchers will examine the control-status relationship to see whether and how the level of legislative control may influence the sought after objectives of a given state's CMSP management endeavor.

Duff, J. A.

2011-12-01

166

Effects of pulse versus steady recruitment on sessile marine communities.  

PubMed

Variation in patterns of propagule establishment (recruitment) has important effects on population dynamics and the structure of some communities. Most experimental studies have varied recruitment by changing the nature of a single event early in community development, but recruitment can also vary from steady rates of arrival to highly episodic 'pulse' events, causing differences in the temporal spacing of individuals recruiting into patches. We examined whether two different temporal patterns of recruitment of sessile invertebrates affected temperate marine communities in southeastern Australia in two experiments that were run at different times at the same site and that manipulated several different species. Target species entered communities as either a single pulse of recruits within a 2-week period or steady input of the same total number of recruits over a longer time period (5-6 weeks). The pattern of recruitment had variable effects on community structure. The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri did not have a strong influence on community structure whether it recruited in a single pulse or steadily. The cover of B. schlosseri was higher when recruitment occurred as a single pulse. In a second experiment, botryllid ascidians caused changes in the composition of communities when they recruited steadily compared to when they did not recruit or didemnids recruited, but caused no differences in communities when they recruited in a shorter pulse. In contrast, recruitment frequency of didemnid ascidians had little effect, though their presence/absence caused community differences. Though we found that different temporal recruitment patterns can alter community composition, the life history and ecology of particular taxa as well as differences in environmental background processes are likely to influence the strength of these effects. PMID:22392762

Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

2012-09-01

167

Contrasting effects of variable species recruitment on marine sessile communities.  

PubMed

The species composition, density, and frequency of recruitment into any given habitat are highly variable in most biological systems that rely on dispersive propagules (larvae, seeds, spores, etc.). There are few direct experimental studies of how recruitment variation between single species influences the composition and assembly of whole communities in many of these systems. We manipulated recruitment of a variety of single taxa and followed their effects on the subsequent development of hard-substrate communities of sessile animals living in temperate marine waters. The effects of recruitment on communities were complex. Patterns of recruitment of individual species influenced community structure, but these effects varied greatly depending on the identity of species recruits, the time of community development, and location across three different sites. Variable recruitment of arborescent bryozoans and didemnid ascidians had little effect on community structure. At one site, recruitment of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri had short-lived effects on community structure, while barnacles had more persistent effects. At another site, recruitment of B. schlosseri and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata had strong persistent effects on community structure, dominating space where they recruited and influencing the abundances of a variety of different taxa. Differences in the effects of species recruitment on communities appear to be caused by differences between the ecology and life history of recruiting species as well as differences in background processes between sites. These results demonstrate that discrete recruitment events that vary between single species can be important drivers of community composition but are likely to be heavily influenced by the local environment, even within a single species. PMID:22764501

Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

2012-05-01

168

Changes in bacterial community dynamics associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a potentially significant pathway of groundwater and dissolved chemical species in it to the coastal zone. Groundwater has different chemical and biological characteristics compared to seawater; therefore, mixing of the discharged groundwater with seawater can affect the microbial community in near-shore environments. Temporal variability of SGD rates in response to sea level fluctuations (tide, waves) can control the transport of terrestrial materials, periodically altering water quality and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of the submarine groundwater discharge on the microbial community structure in the coastal water body adjacent to the southern shore of Jeju Island, Korea. Near-shore water samples were collected as a function of tidal stage and subjected to DNA pyrosequencing and statistical community analyses. Phlyogenetic classification showed that ?-Proteobacteria was predominant in the seawater samples taken at a high tide or away from the coast while relative abundance of ?-, and ?- Proteobacteria significantly increased in the samples mixed with groundwater at a flood and ebb tide. The genus level analysis showed that the dominant phylotypes in the seawater samples were Roseovarius (40.5%; mean abundance ratio of the samples), DQ009083g (17.1%), and Glaciecola (3.7%). Distributions of the bacterial sequences in the mixed water samples showed a remarkable difference between the flood tide and ebb tide. The abundant phylotypes in the flood tide sample were Candidatus Pelagibacter (11.0%), EU801223 (8.4%) and ABVV (6.2%) whereas Shewanella (34.8%) and Candidatus Pelagibacter (5.1%) were in the ebb tide sample. Several phylototypes were detected only in the mixed water samples, including Sphingopyxis (0.6%), Rheinheimera (1.0%), Hydrogenophaga (1.8%), Colwelliaceae_uc (0.9%), Kinneretia (0.5%), and Collimonas (1.2%). These were hypothesized to be originating from the fresh groundwater discharge. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the mixed water samples were separated from seawater samples, which resulted from significant increase in Shewanella sp. (ebb tide sample) and marine bacteria such as SAR11 and SAR116 clade belonging to ?-Proteobacteria (flood tide sample). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two principal components explained about 84% of the variance in the sequence data. The microbial community in the seawater samples formed a distinct cluster. The microbial diversity in the mixed water samples changed depending on the seawater stage, showing similar trends in the phylogenetic classification. Our study results demonstrate that the microbial environment in the coastal zone subject to SGD and sea level fluctuation may change dynamically over short time period (< 1day). * This study was supported by the Basic Research Projects (14-3211-2) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

Lee, Eunhee; Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul

2014-05-01

169

Plasmids isolated from marine sediment microbial communities contain replication and incompatibility regions unrelated to those of known plasmid groups.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred ninety-seven bacteria carrying plasmids that range in size from 5 to 250 kb were identified from more than 1,000 aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from coastal California marine sediments. While some isolates contained numerous (three to five) small (5- to 10-kb) plasmids, the majority of the natural isolates typically contained one large (40- to 100-kb) plasmid. By the method of plasmid isolation used in this study, the frequency of plasmid incidence ranged from 24 to 28% depending on the samples examined. Diversity of the plasmids occurring in the marine sediment bacterial populations was examined at the molecular level by hybridization with 14 different DNA probes specific for the incompatibility and replication (inc/rep) regions of a number of well-characterized plasmid incompatibility groups (repB/O, FIA, FII, FIB, HI1, HI2, I1, L/M, X, N, P, Q, W, and U). Interestingly, we found no DNA homology between the plasmids isolated from the culturable bacterial population of marine sediments and the replicon probes specific for numerous incompatibility groups developed by Couturier et al. (M. F. Couturier, F. Bex, P. L. Bergquist, and W. K. Maas, Microbiol. Rev. 52:375-395, 1988). Our findings suggest that plasmids in marine sediment microbial communities contain novel, as-yet-uncharacterized, incompatibility and replication regions and that the present replicon typing system, based primarily on plasmids derived from clinical isolates, may not be representative of the plasmid diversity occurring in some marine environments. Since the vast majority of marine bacteria are not culturable under laboratory conditions, we also screened microbial community DNA for the presence of broad- and narrow-host-range plasmid replication sequences. Although the replication origin of the conjugally promiscuous broad-host-range plasmid RK2 (incP) was not detectable in any of the plasmid-containing culturable marine isolates, DNA extracted from the microbial community and amplified by PCR yielded a positive signal for RK2 oriV replication sequences. The strength of the signal suggests the presence of a low level of the incP replicon within the marine microbial community. In contrast, replication sequences specific for the narrow-host-range plasmid F were not detectable in DNA extracted from marine sediment microbial communities. With the possible exception of mercuric chloride, phenotypic analysis of the 297 plasmid-bearing isolates did not demonstrate a correlation between plasmid content and antibiotic or heavy metal resistance traits.

Sobecky, P A; Mincer, T J; Chang, M C; Helinski, D R

1997-01-01

170

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-04-01

171

Coastal Plain Community Tree Guide Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report quantifies benefits and costs for representative large, medium, and small broadleaf trees and coniferous trees in the Coastal Plain region: the species chosen as representative are the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), Southern magnolia ...

E. G. McPherson J. R. Simpson K. E. Vargas P. J. Peper S. L. Gardner

2006-01-01

172

The Seasonality of California Coastal Marine Layer Clouds from a New Satellite-Derived Dataset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low coastal stratiform clouds (typically stratus and fog), referred to here as marine layer clouds (MLCs), are a persistent seasonal feature of coastal California (CA). We have created a novel record of MLC spatial extent for CA and the near-shore waters utilizing NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The low cloud satellite retrieval is optimized and validated against coastal airport cloud observations and is shown to be of excellent quality. The record spans 17 summers and is rich in its spatial (4 km) and temporal (half hourly day and night) resolution. This new data provides a detailed record of MLC variability on diurnal, intra-seasonal, and interannual time scales since 1997. The data reveal that MLC in the Southern California Bight has a greater inland and offshore diurnal movement than the MLC in central and northern CA. Differences also emerge in the seasonality of cloudiness. Seasonal peak MLC cover along the southern California coast is part of a tongue of high early summer cloud cover that extends to the southwest, while peak MLC in later summer along central and northern California is a pattern that occurs broadly in the offshore California region. The data indicates there is interesting differences in seasonal variability that operate diurnally over southern CA and central and northern CA coastal regions. These climatological tendencies are overlain by considerable spatial and temporal variation from synoptic to interannual time scales, which are also under investigation. Satellite retrieval findings are supported by airport cloud observations since 1950. Focusing first on the intricate structure of the seasonal cycle, we then begin to describe and quantify synoptic weather and large scale climatic controls on the finely resolved space-time variability of MLCs.

Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

2013-12-01

173

Growth rates during coastal and marine new particle formation in western Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth rates of new particles during coastal and marine secondary aerosol particle formation events were studied in western Ireland, both at the Mace Head atmospheric research station and onboard the R/V Celtic Explorer as part of the Marine Aerosol Production project. Strong new particle formation events are frequently detected at Mace Head caused by the emission of precursor gases from exposed seaweed during low tide. Although these events were usually only detected as a mode of particles at a certain size, we were able to link the size of the mode to the growth time of these particles after the initial formation by combining data from several events measured between January 2006 and November 2007 with an air ion spectrometer. Typically, the early growth rates were extremely high, reaching values of several hundred nanometers per hour during the first seconds. The growth rates rapidly decreased and reached values below 1 nm h-1 within 1 h after nucleation. Our results were reproduced with box model calculations. All the obtained growth rates could be explained by the model either by varying the precursor formation time (typically a few seconds) or allowing multiple precursor vapor additions. From the ship-borne measurements, we report the first observations of purely open ocean new particle formation detected in this region. In total, four events were detected during this period, with three having a variable continental influence. An estimated average growth rate in marine conditions was 3 nm h-1 for these events.

Ehn, Mikael; Vuollekoski, Henri; PetäJä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Vana, Marko; Aalto, Pasi; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Ceburnis, Darius; Dupuy, Regis; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Kulmala, Markku

2010-09-01

174

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

175

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

176

Evaluation of biogeographic classification schemes for conservation planning: application to New Zealand's coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

For many regions worldwide, multiple and often contrasting biogeographic classifications exist that are derived from a variety of taxa and techniques. This presents a challenge for managers who must choose appropriate large-scale spatial frameworks for systematic conservation planning. We demonstrate how systematically collected community data can be used to evaluate existing biogeographic classifications, identify the most appropriate metric for biogeographic patterns seen in other taxonomic groups, and develop an independent biogeographic classification scheme for systematic conservation planning. We evaluated 6 existing biogeographic classifications for New Zealand's nearshore marine environment with community-similarity metrics derived from abundance and presence-absence data for macroalgae (107 species) and mobile macroinvertebrates (44 species). The concordance between community metrics and the previous classifications was high, as indicated by a high multivariate classification success (CS) (74.3-98.3%). Subsequently, we carried out an independent classification analysis on each community metric to identify biogeographic units within a hierarchical spatial framework. The classification derived from macroalgal presence-absence data achieved the highest CS and could be used as a mesoscale classification scheme in which 11 regional groupings (i.e., bioregions) (CS = 73.8-84.8%) are nested within northern and southern biogeographic provinces (CS = 90.3-98.7%). These techniques can be used in systematic conservation planning to inform the design of representative and comprehensive networks of marine protected areas through evaluation of the current coverage of marine reserves in each bioregion. Currently, 0.22% of the territorial sea around mainland New Zealand is protected in no-take marine protected areas in which 0-1.5% of each bioregion represented. PMID:18294299

Shears, Nick T; Smith, Franz; Babcock, Russ C; Duffy, Clinton A J; Villouta, Eduardo

2008-04-01

177

Community structure and function in prokaryotic marine plankton.  

PubMed

Molecular biodiversity studies of microbial communities have provided invaluable information on the existence of heretofore unknown organisms and on community composition. Cloning and 'fingerprinting' techniques have been used many times to study prokaryote community composition of marine plankton. There are still many opportunities for new discoveries in this area, but the results have also opened new questions about the activities of these organisms and their function, going beyond just listing taxa or counting organisms. Rarely can the broad function be inferred from phylogenetic position alone (e.g. cyanobacteria). The recent discovery of abundant non-cyanobacterial marine phototrophs points to our inability to link phylogenetic position with function in a detailed way. One approach we have found fruitful is to combine fluorescence in situ hybridization with microautoradiography, a technique dubbed STARFISH. A recent application has shown that ubiquitous archaea from the deep sea, phylogenetically related to extreme thermophiles, are active in the uptake of amino acids from ambient (nanomolar) concentrations. This suggests the group is at least partly heterotrophic and able to compete successfully with bacteria for nutrients. Other as-yet uncultivated groups are also amenable to similar studies. PMID:12448747

Fuhrman, Jed A

2002-08-01

178

Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S. [Moss Landing Marine Labs., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

179

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

180

Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls

R. W. P. M. Laane; D. M. E. Slijkerman; A. D. Vethaak; J. H. M. Schobben

2012-01-01

181

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

182

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination

Stephen de Mora; Imma Tolosa; Scott W. Fowler; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Roberto Cassi; Chantal Cattini

2010-01-01

183

Community-Scale Wind-Powered Desalination for Selected Coastal Mekong Provinces in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate destabilization is exacerbating water problems in Vietnam, most acutely in the South and Central regions where\\u000a the majority of the inhabited area lies in the low elevation coastal zone. Off-grid community-scale reverse osmosis desalination\\u000a powered by small wind turbines offers a solution to this problem for the coastal fringe of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Using a\\u000a geographical information system

Ha T. Nguyen; Joshua M. Pearce

184

Regulation of species richness by advection and richness-dependent processes in a coastal fish community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal fish communities, both top-down and bottom-up processes influence the dynamics of individual species. Here, we demonstrate how advective processes in the coastal zone of the Skagerrak basin affect the main predator, the cod (Gadus morhua), as a bottom-up process, while gobies are influenced by top-down processes such as predation and competition. A model for the regulation of fish

Kyrre Lekve; Nils Chr. Stenseth; Jakob Gjøsæter

2003-01-01

185

Adaptive Management Response of a Rural Fishery Community Due to Changes in the Hydrological Regime of a Tropical Coastal Lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coastal community of Chabihau, Yucatan, Mexico, hurricanes Gilbert (1988) and Isidore (2002) opened breaches in the coastal dune. The government modified these breaches with a floodgate, channels, and bridges, allowing tidal influx that has transformed the swamp ecosystem into a coastal lagoon. Our long-term research (1990- 2006) has been based on participatory methods including identification of needs, introduction

Eduardo Batllori-Sampedro; Jose Luis Febles-Patron

2009-01-01

186

Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 2: Relationships with atmospheric physical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) were conducted at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland rural (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) monitoring sites of the AIRMAP Observing Network. Diurnal, seasonal, annual, and interannual variability in Hg0, RGM, and HgP from the three distinctly different environments were characterized and compared in Part 1. Here in Part 2 relationships between speciated mercury (i.e., Hg0, RGM, and HgP) and climate variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation) were examined. The best point-to-point correlations were found between Hg0 and temperature in summer at TF and spring at PM, but there was no similar correlation at AI. Subsets of data demonstrated regional impacts of episodic dynamic processes such as strong cyclonic systems on ambient levels of Hg0 at all three sites, possibly through enhanced oceanic evasion of Hg0. A tendency of higher levels of RGM and HgP was identified in spring and summer under sunny conditions in all environments. Specifically, the 10th, 25th, median, 75th, and 90th percentile mixing ratios of RGM and HgP increased with stronger solar radiation at both the coastal and marine sites. These metrics decreased with increasing wind speed at AI indicating enhanced loss of RGM and HgP through deposition. RGM and HgP levels correlated with temperature positively in spring, summer and fall at the coastal and marine locations. At the coastal site relationships between RGM and relative humidity suggested a clear decreasing tendency in all metrics from <40% to 100% relative humidity in all seasons especially in spring, compared to less variability in the marine environment. The effect of precipitation on RGM at coastal and marine locations was similar. At the coastal site, RGM levels were a factor of 3-4 to two orders of magnitude higher under dry conditions than rainy conditions in all seasons. In winter RGM mixing ratios appeared to be mostly above the limit of detection (LOD) during snowfalls suggesting less scavenging efficiency of snow. Mixing ratios of HgP at the coastal and marine sites remained above the LOD under rainy conditions. Precipitation had negligible impact on the magnitude and pattern of diurnal variation of HgP in all seasons in the marine environment.

Mao, H.; Talbot, R.; Hegarty, J.; Koermer, J.

2012-05-01

187

Marine incursions of the past 1500 years and evidence of tsunamis at Suijin-numa, a coastal lake facing the Japan Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandy deposits of marine origin underlie the floor of Suijin-numa, a coastal lake midway along the subduction zone marked by the Japan Trench. The deposits form three units that are interbedded with lacustrine peat and mud above a foundation of marine, probably littoral sand. Unlike the lacustrine deposits, all three sandy units contain marine and brackish diatoms. The middle unit

Yuki Sawai; Yushiro Fujii; Osamu Fujiwara; Takanobu Kamataki; Junko Komatsubara; Yukinobu Okamura; Kenji Satake; Masanobu Shishikura

2008-01-01

188

Soil chemical features as key predictors of plant community occurrence in a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the relationships between soil chemical factors and vegetation in coastal areas provides a significant contribution to understanding the ecology and conservation of these ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. The present study relates coastal plant communities and soil chemistry using multivariate analysis and generalized additive models (GAMs) in order (a) to determine the relationships between soil factors and plant community occurrence along a coastline-lagoon gradient; (b) to build best models of soil chemical predictors for coastal plant community occurrence. Distance from coastline was the primary driver of changes in plant community composition and soil factors on the Mediterranean coast. Field capacity, pH, CaCO3, NaCl and soil organic matter were the major parameters related to the pattern of vegetation distribution. Along the costaline-lagoon gradient, however, plant community and soil changes agreed for two main sequences of habitats. The first was in the sand dune environment, involving plant communities, the species composition of which varied in response to increasing soil development. The second was near lagoons, where vegetation responded to soil salinity, acting independently of other soil factors. Coastal plant community occurrence was explained by GAMs, using a few soil chemical predictors: pH and CaCO3 were the main predictors for dune communities but only partly explained their occurrence, whereas NaCl was the key factor for salt marsh community occurrence and largely contributed to the model. The results suggest that soil chemical changes can be detected through vegetation distribution, particularly in saline habitats. Thus, habitat-based models could be a useful tool to identify the key factors for different types of vegetation occurrence in coastal habitats.

Angiolini, Claudia; Landi, Marco; Pieroni, Giorgia; Frignani, Flavio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Gaggi, Carlo

2013-03-01

189

Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

2013-02-01

190

Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

2013-01-01

191

Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology.

Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

2013-01-01

192

Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies.

Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

2013-01-01

193

Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

Berkman, P.A.

1992-03-01

194

Building Community and Governance of Metadata and Ontologies Within the Marine Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three years the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project has been explicitly building a metadata community for the marine sciences. Toward that goal, the organization identified technical resources, developed tools, provided guidance, held workshops, gave scores of presentations, led and participated in interoperability demonstrations, and contributed to standards development activities. All of this information has been presented on the organization's web site, and is used to increase awareness and participation of the community. As a successful community-building project with many accomplishments to date, MMI is keenly aware of the opportunities -- and the need -- for further progress. In this talk, we will frankly present the successes, challenges, and lessons of the project to date; consider MMI in the context of like-minded organizations; consider opportunities for MMI and similar organizations to achieve semantic interoperability objectives; and envision a more thoroughly collaborative and effective marine science community. Finally, with this background in mind, the presentation will discuss how to best manage the standards and ontologies needed for earth science data systems interoperability.

Graybeal, J.

2007-12-01

195

High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.  

PubMed

The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system. PMID:15173911

Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

2004-06-01

196

Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These findings suggest a pivotal host-driven effect on the shape of the marine sponge microbiome, bearing implications to our current understanding of the distribution of microbial genetic resources in the marine realm.

Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Goncalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

197

EXPERIENCE WITH COASTAL AND MARINE PROTECTED AREA PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Perspective on coastal management in the Philippines Coastal management has been practiced in the Philippines over the last two decades to try to stem the increasing tide of destruction to coastal habitats and the decline of fisheries. Unfortunately, after 20 years of practice, coastal resources continue to decline and deteriorate at alarming rates. While numerous experiments in coastal management

Alan T. White; Albert Salamanca; Catherine A. Courtney

198

Natural oil seeps in the Alaskan marine environment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a synthesis of information on the marine and coastal oil seeps in Alaska, and on the effects of chronic oil pollution on Arctic marine biotic communities and ecological processes. Of 29 oil seepage areas reported along the Alaskan coast, 14 have been confirmed as containing actual oil seeps. Large areas of coastal seepage have been identified in

P. R. Becker; C. A. Manen

1988-01-01

199

Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

2007-01-01

200

Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent of urban settlements. The vulnerability assessments under different scenario could represent a suitable tool in the designing of risk mitigation strategies under uncertain scenario of hazard.

Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

2013-12-01

201

Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. (Faculte de Medecine, Nice (France))

1988-09-01

202

Comparative phylogeography of coastal limpets across a marine disjunction in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Cook Strait, which separates the North and South Island of New Zealand, has been a transient, but re-occurring feature of the New Zealand land mass throughout the Pleistocene, maintaining its current width and depth for the past 5000 years. Historic land fragmentation coupled with the complex hydrography of the Greater Cook Strait region has created both biogeographic and phylogeographic disjunctions between the North and South Island in several marine species. Here we use mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences of three endemic intertidal limpets, Cellana ornata, Cellana radians and Cellana flava to assess intraspecific phylogeographic patterns across Cook Strait and to look for interspecific concordance of ecological and evolutionary processes among closely related taxa. We sequenced 328-359 bp in 85-321 individuals from 8-31 populations spanning the biogeographic range of the three species. Intraspecific phylogeographic analyses show moderate to strong genetic discontinuity among North and South Island populations due to allopatric fragmentation. This pattern was broadly concordant across the three species and the observed divergence among this group of intertidal limpets (0.3-2.0%) is similar to that of previously studied subtidal organisms. For each species, divergence time calculations suggest contemporary North and South Island lineages diverged from their respective most recent common ancestor approximately 200 000 to 300 000 years before present (bp), significantly earlier than previous estimates in other coastal marine taxa that arose from a miscalculation of divergence time. PMID:16968269

Goldstien, Sharyn J; Schiel, David R; Gemmell, Neil J

2006-10-01

203

Nitryl chloride and molecular chlorine in the coastal marine boundary layer.  

PubMed

The magnitude and sources of chlorine atoms in marine air remain highly uncertain but have potentially important consequences for air quality in polluted coastal regions. We made continuous measurements of ambient ClNO(2) and Cl(2) concentrations from May 15 to June 8 aboard the Research Vessel Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 field study. In the Los Angeles region, ClNO(2) was more ubiquitous than Cl(2) during most nights of the study period. ClNO(2) and Cl(2) ranged from detection limits at midday to campaign maximum values at night reaching 2100 and 200 pptv, respectively. The maxima were observed in Santa Monica Bay when sampling the Los Angeles urban plume. Cl(2) at times appeared well correlated with ClNO(2), but at other times, there was little to no correlation implying distinct and varying sources. Well-confined Cl(2) plumes were observed, largely independent of ClNO(2), providing support for localized industrial emissions of reactive chlorine. Observations of ClNO(2), Cl(2), and HCl are used to constrain a simple box model that predicts their relative importance as chlorine atom sources in the polluted marine boundary layer. In contrast to the emphasis in previous studies, ClNO(2) and HCl are dominant primary chlorine atom sources for the Los Angeles basin. PMID:22443276

Riedel, Theran P; Bertram, Timothy H; Crisp, Timia A; Williams, Eric J; Lerner, Brian M; Vlasenko, Alexander; Li, Shao-Meng; Gilman, Jessica; de Gouw, Joost; Bon, Daniel M; Wagner, Nicholas L; Brown, Steven S; Thornton, Joel A

2012-10-01

204

The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2013-01-01

205

Phylogenetic Analysis of Particle-Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in the Columbia River, Its Estuary, and the Adjacent Coastal Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the ?, ?, or ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (?-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and ?-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.

Crump, Byron C.; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Baross, John A.

1999-01-01

206

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

PubMed Central

Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies.

Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

2008-01-01

207

Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon provides an important link between terrestrial and marine archives of Holocene environmental change in South Georgia.

Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

208

The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

1993-03-15

209

Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services. PMID:24890042

Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

2014-09-01

210

Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

2010-01-01

211

Community composition has greater impact on the functioning of marine phytoplankton communities than ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (?(2) ) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. This study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans. PMID:24115206

Eggers, Sarah L; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Barcelos E Ramos, Joana; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Gallo, Francesca; Matthiessen, Birte

2014-03-01

212

Temporal and Spatial Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Coastal Waters of the South China Sea  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns.

Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

2013-01-01

213

A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure.  

PubMed

A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning-sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, ?- and ?-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change. PMID:23364354

Kirkham, Amy R; Lepère, Cécile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

2013-05-01

214

A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure  

PubMed Central

A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning–sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, ?- and ?-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change.

Kirkham, Amy R; Lepere, Cecile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

2013-01-01

215

The gut bacterial community of mammals from marine and terrestrial habitats.  

PubMed

After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

Nelson, Tiffanie M; Rogers, Tracey L; Brown, Mark V

2013-01-01

216

Pelagic food webs and eutrophication of coastal waters: Impact of grazers on algal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review considers theoretical and empirical aspects of the role of grazers in the pelagic food web. We discuss how grazers may affect eutrophication development in coastal waters both through the direct effects of differential prey selectivity on the composition of the algal community, and through the indirect effects of nutrient sequestration and regeneration on the pelagic nutrient regime. We

Gismervik Ingrid; Tom Andersen; Olav Vadstein

1996-01-01

217

Rural Education and Out-Migration: The Case of a Coastal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I report on findings from a case study examining the relationship between formal education and out-migration in a Canadian coastal community from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. Although high rates of village-level out-migration were chronic, most migration trajectories were short-range. Contrary to large-scale quantitative…

Corbett, Michael

2005-01-01

218

Expanding Dimensions of the "Knowledge Society": Technology, Discourse Ethics and Agency in Coastal Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces philosophical appraisals of technology, both as devices for human purposes and, as technological rationality, as ways of thinking and acting. Two applications of communication technology in the context of Canadian coastal communities illustrate the distinction between training and education, and the importance of public space in which to…

Harris, Carol

2002-01-01

219

Awareness of Storm-Surge Risk in a Coastal Community on the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Summary Risk awareness and personal preparedness are seen to be important parameters in an integrated risk management scheme today. Regarding the risk of storm-surges, an assessment of the perception and the status of personal preparedness of the people are addressed in an interview study in a coastal community on the North Sea. The results of this qualitative interview study

Sonja D. Hofmann; Gunilla Kaiser

2007-01-01

220

Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities were assessed as indicators of water quality in Korean coastal waters in the summer of 2000. A modified polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, named the bottled PFU (BPFU) system, was used in order to carry out the bioassessment. Both parameters suggested that biomonitoring using the BPFU system was more effective than the conventional

Kuidong Xu; Joong Ki Choi; Eun Jin Yang; Kyu Chul Lee; Yanli Lei

2002-01-01

221

Proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium on Coastal and Marine Tourism: Balancing Tourism and Conservation: April 26-29, 1999 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coastal tourism development is an inherently controversial and increasingly complex phenomenon that forces deliberation over marine life and habitat conservation, economic improvement, and quality of life objectives. With this situation, the ideal of sust...

J. Auyong M. L. Miller N. P. Hadley

1999-01-01

222

Broad-scale factors influencing the biodiversity of coastal benthic communities of the Ross Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early ecological research in McMurdo Sound revealed local spatial gradients in community structure associated with variations in anchor ice disturbance, fast ice and snow cover, and the effects of predators. Research contrasting the east and west sides of McMurdo Sound has shown major differences in benthic communities, which have been attributed to oceanographic influences on the advection of water-column productivity and the frequency of fast ice break-out. Despite these regional and local differences, coastal benthic communities in McMurdo Sound show a high level of stability, and contain a variety of large and potentially very long-lived species. In Terra Nova Bay, about half way along the Victoria Land Coast of the western Ross Sea, the coastal benthic communities provide some insightful contrasts with those in McMurdo Sound. For example, the abundance and depth distribution of dominant species such as Sterechinus neumayeri and Adamussium colbecki are markedly different from McMurdo Sound. In both locations communities dominated by large sponges are most prolific in regions that are free from iceberg disturbance of the seabed. A recent assessment of northern Victoria Land coastal benthic communities, in conjunction with multibeam imagery of the seafloor, further highlights the importance of iceberg disturbance in structuring Antarctic benthic communities. A comparative synthesis of these coastal ecological studies enables us to generate hypotheses concerning the relative importance of different environmental drivers in structuring benthic communities. Overlain on the regular latitudinal shifts in physical factors such as light regime, are regional fluctuations that are controlled by atmospheric and oceanographic circulation patterns and coastal topography/bathymetry. Change in diversity along the western coast of the Ross Sea is predicted to be influenced by three main factors (1) ice disturbance (e.g., via anchor ice and advection of supercooled water or icebergs), (2) photosynthetically available radiation (affected by ice and snow cover and water clarity), (3) the locations of polynyas and advection of planktonic production and larvae. Interactions between these factors are expected to result in non-linear changes along the latitudinal gradient. While predictions generated from these hypotheses remain to be rigorously tested, they provide indications of how benthic communities may respond to changes in production, disturbance and the stability of coastal sea ice.

Thrush, Simon; Dayton, Paul; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Cummings, Vonda; Andrew, Neil; Hawes, Ian; Kim, Stacy; Kvitek, Rikk; Schwarz, Anne-Maree

2006-04-01

223

The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).  

PubMed

The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas. PMID:21764082

Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

2011-09-01

224

Inter-annual variations of macrobenthic communities over three decades in a land-locked coastal lagoon (Santo André, SW Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santo André is an enclosed brackish water coastal lagoon with temporary connections to the sea by a man-made channel. The exchange and mixture of saltwater and freshwater is irregular and the lagoon may show daily and seasonal fluctuations, but also long-term variation. Different benthic communities may be present along the annual cycle according to the magnitude of episodic freshwater and sea water inputs. In the last 30 years the communication with the sea has followed different regimes from year to year and, as a consequence, macrobenthic communities, assessed several times during the period before the opening to the sea, shifted from freshwater to marine affinities. Major differences were found between 1979 and 2010, with a preponderance of species with marine affinity, and the 1980s in which the organisms with freshwater affinity prevailed. Benthic communities are frequently used to assess aquatic environmental condition. Metrics used in the indices currently under discussion to assess ecological status of aquatic ecosystems within the scope of European Water Framework Directive were applied to Santo André data and the applicability of these metrics to assess quality in this coastal land-locked lagoon was discussed.

Correia, M. J.; Costa, J. L.; Chainho, P.; Félix, P. M.; Chaves, M. L.; Medeiros, J. P.; Silva, G.; Azeda, C.; Tavares, P.; Costa, A.; Costa, A. M.; Bernardo, J.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.; Cancela da Fonseca, L.

2012-09-01

225

Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the spectral scattering coefficient of marine particles (bp(l)) were measured at 241 locations in oceanic (case 1) and coastal (case 2) waters around Europe. The scattering coefficient at 555 nm normalized to the dry mass of particles (b (555)) was, on average, 1.0 and 0.5 m 2 g 21 in case 1 and case 2 waters, respectively. m

Marcel Babin; André Morel; Vincent Fournier-Sicre; Frank Fell; Dariusz Stramski

2003-01-01

226

Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three\\u000a marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants (Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds (Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and

Nabil A. Al-Shwafi; Ahmed I. Rushdi

2008-01-01

227

Prey depletion caused by overfishing and the decline of marine megafauna in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters (central Mediterranean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys primarily aimed at determining dolphin encounter rates were conducted from small inflatable craft in eastern Ionian Sea coastal waters between 1997 and 2004. During 633 surveys totalling 21,276km of effort, observations of cetaceans and other marine species spotted in a study area of 480km2 were systematically recorded. Common dolphin encounter rates declined 25-fold across the study period, steadily decreasing

Giovanni Bearzi; Elena Politi; Stefano Agazzi; Arianna Azzellino

2006-01-01

228

Mollusk-isotope records of Plio-Pleistocene marine paleoclimate, U. S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain  

SciTech Connect

Stable oxygen and carbon isotope profiles from fossil scallop shells provide detailed paleoenvironmental information for the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain. Scallop specimens were collected from strata which represent at least five major marine transgressions. Minimum and maximum paleotemperatures were calculated from the {delta}{sup 18}O ranges recorded in each shell profile, after adjusting for changes in seawater {delta}{sup 18}O related to changes in global ice volume. Paleotemperature ranges from each stratigraphic unit were compared with modern conditions on the shelves of the Middle and South Atlantic Bight, and with paleotemperatures estimated by Hazel (1971b, 1988) from the ostracode faunas. The mollusk-isotope records indicate that the marine climate of the Atlantic Shelf was mild temperate during the deposition of the Sunken Meadow Member of the Yorktown Formation in the early Pliocene. The climate became warm temperate during the middle and late Pliocene transgressions which deposited the Rushmere, Morgarts Beach and Moore House Members of the Yorktown Formation and the Chowan River Formation. During the deposition of the James City Formation in the early Pleistocene, temperatures returned to a mild temperate climate similar to that of the modern Virginia Bight shelf. The character of the isotope profiles indicates that hydrographic conditions were generally stable and similar to those of the modern Middle Atlantic Bight. The {delta}{sup 13}C profiles of most of the shells show trends suggestive of spring phytoplankton blooms and summer water-column stratification. Anomalies in several profiles are interpreted as reduced salinity events, probably related to river discharge, which most commonly occur in the spring. There is no convincing evidence in the shell profiles for upwelling.

Krantz, D.E. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (USA))

1990-08-01

229

Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with aphoAhybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this ''indigenous'' genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phos- phorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol

PATRICIA A. SOBECKY; MARK A. SCHELL; MARY ANN MORAN; ANDROBERT E. HODSON

1996-01-01

230

Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites. The vertical distribution of DEN activity was examined using the acetylene inhibition technique combined with N2O microsensor measurements, whereas NH4+ production via DNRA was measured with a recently developed gel probe-stable isotope technique. At all field sites, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (> 59% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Ammonium production via DNRA (8.9% of the total NO3- reduced) was exclusively found at one site with very high concentrations of total sulfide and NH4+ in the layer of NO3- reduction and below. Sediment from two field sites, one with and one without DNRA activity in the core incubations, was also used for slurry incubations. Now, in both sediments high DNRA activity was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results can be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments. It can be argued that the gel probe technique gives more realistic estimates of DNRA activity in diffusion-dominated sediments, while slurry incubations are more suitable for advection-dominated sediments.

Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

2013-05-01

231

Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Marine Environments in Coastal Waters of Galicia (Spain)  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from marine environments were characterized by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic resistance, and the distribution of the different types in the coastal waters were subsequently analyzed. Five phage types were identified among the isolates (PT41, PT135, PT99, DT104, and DT193). PT135 isolates were exclusively detected during the winter months from 1998 to 2000, whereas DT104 and PT41 isolates were detected exclusively in the summer months from 2000 to 2002. XbaI PFGE analysis revealed 9 PFGE types, and plasmid profiling identified 8 plasmid types (with 1 to 6 plasmids) among the isolates. Only three isolates presented multidrug resistance to antibiotics. Two DT104 isolates were resistant to 8 and 7 antibiotics (profiles ACCeFNaSSuT and ACeFNeSSuT), whereas a PT193 isolate presented resistance to 6 antibiotics (profile ACFSSu). In addition, four PT41 isolates were resistant to a single antibiotic. The detection of multidrug-resistant phage types DT104 and DT193 in shellfish emphasizes the importance of monitoring the presence of Salmonella in routine surveillance of live bivalve molluscs.

Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Liebana, Ernesto; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Perez-Pineiro, Pelayo; Saco, Montserrat

2004-01-01

232

Medium-resolution Autonomous in situ Gamma Detection System for Marine and Coastal Waters  

SciTech Connect

We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes (40K and U/Th series radionuclides). Filtration is used to preconcentrate target isotopes residing on suspended particles, while chemosorption is employed to preferentially extract truly dissolved components from the water column. A variety of commercial and in-house nano-porus chemosorbents have been selected, procured or produced, and tested. Used filter and chemosorbent media are counted autonomously using two LaBr3 detectors in a near 4-pi configuration around the samples. A compact digital pulse processing system developed in-house and capable of running in coincidence mode is used to process the signal from the detectors to a small on-board computer. The entire system is extremely compact (9” dia. x 30” len.) and platform independent, but designed for initial deployment on a research buoy.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Douglas, Matthew; Meier, David E.; Mullen, O Dennis; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Jones, Mark E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Johnson, Bryce; Santschi, Peter H.

2009-12-01

233

Quantification of Diatom and Dinoflagellate Biomasses in Coastal Marine Seawater Samples by Real-Time PCR?  

PubMed Central

Two real-time PCR assays targeting the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were designed to assess the proportional biomass of diatoms and dinoflagellates in marine coastal water. The reverse primer for the diatom assay was designed to be class specific, and the dinoflagellate-specific reverse primer was obtained from the literature. For both targets, we used universal eukaryotic SSU rDNA forward primers. Specificity was confirmed by using a BLAST search and by amplification of cultures of various phytoplankton taxa. Reaction conditions were optimized for each primer set with linearized plasmids from cloned SSU rDNA fragments. The number of SSU rDNA copies per cell was estimated for six species of diatoms and nine species of dinoflagellates; these were significantly correlated to the biovolumes of the cells. Nineteen field samples were collected along the Swedish west coast and subjected to the two real-time PCR assays. The linear regression of the proportion of SSU rDNA copies of dinoflagellate and diatom origin versus the proportion of dinoflagellate and diatom biovolumes or biomass per liter was significant. For diatoms, linear regression of the number of SSU rDNA copies versus biovolume or biomass per liter was significant, but no such significant correlation was detected in the field samples for dinoflagellates. The method described will be useful for estimating the proportion of dinoflagellate versus diatom biovolume or biomass and the absolute diatom biovolume or biomass in various aquatic disciplines.

Godhe, Anna; Asplund, Maria E.; Harnstrom, Karolina; Saravanan, V.; Tyagi, Anuj; Karunasagar, Indrani

2008-01-01

234

Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes  

PubMed Central

The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l?1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

Brischoux, Francois; Kornilev, Yurii V.

2014-01-01

235

Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.  

PubMed

The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

2014-01-01

236

Observational and numerical studies of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the impacts of meteorological factors and aerosol indirect effects on the costal marine stratocumulus (Sc) variations in the southeast Pacific, a region that has been largely unexplored and is a major challenge of the modeling community, through both observational and numerical studies. This study provides a unique dataset for documenting the characteristics of the marine Sc-topped BL off the coast of Northern Chile. The observational study shows that the boundary layer (BL) over this region was well mixed and topped by a thin and non-drizzling Sc layer on days synoptically-quiescent with little variability between this region and the coast. The surface wind, the surface fluxes and the BL turbulence appeared to be weaker than those over other ocean regions where stratocumulus clouds exist. The weaker turbulence in the BL may contribute to a relatively low entrainment rate calculated from the near cloud top fluxes. This in-situ data set can help us better understand cloud processes within this coastal regime, and also be valuable for the calibration of the satellite retrievals and the evaluation of numerical models operating at a variety of scales. A strong positive correlation between the liquid water path (LWP) and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was observed under similar boundary layer conditions. This correlation cannot be explained by some of the hypotheses based on previous modeling studies. The satellite retrievals obtained upstream one day prior to the flight observations reveal some sign that the clouds under the high CCN concentrations have minimal LWP loss due to precipitation suppression effects. The results from large eddy simulations with a two-momentum bulk microphysics scheme under different idealized environment scenarios based on aircraft observations indicate that (1) the simulated Sc responds more quickly to changes in large-scale subsidence than to those changes in surface fluxes, free-tropospheric humidity, and the BL-top stability; (2) large-scale vertical wind shear clearly induces cloud-top mixing and enhances entrainment rate; (3) the solar radiation could weaken the BL turbulence, reduce the entrainment rate and decouple the BL; and (4) the impact of the reduced cloud sedimentation due to increasing aerosol on the cloud is small.

Zheng, Xue

237

Variability and abundance of the epiphytic bacterial community associated with a green marine Ulvacean alga  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Ulvacean algae are colonized by dense microbial communities predicted to have an important role in the development, defense and metabolic activities of the plant. Here we assess the diversity and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community of the model alga Ulva australis to identify key groups within this epiphytic community. A total of 48 algal samples of U. australis

Niina A Tujula; Gregory R Crocetti; Catherine Burke; Torsten Thomas; Carola Holmström; Staffan Kjelleberg

2010-01-01

238

Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities  

PubMed Central

An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with a phoA hybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this "indigenous" genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phosphorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol 3-phosphate, at a concentration of 1 or 10 (mu)M. Within 48 h, a 2- to 10-fold increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphate occurred in microcosms containing the GEM (added at an initial density equivalent to 8% of the total bacterial population) relative to controls containing only natural microbial populations, natural populations with the unmodified Achromobacter sp., or natural populations with the Achromobacter sp. containing the plasmid but not the phoA gene. Secondary effects of the GEM on the phytoplankton community were observed after several days, evident as sustained increases in phytoplankton biomass (up to 14-fold) over that in controls. Even in the absence of added glycerol 3-phosphate, a numerically stable GEM population (averaging 3 to 5% of culturable bacteria) was established within 2 to 3 weeks of introduction into seawater. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity in microcosms with the GEM was substantially higher than that in controls for up to 25 days, and microcosms containing the GEM maintained the potential for net phosphate accumulation above control levels for longer than 1 month.

Sobecky, P. A.; Schell, M. A.; Moran, M. A.; Hodson, R. E.

1996-01-01

239

Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

2011-12-01

240

Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small

Susana Coelho; Sofia Gamito; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

2007-01-01

241

A New Monitoring Network For The Integrated Knowledge of Marine Coastal Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Cluster 10 MIUR, a program funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research, an integrated coastal monitoring network is being developed and installed in selected areas of Southern Italy. The network comprises seven monitoring buoys and a small equipped boat. The buoys will be deployed on 15-25 meters depth in positions chosen to investigate coastal waters state and quality in areas subjected to human induced alterations (both of industrial or urban origin) in Messina Strait (Messina), Southern Tyrrhenian (Gioia Tauro, Milazzo, Palermo), Southern Adriatic (Manfredonia) and Ionian (Taranto, Augusta) Seas. Each buoy will be equipped with real time and pseudo (about 15 minutes) real time data acquisition and transmission system, based on GSM data transmission, SMS and e_mail procedures. Physical and Physico-Chemical parameters (T, C, DO, Turbidity, Fluorescence), Nutrients (NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4) will be monitored on water samples pumped from various depths. These measurements will be integrated with meteorological and ADCP observations and with laboratory bacteriological analysis of water samples collected using an ex- pressly designed water sampler. The use of such a device will support the develop- ment of new bacteriological methods rapid enough to be applied in the monitoring of seawater pollution. In particular, microscopical detection by immunofluorescence which has previously proved to be a useful technique for detection and quantification of the microorganism Escherichia coli, will be applied as the choice method for the determination of the most usual indicator of faecal contamination. Collected data will be included in a specifically-developed database with a client/server internet-like ar- chitecture. The data and metadata format complies with those stated at international level for marine and oceanographic data exchange. Software procedures will allow data entry and retrieval via browser. A GIS application will enable to merge the newly collected info with existing basic ones. In situ parameters will be used as calibration factors for tele-detected data, so enabling to expand in time and space punctual obser- vations. The overall application is multi-purposes: the final user of the system could have scientific objectives as well as environmental management ones. The network will represent the most flexible and integrated monitoring system available along the Italian coasts.

Zappalà, G.; Azzaro, F.; Bergamasco, A.; Caruso, G.; Decembrini, F.; Crisafi, E.

242

Marine geo-hazard in the Campi Flegrei coastal area (Eastern Tyrrhenian sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Campi Flegrei (i.e. "burning plains") are located on the eastern Tyrrhenian margin, an area characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. It is a densely urbanized coastal zone, including the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, where documented human activities have been developing for more than two thousand years. In the Pozzuoli area two major periods of eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. These periods were followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Numerous monogenic volcanoes formed close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flow and surge, has been detected offshore. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. In the Campi Flegrei, magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1883 on Ischia, and 1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. Volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity mainly associate with inferred resurgent calderas whose uplift have caused mass wasting phenomena, faulting and erosional activity both on land and at sea. Major geohazard features resulting from marine geophysical and sedimentological investigations include (1) extensive landslide deposits and associated hummocky topographies off Ischia volcanic island, (2) seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fan, (3) superficial faulting (i.e. displacing the seafloor) in the bay of Pozzuoli and (4) erosional morphologies and forms at the canyon heads and the shelf break. Moreover, numerous volcanic bank and pyroclastic structures have been detected off the bay of Pozzuoli and Ischia island, both in the shelf area and deeper waters. These information have been mapped with the aim to recognize, compare and classify hazard-bearing processes active at seafloor in the Campi Flegrei coastal area: a basic approach for assessing and managing risk related to geological processes.

Violante, C.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Sacchi, M.

2009-04-01

243

Composition of California coastal marine aerosol particles measured during CalNex 2010 and E-PEACE 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of particles in the California coastal marine boundary layer. Ambient and generated marine aerosol particles were measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 campaign in May and June 2010. Particles were collected on filters and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the functional group composition and total organic mass. Particles from two primary marine aerosol generators showed similar organic compositions, both with larger fractions of hydroxyl functional groups. Similar ambient measurements were made on board the R/V Point Sur during July 2011. Ambient marine aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey, CA when winds were mainly from the west and had little anthropogenic influence. Marine aerosol particles were also analyzed using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Particles were sampled under different ambient conditions including a range of seawater chlorophyll concentrations and a range of wind speeds and directions. Changes in the ambient conditions may influence changes in the organic functional group composition of the marine particles. Simultaneously, seawater was collected and atomized onto filters to determine the functional group composition of the total organic matter in the seawater. This organic composition will be compared to the organic composition of the ambient marine particles to determine the changes upon emission and aging in the atmosphere.

Frossard, A. A.; Modini, R.; Russell, L. M.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Kieber, D. J.; Maben, J. R.; Keene, W. C.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

2011-12-01

244

Starting point or solution? Community-based marine protected areas in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985, in response to declining coral reef conditions, local residents and officials established small, no-take marine sanctuaries on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands through a community-based process. The implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) on Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands has been a partial success. As a direct result of protection, living hard coral cover has increased by 119% in Balicasag's

P. Christie; A. White; E. Deguit

2002-01-01

245

Seeking Consensus on Designing Marine Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing Community Engaged  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community group was formed to consider establishing marine reserves within the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered

MARK HELVEY

2004-01-01

246

Mariner Model: Charting the Course for Health-Promoting School Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mariner Model provides a step-by-step systems-building process and tool by which schools, school districts, and communities can develop capacity and create an infrastructure that supports continuous improvement in health-promoting environments for children. The Mariner Model follows a public health program planning development model that is…

Hoyle, Tena Bostrom

2007-01-01

247

Sun Protection Knowledge and Practices Among Adolescents in a Rural, Coastal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge level of skin cancer risk factors and practices of sun protection among rural adolescents in a north Florida coastal community. There has been significant evidence in research to find a correlation between most skin cancers and sun related exposure to ultraviolet rays.\\u000aThe participants studied were living in a rural,

Patrea Payne

2004-01-01

248

Social vulnerability index for coastal communities at risk to hurricane hazard and a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of the Coastal Community Social Vulnerability Index (CCSVI) in order to quantify the social\\u000a vulnerability of hurricane-prone areas under various scenarios of climate change. The 2004–2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons\\u000a is estimated to have caused $150 billion dollars in damages, and in recent years, the annual hurricane damage in the United\\u000a States is estimated at around

Sigridur Bjarnadottir; Yue Li; Mark G. Stewart

249

Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations: Southeast Asian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 3. Area 8 - Kuala Trengganu, Area 9 - Endau, Area 10 - South Malacca Strait, Area 11 - North Malacca Strait.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains data from marine surface observations taken in Southeast Asian coastal marine areas. Synoptic meteorological data is presented for Kuala Trengganu, Endau, South Malacca Strait, and North Malacca Strait.

1972-01-01

250

Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities with respect to zonal vegetation in a coastal dune ecosystem.  

PubMed

Coastal dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a coastal dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the communities to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field communities using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward communities, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward communities, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field community was significantly nested within the landward trap culture community, implying that most members in the field community did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward communities. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896

Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

2013-10-01

251

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ? 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org (total organics), NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3- (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH4+ to SO42- equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO42-. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed as well as the correlation between SO42- and NO3- (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosol production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2014-05-01

252

Hair mercury level of coastal communities in Malaysia: a linkage with fish consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair mercury level was assessed in four coastal communities in Malaysia with relation to fish consumption between gender,\\u000a age, and rural and urban area. Mercury level was found at a range of 0.01–21.00 (?g\\/g dry wt). The average mercury levels\\u000a were 13.69, 10.85, 9.94, and 6.78 ?g\\/g dry wt for communities in Kedah, Terengganu, Johor, and Selangor, respectively. The\\u000a same order

Parvaneh Hajeb; Jinap Selamat; Ahmad Ismail; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Jamilah Bakar; Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

2008-01-01

253

Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites (Dorum, Aarhus Bight, Mississippi Delta, Limfjord and Janssand). The vertical distribution of DEN activity was examined using the acetylene inhibition technique combined with N2O microsensor measurements, whereas NH4+ production via DNRA was measured with a recently developed gel probe-stable isotope technique. At all field sites, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (59-131% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Highest ammonium production via DNRA, accounting for up to 8.9% of the total NO3- reduced, was found at a site with very high concentrations of total sulfide and NH4+ within and below the layer in which NO3- reduction occurred. Sediment from two field sites, one with low and one with high DNRA activity in the core incubations, was also used for slurry incubations. Now, in both sediments high DNRA activity was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results might be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments in which diffusion of NO3- from the water column may only reach DEN bacteria, but not DNRA bacteria. The true partitioning of dissimilatory nitrate reduction between DNRA and DEN may thus lie in between the values found in whole core (underestimation of DNRA) and slurry incubations (overestimation of DNRA).

Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

2013-11-01

254

Metabolism of a nitrogen-enriched coastal marine lagoon during the summertime  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured metabolism rates in a shallow, nitrogen-enriched coastal marine ecosystem on Cape Cod (MA, USA) during seven summers using an open-water diel oxygen method. We compared two basins, one directly receiving most of the nitrogen (N) load (“Snug Harbor”) and another further removed from the N load and better flushed (“Outer Harbor”). Both dissolved oxygen and pH varied greatly over the day, increasing in daylight and decreasing at night. The more N-enriched basin frequently went hypoxic during the night, and the pH in both basins was low (compared to standard seawater) when the oxygen levels were low, due to elevated carbon dioxide. Day-to-day variation in gross primary production (GPP) was high and linked in part to variation in light. Whole-ecosystem respiration tended to track this short-term variation in GPP, suggesting that respiration by the primary producers often dominated whole-system respiration. GPP was higher in the more N-loaded Snug Harbor. Seagrasses covered over 60 % of the area of the better-flushed, Outer Harbor throughout our study and were the major contributors to GPP there. Seagrasses covered 20 % of the area in Snug Harbor for the first 5 years of our study, and their contribution to GPP was relatively small. The seagrasses in Snug Harbor died off completely in the 6th year, but GPP remained high then and in the subsequent year. Overall, rates of phytoplankton GPP were relatively low, suggesting that benthic micro- and macro-algae may be the dominant primary producers in Snug Harbor in most years. Net ecosystem production in both Snug Harbor and the Outer Harbor was variable from year to year, showing net heterotrophy in some years and net autotrophy in others, with a trend towards increasing autotrophy over the 7 years reported here.

Howarth, Robert W.; Hayn, Melanie; Marino, Roxanne M.; Ganju, Neil; Foreman, Kenneth; McGlathery, Karen; Giblin, Anne E.; Berg, Peter; Walker, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

255

The Role of Pre-Existing Disturbances in the Effect of Marine Reserves on Coastal Ecosystems: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives.

Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

256

The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach.  

PubMed

We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to coastal no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of marine reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the marine reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of marine reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of marine reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of marine reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432

Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A; Fulton, Elizabeth A

2013-01-01

257

Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters.  

PubMed

It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan communities have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the community structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate communities were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in coastal waters. PMID:24176698

Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin

2014-02-01

258

Community structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a marine pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.  

PubMed

Marine microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial community composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable community composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in coastal environments affected by marine oil spills. PMID:24356981

Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena

2014-07-01

259

Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C and N stable isotope compositions of some flora of East Africa from coastal Tanzania and Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are used to assess if they can be used as a terrestrial end member during the estimation of terrestrial fraction in coastal marine sediments. The results of C isotope composition of various tree leaves, which average -29.3 ± 1.4%, indicate that these tropical higher land plant species follow a Calvin-Benson or non-Kranz (C 3) type of metabolism. The results for grass species, which average -13.2 ± 2.4%, indicate that most of them follow a Hatch-Slack or Kranz (C 4) type of metabolism. However, some of the succulent plants from the Amboseli National Park have ?13C values that average -14.7%, an indication that they follow a CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) type of metabolism. The N isotope values are relatively higher than expected for the terrestrial organic material. The average ?15N values for both tree and grass samples are higher than 5% and fall within the range normally considered to be marine. The high enrichment in 15N may be related to the environmental conditions in which plants thrive. Plants growing in sandy, dry and overgrazed environments are expected to be enriched in 15N owing to full utilisation of all available N species, regardless of their isotopic compositions. Other processes which may cause an enrichment in 15N include adsorption by various types of clay minerals, supply of 15N-enriched nitrate through sea-spray, and local denitrification, especially in swampy and lake margins where the input of organic matter may be higher than the rate of decomposition. The stable isotopic composition of organic C and N for surficial organic matter for the coastal marine sediments averages -17.0 ± 0.9% and 5.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. These values indicate a substantial contribution of C 4 plants and sea grasses. However, contribution of C 4 relative to that of sea grasses can not be evaluated owing to the fact that there is no significant difference in the isotopic compositions between the two groups. In the savannah environment, where a contribution from the C 4 types of plants might be substantial, the ?13C value for a terrestrial end member needs to be established prior to evaluation of the terrestrially derived organic matter in the marine environment. Owing to a significant contribution of sea grasses to the total organic matter preserved in coastal marine sediments, the stable isotopes of organic C seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in the East African coastal waters. Furthermore, the results indicate that N stable isotopes seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in coastal waters of East Africa. However, more work needs to be conducted to determine the terrestrial and sea grass end member values for the coastal areas.

Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

1999-04-01

260

Microbial community analysis of a coastal salt marsh affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.  

PubMed

Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

Beazley, Melanie J; Martinez, Robert J; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Andersen, Gary L; Hazen, Terry C; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

2012-01-01

261

Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

PubMed Central

Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems.

Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

262

Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

This paper presents the important findings of a study undertaken in two selected tsunami-affected coastal cities in Sri Lanka (Batticaloa and Galle) to measure the revealed and emergent vulnerability of coastal communities. International risk studies have failed to demonstrate the high vulnerability of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Therefore, indirect assessment tools to measure pre-event vulnerability have to be complemented by assessment tools that analyse revealed and emergent vulnerability in looking at the aftermath and impact patterns of a real scenario, as well as in examining the dynamics of disaster recovery in which different vulnerabilities can be identified. The paper first presents a conceptual framework for capturing vulnerability within a process-oriented approach linked to sustainable development. Next, it highlights selected indicators and methods to measure revealed and emergent vulnerability at the local level using the examples of Batticaloa and Galle. Finally, it discusses the usefulness and application of vulnerability indicators within the framework of reconstruction. PMID:18217919

Birkmann, Jörn; Fernando, Nishara

2008-03-01

263

Assessment of the environmental status of the coastal and marine aquatic environment in Europe: A plea for adaptive management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.

Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.

2012-01-01

264

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized

Mariana Lozada; Juan P. Riva Mercadal; Leandro D. Guerrero; Walter D. Di Marzio; Marcela A. Ferrero; Hebe M. Dionisi

2008-01-01

265

COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (CMARIS): A SPATIAL APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ECOREGIONAL MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sulu-Sulawesi Seas comprise one of the most biologically diverse marine ecoregions in the world. Situated at the center of the coral triangle, the ecoregion hosts at least 450 species of corals, significant populations of marine turtles, critical mangrove and seagrass habitats, marine mammals, including commercially important species collectively supporting multi-billion dollar fishing industries and subsistence livelihoods for a population

A. J. A. Ramos

266

Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: Assessing invasion impacts and interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) are recognized as important stressors of many communities throughout the world. Here, we evaluated available data on the role of NIS in marine and estuarine communities and their interactions with other anthropogenic stressors, using an intensive analysis of the Chesapeake Bay region as a case study. First, we reviewed the reported ecological impacts of 196

Gregory M. Ruiz; Paul Fofonoff; Anson H. Hines; Edwin D. Grosholz

1999-01-01

267

Different Marine Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates Affect Differentially the Composition of Enriched Bacterial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of predation on the cytometric and phylogenetic features of two enriched bacterial communities obtained from two cultures of marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates: Jakoba libera and a mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. Protists were harvested by flow cytometric cell sorting and eight different treatments were prepared. Each bacterial community was incubated with and without protists,

E. Vázquez-Domínguez; E. O. Casamayor; P. Català; P. Lebaron

2005-01-01

268

Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

Gough, L.; Grace, J. B.

1998-01-01

269

Reactive transport modeling of the impact of ocean acidification on global carbon fluxes in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of relatively high productivity of both calcifying and non-calcifying phytoplankton in coastal zones, coastal sediments can act as a significant carbon sink. Ocean acidification is likely to impact productivity of these groups differently, raising the question of the overall effect of ocean acidification on carbon burial in coastal sediments. We modeled the effect of varying depositional fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) on carbon cycling in coastal marine sediments using a one-dimensional reactive transport model. Transport processes include sediment burial, advection, diffusion, bioturbation and bioirrigation. The model incorporates the hydrolysis of macromolecular organic matter, the redox pathways of POC oxidation, re-oxidation reactions of the reduced compounds produced during POC decomposition, the acid-base chemical equilibria, and the dissolution of PIC (calcite, aragonite, and Mg-calcite) in the upper 50 cm of sediment. The following processes are also included: precipitation of iron sulfide and iron carbonate, sorption of Fe(II), ammonium and phosphate, sulfidization of organic matter, and pyritization. The global return fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity are estimated by modeling sediments at 25 m, 75 m, and 150 m depths, and multiplying by the global area of seafloor depths 0-50 m, 50-100 m, and 100-200 m, respectively. We determined the sensitivity of carbon and nutrient return fluxes to changes in pH, PIC and POC fluxes, as well as to poorly constrained Fe(III) deposition fluxes. Inorganic carbon return fluxes are influenced most by the particulate organic and inorganic carbon depositional fluxes; the seawater pH has a limited effect. Modeled sediment pH profiles and PIC dissolution are also sensitive to the iron deposition flux. The overreaching goal of the research is to forecast the global response of coastal sediment return fluxes as a result of anthropogenic ocean acidification.

Krumins, Valdis; van Cappellen, Philippe; Regnier, Pierre

2010-05-01

270

Distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on animal distribution and abundance is integral to wildlife conservation and management. However abundance estimates have not been available for many cetacean species inhabiting the coastal waters of Canada's Pacific coast, including those species that were heavily depleted by commercial whaling. Systematic sightings surveys were conducted in the inshore coastal waters of the Inside Passage, between the British Columbia

ROB WILLIAMS; LEN THOMAS

2007-01-01

271

Coastal marine basins as records of continental palaeoenvironments (Gulf of Guinea and Iullemmeden cretaceous and tertiary basins)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits in nearshore marine basins provide data about the adjacent emerged lands. Examples are taken from the Togo coastal basin, on an ocean margin, and the Iullemmeden intracratonic basin (Niger). A continental landscape is fossilized by the onlapping layers of the transgressions: an eroded crystalline basement (Togo) or a broad and complex alluvial plain (Iullemmeden). Clastics, trapped in the marine deposits, provide information on the source area. Two types of information can be obtained from the sands: the nature of the parent rocks, and the environment at the time of genesis, storage and transportation (tectonic and climatic stability or change). The significance of clays is more complex; they can be formed or modified in the marine environment. However their elastic or chemical components originate from biochemical weathering and provide information on climate, morphology, vegetation cover and drainage of the emerged lands. In the Iullemmeden basin, the important change between Maastrichtian and Paleocene probably reflects a change to a drier climate in accordance with a slight shift of the equator to the south. The properties of marine waters are dependent on climate and morphology of the emergent lands which determines runoff. These properties may be inferred from the analysis of the clastic/carbonate conflict and indicators of salinity (mangrove). In conclusion, the Togo and Iullemmeden basins were located downstream of tectonically quiecent, large continental areas of gentle relief. Transgressions were migrations of a broad littoral system upon very flat continental surfaces caused by erosion or river-dominated deposition.

Rat, P.; Lang, J.; Alzouma, K.; Dikouma, M.; Johnson, A.; Laurin, B.; Mathey, B.; Pascal, A.

272

Ocean Wave Energy-Driven Desalination Systems for Off-grid Coastal Communities in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (RME) is based in Boston, MA and is developing ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to benefit remote off-grid communities in developing nations. Our two WEC technologies are based on the heaving and surging motion of a buoy on the ocean surface (the 3-D WEC) and on a bottom-mounted hinged paddle that oscillates in the full water

Eshwan Ramudu

2011-01-01

273

The Impacts of Human Visitation on Mussel Bed Communities Along the California Coast: Are Regulatory Marine Reserves Effective in Protecting These Communities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocky intertidal habitats frequently are used by humans for recreational, educational, and subsistence-harvesting purposes, with intertidal populations damaged by visitation activities such as extraction, trampling, and handling. California Marine Managed Areas, particularly regulatory marine reserves (MRs), were established to provide legal protection and enhancement of coastal resources and include prohibitions on harvesting intertidal populations. However, the effectiveness of MRs is unclear as enforcement of no-take laws is weak and no regulations protect intertidal species from other detrimental visitor impacts such as trampling. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine impacts from human visitation on California mussel populations ( Mytilus californianus) and mussel bed community diversity; and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of regulatory MRs in reducing visitor impacts on these populations. Surveys of mussel populations and bed-associated diversity were compared: (1) at sites subjected to either high or low levels of human use, and (2) at sites either unprotected or with regulatory protection banning collecting. At sites subjected to higher levels of human visitation, mussel populations were significantly lower than low-use sites. Comparisons of mussel populations inside and outside of regulatory MRs revealed no consistent pattern suggesting that California no-take regulatory reserves may have limited effectiveness in protecting mussel communities. In areas where many people visit intertidal habitats for purposes other than collecting, many organisms will be affected by trampling, turning of rocks, and handling. In these cases, effective protection of rocky intertidal communities requires an approach that goes beyond the singular focus on collecting to reduce the full suite of impacts.

Smith, Jayson R.; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F.

2008-04-01

274

Chemical composition and sources of coastal marine aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.

Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.

2013-10-01

275

Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending on magnetic mineralogy. Most of this iron is possibly in the form of nanophase magnetic particles, possibly associated with biologically induced mineralization processes occurring below the OAI. Still, the OAI is a narrow but intense zone of SD particle production. Despite using just a small fraction of available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column for magnetosome production, the total number of MB living within an OAI, such as at Salt Pond, is all that is needed to produce the biogenic SD concentrations observed in some sediments. We also observed that Verwey transition temperatures fell within a narrow range of values between 95 and 105 K that were independent of both water depth and geochemical conditions. Reduced Verwey transition temperatures (Tv < 120 K) appear to be an intrinsic property of magnetite magnetosomes whether grown in pure laboratory cultures or from a diverse population of magnetite-producing MB in the environment. This indicates that a limited amount of oxygen non-stoichiometry (<1 per cent) is present within magnetite magnetosomes, produced either initially during magnetosome formation or subsequently as an ``aging'' process in living magnetite-producing MB. Therefore, reduced values of the Verwey transition in biogenic SD magnetite in sediments do not necessarily indicate diagenetic alteration.

Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-07-01

276

Effects of salinity and water temporality on zooplankton community in coastal Mediterranean ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the predicted effects of climate warming in Mediterranean climate are the increase of temperature, change of precipitation patterns and the rise in sea levels. This will have major consequences, mainly in coastal aquatic ecosystems, by the increase of salinity and the reduction of the flooding period, affecting the whole aquatic community. To assess on the possible consequences of the global change in the zooplankton community of Mediterranean coastal lakes, we analized the zooplankton diversity in a set of lakes with different salinity and water permanence time. The ponds were classified in four groups: permanent and temporary freshwater ponds, and permanent and temporary brackish ponds. Whereas we did not detect a great effect of hydroperiod on zooplankton community, the increase in salinity produced (through direct and indirect interaction) a rise in rotifer density and a reduction in cladoceran cumulative richness, richness per visit and diversity. All these differences were remarkable in Permanent Brackish lakes, the group which showed the higher dissimilarity with the other groups of lakes. The disappearance of cladocerans in these systems can lead to an increase in the eutrophication and a reduction of diversity.

Anton-Pardo, Maria; Armengol, Xavier

2012-12-01

277

Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), ?13CTOC, ?13C and ?18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The ?13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The ?18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture, conversion, storage and reuse through the coastal ocean of Taiwan: The biological pump.

Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

2012-12-01

278

Shallow water marine sediment bacterial community shifts along a natural CO2 gradient in the Mediterranean Sea off Vulcano, Italy.  

PubMed

The effects of increasing atmospheric CO(2) on ocean ecosystems are a major environmental concern, as rapid shoaling of the carbonate saturation horizon is exposing vast areas of marine sediments to corrosive waters worldwide. Natural CO(2) gradients off Vulcano, Italy, have revealed profound ecosystem changes along rocky shore habitats as carbonate saturation levels decrease, but no investigations have yet been made of the sedimentary habitat. Here, we sampled the upper 2 cm of volcanic sand in three zones, ambient (median pCO(2) 419 ?atm, minimum ?(arag) 3.77), moderately CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 592 ?atm, minimum ?(arag) 2.96), and highly CO(2)-enriched (median pCO(2) 1611 ?atm, minimum ?(arag) 0.35). We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of seawater pCO(2) would cause significant shifts in sediment bacterial community composition, as shown recently in epilithic biofilms at the study site. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing of the V1 to V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a shift in community composition with increasing pCO(2). The relative abundances of most of the dominant genera were unaffected by the pCO(2) gradient, although there were significant differences for some 5 % of the genera present (viz. Georgenia, Lutibacter, Photobacterium, Acinetobacter, and Paenibacillus), and Shannon Diversity was greatest in sediments subject to long-term acidification (>100 years). Overall, this supports the view that globally increased ocean pCO(2) will be associated with changes in sediment bacterial community composition but that most of these organisms are resilient. However, further work is required to assess whether these results apply to other types of coastal sediments and whether the changes in relative abundance of bacterial taxa that we observed can significantly alter the biogeochemical functions of marine sediments. PMID:24493461

Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Tripathi, Binu M; Milazzo, Marco; Lee, Junghoon; Adams, Jonathan M

2014-05-01

279

Impaired megabenthic community structure caused by summer hypoxia in a eutrophic coastal bay.  

PubMed

Eutrophication and hypoxia are major problems affecting the health of coastal ecosystems throughout the world. Tokyo Bay, Japan, is a eutrophic coastal area where the abundance of the megabenthic community has been decreasing. To assess factors associated with the impaired biota, seasonal surveys of the megabenthic community and water and sediment quality were conducted in the bay. Cluster analysis showed a difference in the community structure between the northern and southern parts of the bay. The density of species and species diversity were high throughout the year in the southern part of the bay, whereas in the northern part of the bay species diversity was low and defaunation occurred in August. At this time, bottom hypoxia due to temperature and salinity stratification, and high concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll a, and organic matter in the water column and/or sediment, dominated the northern part of the bay. In October, bottom hypoxia was less severe but was still present in the northern part of the bay, and recolonization by mobile fishes and sessile mussels occurred. Multivariate analyses of the megabenthic community and environmental parameters in August showed the spatial pattern of the community could be explained by concentrations of dissolved oxygen and particulate organic carbon in the bottom water, and total sulfide and total organic carbon in the sediments. In particular, impairment of the biota in the northern area could be explained by the threshold concentrations of dissolved oxygen < 1.7 mL L(-1) and total organic carbon > 20.3 mg g(-1). PMID:19936920

Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Kume, Gen; Serizawa, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Makoto; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

2010-03-01

280

Single Hydrophone Technique for Obtaining Spectral Source Levels of Marine Mammals in Coastal Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the annual Gray Whale migration from the Aleutians to Baja California, the mammals travel in coastal waters, thereby presenting an opportunity for the study of their sound spectral and source levels and vocabulary. However, such measurements are di...

R. M. Bostian

1977-01-01

281

Chapter 4 Remote sensing applications for coastal and marine resources management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of satellite remote sensing to provide synoptic, repetitive and multispectral data has proved to be very useful in inventory and monitoring of coastal features, such as tidal wet-lands, potential aquaculture sites, mangroves, estuary-dynamics\\/shoreline-changes, and off-shore aspects like suspended sediment dynamics and coastal currents, near-shore bathymetry, internal waves, etc. The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite data IRS 1C 1D and

Hussein Harahsheh

2005-01-01

282

SAR-Derived coastal and marine applications: from research to operational products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has now successfully demonstrated its capacity to uniquely provide valuable high-resolution information for coastal applications (oil-spill monitoring, ship detection, shallow-water bathymetry mapping, sea-ice monitoring, high-resolution wind fields, coastal wave fields). However, it appears that the operational use of SAR-derived products still remains limited, particularly in Europe. Although costs and sampling rate are often invoked to

Vincent Kerbaol; Fabrice Collard

2005-01-01

283

Enhanced Resiliency of Coastal Communities to Storm Surge and Flooding through Improved Data, Models, Tools and Methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 hurricane season has highlighted vulnerabilities of coastal communities to storm induce flooding. Working with multiple partners, the National Ocean Service (NOS) within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is enhancing the resilience of Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX) coastal communities to coastal storm impacts. This project will address the following: improved topographic, bathymetric, gravimetric and geodetic data; storm surge forecasting and warning systems; decision-support tools used for evacuation strategies; planning and risk and vulnerability assessment methodologies; improved capabilities for working with digital elevation, water level and geodetic data; enhanced ecosystem protection and change analysis, post-hurricane damage assessment, updated national shoreline, and sea-level rise modeling; and information systems designed for response and restoration activities. This project is being developed in conjunction with related activities in the GOMEX Region such as the NOAA assessment of existing and needed storm surge prediction and response capabilities, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) Coastal Ocean Observing and Prediction (SCOOP) Program, and ongoing development of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems (IOOS) Regional Associations. Developing and demonstrating the value of enhanced ocean observing systems to coastal communities in the GOMEX region through this pilot project and data integration and visualization projects such as the openioos.org portal will help guide NOAA and others in defining future requirements for Regional and Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

Lavoi, T.

2005-05-01

284

Assessment of benthic trophic status of marine coastal ecosystems: Significance of meiofaunal rare taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophication enhances organic C inputs to the sea bottom, so that the quantity and biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are expected to change under different trophic status conditions. In turn, changes in the trophic status are often associated with shifts in the abundance and community structure of the benthos. We investigated the quantity and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, lipid and phytopigment) of sedimentary organic matter together with abundance and community structure of meiofauna in two regions of the Mediterranean Sea characterized by different levels of primary productivity. At each region, five transects were randomly selected along the coastline. At each transect, three stations located at increasing distance from the shore and different water depth were investigated. Uni- and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter displayed the most relevant differences between stations, suggesting their potential use as descriptor of the benthic trophic state at the small spatial scale (i.e. <2 km). The correlation analyses, corroborated by nMDS dispersion plots and cluster analyses highlighted that the biopolymeric C content of the sediment and the algal fraction of sediment organic matter were inversely related and able to discriminate the trophic status at the scale of region, transect and station. Uni- and multivariate analyses on meiofaunal assemblages revealed that differences at different spatial scales were less evident in terms of abundance and richness of meiofaunal taxa but were more evident in terms of taxonomic composition. Furthermore, these differences were enhanced when the analyses were restricted using the meiofaunal rare taxa (i.e. those taxa representing <1% of the total meiofaunal abundance) as an input. The results of the multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that the taxonomic composition of meiofaunal assemblages was driven mostly by protein, biopolymeric C and chlorophyll-a concentrations but also by the algal fraction of biopolymeric C. We conclude that, the study of the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter coupled with an analysis of the rare meiofaunal taxa allows an ecosystem-oriented assessment of the trophic status of marine benthic environments.

Pusceddu, Antonio; Bianchelli, Silvia; Gambi, Cristina; Danovaro, Roberto

2011-07-01

285

An equilibrium model for predicting the efficacy of marine protected areas in coastal environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative models of marine protected area (MPA) proposals can be used to compare outcomes given cur- rent biological knowledge. We used a model of a linear coastline, with 200 discrete cells each spanning 1.6 km of coast. This model is used to evaluate alternative proposals for marine protected area networks, predicting equilibrium changes in abundances and harvests while accounting for

Carl J. Walters; Ray Hilborn; Richard Parrish

2007-01-01

286

Effects of a coastal power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton community structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.  

PubMed

The effects of a thermal discharge from a coastal power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton community at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. PMID:24635985

Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li

2014-04-15

287

Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

2008-08-01

288

Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the potential influence of coastal development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI?community from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-community structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the community was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton community.

Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.

2014-01-01

289

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

1972-01-01

290

A New Governance Model for the Sustainable Use of the Coastal And Marine Environment: Lessons Learned from the Central Pacific Coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal and marine environments of the Pacific Coast in Central America present a cultural and historical use of their rich natural resources. The original human populations living in these areas continue being environmentally, socially, culturally and economically vulnerable. The biological and cultural richness of these areas has deteriorated at a very accelerated rate for many reasons. The causes include

V Solis Rivera; P Madrigal Cordero

291

A comparison of approaches for integrated management in coastal marine areas of Canada with the historical approach used in the Great Lakes (Bay of Quinte)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian approaches for ecosystem-based management in coastal marine areas, prompted by Canada's Oceans Act, are similar to and consistent with the long-standing, integrated management of the Bay of Quinte in Lake Ontario. The similarities include the criteria for the identification of ecologically significant areas and habitat, degraded areas, ecologically significant species, depleted or rare species, conservation objectives and ecological indicators

R. G. Randall; M. A. Koops; C. K. Minns

2011-01-01

292

Alkane biodegradation and dynamics of phylogenetic subgroups of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an anoxic coastal marine sediment artificially contaminated with oil.  

PubMed

For 503 days, unoiled control and artificially oiled sediments were incubated in situ at 20m water depth in a Mediterranean coastal area. Degradation of the aliphatic fraction of the oil added was followed by GC-MS. At the same time, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA encoding genes was used to detect dynamics in the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community in response to the oil contamination. Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets for five generic or suprageneric groups of SRB were used for PCR amplification of DNA extracted from sediments. During the experiment, hydrocarbons from C(17) to C(30) were significantly degraded even in strictly anoxic sediment layers. Of the five SRB groups, only two groups were detected in the sediments (control and oiled), namely the Desulfococcus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina-like group and the Desulfovibrio-Desulfomicrobium-like group. Statistical analysis of community patterns revealed dynamic changes over time within these two groups following the contamination. Significant differences in community patterns were recorded in artificially oiled compared with control sediments. Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA encoding genes performed after 503 days showed that many of the most abundant sequences were closely related to hydrocarbonoclastic SRB which could have played an active role in the observed biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Results from the present study provide useful information on the dynamics of dominant SRB in heavily oil-contaminated sediments and their potential for anaerobic biodegradation for the treatment of spilled oil in anoxic marine environments. PMID:17337033

Miralles, Gilles; Grossi, Vincent; Acquaviva, Monique; Duran, Robert; Claude Bertrand, Jean; Cuny, Philippe

2007-07-01

293

Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and

Emily M. Bowlin; James S. Klaus; Jamie S. Foster; Miriam S. Andres; Lillian Custals; R. Pamela Reid

294

Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

2010-01-01

295

Comparison between MICRO–CARD–FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic.  

PubMed

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition– fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S PMID:23565124

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-04-01

296

A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-marine ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern coastal Maine  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In eastern coastal Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-marine deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-marine delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local marine highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during marine regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Tary, A. K.; Duncan, M. , FitzGerald; Weddle, T. K.

2007-01-01

297

Citizen's Guide to Sources for Marine and Coastal Information in Massachusetts, 1983. Third Revised Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first edition of the Citizen's Guide was published in 1977 because of the difficulty many people were having finding answers to a wide range of marine-related questions. This revised Citizen's Guide incorporates deletions, additions and recommendation...

S. D. Stolz C. Singleton

1983-01-01

298

Ocean Color Patterns Help to Predict Depth of Optical Layers in Coastal Marine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detection of single or multiple optical subsurface laminar features (e.g. , thin layers) in marine waters has many implications on ecological studies, management of fisheries, and military applications. This study has four objectives: (1) to corroborate a...

A. Weidemann J. Jolliff M. A. Montes-Hugo R. Arnone R. Gould

2012-01-01

299

Culture-Based Marine Education: A Vehicle for Motivating Rural Coastal Native Hawaiian Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Sea Grant-funded project used two strategies to develop a bi-level marine education program for native Hawaiians. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive gains at both the elementary and secondary levels are statistically significant. Although stude...

R. T. Pfund

1980-01-01

300

The control of the development of a marine benthic community by predation on recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment is an important process in regulating many marine benthic communities and many studies have examined factors controlling the dispersal and distribution of larval immigrants. However, benthic species also have early post-settlement life-stages that are dramatically different from adult and larval stages. Predation on these stages potentially impacts measured recruitment and the benthic populations and communities that ultimately develop.We examined

Richard W. Osman; Robert B. Whitlatch

2004-01-01

301

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

302

Comparisons of the Fungal and Protistan Communities among Different Marine Sponge Holobionts by Pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity. PMID:24577740

He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

2014-05-01

303

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

304

Cross-Ocean Distribution of Rhodobacterales Bacteria as Primary Surface Colonizers in Temperate Coastal Marine Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial surface colonization is a universal adaptation strategy in aquatic environments. However, neither the identities of early colonizers nor the temporal changes in surface assemblages are well understood. To determine the identities of the most common bacterial primary colonizers and to assess the succession process, if any, of the bacterial assemblages during early stages of surface colonization in coastal water

Hongyue Dang; Tiegang Li; Mingna Chen; Guiqiao Huang

2008-01-01

305

A Marine Pollution Study of Northeast Coastal Water Off Taiwan Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal water of northeast Taiwan island, called ‘Yin-Yang Hai’ for its distinct yellow colour compared with blue offshore water, was investigated from 1989 to 1990 by the authors. Biological study showed the dominant species of plankton to be Copepoda, Cladocera, planktonic eggs and Diatoma. Dominant species of benthos were young crabs, Amphipoda and Annelida, with Amphipoda usually occurring in

Kevin Chu; Tzu-Ming Pan; Rong-Jeng Tseng; Liang-Hsien Chen

1995-01-01

306

Reversal of the net dinitrogen gas flux in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux of nitrogen from land and atmosphere to estuaries and the coastal ocean has increased substantially in recent decades. The observed increase in nitrogen loading is caused by population growth, urbanization, expanding water and sewer infrastructure, fossil fuel combustion and synthetic fertilizer consumption. Most of the nitrogen is removed by denitrification in the sediments of estuaries and the continental

R. W. Fulweiler; S. W. Nixon; B. A. Buckley; S. L. Granger

2007-01-01

307

Natural Oil Seeps in the Alaskan Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a synthesis of information on the marine and coastal oil seeps in Alaska, and on the effects of chronic oil pollution on Arctic marine biotic communities and ecological processes. Of 29 oil seepage areas reported along the Alaskan coast, 14 ...

P. R. Becker C. A. Manen

1988-01-01

308

Assessing the complex sponge microbiota: core, variable and species-specific bacterial communities in marine sponges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sponges are well known for their associations with highly diverse, yet very specific and often highly similar microbiota. The aim of this study was to identify potential bacterial sub-populations in relation to sponge phylogeny and sampling sites and to define the core bacterial community. 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was applied to 32 sponge species from eight locations

Susanne Schmitt; Peter Tsai; James Bell; Jane Fromont; Micha Ilan; Niels Lindquist; Thierry Perez; Allen Rodrigo; Peter J Schupp; Jean Vacelet; Nicole Webster; Ute Hentschel; Michael W Taylor

2012-01-01

309

Geographical and depth-related patterns in nematode communities from some Italian Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the meiobenthic nematode assemblages from three Italian Marine Protected Areas (Miramare, Adriatic Sea; Porto Cesareo, Ionian Sea; and Capo Caccia, Western Mediterranean Sea) was carried out at three different depth ranges from the low intertidal to the shallow subtidal. Nematode community composition was analysed at the genus level, and diversity and taxonomic distinctness were studied to detect

Roberto Sandulli; Cristiana de Leonardis; Magda Vincx; Jan Vanaverbeke

2011-01-01

310

A new method for detecting pollution effects on marine macrobenthic communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described by which the pollution status of a marine macrobenthic community may be assessed without reference to a temporal or spatial series of control samples. Theoretical considerations suggest that the distribution of numbers of individuals among species should behave differently from the distribution of biomass among species when influenced by pollution-induced disturbance. Combined k-dominance plots for species

R. M. Warwick

1986-01-01

311

Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene marine deposits and sea levels, Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic coastal plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern coastal plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.

Cronin, T. M.

1980-01-01

312

Temperature and the sulfur cycle control monomethylmercury cycling in high arctic coastal marine sediments from allen bay, nunavut, Canada.  

PubMed

Monomethylmercury (MMHg) is a neurotoxin of concern in the Canadian Arctic due to its tendency to bioaccumulate and the importance of fish and wildlife in the Inuit diet. In lakes and wetlands, microbial sediment communities are integral to the cycling of MMHg; however, the role of Arctic marine sediments is poorly understood. With projected warming, the effect of temperature on the production and degradation of MMHg in Arctic environments also remains unclear. We examined MMHg dynamics across a temperature gradient (4, 12, 24 °C) in marine sediments collected in Allen Bay, Nunavut. Slurries were spiked with stable mercury isotopes and amended with specific microbial stimulants and inhibitors, and subsampled over 12 days. Maximal methylation and demethylation potentials were low, ranging from below detection to 1.13 pmol g(-1) h(-1) and 0.02 pmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively, suggesting that sediments are likely not an important source of MMHg to overlying water. Our results suggest that warming may result in an increase in Hg methylation - controlled by temperature-dependent sulfate reduction, without a compensatory increase in demethylation. This study highlights the need for further research into the role of high Arctic marine sediments and climate on the Arctic marine MMHg budget. PMID:24555761

St Pierre, K A; Chétélat, J; Yumvihoze, E; Poulain, A J

2014-03-01

313

Effect of environmental gradient in coastal vegetation on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community. PMID:22476581

Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji

2012-11-01

314

Vitamin B1 and B12 Uptake and Cycling by Plankton Communities in Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

While vitamin B12 has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of coastal phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in coastal ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B1 and B12 have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton community composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B12 uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2??m phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2??m) were always responsible for the majority of B12-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B12 occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some coastal ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession.

Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Goleski, Jennifer A.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

315

Linking activity and function to ecosystem dynamics in a coastal bacterioplankton community  

PubMed Central

For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP) as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1–3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4–7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter). Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs), photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes), and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria). The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating a strong diel activity rhythm at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment.

Gifford, Scott M.; Sharma, Shalabh; Moran, Mary Ann

2014-01-01

316

Community-based coastal resource management in the Philippines: A review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1984 and 1994, a total of 43 Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CBCRM) programs and projects were implemented throughout the Philippines. This paper presents a review and evaluation of these programs and projects, which provide a wealth of experience and “lessons learned” to guide the design and implementation of CBCRM policy and local-level initiatives. A range of institutions and processes

Robert S Pomeroy; Melvin B Carlos

1997-01-01

317

Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.  

PubMed

Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further study is needed to determine the role of small-scale marine reserves in the conservation of tropical marine biodiversity. PMID:21513198

Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

2011-03-01

318

Fate and effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) in marine plankton communities in experimental enclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate and effects of single doses of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) on North Sea coastal plankton communities enclosed by large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m3) were studied in two experiments lasting 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. The biodegradation of DCA was also studied in laboratory experiments, which were carried out simultaneously, using water from the enclosed model ecosystems. DCA was not

J. Kuiper; A. O. Hanstveit

1984-01-01

319

Potential applications of a high altitude powered platform in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community conducted for the NASA Wallops Flight Center to identify potential applications of a high altitude powered platform (HAPP) are presented. Such a platform would stationkeep at 70,000 feet for up to a year over a given location and make frequent high resolution observations, or serve as a regional communications link. The survey results indicate user interest among scientific researchers, operational agencies and private industry. It is felt that such a platform would combine the desirable characteristics of both geostationary satellites (wide area, frequent observation) and aircraft (high resolution). As a result a concept for an operational HAPP system in the form of a 'mesoscale geostationary satellite' system evolved. Such a system could employ many of the same technologies used in current NASA and NOAA geostationary satellite programs. A set of generalized instrument requirements for HAPP borne sensors is also presented.

Escoe, D.; Rigterink, P.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

1979-01-01

320

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

Goodell, H. G.

1970-01-01

321

Assessment of the levels of coastal marine pollution of Chennai city, Southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of hydrological pollution of Chennai coastal zone in the southeastern part of India have been increased in the\\u000a recent years by an uncontrolled disposal of wastewater and pollutants due to human activities. This study gave a special emphasis\\u000a on the determination of the levels of pollution, the identification of vulnerable zones and providing some probable remedial\\u000a measures for

Palanisamy Shanmugam; S. Neelamani; Yu-Hwan Ahn; Ligy Philip; Gi-Hoon Hong

2007-01-01

322

Dynamic changes in the structure of microbial communities in Baltic Sea coastal seawater microcosms modified by crude oil, shale oil or diesel fuel.  

PubMed

The coastal waters of the Baltic Sea are constantly threatened by oil spills, due to the extensive transportation of oil products across the sea. To characterise the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community of this marine area, microcosm experiments on diesel fuel, crude oil and shale oil were performed. Analysis of these microcosms, using alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and 16S rRNA marker genes in PCR-DGGE experiments, demonstrated that substrate type and concentration strongly influence species composition and the occurrence of alkB genes in respective oil degrading bacterial communities. Gammaproteobacteria (particularly the genus Pseudomonas) and Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in all microcosms treated with oils. All alkB genes carried by bacterial isolates (40 strains), and 8 of the 11 major DGGE bands from the microcosms, had more than 95% sequence identity with the alkB genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, the closest relatives of the majority of sequences (54 sequences from 79) of the alkB gene library from initially collected seawater DNA were Actinobacteria. alkB gene expression, induced by hexadecane, was recorded in isolated bacterial strains. Thus, complementary culture dependent and independent methods provided a more accurate picture about the complex seawater microbial communities of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23510642

Viggor, Signe; Juhanson, Jaanis; Jõesaar, Merike; Mitt, Mario; Truu, Jaak; Vedler, Eve; Heinaru, Ain

2013-08-25

323

Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant in Larymna bay (PAHs concentrations up to 7500 ng/g). The examination of PAH molecular indices revealed that in Antikyra and Larymna bays more than 80% of the PAHs have pyrolytic origin coming from various combustion sources. On the contrary, in Aliveri bay about 60% of the PAHs are related to petrogenic/petroleum inputs. With respect to ecotoxicological effects, m-ERM values higher than 1.5 were calculated in Antikyra bay indicating that the sediments in this area have a high probability (76%) of being toxic. In Aliveri and Larymna bays the m-ERM values were between 0.11 and 0.5 bay suggesting a lower probability (21%) of toxicity. Overall, the results of our study reveal that high quantities of PAHs produced from land point sources can enter into small coastal marine areas supporting activities such as aquaculture and fishing. Thus, desirable and permitted uses must be well defined and regulatory frameworks must be established.

Hatzianestis, Ioannis

2014-05-01

324

Variability and abundance of the epiphytic bacterial community associated with a green marine Ulvacean alga.  

PubMed

Marine Ulvacean algae are colonized by dense microbial communities predicted to have an important role in the development, defense and metabolic activities of the plant. Here we assess the diversity and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community of the model alga Ulva australis to identify key groups within this epiphytic community. A total of 48 algal samples of U. australis that were collected as 12 individuals at 3 monthly intervals, were processed by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and three samples from each season were subjected to catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). CARD-FISH revealed that the epiphytic microbial community was comprised mainly of bacterial cells (90%) and was dominated by the groups Alphaproteobacteria (70%) and Bacteroidetes (13%). A large portion (47%) of sequences from the Alphaproteobacteria fall within the Roseobacter clade throughout the different seasons, and an average relative proportion of 19% was observed using CARD-FISH. DGGE based spatial (between tidal pools) and temporal (between season) comparisons of bacterial community composition demonstrated that variation occurs. Between individuals from both the same and different tidal pools, the variation was highest during winter (30%) and between seasons a 40% variation was observed. The community also includes a sub-population of bacteria that is consistently present. Sequences from excised DGGE bands indicate that members of the Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes are part of this stable sub-population, and are likely to have an important role in the function of this marine epiphytic microbial community. PMID:19829319

Tujula, Niina A; Crocetti, Gregory R; Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Holmström, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2010-02-01

325

Modeling benefits from nature: using ecosystem services to inform coastal and marine spatial planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

People around the world are looking to marine ecosystems to provide additional benefits to society. As they consider expanding current uses and investing in new ones, new management approaches are needed that will sustain the delivery of the diverse benefits that people want and need. An ecosystem services framework provides metrics for assessing the quantity, quality, and value of benefits

Anne D. Guerry; Mary H. Ruckelshaus; Katie K. Arkema; Joey R. Bernhardt; Gregory Guannel; Choong-Ki Kim; Matthew Marsik; Michael Papenfus; Jodie E. Toft; Gregory Verutes; Spencer A. Wood; Michael Beck; Francis Chan; Kai M. A. Chan; Guy Gelfenbaum; Barry D. Gold; Benjamin S. Halpern; William B. Labiosa; Sarah E. Lester; Phil S. Levin; Melanie McField; Malin L. Pinsky; Mark Plummer; Stephen Polasky; Peter Ruggiero; David A. Sutherland; Heather Tallis; Andrew Day; Jennifer Spencer

2012-01-01

326

Coastal and marine environmental issues in the Pearl River Delta region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has become the most prosperous region in China. Unfortunately, this rapidly growing economy has incurred high environmental cost. Our paper explores land?based pollution input increases, eutrophication, mangrove deforestation, oceanic fisheries depletion, marine biodiversity loss and more frequent occurrences of red tides. Long periods of monitoring data on benthic organisms have confirmed environmental deterioration in

Xiping Zhou; Lizhe Cai

2010-01-01

327

The Impact of Marine Organic Emissions on Coastal Air Quality of the Western US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have shown that organic carbon aerosols (OC) are a major component of aerosols found in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two distinct sources for these aerosols have been isolated using vertical gradients: 1) water insoluble OC aerosolized through bubble bursting of the organic surface layer, and 2) water soluble OC produced primarily from the oxidation of biogenic volatile

B. Gantt; N. Meskhidze; A. G. Carlton

2009-01-01

328

Anadromous alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) contribute marine-derived nutrients to coastal stream food webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diadromous fish are an important link between marine and freshwater food webs. Pacific salmon (Oncorhyn- chus spp.) strongly impact nutrient dynamics in inland waters and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) may play a similar ecological role along the Atlantic coast. The annual spawning migration of anadromous alewife contributes, on average, 1050 g of nitrogen and 120 g of phosphorus to Bride

Annika W. Walters; Rebecca T. Barnes; David M. Post

2009-01-01

329

Marine notches in coastal cliffs: indicators of relative sea-level change, Perachora Peninsula, central Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several sites in the complex faulted western part of Perachora Peninsula, central Greece, three principal marine notches in rocky coasts are present. In each site, no Holocene notches occur above the upper of the three notches; only subaerial weathering affected the rocks. Lateral variation in the heights of notches demonstrates differential uplift due to fault control, and illustrates the

Steve Kershaw; Li Guo

2001-01-01

330

Community infrastructure and repository for marine magnetic identifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

anomaly identifications underpin plate tectonic reconstructions and form the primary data set from which the age of the oceanic lithosphere and seafloor spreading regimes in the ocean basins can be determined. Although these identifications are an invaluable resource, their usefulness to the wider scientific community has been limited due to the lack of a central community infrastructure to organize, host, and update these interpretations. We have developed an open-source, community-driven online infrastructure as a repository for quality-checked magnetic anomaly identifications from all ocean basins. We provide a global sample data set that comprises 96,733 individually picked magnetic anomaly identifications organized by ocean basin and publication reference, and provide accompanying Hellinger-format files, where available. Our infrastructure is designed to facilitate research in plate tectonic reconstructions or research that relies on an assessment of plate reconstructions, for both experts and nonexperts alike. To further enhance the existing repository and strengthen its value, we encourage others in the community to contribute to this effort.

Seton, Maria; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar; DeMets, Charles; Merkouriev, Sergey; Cande, Steve; Gaina, Carmen; Eagles, Graeme; Granot, Roi; Stock, Joann; Wright, Nicky; Williams, Simon E.

2014-04-01

331

Contents and risk assessment of heavy metals in marine invertebrates from korean coastal fish markets.  

PubMed

The concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc in the edible portions of 105 marine invertebrates representing 16 mollusk and crustacean species were accurately determined to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. The samples were collected in 2011 from major fish markets on the coast of Korea and analyzed for Hg using a direct Hg analyzer and for other metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Estimated dietary exposure (EDE) was determined, and a risk assessment was made of the heavy metals to provide information concerning consumer safety. The Cd concentrations, which were the highest for the three hazardous metals (Cd, Hg, and Pb), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the bivalves and crabs than in the gastropods and cephalopods. However, the concentrations of these metals in all samples were within the regulatory limits set by Korea and other countries. The EDE was compared with the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for each class of marine invertebrate were 0.07 to 2.64, 0.01 to 0.43, and 0.001 to 0.16% of the PTDI, respectively. The total EDE of Cd, Hg, and Pb for marine invertebrates accounted for 4.03, 0.96, and 0.21%, respectively, of the PTDI. The EDE of other metals in each class of marine invertebrate was less than 2% of the PTDI. The hazard index is a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. In the present study, the hazard index for all of the species was less than 1.0, which indicates that the intake of heavy metals from consumption of these marine invertebrates does not represent an appreciable hazard to humans. PMID:24853529

Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Rim; Ha, Na Young; Jo, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Hoe

2014-06-01

332

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

333

Meso-scale variability of coastal suprabenthic communities in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meso-scale spatial variability of coastal suprabenthic communities inhabiting muddy bottoms at 50-80 m depth in three gulfs of northern Sicily (Western Mediterranean) was here investigated. Although similar as concerns the hydrological and oceanographic conditions, the three areas, that encompass a large portion of the continental shelf (135 km), are characterized by different geo-morphological features. In addition, they are subjected to different trawl fishery pressures. The Gulf of Castellammare is a semi-enclosed bay, where the trawling activity has been banned since 1990. The Gulf of Termini Imerese and the Gulf of Sant'Agata are open areas, subjected to high trawl fishing intensity. In terms of density, gammarid amphipods showed differences among the three gulfs; in terms of biomass, cumaceans and amphipods were more abundant in the Gulf of Castellammare than in the other two areas. Multivariate analyses provided evidence for separation of suprabenthic assemblages between the Gulf of Castellammare and the other two gulfs. The Gulf of Castellammare seemed to host the most diversified and stable community according to ?- and ?-diversity indices. In the same way the low value of ? 13C vs. ? 15N correlation found in the gulf of Castellammare, which evidences the occurrence of several food sources, supports the idea of a higher stability in the semi-enclosed, trawl-ban area. In the other two areas ? 13C vs. ? 15N correlations were high, suggesting the existence of a pelagic source sustaining the suprabenthic communities. This is also confirmed by the lower ? 13C concentrations found in suprabenthic species. Taking into account the homogeneous oceanographic conditions among gulfs, other factors, such as geo-morphology and trawling pressure should be involved in the observed differences among the three areas in terms of assemblage structure, diversity, and trophodynamics of suprabenthic communities.

Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; D'Anna, G.; Pipitone, C.; Azzurro, E.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

2011-02-01

334

Fish community structure and dynamics in a coastal hypersaline lagoon: Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rio Lagartos, a tropical coastal lagoon in northern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, is characterized by high salinity during most of the year (55 psu annual average). Even though the area has been designated as a wetland of international importance because of its great biodiversity, fish species composition and distribution are unknown. To determine whether the salinity gradient was influencing fish assemblages or not, fish populations were sampled seasonally by seine and trawl from 1992 to 1993 and bimonthly during 1997. We identified 81 fish species, eight of which accounted for 53.1% considering the Importance Value Index ( Floridichthys polyommus, Sphoeroides testudineus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Fundulus majalis, Strongylura notata, Cyprinodon artifrons and Elops saurus). Species richness and density declined from the mouth to the inner zone where extreme salinity conditions are prominent (>80) and competitive interactions decreased. However, in Coloradas basin (53 average sanity) and in the inlet of the lagoon, the highest fish density and number of species were observed. Greater habitat heterogeneity and fish immigration were considered as the best explanation. Multivariate analysis found three zones distinguished by fish occurrence, abundance and distribution. Ichthyofaunal spatial differences were attributed to selective recruitment from the Gulf of Mexico due to salinity gradient and to changing climatic periods. Estuarine and euryhaline marine species are abundant, with estuarine dependent ones entering the system according to environmental preferences. This knowledge will contribute to the management of the Special Biosphere Reserve through baseline data to evaluate environmental and anthropogenic changes.

Vega-Cendejas, Ma. Eugenia; Hernández de Santillana, Mireya

2004-06-01

335

Kinetic Bias in Estimates of Coastal Picoplankton Community Structure Obtained by Measurements of Small-Subunit rRNA Gene PCR Amplicon Length Heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Marine bacterioplankton diversity was examined by quantifying natural length variation in the 5? domain of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified by PCR from a DNA sample from the Oregon coast. This new technique, length heterogeneity analysis by PCR (LH-PCR), determines the relative proportions of amplicons originating from different organisms by measuring the fluorescence emission of a labeled primer used in the amplification reaction. Relationships between the sizes of amplicons and gene phylogeny were predicted by an analysis of 366 SSU rDNA sequences from cultivated marine bacteria and from bacterial genes cloned directly from environmental samples. LH-PCR was used to compare the distribution of bacterioplankton SSU rDNAs from a coastal water sample with that of an SSU rDNA clone library prepared from the same sample and also to examine the distribution of genes in the PCR products from which the clone library was prepared. The analysis revealed that the relative frequencies of genes amplified from natural communities are highly reproducible for replicate sets of PCRs but that a bias possibly caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values.

Suzuki, Marcelino; Rappe, Michael S.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

336

75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS...Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal Shark Plan). DATES:...

2010-07-30

337

A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

1979-01-01

338

Influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features and taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum for marine bioassessment.  

PubMed

Colonization features and taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliate communities have been used as useful indicators for marine bioassessment. The influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features measures of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, during the period of May-June 2010. Ciliated protozoan samples were collected at depths of 1 m using an artificial substratum and were analyzed with different enumeration schemes. The ciliate species were identified using living observation and silver impregnation. Data analyses were conducted using a range of multivariate statistical routines. Enumeration time periods represented a strong influence on analyzing both colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, although no significant changes occurred in colonization patterns between two enumeration schemes (within 24 and 24-48 h after sampling). The delayed enumeration (within 24-48 h) may result in the species richness, individual abundance, colonization rate decreasing to standard errors of >10 % in samples with almost all colonization ages, and in the similarities of the communities being reduced to 11-38 %. However, the species biodiversity (e.g., species diversity and evenness, except species richness) and taxonomic relatedness (taxonomic diversity, taxonomic distinctness and average taxonomic distinctness, except variation in taxonomic distinctness) measures of periphytic ciliate communities were weakly sensitive to disturbance from the delayed enumeration, achieving standard errors of <10 and <5 % during the colonization periods, respectively. These results suggest that the enumeration should be completed as soon as possible within 24 h after sampling to analyze colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, and that the species diversity and taxonomic distinctness measures can be used on a robust bioindicator with weak dependence on enumeration time limits for monitoring programs and ecological investigations in marine ecosystems. PMID:22562350

Zhang, Wei; Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

2012-09-01

339

Picoplankton seasonal variation and community structure in the northeast Adriatic coastal zone.  

PubMed

The bacterial community in coastal waters of northeastern Adriatic Sea was dominated by SAR11 and Sulfitobacter taxa throughout the year. The seasonal distribution of bacterioplankton taxa showed continual differences between surface (0 m) and bottom (27 m) layers. The surface assemblage was represented by Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, while the bottom assemblage was made up of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. As SAR11 was more dominant in the bottom layer, its appearance may be linked to northward transport of oligotrophic waters of higher salinity from the south. Gammaproteobacteria appeared only in the surface layer during summer, influenced by higher amounts of nutrients, brought in by the Po River. Synechococcus was the most abundant taxon at the genus level. Dominance of Synechococcus during the whole season agrees with its dominance in terms of abundance determined by flow cytometry, and confirms its utmost importance in the picoplankton community of this area. We found two different types of Synechococcus: one type with high similarity to Synechococcus CC9902, present in the surface and bottom layers, and another one similar to Synechococcus WH7803, present only in the surface layer. Oligotrophic conditions together with complex hydrological features of this area were reflected in diversification and dynamic shifts of surface and bottom assemblages. PMID:22748097

Silovi?, Tina; Balagué, Vanessa; Orli?, Sandi; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-12-01

340

A glimpse of lignicolous marine fungi occurring in coastal water bodies of Tamil Nadu (India).  

PubMed

In the present investigation, a total of 51 marine fungi were obtained from wood samples collected from four locations of Tamil Nadu (Tuthukudi, Chennai, Kanyakumari and Pichavaram), India. Out of these 51, 28 were ascomycetes, one was basidiomycete and 22 were mitosporic fungi. Maximum fungal diversity was encountered from Tuthukudi, followed by Chennai, Kanyakumari, and the minimum from Pichavaram. Periconia prolifica was the only species common to all the four locations. PMID:18511000

Nambiar, Gayatri R; Raveendran, Kalathil; Changxing, Zhao; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

2008-06-01

341

Assessment of the eutrophication status of transitional, coastal and marine waters within OSPAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and subsequent processes) and its adverse ecosystem effects have been discussed as main\\u000a issues over the last 20 years in international conferences and conventions for the protection of the marine environment such\\u000a as the North Sea Conferences and the 1992 OSPAR Convention (OSPAR; which combined and updated the 1972 Oslo Convention on\\u000a dumping waste at the sea and

Ulrich Claussen; Wanda Zevenboom; Uwe Brockmann; Dilek Topcu; Peter Bot

2009-01-01

342

Temporal changes in the sensitivity of coastal Antarctic zooplankton communities to diesel fuel: a comparison between single- and multi-species toxicity tests.  

PubMed

Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic marine fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole community) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic coastal zooplankton community to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton community within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the community also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton community. PMID:24590679

Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti

2014-04-01

343

Comparison between MICRO-CARD-FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries to assess the active versus total bacterial community in the coastal Arctic  

PubMed Central

We collected surface- and deep-water samples (maximum depth 300 m) during the spring–summer transition in the coastal Arctic along a transect in the Kongsfjorden (Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Norway) to determine the structure of the active versus total marine bacterioplankton community using different approaches. Catalysed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography (MICRO–CARD–FISH) was used to determine the abundance and activity of different bacterial groups. The bacterial communities were dominated by members of Alphaproteobacteria followed by Bacteroidetes, whereas Gammaproteobacteria were present at low abundance but exhibited a high percentage of active cells taking up leucine. The clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and 16S rRNA from two different depths were used to decipher the bacterial community structure. Independently of the type of clone libraries analysed (16S rDNA- or 16S rRNA-based), four major and four minor taxonomic groups were detected. The bacterioplankton community was mainly dominated at both the DNA and the RNA levels by Alphaproteobacteria followed by Gammaproteobacteria. The Rhodobacteriaceae were the most abundant members of the Alphaproteobacteria in both DNA and RNA clone libraries, followed by the SAR11 clade, which was only detectable at the 16S rDNA level. Moreover, there was a general agreement between the results obtained with both techniques, although some specific phylogenetic groups, such as SAR11 and Roseobacter, deviated substantially from this relation. These discrepancies are most likely linked to different physiological states among members of the bacterioplankton community. Combined, MICRO–CARD–FISH and DNA and RNA clone libraries, however, allowed for accurately quantifying different bacterial groups and their activity as well as a detailed phylogenetic insight into the fractions of present versus metabolically active bacterial groups.

De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

344

Observations of Cl2, Br2, and I2 in coastal marine air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cl2, Br2, and I2 were measured in coastal Pacific air from 2 to 29 January 2006. Air was sampled at 10 m over the sea surface near the end of Scripps Pier (La Jolla, California). The measurements were made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI/MS/MS). Over the course of this study, Cl2, Br2, and I2 levels ranged from below detection limits of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2 ppt, respectively, to maxima of 26, 19, and 8 ppt, respectively. Mean dihalogen levels for the study period were 2.3 ± 1 ppt for Cl2, 2.3 ± 0.4 ppt for Br2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppt for I2 (expressed as geometric mean ±1 geometric standard error). The mixed dihalogens BrCl, ICl, and IBr had geometric mean levels below 0.3 ± 1 ppt and never exceeded their detection limits of 0.5 ppt. Consistent patterns of diurnal variability were observed for Cl2 and I2, with Cl2 maxima during daytime and I2 appearing almost exclusively at night. The detection of I2 appeared to be related to the passage of air over nearby kelp beds. The observed dihalogen levels suggest that (1) chlorine atom oxidation of hydrocarbons makes a significant contribution to the formation of ozone and (2) halogen atom oxidation of airborne mercury contributes to mercury deposition in polluted coastal air.

Finley, B. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

2008-11-01

345

Changes in Bacterial Communities of the Marine Sponge Mycale laxissima on Transfer into Aquaculture? †‡  

PubMed Central

The changes in bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial community of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial communities associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial communities changed during aquaculture. These communities were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial communities associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial communities when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these communities may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves.

Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Enticknap, Julie J.; Lohr, Jayme E.; McIntosh, Scott M.; Hill, Russell T.

2008-01-01

346

Integrated coastal resources management and community participation in a small island setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of integrated coastal zone management must be rethought to adapt it to the geography and social conditions of small islands. Because of their size, all small islands are in the coastal zone. Defining the whole of the island and its coastal waters as the management area may weaken a program's effectiveness. An alternative may be to adapt special

Christopher Dahl

1997-01-01

347

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

1972-01-01

348

Microbial community analysis of an Alabama coastal salt marsh impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial community responses of an Alabama coastal salt marsh environment to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were studied by 16S rRNA (PhyloChip) and functional gene (GeoChip) microarray-based analysis. Oil and tar balls associated with the oil spill arrived along the Alabama coast in June 2010. Marsh and inlet sediment samples collected in June, July, and September 2010 from a salt marsh ecosystem at Point Aux Pines Alabama were analyzed to determine if bacterial community structure changed as a result of oil perturbation. Sediment total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranged from below detection to 189 mg kg-1 and were randomly dispersed throughout the salt marsh sediments. Total DNA extracted from sediment and particulates were used for PhyloChip and GeoChip hybridization. A total of 4000 to 8000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in marsh and inlet samples. Distinctive changes in the number of detectable OTUs were observed between June, July, and September 2010. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated a significant increase in the total number of OTUs between June and September that correlated with TPH concentrations. The most significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacterial richness in marsh sediments also correlated with TPH concentrations with significant changes primarily in Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria. GeoChip microarray analysis detected 5000 to 8300 functional genes in marsh and inlet samples. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated distinctive increases in the number of detectable genes and gene signal intensities in July samples compared to June. Signal intensities increased (> 1.5-fold) in genes associated with petroleum degradation. Genes related to metal resistance, stress, and carbon cycling also demonstrated increases in oiled sediments. This study demonstrates the value of applying phylogenetic and functional gene microarray technology to characterize the extensive microbial diversity of marsh environments. Moreover, this technology provides significant insight into bacterial community responses to anthropogenic oil events.

Beazley, M. J.; Martinez, R.; Rajan, S.; Powell, J.; Piceno, Y.; Tom, L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Van Nostrand, J. D.; Zhou, J.; Mortazavi, B.; Sobecky, P. A.

2011-12-01

349

Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT 1. While conservationists, resource managers, scientists and coastal planners have recognized the broad applicability of marine protected areas (MPAs), they are often implemented without a firm understanding,of the conservation,science } both,ecological and,socio-economic,} underlying marine,protection. The rush to implement,MPAs has set the stage for paradoxical,differences of opinions,in the marine,conservation,community. 2. The enthusiastic prescription of simplistic solutions to marine,conservation,problems,risks polarization of

Tundi Agardy; Peter Bridgewater; Michael P. Crosby; Jon Day; Paul K. Dayton; Richard Kenchington; Dan Laffoley; Patrick McConney; Peter A. Murray; John E. Parks; Lelei Peau

2003-01-01

350

Contrasted Effects of Diversity and Immigration on Ecological Insurance in Marine Bacterioplankton Communities  

PubMed Central

The ecological insurance hypothesis predicts a positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a variable environment. This effect stems from temporal and spatial complementarity among species within metacommunities coupled with optimal levels of dispersal. Despite its importance in the context of global change by human activities, empirical evidence for ecological insurance remains scarce and controversial. Here we use natural aquatic bacterial communities to explore some of the predictions of the spatial and temporal aspects of the ecological insurance hypothesis. Addressing ecological insurance with bacterioplankton is of strong relevance given their central role in fundamental ecosystem processes. Our experimental set up consisted of water and bacterioplankton communities from two contrasting coastal lagoons. In order to mimic environmental fluctuations, the bacterioplankton community from one lagoon was successively transferred between tanks containing water from each of the two lagoons. We manipulated initial bacterial diversity for experimental communities and immigration during the experiment. We found that the abundance and production of bacterioplankton communities was higher and more stable (lower temporal variance) for treatments with high initial bacterial diversity. Immigration was only marginally beneficial to bacterial communities, probably because microbial communities operate at different time scales compared to the frequency of perturbation selected in this study, and of their intrinsic high physiologic plasticity. Such local “physiological insurance” may have a strong significance for the maintenance of bacterial abundance and production in the face of environmental perturbations.

Bouvier, Corinne; Barbera, Claire; Mouquet, Nicolas

2012-01-01

351

Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has been published comparing the behavior of hybrids to the pure species. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used acoustic telemetry to record the movements of 52 cutthroat, 42 steelhead x cutthroat hybrids, and 89 steelhead smolts, all wild, that migrated from Big Beef Creek into Hood Canal (Puget Sound, Washington). Various spatial and temporal metrics were used to compare the behavior of the pure species to their hybrids. Median hybrid residence time, estuary time, and tortuosity values were intermediate compared to the pure species. The median total track distance was greater for hybrids than for either cutthroat or steelhead. At the end of each track, most steelhead (80%) were located near or north of the Hood Canal, as expected for this seaward migrating species, whereas most cutthroat (89%) were within 8 kilometers of the estuary. Most hybrids (70%) were detected leaving Hood Canal, though a substantial percentage (20%) remained near the Big Beef Creek estuary. More hybrids (7.5%) than pure cutthroat (4.5%) or steelhead (0.0%) were last detected in the southern reaches of Hood Canal. Conclusions/Significance Given the similarity in freshwater ecology between the species, differences in marine ecology may play an important role in maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry.

Moore, Megan E.; Goetz, Fred A.; Van Doornik, Donald M.; Tezak, Eugene P.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Reyes-Tomassini, Jose J.; Berejikian, Barry A.

2010-01-01

352

Middle-Late Pleistocene marine terraces and fault activity in the Sant'Agata di Militello coastal area (north-eastern Sicily)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal sector of Sant'Agata di Militello (north-eastern Sicily) is characterized by a flight of raised Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces occurring at different heights with respect to present sea level. In particular, the geomorphological survey and the analysis of stereo-pairs of aerial photographs allowed to recognize at least five main orders of well preserved Quaternary surfaces and relative deposits mostly located at the hanging wall and at the footwall of the Pleistocene northwest-dipping Capo d'Orlando normal fault, which controlled the geomorphological evolution of the coastal area. The marine terraces show an overall good morphological continuity and are formed by marine platforms overlain by littoral deposits made up of yellow littoral sand and gravels in a sandy matrix. The continental sedimentary cover of the 3rd order terrace contains mammal-bearing deposits that were previously dated 200 ± 40 ka BP by isoleucine epimerization method, allowing to relate them to MIS 7.1 high-stand. In order to better define the whole terrace chronology, deposit samples were analyzed by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) methodology, a conventional SAR protocol used with sand-sized quartz. New datings, together with the detailed morphostructural analysis, allow to relate the 2nd and 4th order terraces to MIS 5.5 and 8.5, respectively, and to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of this coastal area, constraining the activity of the Capo d'Orlando fault.

Giunta, Giuseppe; Gueli, Anna M.; Monaco, Carmelo; Orioli, Silvia; Ristuccia, Gloria M.; Stella, Giuseppe; Troja, Sebastiano O.

2012-04-01

353

Epibacterial community patterns on marine macroalgae are host-specific but temporally variable.  

PubMed

Marine macroalgae are constantly exposed to epibacterial colonizers. The epiphytic bacterial patterns and their temporal and spatial variability on host algae are poorly understood. To investigate the interaction between marine macroalgae and epiphytic bacteria, this study tested if the composition of epibacterial communities on different macroalgae was specific and persisted under varying biotic and abiotic environmental conditions over a 2-year observation time frame. Epibacterial communities on the co-occurring macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Ulva intestinalis were repeatedly sampled in summer and winter of 2007 and 2008. The epibacterial community composition was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene libraries. Epibacterial community profiles did not only differ significantly at each sampling interval among algal species, but also showed consistent seasonal differences on each algal species at a bacterial phylum level. These compositional patterns re-occurred at the same season of two consecutive years. Within replicates of the same algal species, the composition of bacterial phyla was subject to shifts at the bacterial species level, both within the same season but at different years and between different seasons. However, 7-16% of sequences were identified as species specific to the host alga. These findings demonstrate that marine macroalgae harbour species-specific and temporally adapted epiphytic bacterial biofilms on their surfaces. Since several algal host-specific bacteria were highly similar to other bacteria known to either avoid subsequent colonization by eukaryotic larvae or to exhibit potent antibacterial activities, algal host-specific bacterial associations are expected to play an important role for marine macroalgae. PMID:21078035

Lachnit, Tim; Meske, Diana; Wahl, Martin; Harder, Tilmann; Schmitz, Ruth

2011-03-01

354

Differences between Betaproteobacterial Ammonia-Oxidizing Communities in Marine Sediments and Those in Overlying Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess links between betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in marine sediment and in overlying water, communities in Loch Duich, Scotland, were characterized by analysis of clone libraries and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Nitrosospira cluster 1-like sequences were isolated from both environments, but different sequence types dominated water and sediment samples. De- tailed phylogenetic analysis of

Thomas E. Freitag; James I. Prosser

2004-01-01

355

Application of the lognormal equation to assess phytoplankton community structural changes induced by marine eutrophication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach was developed for the quantification of the structural changes of phytoplankton communities induced\\u000a by marine eutrophication. The lognormal equation assigning species abundance to doubling intervals (octaves) of individuals\\u000a formed the basis of the proposed methodology and the field validation process was based on phytoplankton enumeration and classification\\u000a data characteristic of eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic waters. Five octave

George Tsirtsis; Sofie Spatharis; Michael Karydis

2008-01-01

356

Influence of concentration and structure of quaternary ammonium salts on their antifouling efficiency tested against a community of marine bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the view of incorporating quaternary ammonium salts (QAs) in marine paints, nineteen of these were tested against a community of marine bacteria, at a temperature and salinity close to those of seawater. The concentration of QAs and the length of the main substituting chain are the main parameters affecting the growth and adhesion of bacteria, but the nature of

F. Baudrion; A. Perichaud; E. Vacelet

2000-01-01

357

Geothermal energy resources of Navy/Marine Corps installations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for alternative energy sources is of great importance to the U.S. Navy. Preliminary examination of data from the literature, bottom hole temperatures from existing deep wells, and heat flow measurements in wells drilled at selected sites as part of a current research program sponsored by the Department of Energy have demonstrated that low temperature waters (-212 F or 100 C) may be available at moderate depths in the major sedimentary basins along the Atlantic and east Gulf Coastal Plain. Although the possible geothermal energy resources present here are not sufficient for electrical power generation, they appear adequate for space heating and cooling. The Navy should take a leading role in planning and executing exploratory drilling and resource evaluation programs, especially at the following installations, all of which are major energy users: Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; and Pensacola, Milton, and Panama City, Florida.

Edsall, D. W.

1980-03-01

358

Biogeological signatures of microboring cyanobacterial communities in marine carbonates from Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of carbonate-boring organisms in marine and continental environments is well known and accounts for substantial rates of sediment and sedimentary rock reworking at the geological scale. Many case studies have documented the importance of cyanobacteria in near-surface environments, but nearly all have relied upon morphological descriptions. In this study we applied a polyphasic approach to evaluate euendolithic cyanobacterial assemblages from a variety of carbonaceous marine substrates, using electron microscopy, cultivation, and molecular genetic techniques. The limitations and biases of the different methods became evident: none could be deemed optimal, and each failed to detect much or some of the extant diversity in the samples. In general, SEM tended to underestimate the diversity of morphologically simple community members, and cultivation yielded a very biased view of the community. All approaches, however, congruently detected differences in community structure between soft substrates and hard substrates, with the latter displaying communities of higher complexity. In spite of these differences, the geological and sedimentary imprints of the boring community, exemplified in the formation of well-structured micritic envelopes of re-worked carbonate, were uniform throughout the samples, implying that the mechanism of action is common and most likely universal. Our results speak for the merits of a multidisciplinary approach and provide cautionary implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

Chacón, Elizabeth; Berrendero, Esther; Garcia Pichel, Ferran

2006-03-01

359

Marine pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

1989-01-01

360

Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

2013-08-01

361

Stable isotope evidence of terrestrial organic matter incorporation into coastal marine food webs: impact of Rhone River inputs on five NW Mediterranean marine flatfish species.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The positive influence of land-based run-off on coastal fishery production is thought to be of particular importance for oligotrophic seas such as the Mediterranean. In order to estimate the impact of the Rhone River inputs of particulate organic matter (POM) on exploited demersal fish populations, stable isotope signature in nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) were determined for both juveniles and adults of the five main flatfish species living off the Rhone delta (Arnoglossus laterna, Buglossidium luteum, Citharus linguatula, Solea impar and Solea solea) and the main components of their food webs. The five flatfish species showed inter and intra-specific differences in isotopic signatures. The ?15N significantly increased from the smallest species to the largest ones and, in all species, from juveniles to adults (P<0.05), which indicated a global increase in trophic level with fish body size. Concerning the carbon signature, the ?13C obtained indicated an incorporation of organic material from terrestrial origin in the flesh of all the species. This incorporation was minimum for C. linguatula and reduced for all the species with the exception of S. solea for which a significantly (P<0.001) lower ?13C indicated an important use of organic matter from terrestrial origin. Mean ?13C values also differed significantly between juveniles and adults of B. luteum and S. impar (P<0.05), suggesting changes in terrestrial organic matter use with growth in these two species. To explain inter and intra-specific differences in ?13C, stable isotope data were compared with gut content analyses (prey % total contents mass, W%) performed on the same fishes. The ?13C signature of fishes was inversely related to the W% of polychaetes in their diet, and not to other prey categories. The common sole S. solea, that fed mainly on polychaetes (W% > 50% at all benthic stages of life), exhibited the most negative mean ?13C for both juveniles and adults among all the fish species studied. The isotopic analyses of the Rhone River water, the marine phytoplankton, the sediment and the main fish prey, confirmed that polychaetes represented the major pathway of terrestrial POM transfer up to fishes into coastal trophic webs. The effect of terrestrial inputs in enhancing the population dynamics of the five flatfish species studied differed thus according to their diet. Keywords : river run-off, food webs, stable isotopes, gut contents, flatfishes, fisheries, NW Mediterranean.

Darnaude, A. M.; Salen-Picard, C.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.

2003-04-01

362

Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

Etcheverry, Jose R.

363

Experimental confirmation of multiple community states in a marine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Small changes in environmental conditions can unexpectedly tip an ecosystem from one community type to another, and these often irreversible shifts have been observed in semi-arid grasslands, freshwater lakes and ponds, coral reefs, and kelp forests. A commonly accepted explanation is that these ecosystems contain multiple stable points, but experimental tests confirming multiple stable states have proven elusive. Here we present a novel approach and show that mussel beds and rockweed stands are multiple stable states on intertidal shores in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Using broad-scale observational data and long-term data from experimental clearings, we show that the removal of rockweed by winter ice scour can tip persistent rockweed stands to mussel beds. The observational data were analyzed with Anderson's discriminant analysis of principal coordinates, which provided an objective function to separate mussel beds from rockweed stands. The function was then applied to 55 experimental plots, which had been established in rockweed stands in 1996. Based on 2005 data, all uncleared controls and all but one of the small clearings were classified as rockweed stands; 37% of the large clearings were classified as mussel beds. Our results address the establishment of mussels versus rockweeds and complement rather than refute the current paradigm that mussel beds and rockweed stands, once established, are maintained by site-specific differences in strong consumer control. PMID:19399520

Petraitis, Peter S; Methratta, Elizabeth T; Rhile, Erika C; Vidargas, Nicholas A; Dudgeon, Steve R

2009-08-01

364

Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively. PMID:23050797

Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib

2013-01-01

365

Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.  

PubMed

Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure. PMID:24727696

Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

2014-06-01

366

Wind-Powered Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination for Pacific Islands and Remote Coastal Communities. Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 128.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal objective of this 1-year project was to develop a simple, costeffective desalination system for Pacific islands and other remote coastal communities where both freshwater and electricity are in short supply. Brackish water desalination drive...

C. K. Liu

2009-01-01

367

Bacterial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon amendments in freshwater, marine, and hypersaline water-containing microcosms.  

PubMed

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Seldin, Lucy

2013-10-01

368

Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination.

Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

2013-01-01

369

Predicting the effects of climate change on marine communities and the consequences for fisheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate effects on the structure and function of marine communities have received scant attention. The few existing approaches for predicting climate effects suggest that community responses might be predicted from the responses of component populations. These approaches require a very complex understanding of ecological interactions among populations. An alternate and informative parallel process is to ask whether it is possible to make predictions about community level responses to climate that are independent of knowledge about the identity and dynamics of component populations. We propose that it is possible to make such predictions, based on knowledge of the processes that determine the size-structure of communities. We suggest that theory that relates metabolic scaling, predator-prey interactions and energy transfer in size-based food webs, allows the size-structure and productivity of communities across a range of trophic levels to be predicted, provided that predictions of the effects of climate on primary production are available. One simple application of the community-focused predictions is to ask whether predictions of the size composition and abundance of populations for alternate climate scenarios are compatible with predictions for the size composition and relative abundance of communities. More sophisticated treatments could predict the effects of climate scenarios on multiple interacting populations and compare their combined size-abundance structure and production with that predicted for the community under the same climate scenario. The main weakness of the community approach is that the methods predict abundance and production by size-class rather than taxonomic group, and society would be particularly concerned if climate driven changes had a strong effect on the relative production of fishable and non-fishable species in the community. The main strength of the community approach is that it provides widely applicable 'null' models for assessing the biological effects of climate change and a baseline for model comparisons.

Jennings, Simon; Brander, Keith

2010-02-01

370

Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal Louisiana marsh communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the coastal marsh communities of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh community dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in fresh, brackish/ intermediate, and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, the mechanism of hurricane influence varied across the landscape. In the western region, saltwater storm surge inundated freshwater marshes and remained for weeks, effectively causing damage that reset the vegetation community. This is in contrast to the direct physical disturbance of the storm surge in the eastern region, which flipped and relocated marsh mats, thereby stressing the vegetation communities and providing an opportunity for disturbance species to colonize. In the brackish/intermediate marsh, disturbance species took advantage of the opportunity provided by shifting species composition caused by physical and saltwater-induced perturbations, although this shift is likely to be short lived. Saline marsh sites were not negatively impacted to a severe degree by the hurricanes. Species composition of vegetation in saline marshes was not affected, and sediment deposition appeared to increase vegetative productivity. The coastal landscape of Louisiana is experiencing high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes and is experiencing subsidence rates greater than 10.0 millimeters per year (mm yr-1); therefore, it is important to understand how hurricanes influence sedimentation and soil properties. We document long-term vertical accretion rates and accumulation rates of organic matter, bulk density, carbon and nitrogen. Analyses using caesium-137 to calculate long-term vertical accretion rates suggest that accretion under impounded conditions is less than in nonimpounded conditions in the brackish marsh of the chenier plain. Our data also support previous studies indicating that accumulation rates of organic matter explain much of the variability associated with vertical accretion in brackish/intermediate and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, more of the variability associated with vertical accretion was explained by mineral accumulation than in the other mars

Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.

2011-01-01

371

Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California  

PubMed Central

This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in coastal dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects.

Holston, Kevin C.

2005-01-01

372

Empowerment of coastal communities in cultivation and processing of Kappaphycus alvarezii —a case study at Vizhinjam village, Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science & Society Division of Department of Science & Technology, Government of India sanctioned a project in 2005 under\\u000a the Woman Scientist Program (DST WOS-B) with an objective to develop technologies for the cultivation of high-value seaweeds\\u000a widely used for industrial purposes\\/human consumption with empowerment of the coastal communities in Kerala. The project was\\u000a divided into two phases: an

M. S. Bindu

2011-01-01

373

The ecology of the coastal marshes of western Lake Erie: A community profile  

SciTech Connect

Lake Erie, the southernmost of the Laurentian Great Lakes, is narrow and relatively shallow in comparison to other Great Lakes. The lake experiences extreme water level fluctuations and storm energy restricts the development of wetlands to protected areas within embayments, lagoons, or behind barriers. However, coastal marshes of western Lake Erie fringe the shorelines of Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario and encompass an area of 268 km/sup 2/. This publication reviews the ecological data and information on the wetlands of Lake Erie, which are some of the more productive areas in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The geologic history of the Lake Erie leading to the development of wetlands, the present environment, and present wetland distribution are presented as background in the opening chapters. Biological information available for the Lake Erie wetlands is discussed in detail, and ecological processes contributing to the evolution of wetlands, biological production, and community organization in the wetlands are examined. A chapter on applied ecology addressing issues, such as wetland loss, values of wetlands to fish and wildlife, management, and future prospects for Lake Erie wetlands, completes the publication.

Herdendorf, C.E.

1987-02-01

374

Trace metals speciation in coastal particulate matter for marine environmental studies in Antarctica.  

PubMed

Solid speciation of some trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu) having environmental relevance was studied in coastal particulate sampled during the Austral Spring 2000/2001. A nearshore station situated in the Gerlache Inlet of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) was sampled from November to February. Samples were collected using the in situ filtration system FIS500, equipped with polycarbonate membrane filters having different pore sizes (10 microm, 2 microm and 0.4 microm) for the size fraction analysis of particles. The total concentration of metals was determined both in dissolved and particulate fractions, while speciation was determined on particulate by applying a sequential extraction procedure. Concerning the surface and sub-surface layers, it has been observed that concentration of elements is mainly affected by the dynamic of the pack ice melting and by phytoplankton activity. The solid speciation in November and December is similar for all the studied elements, while some differences can be noted in February, when the pack has completely melted and phytoplankton bloom occurs. With the exception of iron, during this sampling period the quantity of metal associated to the labile fraction increases. PMID:16307085

Magi, E; Ianni, C; Soggia, F; Grotti, M; Frache, R

2005-12-01

375

A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

1994-01-01

376

Zeaxanthin production by novel marine isolates from coastal sand of India and its antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Zeaxanthin carotenoids are class of commercially important natural products and diverse biomolecules produced by plants and many microorganisms. Bacteria often produce a cocktail of polar and nonpolar carotenoids limiting their industrial applications. Marine members of the family Flavobacteriaceae are known to produce potential carotenoids such as astaxanthin and zeaxanthin. A few bacterial species have been reported for the predominant production zeaxanthin. Here, we report the molecular identification of the zeaxanthin as a major carotenoid produced by two novel bacteria (YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45) isolated from sandy beaches of South West Coast of India and the effect of carbon sources on the production of zeaxanthin. The strains were identified based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a member of genus Muricauda. The closest relatives of YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 were Muricauda aquimarina (JCM 11811(T)) (98.9 %) and Muricauda olearia (JCM 15563(T)) (99.2 %), respectively, indicating that both of these strains might represent a novel species. The highest level of zeaxanthin production was achieved (YUAB-SO-11, 1.20 ± 0.11 mg g(-1)) and (YUAB-SO-45, 1.02 ± 0.13 mg g(-1)) when cultivated in marine broth supplemented with 2 % NaCl (pH 7) and incubated at 30 °C. Addition of 0.1 M glutamic acid, an intermediate of citric acid cycle, enhanced the zeaxanthin production as 18 and 14 % by the strains YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 respectively. The zeaxanthin showed in vitro nitric oxide scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities higher than the commercial zeaxanthin. The results of this study suggest that two novel strains YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 belonging to genus Muricauda produce zeaxanthin as a predominant carotenoid, and higher production of zeaxanthin was achieved on glutamic acid supplementation. The pigment showed good in vitro antioxidant activity, which can be exploited further for commercial applications. PMID:23900617

Prabhu, Sudharshan; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Arun, A B

2013-10-01

377

Molecular tools for investigating microbial community structure and function in oxygen-deficient marine waters.  

PubMed

Water column oxygen (O2)-deficiency shapes food-web structure by progressively directing nutrients and energy away from higher trophic levels into microbial community metabolism resulting in fixed nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Although respiratory O2 consumption during organic matter degradation is a natural outcome of a productive surface ocean, global-warming-induced stratification intensifies this process leading to oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) expansion. Here, we describe useful tools for detection and quantification of potential key microbial players and processes in OMZ community metabolism including quantitative polymerase chain reaction primers targeting Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota, SUP05, Arctic96BD-19, and SAR324 small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes and protein extraction methods from OMZ waters compatible with high-resolution mass spectrometry for profiling microbial community structure and functional dynamics. PMID:24060128

Hawley, Alyse K; Kheirandish, Sam; Mueller, Andreas; Leung, Hilary T C; Norbeck, Angela D; Brewer, Heather M; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hallam, Steven J

2013-01-01

378

Chemoautotrophic Carbon Fixation Rates and Active Bacterial Communities in Intertidal Marine Sediments  

PubMed Central

Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, the Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammoni