Science.gov

Sample records for marine coastal communities

  1. Comparison of bacterial communities on limnic versus coastal marine particles reveals profound differences in colonization.

    PubMed

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Zeder, Michael; Ionescu, Danny; Orlić, Sandi; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Amann, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Marine and limnic particles are hotspots of organic matter mineralization significantly affecting biogeochemical element cycling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes were combined to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition on limnic and coastal marine particles > 5 and > 10 μm respectively. Limnic particles were more abundant (average: 1 × 10(7) l(-1)), smaller in size (average areas: 471 versus 2050 μm(2)) and more densely colonized (average densities: 7.3 versus 3.6 cells 100 μm(-2)) than marine ones. Limnic particle-associated (PA) bacteria harboured Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and unlike previously suggested sizeable populations of Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Marine particles were colonized by Planctomycetes and Betaproteobacteria additionally to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Large differences in individual particle colonization could be detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significant overlap of PA and free-living (FL) bacteria highlighting an underestimated connectivity between both fractions. PA bacteria were in 14/21 cases more diverse than FL bacteria, reflecting a high heterogeneity in the particle microenvironment. We propose that a ratio of Chao 1 indices of PA/FL < 1 indicates the presence of rather homogeneously colonized particles. The identification of different bacterial families enriched on either limnic or marine particles demonstrates that, despite the seemingly similar ecological niches, PA communities of both environments differ substantially. PMID:24674021

  2. Short-term degradation of terrestrial DOM in the coastal ocean: Implications for nutrient subsidies and marine microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Tank, S. E.; Kellogg, C.

    2015-12-01

    The export of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the coastal ocean provides an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia contain extensive freshwater networks that export significant amounts of water and DOM to the ocean, representing significant cross-system hydrologic and biogeochemical linkages. To better understand the importance of these linkages and implications for ecosystem structure and function, we used an experimental approach to investigate the role of microbial and photodegradation transformations of DOM exported from small coastal catchments to the marine environment. At two time periods (August 2014, March 2015), stream water from the outlets of two coastal watersheds was filtered (<0.2 μm), and treated with microbial inoculums from across a salinity gradient (i.e., freshwater, estuarine, and marine). Treatments were incubated in the ocean under light and dark conditions for 8 days. At 0, 3 and 8 days, samples were analyzed for DOC, TDN, DIN, and DON. Changes in DOM composition were determined with optical characterization techniques such as absorbance (SUVA, S, Sr) and fluorescence (EEM). Microbial community response was measured using cell counts and DNA/RNA amplicon sequencing to determine changes in bacterial abundance and community composition. General patterns indicated that microbial communities from the high salinity treatment (i.e. most marine) were the most effective at utilizing freshwater DOM, especially under light conditions. In some treatments, DOM appeared as a potential source of inorganic nitrogen with corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Incubations using inoculum from low and mid salinity levels demonstrated smaller changes, indicating that DOM exported from these streams may not be extensively utilized until exposed to higher salinity environments further from stream outlets. These results suggest a role for terrestrial sourced

  3. Effect of physical sediments reworking on hydrocarbon degradation and bacterial community structure in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Duran, Robert; Bonin, Patricia; Jezequel, Ronan; Dubosc, Karine; Gassie, Claire; Terrisse, Fanny; Abella, Justine; Cagnon, Christine; Militon, Cecile; Michotey, Valérie; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether the physical reworking of sediments by harrowing would be suitable for favouring the hydrocarbon degradation in coastal marine sediments. Mudflat sediments were maintained in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to those prevailing in natural environments with tidal cycles. Sediments were contaminated with Ural blend crude oil, and in half of them, harrowing treatment was applied in order to mimic physical reworking of surface sediments. Hydrocarbon distribution within the sediment and its removal was followed during 286 days. The harrowing treatment allowed hydrocarbon compounds to penetrate the first 6 cm of the sediments, and biodegradation indexes (such as n-C18/phytane) indicated that biodegradation started 90 days before that observed in untreated control mesocosms. However, the harrowing treatment had a severe impact on benthic organisms reducing drastically the macrofaunal abundance and diversity. In the harrowing-treated mesocosms, the bacterial abundance, determined by 16S rRNA gene Q-PCR, was slightly increased; and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of 16S rRNA genes showed distinct and specific bacterial community structure. Co-occurrence network and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) based on T-RFLP data indicated the main correlations between bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as well as the associations between OTUs and hydrocarbon compound contents further supported by clustered correlation (ClusCor) analysis. The analyses highlighted the OTUs constituting the network structural bases involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Negative correlations indicated the possible shifts in bacterial communities that occurred during the ecological succession. PMID:25847440

  4. Metagenome sequencing of a coastal marine microbial community from monterey bay, california.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ryan S; Bryson, Sam; Kieft, Brandon; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Chavez, Francisco; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Mayali, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbes are critical components of aquatic food webs. Linkages between populations and the substrates they utilize are not well defined. We present the metagenome of microbial communities from the coastal Pacific Ocean exposed to various nutrient additions in order to better understand substrate utilization and partitioning in this environment. PMID:25931598

  5. Metagenome Sequencing of a Coastal Marine Microbial Community from Monterey Bay, California

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Sam; Kieft, Brandon; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Chavez, Francisco; Hettich, Robert L.; Pan, Chongle; Mayali, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrophic microbes are critical components of aquatic food webs. Linkages between populations and the substrates they utilize are not well defined. We present the metagenome of microbial communities from the coastal Pacific Ocean exposed to various nutrient additions in order to better understand substrate utilization and partitioning in this environment. PMID:25931598

  6. Metagenome sequencing of a coastal marine microbial community from Monterey Bay, California

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mueller, R. S.; Bryson, S.; Keift, B.; Li, Zhou; Pett-Ridge, J.; Chavex, F.; Robert Hettich; Pan, Chongle; Mayali, X.

    2015-04-30

    Heterotrophic microbes are critical components of aquatic food webs. Linkages between populations and the substrates they utilize are not well defined. We present the metagenome of microbial communities from the coastal Pacific Ocean exposed to various nutrient additions in order to better understand substrate utilization and partitioning in this environment.

  7. How does EPA help to improve fisheries, marine life, and coastal communities?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has several roles in protecting and restoring coastal habitats and communities – through policy, regulation, assistance, and research. The agency’s mandates and actions promote clean air and clean water, control uses and disposal of toxic ...

  8. Bioturbating shrimp alter the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Laverock, Bonnie; Smith, Cindy J; Tait, Karen; Osborn, A Mark; Widdicombe, Steve; Gilbert, Jack A

    2010-12-01

    Bioturbation is a key process in coastal sediments, influencing microbially driven cycling of nutrients as well as the physical characteristics of the sediment. However, little is known about the distribution, diversity and function of the microbial communities that inhabit the burrows of infaunal macroorganisms. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to investigate variation in the structure of bacterial communities in sediment bioturbated by the burrowing shrimp Upogebia deltaura or Callianassa subterranea. Analyses of 229 sediment samples revealed significant differences between bacterial communities inhabiting shrimp burrows and those inhabiting ambient surface and subsurface sediments. Bacterial communities in burrows from both shrimp species were more similar to those in surface-ambient than subsurface-ambient sediment (R=0.258, P<0.001). The presence of shrimp was also associated with changes in bacterial community structure in surrounding surface sediment, when compared with sediments uninhabited by shrimp. Bacterial community structure varied with burrow depth, and also between individual burrows, suggesting that the shrimp's burrow construction, irrigation and maintenance behaviour affect the distribution of bacteria within shrimp burrows. Subsequent sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from surface sediments revealed differences in the relative abundance of bacterial taxa between shrimp-inhabited and uninhabited sediments; shrimp-inhabited sediment contained a higher proportion of proteobacterial sequences, including in particular a twofold increase in Gammaproteobacteria. Chao1 and ACE diversity estimates showed that taxon richness within surface bacterial communities in shrimp-inhabited sediment was at least threefold higher than that in uninhabited sediment. This study shows that bioturbation can result in significant structural and compositional changes in sediment bacterial communities, increasing

  9. Marine bacterioplankton diversity and community composition in an antarctic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Angelina; Caruso, Consolazione; Mangano, Santina; Bruni, Vivia; De Domenico, Maria; Michaud, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial community inhabiting the water column at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) was examined by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 606 bacterial isolates. Overall, the FISH analysis revealed a bacterioplankton composition that was typical of Antarctic marine environments with the Cytophaga/Flavobacter (CF) group of Bacteroidetes that was equally dominant with the Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. As sampling was performed during the decay of sea-ice, it is plausible to assume the origin of Bacteroidetes from the sea-ice compartment where they probably thrive in high concentration of DOM which is efficiently remineralized to inorganic nutrients. This finding was supported by the isolation of Gelidibacter, Polaribacter, and Psychroflexus members (generally well represented in Antarctic sea-ice) which showed the ability to hydrolyze macromolecules, probably through the production of extracellular enzymes. A consistently pronounced abundance of the Gammaproteobacteria (67.8%) was also detected within the cultivable fraction. Altogether, the genera Psychromonas and Pseudoalteromonas accounted for 65.4% of total isolates and were ubiquitous, thus suggesting that they may play a key role within the analyzed bacterioplankton community. In particular, Pseudoalteromonas isolates possessed nitrate reductase and were able to hydrolyze substrates for protease, esterase, and β-galactosidase, thus indicating their involvement in the carbon and nitrogen cycling. Finally, the obtained results highlight the ability of the Actinobacteria to survive and proliferate in the Terra Nova Bay seawater as they generally showed a wide range of salt tolerance and appeared to be particularly competitive with strictly marine bacteria by better utilizing supplied carbon sources. PMID:21748267

  10. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  11. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  12. Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We visually observed 1,251 dives, of 14 sea otters instrumented with TDRs in southeast Alaska, and used attribute values from observed dives to classify 180,848 recorded dives as foraging (0.64), or traveling (0.36). Foraging dives were significantly deeper, with longer durations, bottom times, and postdive surface intervals, and greater descent and ascent rates, compared to traveling dives. Most foraging occurred in depths between 2 and 30 m (0.84), although 0.16 of all foraging was between 30 and 100 m. Nine animals, including all five males, demonstrated bimodal patterns in foraging depths, with peaks between 5 and 15 m and 30 and 60 m, whereas five of nine females foraged at an average depth of 10 m. Mean shallow foraging depth was 8 m, and mean deep foraging depth was 44 m. Maximum foraging depths averaged 61 m (54 and 82 for females and males, respectively) and ranged from 35 to 100 m. Female sea otters dove to depths 20 m on 0.85 of their foraging dives while male sea otters dove to depths 45 m on 0.50 of their foraging dives. Less than 0.02 of all foraging dives were >55 m, suggesting that effects of sea otter foraging on nearshore marine communities should diminish at greater depths. However, recolonization of vacant habitat by high densities of adult male sea otters may result in initial reductions of some prey species at depths >55 m.

  13. Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. )

    1989-01-06

    In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

  14. Bacterioplankton: a sink for carbon in a coastal marine plankton community

    SciTech Connect

    Ducklow, H.W.; Purdie, D.A.; Williams, P.J.LeB.; Davis, J.M.

    1986-05-16

    Recent determinations of high production rates (up to 30% of primary production in surface waters) implicate free-living marine bacterioplankton as a link in a microbial loop that supplements phytoplankton as food for herbivores. An enclosed water column of 300 cubic meters was used to test the microbial loop hypothesis by following the fate of carbon-14-labeled bacterioplankton for over 50 days. Only 2% of the label initially fixed from carbon-14-labeled glucose by bacteria was present in larger organisms after 13 days, at which time about 20% of the total label added remained in the particulate fraction. Most of the label appeared to pass directly from particles smaller than 1 micrometer (heterotrophic bacterioplankton and some bacteriovores) to respired labeled carbon dioxide or to regenerated dissolved organic carbon-14. Secondary (and, by implication, primary) production by organisms smaller than 1 micrometer may not be an important food source in marine food chains. Bacterioplankton can be a sink for carbon in planktonic food webs and may serve principally as agents of nutrient regeneration rather than as food.

  15. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  16. Assessing anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems using stable CNS isotopes: State of the art, knowledge gaps, and community-scale perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, the analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotopes (SIA) has emerged as a powerful, viable methodology for examining food web structure and dynamics, as well as addressing a number of applied issues. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art review of the use of SIA for assessing anthropogenic pressures on natural ecosystems, in order to establish current knowledge gaps and identify promising applications for evaluating the ecological status of marine coastal waters. Specifically, the potential of SIA to provide food web-scale indicators for estimating cumulative anthropogenic pressures is addressed. The review indicates that the methodology has been used for virtually the whole spectrum of human pressures known to influence marine ecosystems. However, only the effects of chemical pollution, release of dissolved and particulate nutrients, and invasive species have been extensively investigated. For the first two pressures, substantial efforts have been made to implement isotopic quantitative approaches and metrics for inter-system comparisons; however, with the exception of nutrient release, the majority of aquatic studies have been carried out in freshwater systems, and only limited information is available on marine environments. In particular, the effects of invasive species on coastal habitats have received scant attention. Trophic position of indicator species emerges as the isotopic metric most ubiquitously adopted for measuring the impact of anthropogenic pressures. Conversely, the application of other recently implemented metrics, proven to be highly effective in integrating information on the spatial-temporal dynamics of aquatic food webs, is to date still limited. The potential of stable isotope analysis to provide a unifying methodological-theoretical framework for effective, inter-ecosystem comparisons of both single and multiple anthropogenic pressures is emphasised. Additionally, a plea for the implementation and intercalibration

  17. Effects of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on biological communities of coastal marine ecosystems of the western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, V G

    2006-01-01

    This review is based on integrated studies of the composition, structure and function of shallow-water ecosystems in the western Pacific that are influenced by underwater gas-hydrothermal activity. Most of the data were collected from 1985 to 1997 by the Institute of Marine Biology of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Science during expeditions to zones of modern volcanism. Gas-hydrothermal activity of volcanoes has a great influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the water column and plankton, and of bottom sediment and benthic communities. The abundance of nutrients (SiO(3)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NO(3)(-)), gases (CO(2), CH(4), H(2), H(2)S) and other reduced compounds (C(n)H(n), S(0), S(2)O(3)(2-), NH(4)(+)) in zones of shallow-water hydrothermal vents provides conditions for the use of two energy sources for primary production: sunlight (photosynthesis) and the oxidation of reduced compounds (bacterial chemosynthesis). In areas of shallow-water volcanic activity, chemosynthesis occurs not only in the immediate vicinity of venting fluid release but also in the surface layer of the water column, where it occurs together with intense photosynthesis. This surface photosynthesis is found below the layer of chemosynthesis, which is related to the distribution of hydrothermal fluids at the water surface. The contribution of each of these processes to total primary production depends on the physical and chemical conditions created by the vents and on the range and adaptation potential of the organisms. On the seabed in zones of shallow-water venting, microorganisms form mats that consist of bacteria of various physiological groups, microalgae, the products of their metabolism and sedimentary particles. Oxygenic photosynthesis of benthic diatoms, bacterial photosynthesis (anoxygenic photosynthesis) and autotrophic chemosynthesis in algobacterial and bacterial mats generate organic matter additional to that produced in the water column. The high rates of

  18. The role of epibenthic predators in structuring the marine invertebrate community of a British coastal salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, C. L. J.; James, R.

    The marine fauna of salt marshes are subjected to predation by birds, tidally feeding flatfish, crabs, prawns and small gobiid fish. The role of these epibenthic predators in structuring the community was investigated using cages to exclude predators. A range of designs of cages and partial cages was employed to control for artefacts due to caging, and sufficient cages were employed so that each cage was only sampled once to prevent the compounding of disturbance due to predation and sampling. Two mesh sizes were employed, a fine mesh excluding epibenthic predators and a coarse mesh allowing access by small crabs, prawns and gobiid fish but excluding birds and larger fish. The exclusion was maintained for 2 years. The presence of any experimental structure had a significant effect on the sedimentary regime within the cage. Epibentic predator exclusion let to an increase in infaunal predator density, but had no significant effect on the infaunal deposit feeders. There was some evidence that predators limit the surface deposit feeding gastropood Hydrobia ulvae during the winter. The gastropod Littorina littorea responded positively to the presence of any caging structure; this may be the result of changes in the availability of food, as the sides of a cage support a diatom flora which this species can exploit. The lack of a response from the infaunal deposit feeders is attributed to their horizontal mobility within the sediment. The possible interactions between epibenthic and infaunal predators are discussed.

  19. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. PMID:24361729

  20. FOOD WEB AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE COASTAL SYSTEMS (ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WETLANDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research will investigate the mechanisms by which increased loading of nutrients to coastal waters alters the structure and dynamics of food webs, resulting in declines in populations of ecologically and commercially important organisms. Research across NHEERL Divisions will...

  1. Coastal Intelligence - A national infrastructure to support decision-making for coastal communities, economies and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil D.

    2015-04-01

    The National Ocean Service (NOS), a Line Office within NOAA, is primarily responsible for fostering healthy and sustainable marine resources, habitats and ecosystems, strengthening the resiliency of communities, as well as being the nation's leader in observing, modeling and managing coastal, ocean and Great Lakes areas. NOS and numerous partners also play a critical role along the coasts and in marine ecosystems by providing science-based products and services to support a wide variety of applications. Coastal Intelligence however, goes one step further to support ecosystems, economies and communities by providing the infrastructure to integrate numerous observing systems and interpreting the scientific data into information that people can use. This poster will focus primarily on the science, observing systems and data modeling that support Coastal Intelligence and how accurate information can ensure timely and actionable decision-making for coastal communities and ecosystems.

  2. Diversity, community structure, and bioremediation potential of mercury-resistant marine bacteria of estuarine and coastal environments of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Dash, Hirak R; Das, Surajit

    2016-04-01

    Both point and non-point sources increase the pollution status of mercury and increase the population of mercury-resistant marine bacteria (MRMB). They can be targeted as the indicator organism to access marine mercury pollution, besides utilization in bioremediation. Thus, sediment and water samples were collected for 2 years (2010-2012) along Odisha coast of Bay of Bengal, India. Mercury content of the study sites varied from 0.47 to 0.99 ppb irrespective of the seasons of sampling. A strong positive correlation was observed between mercury content and MRMB population (P < 0.05) suggesting the utilization of these bacteria to assess the level of mercury pollution in the marine environment. Seventy-eight percent of the MRMB isolates were under the phylum Firmicutes, and 36 and 31% of them could resist mercury by mer operon-mediated volatilization and mercury biosorption, respectively. In addition, most of the isolates could resist a number of antibiotics and toxic metals. All the MRMB isolates possess the potential of growth and survival at cardinal pH (4-8), temperature (25-37 °C), and salinity (5-35 psu). Enterobacteria repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and repetitive element palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) produced fingerprints corroborating the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis also revealed strain-level speciation and phylogenetic relationships. PMID:26686519

  3. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  4. Coastal Benthic Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the species diversity of benthic communities in U.S. estuarine waters during the period 1997–2000. Benthic organisms — animals that inhabit the bottom substrate of a water body — play an important role in maintaining sediment and water qual...

  5. The concept of biotope in marine ecology and coastal management.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The term "biotope" was introduced by a German scientist, Dahl in 1908 as an addition to the concept of "biocenosis" earlier formulated by Möbius (1877). Initially it determined the physical-chemical conditions of existence of a biocenosis ("the biotope of a biocenosis"). Further, both biotope and biocenosis were respectively considered as abiotic and biotic parts of an ecosystem. This notion ("ecosystem = biotope + biocenosis") became accepted in German, French, Russian and other European "continental" ecological literature. The new interpretation of the term ("biotope = habitat + community") appeared in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s while classifying "marine habitats" of the coastal zone. Since then, this meaning was also used in international European environmental documents. This paper examines the evolution of the biotope notion. It is concluded that the contemporary concept is robust and may be used not only for the classification and mapping but also for functional marine ecology and coastal zone management. PMID:16600815

  6. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  7. Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

    This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  9. Coastal and Marine Bird Data Base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.H.; Geissler, P.H.; Dawson, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: This report discusses the development of a coastal and marine bird data base at the Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory. The system is compared with other data bases, and suggestions for future development, such as possible adaptations for other taxonomic groups, are included. The data base is based on the Statistical Analysis System but includes extensions programmed in PL/I. The Appendix shows how the system evolved. Output examples are given for heron data and pelagic bird data which indicate the types of analyses that can be conducted and output figures. The Appendixes include a retrieval language user's guide and description of the retrieval process and listing of translator program.

  10. Mapping marine debris across coastal communities in Belize: developing a baseline for understanding the distribution of litter on beaches using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Bennett-Martin, Paulita; Visaggi, Christy C; Hawthorne, Timothy L

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of marine debris (also known as marine litter) is an essential step in the process to eradicate ecological dangers in marine ecosystems caused by humans. This study examines marine debris in the Caribbean country of Belize using geographic information systems (GIS) to develop (1) a detailed data library for use on handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) units and tablets with mobile mapping applications for deployment in the field and (2) a freely available, online mapping portal to share data with Belizeans to encourage future citizen science efforts. Four diverse communities were targeted ranging from larger more populated towns, to smaller villages across central and southern Belize: San Pedro, Caye Caulker, Punta Gorda, and Monkey River. Fieldwork was conducted over 1 month, during which data points were collected in 50-m surveys followed by debris cleanup and removal. Features in our database included material, quantity, item, brand, and condition. Over 6000 pieces of debris were recorded in GIS for further analysis, and 299 gal of debris were removed from the shores of Belize. The most abundant form of debris observed was plastic (commonly bottles) across all locations; plastic comprised 77.6 % of all debris items observed. Through GIS, a detailed snapshot understanding of debris patterns across multiple settings in Belize was documented. Ongoing collaborations with local organizations in Belize have demonstrated significant interest and utility for such GIS approaches in analyzing and managing marine debris. The data, methodology, visual representations, and online mapping platform resulting from this research are a first step in directly supporting local Belizean community advocacy and policy, while contributing to larger institutional strategies for addressing marine debris issues in the Caribbean. PMID:27614957

  11. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  12. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  13. 77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice of endorsement of coastal and marine ecological classification... Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) as the first-ever comprehensive federal data standard...

  14. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  15. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold gradient in body size, testing and discussing a mixed approach of molecular fingerprinting for microbes and morphological observations for meio- and macrofauna. We found no correlation among structures of the different size-level communities: this suggests that community composition at one size-level could have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization of all the different size levels is clearly a necessity in order to study the dynamics really acting in a system. PMID:26075405

  16. Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1974-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

  17. Coastal Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Rappé, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

  18. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems. PMID:26773654

  19. Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhj, Premathilake

    2010-05-01

    Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

  20. Coastal and Marine Geology Program video and photograph portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, Nadine E.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    Search all Coastal and Marine Geology Program imagery by selecting "Explore Data Layers." Or select Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf Coast to enter the portal by region. Or start with the tutorial then dive in!

  1. PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

  2. Intermittent particle dynamics in marine coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, F. G.; Loisel, H.

    2015-10-01

    Marine coastal processes are highly variable over different space scales and timescales. In this paper we analyse the intermittency properties of particle size distribution (PSD) recorded every second using a LISST instrument (Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry). The particle concentrations have been recorded over 32 size classes from 2.5 to 500 μm, at 1 Hz resolution. Such information is used to estimate at each time step the hyperbolic slope of the particle size distribution, and to consider its dynamics. Shannon entropy, as an indicator of the randomness, is estimated at each time step and its dynamics is analysed. Furthermore, particles are separated into four classes according to their size, and the intermittent properties of these classes are considered. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used, associated with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis (AHSA), in order to retrieve scaling multifractal moment functions, for scales from 10 s to 8 min. The intermittent properties of two other indicators of particle concentration are also considered in the same range of scales: the total volume concentration Cvol-total and the particulate beam attenuation coefficient cp(670). Both show quite similar intermittent dynamics and are characterised by the same exponents. Globally we find here negative Hurst exponents (meaning the small scales show larger fluctuation than large scales) for each time series considered, and nonlinear moment functions.

  3. Metabarcoding approach for nonindigenous species surveillance in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Ardura, Alba; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-11-15

    In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) metabarcoding was applied for the surveillance of plankton communities within the southeastern (SE) Baltic Sea coastal zone. These results were compared with those from routine monitoring survey and morphological analyses. Four of five nonindigenous species found in the samples were identified exclusively by metabarcoding. All of them are considered as invasive in the Baltic Sea with reported impact on the ecosystem and biodiversity. This study indicates that, despite some current limitations, HTS metabarcoding can provide information on the presence of exotic species and advantageously complement conventional approaches, only requiring the same monitoring effort as before. Even in the currently immature status of HTS, this combination of HTS metabarcoding and observational records is recommended in the early detection of marine pests and delivery of the environmental status metrics of nonindigenous species. PMID:26422121

  4. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment. PMID:26700887

  5. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial OTUs made up more than 75% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant OTU was Sphingomonas sp. which comprised 17% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant bacterial genera were attributed to distinctly different areas of origin, suggesting highly heterogeneous sources for bioaerosols of marine and coastal environments. Furthermore, the bacterial community was clearly affected by two environmental parameters - temperature as a function of wind direction and the sampling location itself. However, a comparison of the wind directions during the sampling and calculated backward trajectories underlined the need for more detailed information on environmental parameters for bioaerosol investigations. The current findings support the assumption of a bacterial core community in the atmosphere. They may be emitted from strong aerosolizing sources, probably being mixed and dispersed over long distances. PMID:25800495

  6. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial OTUs made up more than 75% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant OTU was Sphingomonas sp. which comprised 17% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant bacterial genera were attributed to distinctly different areas of origin, suggesting highly heterogeneous sources for bioaerosols of marine and coastal environments. Furthermore, the bacterial community was clearly affected by two environmental parameters – temperature as a function of wind direction and the sampling location itself. However, a comparison of the wind directions during the sampling and calculated backward trajectories underlined the need for more detailed information on environmental parameters for bioaerosol investigations. The current findings support the assumption of a bacterial core community in the atmosphere. They may be emitted from strong aerosolizing sources, probably being mixed and dispersed over long distances. PMID:25800495

  7. Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, V.S.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.

  8. Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

  9. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

  10. Marine protist diversity in European coastal waters and sediments as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Massana, Ramon; Gobet, Angélique; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Chambouvet, Aurélie; Christen, Richard; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Decelle, Johan; Dolan, John R; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Forn, Irene; Forster, Dominik; Guillou, Laure; Jaillon, Olivier; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Logares, Ramiro; Mahé, Frédéric; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pawlowski, Jan; Pernice, Massimo C; Probert, Ian; Romac, Sarah; Richards, Thomas; Santini, Sébastien; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Siano, Raffaele; Simon, Nathalie; Stoeck, Thorsten; Vaulot, Daniel; Zingone, Adriana; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-10-01

    Although protists are critical components of marine ecosystems, they are still poorly characterized. Here we analysed the taxonomic diversity of planktonic and benthic protist communities collected in six distant European coastal sites. Environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) from three size fractions (pico-, nano- and micro/mesoplankton), as well as from dissolved DNA and surface sediments were used as templates for tag pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal DNA. Beta-diversity analyses split the protist community structure into three main clusters: picoplankton-nanoplankton-dissolved DNA, micro/mesoplankton and sediments. Within each cluster, protist communities from the same site and time clustered together, while communities from the same site but different seasons were unrelated. Both DNA and RNA-based surveys provided similar relative abundances for most class-level taxonomic groups. Yet, particular groups were overrepresented in one of the two templates, such as marine alveolates (MALV)-I and MALV-II that were much more abundant in DNA surveys. Overall, the groups displaying the highest relative contribution were Dinophyceae, Diatomea, Ciliophora and Acantharia. Also, well represented were Mamiellophyceae, Cryptomonadales, marine alveolates and marine stramenopiles in the picoplankton, and Monadofilosa and basal Fungi in sediments. Our extensive and systematic sequencing of geographically separated sites provides the most comprehensive molecular description of coastal marine protist diversity to date. PMID:26119494

  11. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  12. COASTAL COMMUNITY COLIFORM AND NUTRIENT CONTROL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent water sampling conducted by the Suwannee River Water Management District has shown that coliform counts in waters adjacent to several coastal communities exceed the water quality standards for surface waters with respect to fecal and total coliform counts. Also, sampling c...

  13. Coastal Capers: A Marine Education Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Lundie; Cox, Vivian Barbee

    As a part of the University of North Carolina Sea Grant Marine Education Manual series, this document is intended to provide elementary grade teachers with activities (or capers) that introduce students to the marine environment. It may also be used with remedial or special education students, and by youth group leaders in such organizations as…

  14. The coastal marine Tardigrada of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Miller, William R; Perry, Emma S

    2016-01-01

    The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence. PMID:27395594

  15. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering

  16. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  17. Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2014-12-15

    Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

  18. The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

  19. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  20. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  1. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  2. The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for

  3. An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

  4. Developing Partnerships with the Community for Coastal ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawabe, Midori; Kohno, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Reiko; Ishimaru, Takashi; Baba, Osamu; Horimoto, Naho; Kanda, Jota; Matsuyam, Masaji; Moteki, Masato; Oshima, Yayoi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Yap, Minlee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw lessons for developing community-university partnerships from experiences in promoting coastal education for sustainable development (ESD). Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data collected from two coastal community outreach projects were analyzed. Findings: The outreach projects improved the…

  5. Report ranks U.S. coastal state protection of marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Most U.S. coastal states are not doing enough to safeguard nearby marine areas, according to a 29 May report by two environmental groups, the Marine Conservation Institute (MCI) and Mission Blue. The groups ranked U.S. coastal states and territories based on the percentage of state marine waters classified as no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) where fishing, mining, and oil and gas development are not allowed.

  6. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  7. Aurelia aurita Ephyrae Reshape a Coastal Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Zoccarato, Luca; Celussi, Mauro; Pallavicini, Alberto; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of jellyfish blooms on marine communities. Aurelia aurita is one of the most studied of the Scyphozoans, and several studies have been carried out to describe its role as a top-down controller within the classical food web. However, little data are available to define the effects of these jellyfish on microbial communities. The aims of this study were to describe the predation impact of A. aurita ephyrae on a natural microplanktonic assemblage, and to determine any reshaping effects on the prokaryote community composition and functioning. Surface coastal water was used to set up a 24-h grazing experiment in microcosms. Samples were collected to determine the variations in prey biomass, heterotrophic carbon production (HCP), extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity, and grazing pressure. A next-generation sequencing technique was used to investigate biodiversity shifts within the prokaryote and protist communities through the small subunit rRNA tag approach. This study shows that A. aurita ephyrae were responsible for large decreases in the abundances of the more motile microplankton groups, such as tintinnids, Dinophyceae, and aloricate ciliates. Bacillariophyceae and Mediophyceae showed smaller reductions. No evidence of selective predation emerged in the analysis of the community diversity down to the family level. The heterotrophic prokaryote biomass increased significantly (by up to 45%), in parallel with increases in HCP and leucine aminopeptidase activity (40%). Significant modifications were detected in prokaryotic community composition. Some classes of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia showed higher relative abundances when exposed to A. aurita ephyrae, while there was a net decrease for Alphaproteobacteria. Overall, this study provides new insight into the effects of A. aurita on microbial communities, underlining their selective predation toward the more motile groups of

  8. Denitrification and the denitrifier community in coastal microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

    2015-03-01

    Denitrification was measured in three structurally different coastal microbial mats by using the stable isotope technique. The composition of the denitrifying community was determined by analyzing the nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) genes using clone libraries and the GeoChip. The highest potential rate of denitrification (7.0 ± 1.0 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) was observed during summer at station 1 (supra-littoral). The rates of denitrification were much lower in the stations 2 (marine) and 3 (intermediate) (respectively 0.1 ± 0.05 and 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) and showed less seasonality when compared to station 1. The denitrifying community at station 1 was also more diverse than that at station 2 and 3, which were more similar to each other than either of these stations to station 1. In all three stations, the diversity of both nirS and nirK denitrifiers was higher in summer when compared to winter. The location along the tidal gradient seems to determine the composition, diversity and activity of the denitrifier community, which may be driven by salinity, nitrate/nitrite and organic carbon. Both nirS and nirK denitrifiers are equally present and therefore they are likely to play a role in the denitrification of the microbial mats studied. PMID:25764561

  9. Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.; Reynolds, Pamela L.; Stachowicz, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions (∼70%) occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores), while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes. PMID:17356703

  10. Invasions and extinctions reshape coastal marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jarrett E; Reynolds, Pamela L; Stachowicz, John J

    2007-01-01

    The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions ( approximately 70%) occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores), while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes. PMID:17356703

  11. Assessing Flood Impacts in Rural Coastal Communities Using LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable to floods from storm events which are further exacerbated by storm surges. Additionally, coastal towns provide specific challenges during flood events as many coastal communities are peninsular and vulnerable to inundation of road access points. Publicly available lidar data has been used to model areas of inundation and resulting flood impacts on road networks. However, these models may overestimate areas that are inaccessible as they rely on publicly available Digital Terrain Models. Through incorporation of Digital Surface Models to estimate bridge height, a more accurate model of flood impacts on rural coastal residents can be estimated.

  12. Mercury methylation dynamics in estuarine and coastal marine environments — A critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Karen A.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2009-09-01

    Considerable recent research has focused on methylmercury (MeHg) cycling within estuarine and coastal marine environments. Because MeHg represents a potent neurotoxin that may magnify in marine foodwebs, it is important to understand the mechanisms and environmental variables that drive or constrain methylation dynamics in these environments. This critical review article explores the mechanisms hypothesized to influence aqueous phase and sediment solid phase MeHg concentrations and depth-specific inorganic Hg (II) (Hg i) methylation rates (MMR) within estuarine and coastal marine environments, and discusses issues of terminology or methodology that complicate mechanism-oriented interpretation of field and laboratory data. Mechanisms discussed in this review article include: 1) the metabolic activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), the microbial group thought to dominate mercury methylation in these environments; 2) the role that Hg i concentration and/or speciation play in defining depth-specific Hg i methylation rates; and 3) the depth-dependent balance between MeHg production and consumption within the sedimentary environment. As discussed in this critical review article, the hypothesis of SRB community control on the Hg i methylation rate in estuarine and coastal marine environments is broadly supported by the literature. Although Hg i speciation, as a function of porewater inorganic sulfide and/or dissolved organic matter concentration and/or pH, may also play a role in observed variations in MMR, the nature and function of the controlling ligand(s) has not yet been adequately defined. Furthermore, although it is generally recognized that the processes responsible for MeHg production and consumption overlap spatially and/or kinetically in the sedimentary environment, and likely dictate the extent to which MeHg accumulates in the aqueous and/or sediment solid phase, this conceptual interpretation requires refinement, and would benefit greatly from the

  13. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  14. Chytrids dominate arctic marine fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Hassett, B T; Gradinger, R

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is altering Arctic ecosystem structure by changing weather patterns and reducing sea ice coverage. These changes are increasing light penetration into the Arctic Ocean that are forecasted to increase primary production; however, increased light can also induce photoinhibition and cause physiological stress in algae and phytoplankton that can favour disease development. Fungi are voracious parasites in many ecosystems that can modulate the flow of carbon through food webs, yet are poorly characterized in the marine environment. We provide the first data from any marine ecosystem in which fungi in the Chytridiomycota dominate fungal communities and are linked in their occurrence to light intensities and algal stress. Increased light penetration stresses ice algae and elevates disease incidence under reduced snow cover. Our results show that chytrids dominate Arctic marine fungal communities and have the potential to rapidly change primary production patterns with increased light penetration. PMID:26754171

  15. Natural shorelines promote the stability of fish communities in an urbanized coastal system.

    PubMed

    Scyphers, Steven B; Gouhier, Tarik C; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Beck, Michael W; Mareska, John; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species extinctions in terrestrial, aquatic and marine systems. Along coastlines, natural habitats support high biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services but are often replaced with engineered structures for coastal protection or erosion control. We coupled high-resolution shoreline condition data with an eleven-year time series of fish community structure to examine how coastal protection structures impact community stability. Our analyses revealed that the most stable fish communities were nearest natural shorelines. Structurally complex engineered shorelines appeared to promote greater stability than simpler alternatives as communities nearest vertical walls, which are among the most prevalent structures, were most dissimilar from natural shorelines and had the lowest stability. We conclude that conserving and restoring natural habitats is essential for promoting ecological stability. However, in scenarios when natural habitats are not viable, engineered landscapes designed to mimic the complexity of natural habitats may provide similar ecological functions. PMID:26039407

  16. Natural Shorelines Promote the Stability of Fish Communities in an Urbanized Coastal System

    PubMed Central

    Scyphers, Steven B.; Gouhier, Tarik C.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Beck, Michael W.; Mareska, John; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species extinctions in terrestrial, aquatic and marine systems. Along coastlines, natural habitats support high biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services but are often replaced with engineered structures for coastal protection or erosion control. We coupled high-resolution shoreline condition data with an eleven-year time series of fish community structure to examine how coastal protection structures impact community stability. Our analyses revealed that the most stable fish communities were nearest natural shorelines. Structurally complex engineered shorelines appeared to promote greater stability than simpler alternatives as communities nearest vertical walls, which are among the most prevalent structures, were most dissimilar from natural shorelines and had the lowest stability. We conclude that conserving and restoring natural habitats is essential for promoting ecological stability. However, in scenarios when natural habitats are not viable, engineered landscapes designed to mimic the complexity of natural habitats may provide similar ecological functions. PMID:26039407

  17. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics’era

    PubMed Central

    Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying “omics” approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition

  18. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  19. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  20. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  1. Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

    2012-01-01

    As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

  2. A coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Fran

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation potential of a chronically polluted marine coastal area.

    PubMed

    Catania, Valentina; Santisi, Santina; Signa, Geraldina; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio; Cappello, Simone; Yakimov, Michail M; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-10-15

    A microbiological survey of the Priolo Bay (eastern coast of Sicily, Ionian Sea), a chronically polluted marine coastal area, was carried out in order to discern its intrinsic bioremediation potential. Microbiological analysis, 16S rDNA-based DGGE fingerprinting and PLFAs analysis were performed on seawater and sediment samples from six stations on two transects. Higher diversity and variability among stations was detected by DGGE in sediment than in water samples although seawater revealed higher diversity of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. The most polluted sediment hosted higher total bacterial diversity and higher abundance and diversity of culturable HC degraders. Alkane- and PAH-degrading bacteria were isolated from all stations and assigned to Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Thalassospira, Alteromonas and Oleibacter (first isolation from the Mediterranean area). High total microbial diversity associated to a large selection of HC degraders is believed to contribute to natural attenuation of the area, provided that new contaminant contributions are avoided. PMID:26248825

  4. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    PubMed

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6 ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5 ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns. PMID:25707316

  5. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

  6. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. PMID:25405962

  7. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2014-11-19

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. PMID:25405962

  8. Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

  9. Engaging Communities Where They Are: New Hampshire's Coastal Adaptation Workgroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C. P.; Godlewski, S.; Howard, K.; Labranche, J.; Miller, S.; Peterson, J.; Ashcraft, C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising seas are expected to have significant impacts on infrastructure and natural and cultural resources on New Hampshire's 18 mile open-ocean coastline and 235 miles of tidal shoreline. However, most coastal municipalities in NH lack financial and human resources to even assess vulnerability, let alone plan for climate change. This gap has been filled since 2010 by the NH Coastal Adaptation Workgroup (CAW), composed of 21 regional, state, and federal agencies, businesses, municipalities, academics, and NGOs that bring together stakeholders to discuss climate change challenges and collaboratively develop and implement effective coastal adaptation strategies. Our grassroot efforts serve to nurture existing and build new relationships, disseminate coastal watershed climate assessments, and tap into state, federal, and foundation funds for specific coastal adaptation projects. CAW has achieved collective impact in by connecting federal and state resources to communities by raising money and facilitating projects, translating climate science, educating community members, providing direct technical assistance and general capacity, and sharing success stories and lessons learned. Indicators of success include: 12 coastal communities improved their technical, financial, and human resources for climate adaptation; 80% of the 300 participants in the eleven CAW 'Water, Weather, Climate, and Community Workshops' have increased knowledge, motivation, and capacity to address climate adaptation; $3 million in grants to help communities with climate adaptation; winner of the 2015 EPA Region 1 Environmental Merit Award; and ongoing support for community-led adaptation efforts. In addition, the NH Climate Summit attracts over 100 participants each year, over 90% whom attest to the applicability of what they learn there. CAW also plays a central role in the Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission (established by the state legislature in 2013) to help communities and businesses prepare

  10. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    PubMed Central

    Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

  11. Numerical dominance of a group of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria in coastal seawater.

    PubMed Central

    González, J M; Moran, M A

    1997-01-01

    A cluster of marine bacteria within the alpha-3 subclass of the class Proteobacteria accounted for up to 28% of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in seawater samples from the coast of the southeastern United States. Two independent oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rDNA of this "marine alpha" cluster indicate that the group dominates bacterioplankton communities in estuarine and nearshore regions of the southeastern U.S. coast. Marine alpha bacteria decline predictably in abundance with decreasing salinity along estuarine transsects and are not detectable in low-salinity (5%) or freshwater samples. Sequences of 16S rDNA obtained from seawater by PCR with one group-specific oligonucleotide as a primer confirm that the oligonucleotide targets only members of this phylogenetic cluster. Likewise, sequences of 16S rDNA obtained from seawater by PCR with several different pairs of nonspecific primers show an unusually high abundance of marine alpha sequences (52 to 84%) among the clones, which possibly indicates a PCR bias toward the group. Members of the marine alpha group were readily cultured from coastal seawater, accounting for 40% of the colonies isolated on low-nutrient marine agar, based on hybridizations with the group-specific 16S rDNA probe and on sequence analysis. This is the first description of a numerically dominant cluster of coastal bacteria, identified by molecular techniques, that can be readily cultured and studied in the laboratory. PMID:9361410

  12. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities.

    PubMed

    Davies, Thomas W; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M; Jenkins, Stuart R

    2015-04-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities. PMID:25926694

  13. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Thomas W.; Coleman, Matthew; Griffith, Katherine M.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities. PMID:25926694

  14. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  15. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  16. Community Education in Eastern Chinese Coastal Cities: Issues and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Suju

    2009-01-01

    This paper first reviews the development of community education in Shanghai, one of China's eastern coastal cities. Then the development of community education in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, especially its management system and operational mechanisms, school operating systems and networks, curriculum systems, and team building are presented.…

  17. Fine-Scale Temporal Variation in Marine Extracellular Enzymes of Coastal Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Steven D.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Hatosy, Stephen; Martiny, Adam C.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes are functional components of marine microbial communities that contribute to nutrient remineralization by catalyzing the degradation of organic substrates. Particularly in coastal environments, the magnitude of variation in enzyme activities across timescales is not well characterized. Therefore, we established the MICRO time series at Newport Pier, California, to assess enzyme activities and other ocean parameters at high temporal resolution in a coastal environment. We hypothesized that enzyme activities would vary most on daily to weekly timescales, but would also show repeatable seasonal patterns. In addition, we expected that activities would correlate with nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and that most enzyme activity would be bound to particles. We found that 34–48% of the variation in enzyme activity occurred at timescales <30 days. About 28–56% of the variance in seawater nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations, and ocean currents also occurred on this timescale. Only the enzyme β-glucosidase showed evidence of a repeatable seasonal pattern, with elevated activities in the spring months that correlated with spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Most enzyme activities were weakly but positively correlated with nutrient concentrations (r = 0.24–0.31) and upwelling (r = 0.29–0.35). For the enzymes β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase, most activity was bound to particles. However, 81.2% of alkaline phosphatase and 42.8% of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was freely dissolved. These results suggest that enzyme-producing bacterial communities and nutrient dynamics in coastal environments vary substantially on short timescales (<30 days). Furthermore, the enzymes that degrade carbohydrates and proteins likely depend on microbial communities attached to particles, whereas phosphorus release may occur throughout the water column. PMID:22912628

  18. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  19. Habitat partitioning of marine benthic denitrifier communities in response to oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Wittorf, Lea; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Jones, Christopher M; Bäckman, Ola; Hulth, Stefan; Hallin, Sara

    2016-08-01

    Denitrification is of global significance for the marine nitrogen budget and the main process for nitrogen loss in coastal sediments. This facultative anaerobic respiratory pathway is modular in nature and the final step, the reduction of nitrous oxide (N2 O), is performed by microorganisms with a complete denitrification pathway as well as those only capable of N2 O reduction. Fluctuating oxygen availability is a significant driver of denitrification in sediments, but the effects on the overall N2 O-reducing community that ultimately controls the emission of N2 O from marine sediments is not well known. To investigate the effects of different oxygen regimes on N2 O reducing communities, coastal marine surface sediment was incubated in microcosms under oxic, anoxic or oscillating oxygen conditions in the overlying water for 137 days. Quantification of the genetic potential for denitrification, anammox and respiratory ammonification indicated that denitrification supported nitrogen removal in these sediments. Furthermore, denitrifiers with a complete pathway were identified as the dominant community involved in N2 O reduction, rather than organisms that are only N2 O reducers. Specific lineages within each group were associated with different oxygen regimes suggesting that oxygen availability in the overlying water is associated with habitat partitioning of N2 O reducers in coastal marine surface sediments. PMID:26929183

  20. St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

  1. Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, E.T.; Carpenter, R.

    1988-01-01

    Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in /sup 210/Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column does not accumulate in the top 2 cm of sediment. Surface sediment pigment profiles indicate that pheophoribides are the dominant pheopigments observed, with concentrations decreasing rapidly with depth. Concentrations of chlorophyll c derivatives also decrease rapidly, but ratios of a/c pheopigments remain within ranges reported for natural and cultured phytoplankton. Sharp pheopigment concentrations decreases within the bioturbated surface sediments were modeled using a one dimensional mixing model. Sedimentary humic acid, fulvic acid, and residual humin associated pheopigments in sediments which had been previously acetone extracted to remove the lipophilic pheopigment fraction were typed by chromic acid oxidation and release of pyrrole derived maleimides. This humic associated pyrrole derived nitrogen, while a small fraction of total sedimentary or humic nitrogen, accounted for 16-75% of the total sedimentary pheopigment accumulation, and may be significant in understanding the diagenetic fate and transformation of pheopigments to petroporphyrins.

  2. Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

  3. Pigment preservation and remineralization in oxic coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Carpenter, Roy

    1988-01-01

    Complex mixtures of sedimentary chlorophyll degradation products were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 210Pb dated box- and piston-core sediments. Sediments were collected from Dabob Bay, Washington, a coastal marine fjord conducive to studies yielding an understanding of the remineralization and diagenesis of organic carbon. Greater than 99% of the pheopigment flux out of the water column does not accumulate in the top 2 cm of sediment. Surface sediment pigment profiles indicate that pheophorbides are the dominant pheopigments observed, with concentrations decreasing rapidly with depth. Concentrations of chlorophyll c derivatives also decrease rapidly, but ratios of a/c pheopigments remain within ranges reported for natural and cultured phytoplankton. Sharp pheopigment concentration decreases within the bioturbated surface sediments (as defined by 210Pb activities) were modeled using a one dimensional mixing model. The in situ pheopigment decomposition rate, corrected for bioturbation and sediment accumulation, corresponds to an approximate half-life of 40 days. Sedimentary humic acid, fulvic acid, and residual humin associated pheopigments in sediments which had been previously acetone extracted to remove the lipophilic pheopigment fraction were typed by chromic acid oxidation and release of pyrrole derived maleimides. This humic associated pyrrole derived nitrogen, while a small fraction of total sedimentary or humic nitrogen, accounted for 16-75% of the total sedimentary pheopigment accumulation, and may be significant in understanding the diagenetic fate and transformation of pheopigments to petroporphyrins.

  4. Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bartlett, K. B.; Bartlett, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH4/sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH4/sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH4/sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle.

  5. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  6. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  7. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall, the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.

  8. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall,more » the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.« less

  9. Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice D.

    The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

  10. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.

    2016-01-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  11. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters.

    PubMed

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S

    2016-02-01

    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  12. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-09-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were

  13. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2012-02-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog

  14. High tolerance of microzooplankton to ocean acidification in an Arctic coastal plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberle, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Malzahn, A. M.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2013-03-01

    Impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine biota have been observed in a wide range of marine systems. We used a mesocosm approach to study the response of a high Arctic coastal microzooplankton community during the post-bloom period in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) to direct and indirect effects of high pCO2/low pH. We found almost no direct effects of OA on microzooplankton composition and diversity. Both the relative shares of ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates as well as the taxonomic composition of microzooplankton remained unaffected by changes in pCO2/pH. Although the different pCO2 treatments affected food availability and phytoplankton composition, no indirect effects (e.g. on the total carrying capacity and phenology of microzooplankton) could be observed. Our data point to a high tolerance of this Arctic microzooplankton community to changes in pCO2/pH. Future studies on the impact of OA on plankton communities should include microzooplankton in order to test whether the observed low sensitivity to OA is typical for coastal communities where changes in seawater pH occur frequently.

  15. High tolerance of protozooplankton to ocean acidification in an Arctic coastal plankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberle, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

    2012-09-01

    Impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine biota have been observed in a wide range of marine systems. We used a mesocosm approach to study the response of a high Arctic coastal protozooplankton (PZP in the following) community during the post-bloom period in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) to direct and indirect effects of high pCO2/low pH. We found almost no direct effects of OA on PZP composition and diversity. Both, the relative shares of ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates as well as the taxonomic composition of protozoans remained unaffected by changes in pCO2/pH. The different pCO2 treatments did not have any effect on food availability and phytoplankton composition and thus no indirect effects e.g. on the total carrying capacity and phenology of PZP could be observed. Our data points at a high tolerance of this Arctic PZP community to changes in pCO2/pH. Future studies on the impact of OA on plankton communities should include PZP in order to test whether the observed low sensitivity of protozoans to OA is typical for coastal communities where changes in seawater pH occur frequently.

  16. Dynamics of size-fractionated bacterial communities during the coastal dispersal of treated municipal effluents.

    PubMed

    Liu, SiGuang; Luo, YuanRong; Huang, LingFeng

    2016-07-01

    Everyday huge amount of treated municipal wastewater is discharged into the coastal seawater. However, microbial biomarkers for the municipal effluent instead of the fecal species from raw sewage have not been proposed. Meanwhile, bacterial taxa for degrading large amounts of input organics have not been fully understood. In this study, raw effluent and serial water samples were collected from the coastal dispersal of two sewage treatment plants in Xiamen, China. Free-living (FL) and particle-associated (PA) bacterial communities were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and quantitative PCR to measure bacterial abundance. The PA bacterial communities in our samples exhibited higher cell abundance, alpha diversity, and population dynamics than the FL bacterial communities, which supports greater environmental significance of the PA bacterial communities. Two non-fecal but typical genera in activated sludge, Zoogloea and Dechloromonas, exhibited decreased but readily detectable abundance along the effluent dispersal distance. Furthermore, the dominating microbial species near the outfalls were related to well-known marine indigenous taxa, such as SAR11 clade, OM60 clade, low-GC Actinobacteria, and unclassified Flavobacteriales, as well as the less understood taxa like Pseudohongiella and Microbacteriaceae. It is interesting that these taxa exhibited two types of correlation patterns with COD concentration. Our study suggested Zoogloea as a potential indicator of municipal effluents and also proposed potential utilizers of residual effluent COD in marine environments. PMID:26944731

  17. Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

    2013-06-15

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

  18. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  19. Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated

  20. A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a

  1. Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from γ-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from γ-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and α-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between

  2. Engaging a community towards marine cyberinfrastructure: Lessons Learned from The Marine Metadata Interoperability initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, N. R.; Graybeal, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Wright, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) initiative promotes the exchange, integration and use of marine data through enhanced data publishing, discovery, documentation and accessibility. The project, operating since late 2004, presents several cultural organizational challenges because of the diversity of participants: scientists, technical experts, and data managers from around the world, all working in organizations with different corporate cultures, funding structures, and systems of decision-making. MMI provides educational resources at several levels. For instance, short introductions to metadata concepts are available, as well as guides and "cookbooks" for the quick and efficient preparation of marine metadata. For those who are building major marine data systems, including ocean-observing capabilities, there are training materials, marine metadata content examples, and resources for mapping elements between different metadata standards. The MMI also provides examples of good metadata practices in existing data systems, including the EU's Marine XML project, and functioning ocean/coastal clearinghouses and atlases developed by MMI team members. Communication tools that help build community: 1) Website, used to introduce the initiative to new visitors, and to provide in-depth guidance and resources to members and visitors. The site is built using Plone, an open source web content management system. Plone allows the site to serve as a wiki, to which every user can contribute material. This keeps the membership engaged and spreads the responsibility for the tasks of updating and expanding the site. 2) Email-lists, to engage the broad ocean sciences community. The discussion forums "news," "ask," and "site-help" are available for receiving regular updates on MMI activities, seeking advice or support on projects and standards, or for assistance with using the MMI site. Internal email lists are provided for the Technical Team, the Steering Committee and

  3. European Community`s program in marine resources development

    SciTech Connect

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-12-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed.

  4. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  5. Marine wildlife entanglement: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and relevant behaviour in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Elissa; Mellish, Sarah; Sanders, Ben; Litchfield, Carla

    2014-12-15

    Marine debris remains a global challenge, with significant impacts on wildlife. Despite this, there is a paucity of research examining public understanding about marine wildlife entanglement [MWE], particularly within an Australian context. The present study surveyed two hundred and thirteen participants across three coastal sites to assess familiarity with MWE and the effectiveness of a new community education initiative 'Seal the Loop' [STL]. Results revealed attitudes toward marine wildlife were very positive (M 40.5, SD 4.12); however 32% of participants were unable to correctly explain what MWE is and risks to wildlife were under-estimated. STL may be one method to enhance public understanding and engagement-if community familiarity with the program can be increased. For those aware of STL (<13% of the sample at the time of the study), findings revealed this was having a positive impact (e.g. learning something new, changed waste disposal behaviours). PMID:25455820

  6. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Menge, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Bracken, M. E. S.; Chan, F.; Foley, M. M.; Freidenburg, T. L.; Gaines, S. D.; Hudson, G.; Krenz, C.; Leslie, H.; Menge, D. N. L.; Russell, R.; Webster, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent down-welling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities. PMID:14512513

  7. Teacher's Activity Guide to Coastal Awareness. Marine Bulletin No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This teacher's guide was prepared for use with "Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book," as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. Contained are instructions on the use of the Activity Book, page-by-page, with glossaries, activity ideas, resources, places to visit, and notes…

  8. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-09-30

    This fiscal year 2011 progress report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power Task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Objectives for Task 2.1.7 are the following: • to work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process • to work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development • to communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders • to engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which is described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning. As MHK industry partners work with the regulatory community and stakeholders to plan, site, permit, and license MHK technologies, they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under Task 2.1.7 is to understand and work to address these varied interests, reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.

  9. Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

    1992-01-01

    Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

  10. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  11. Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    species richness for a given habitat, in the characterization of communities of differentially impacted coastal marine ecosystems.

  12. A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

    2007-12-01

    One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

  13. Advanced geological modeling of coastal-marine cassiterite placers based on data on deposits in Russia'S Eastern Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalomov, A. V.; Tabolich, S. E.; Chefranov, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model of coastal-marine tin placers formed in the alongshore drift flow is developed using the mass balance method. The physical meaning of the coefficients included in the model is considered. Coastal-marine placers are quantitatively estimated. The simulation adequacy is confirmed by the data on coastal-marine tin-bearing placer deposits at the Pevek ore cluster (Chaun Bay, East Siberian Sea). We suggest that the obtained equations be used for surveying and exploration. Identified patterns are used to estimate the tin placer potential in one of the coastal areas in the Eastern Arctic Basin.

  14. Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

  15. Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, F.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by

  16. Variability in bacterial community structure during upwelling in the coastal ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhof, L.J.; Voytek, M.A.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Millie, D.; Schofield, O.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, investigations at the community level of marine bacteria and phytoplankton populations suggest they are tightly coupled. However, traditional oceanographic approaches cannot assess whether associations between specific bacteria and phytoplankton exist. Recently, molecular based approaches have been implemented to characterize specific members of different marine bacterial communities. Yet, few molecular-based studies have examined coastal upwelling situations. This is important since upwelling systems provide a unique opportunity for analyzing the association between specific bacteria and specific phytoplankton in the ocean. It is widely believed that upwelling can lead to changes in phytoplankton populations (blooms). Thus, if specific associations exist, we would expect to observe changes in the bacterial population triggered by the bloom. In this paper, we present preliminary data from coastal waters off New Jersey that confirm a shift in bacterial communities during a 1995 upwelling event recorded at a long-term earth observatory (LEO-15) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Using PCR amplification and cloning, specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences were found which were present in upwelling samples during a phytoplankton bloom, but were not detected in non-bloom samples (surface seawater, offshore sites or sediment samples) collected at the same time or in the same area. These findings are consistent with the notion of specific associations between bacteria and phytoplankton in the ocean. However, further examination of episodic events, such as coastal upwelling, are needed to confirm the existence of specific associations. Additionally, experiments need to be performed to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the specific linkages between a group of bacteria and a group of phytoplankton.

  17. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  18. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Darling, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  19. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities. PMID:25974052

  20. Decoding Size Distribution Patterns in Marine and Transitional Water Phytoplankton: From Community to Species Level

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism’s behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities. PMID:25974052

  1. Marine microbial community dynamics and their ecological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Jed A; Cram, Jacob A; Needham, David M

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in studying the dynamics of marine microbial communities have shown that the composition of these communities follows predictable patterns and involves complex network interactions, which shed light on the underlying processes regulating these globally important organisms. Such 'holistic' (or organism- and system-based) studies of these communities complement popular reductionist, often culture-based, approaches for understanding organism function one gene or protein at a time. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of marine microbial community dynamics at various scales, from hours to decades. We also explain how the data illustrate community resilience and seasonality, and reveal interactions among microorganisms. PMID:25659323

  2. Passive Sampling and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Profiling of French Coastal Areas with a Focus on Marine Biotoxins.

    PubMed

    Zendong, Zita; Bertrand, Samuel; Herrenknecht, Christine; Abadie, Eric; Jauzein, Cécile; Lemée, Rodolphe; Gouriou, Jérémie; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp

    2016-08-16

    Passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking: SPATT) are able to accumulate biotoxins produced by microalgae directly from seawater, thus providing useful information for monitoring of the marine environment. SPATTs containing 0.3, 3, and 10 g of resin were deployed at four different coastal areas in France and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative targeted screening provided insights into toxin profiles and showed that toxin concentrations and profiles in SPATTs were dependent on the amount of resin used. Between the three amounts of resin tested, SPATTs containing 3 g of resin appeared to be the best compromise, which is consistent with the use of 3 g of resin in SPATTs by previous studies. MassHunter and Mass Profiler Professional softwares were used for data reprocessing and statistical analyses. A differential profiling approach was developed to investigate and compare the overall chemical diversity of dissolved substances in different coastal water bodies. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed for spatial differentiation between areas. Similarly, SPATTs retrieved from the same location at early, medium, and late deployment periods were also differentiated by PCA, reflecting seasonal variations in chemical profiles and in the microalgal community. This study used an untargeted metabolomic approach for spatial and temporal differentiation of marine environmental chemical profiles using SPATTs, and we propose this approach as a step forward in the discovery of chemical markers of short- or long-term changes in the microbial community structure. PMID:27463836

  3. Cabled observatories: Connecting coastal communities to local ocean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Brown, J. C. K.; McLean, M. A.; Ewing, N.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities are facing a wide range of rapid changes due to anthropogenic and natural environmental influences. Communities are under pressure to adapt to effects of climate change, including altered shorelines, changes in availability of seafood, and in northern regions, changes to the extent, formation and break-up of land-fast and sea-ice. Access to up-to-date scientific data and basic climate literacy are essential tools to enable community members to make informed decisions about their own coast. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of British Columbia (BC). ONC also operates smaller, coastal community observatories which provide data for both scientific and educational initiatives.The first Arctic community observatory, deployed in 2012, is located in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Real-time data flowing from the platform are collected by a range of instruments, including a conductivity-temperature-depth sensor (CTD), hydrophone, video camera, and an ice profiler. There is also a meteorological station and time lapse camera on the dock. Five additional community observatories are being installed over the next year along the coast of BC. Indigenous communities, including the Inuit population in Cambridge Bay and First Nations on BC's north and central coast, are key partners and collaborators of this initiative.Benefits to communities from cabled observatory ocean monitoring can only be achieved if the data collected are relevant to community members and contribute to research priorities identified within the community. The data must be easily accessible and complement existing environmental monitoring initiatives. Community members must possess knowledge and tools to analyze and interpret the data for their purposes. For these reasons, community involvement is critical to the project, including the design of user interfaces for data access, development of educational programs

  4. Buried marine-cut terraces and submerged marine-built terraces: The Carchuna-Calahonda coastal area (southeast Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesus; Lobo, Francisco José; Pedrera, Antonio; Ruano, Patricia; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The Carchuna-Calahonda coastal area is located between the onshore Betic Cordillera and the Alboran Sea. Its onshore sector is formed by detrital sediments that cover a metamorphic basement mostly composed of marbles, contiguous to an offshore shelf setting. New onshore gravity data allow us to characterize the location of flat marine-cut terraces carved into the metamorphic bedrock, which are covered by detrital sediments. In addition, multibeam bathymetry data, 3.5 kHz and sparker reflection seismic profiles, reveal offshore flat features linked to marine terraces that are related with the onshore buried marine-cut terraces. Gravity data are newly used to detect marine-cut terraces covered by sediments, enhancing the integration of onshore and offshore data. The marine terraces are distinguished based on the relative sea-level trend (regressive versus transgressive) and on the dominant sedimentary regime (erosional versus depositional). These data help constrain the ages of the marine terraces younger than 150 ka, using available Late Quaternary sea-level curves. Although previous geodetic research suggests a rapid sinking of the Carchuna-Calahonda coast, the heights of the marine-cut terraces and depositional terraces are mainly driven by sea-level changes, not tectonics.

  5. The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

    2007-01-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

  6. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Four: Coastal Beginnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are simulations, puzzles, class discussions, crafts and other activities designed to introduce the past cultures of North Carolina's coastal peoples to elementary and secondary students. The manual is one of several produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under the "Man and the Seacoast" project with Sea Grant funding.…

  7. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Three: Coastal Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Two dozen activities on the ecology of coastal areas, with special emphasis on North Carolina's coastline, comprise this manual for junior high school science teachers. Provided are a table correlating these lessons with state curriculum guidelines, and a summary of the unit's goals and behavioral objectives. Among the topics included are coastal…

  8. Commentary: Radioactive Wastes and Damage to Marine Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the effects of radioactive wastes on marine communities, with particular reference to the fitness of populations and the need for field and laboratory studies to provide evidence of ecological change. (JR)

  9. Temporal variations in abundance and composition of intact polar lipids in North Sea coastal marine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but possible phosphorous limitation during the spring bloom did not result in changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, whilst IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year did not result in major shifts in IPL composition. This shows that the most commonly occurring IPLs have limited chemotaxonomic potential, and highlights the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  10. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

  11. The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

  12. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  13. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Sixty-nine papers were selected for the database from Volume 1 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 1 include: oil spills and marine pollution; Florida ecosystems; air-sea interaction and sea ice; living resources; optics and models; hyperspectral sensors and applications; and charting and mapping.

  14. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  15. Carbon budgets and potential blue carbon stores in Scotland's coastal and marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, John; austin, william

    2016-04-01

    The role of marine ecosystems in storing blue carbon has increasingly become a topic of interest to both scientists and politicians. This is the first multidisciplinary study to assess Scotland's marine blue carbon stores, using GIS to collate habitat information based on existing data. Relevant scientific information on primary habitats for carbon uptake and storage has been reviewed, and quantitative rates of production and storage were obtained. Habitats reviewed include kelp, phytoplankton, saltmarshes, biogenic reefs (including maerl), marine sediments (coastal and shelf), and postglacial geological sediments. Each habitat has been individually assessed for any specific threats to its carbon sequestration ability. Here we present an ecosystem-scale inventory of the key rates and ultimate sequestration capacity of each habitat. Coastal and offshore sediments are the main repositories for carbon in Scotland's marine environment. Habitat-forming species on the coast (seagrasses, saltmarsh, bivalve beds, coralline algae), are highly productive but their contribution to the overall carbon budget is very small because of the limited extent of each habitat. This study highlights the importance of marine carbon stores in global carbon cycles, and the implications of climate change on the ability of marine ecosystems to sequester carbon.

  16. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  17. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  18. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region. PMID:26457869

  19. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. PMID:27038889

  20. Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (β) and within-habitat (α) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID

  1. Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

    2015-03-01

    The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent

  2. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

  3. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4) metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  4. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  5. Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in coastal marine biota.

    PubMed

    Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates. PMID:25451633

  6. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan. PMID:18800202

  7. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  8. Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-07-01

    Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

  9. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean. PMID:26988138

  10. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  11. Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

  12. Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

  13. Coastal Marsh Sediments from Bodega Harbor: Archives of Environmental Changes at the Terrestrial-Marine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, L. K.; Rong, Y.; Hill, T. M.; Hiromoto, C.; Fisher, A.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal marsh sediments provide an important archive of environmental changes at the terrestrial-marine interface. Over the last century, humans have significantly altered the coastal environment near Bodega Bay, California, through changes in hydrology, sediment sources, and the dominant ecosystem. Previous investigations of recent coastal marsh sediments (< 50 years) suggest that physical barriers, such as roads, which limit the connection between Bodega Bay and the marshes, alters biogeochemical cycling (including carbon storage) in the coastal environment. The present study extends the record of changes in biogeochemical cycling in the coastal marshes back more than 100 years (approximately 90 cm) through the use of grain size analysis, C and N isotopes, and age dating. Sediments were analyzed for grain size distribution, the amount of carbon and nitrogen, and the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in 1 cm intervals throughout the core. In addition, a subset of eight samples was analyzed for sediment age using a combination of Pb-210 and Cs-137 techniques. Sediments from >40 cm and <55 cm depth have a higher percentage of fine-grained sediment (>2%). In addition, these sediments also contain higher levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen, higher C:N ratios, we well as heavier carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. The sediments likely correspond to a pre-1900 depositional environment based on Pb-210 dates, when development in the region was increasing. These results suggest a stronger influence of the marine environment during that time. Interestingly, smaller transitions in sediment properties toward what appears to reflect a more marine environment also occur near the top of the core (<10 cm depth) and near the bottom of the core (>75 cm depth). Although these transitions are less pronounced, the significant shift in sediment properties suggests a less stable environment with greater communication between the terrestrial and marine environments

  14. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  15. Microbial Community Composition in the Marine Sediments of Jeju Island: Next-Generation Sequencing Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heebok; Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Hongik; Chae, Jong-Chan; Park, Soo-Je

    2016-05-28

    Marine sediments are a microbial biosphere with an unknown physiology, and the sediments harbor numerous distinct phylogenetic lineages of Bacteria and Archaea that are at present uncultured. In this study, the structure of the archaeal and bacterial communities was investigated in the surface and subsurface sediments of Jeju Island using a next-generation sequencing method. The microbial communities in the surface sediments were distinct from those in the subsurface sediments; the relative abundance of sequences for Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were higher in the surface than subsurface sediments, whereas the sequences for Euryarchaeota, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deltaproteobacteria were relatively more abundant in the subsurface than surface sediments. This study presents detailed characterization of the spatial distribution of benthic microbial communities of Jeju Island and provides fundamental information on the potential interactions mediated by microorganisms with the different biogeochemical cycles in coastal sediments. PMID:26869600

  16. Baseline monitoring of organic sunscreen compounds along South Carolina's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bratkovics, Stephanie; Wirth, Edward; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Pennington, Paul; Sanger, Denise

    2015-12-15

    Organic ultraviolet filters (UV-F) are increasingly being used in personal care products to protect skin and other products from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In this study, marine water was collected monthly for approximately one year from six coastal South Carolina, USA sites and analyzed for the occurrence of seven organic chemicals used as UV filters (avobenzone, dioxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, oxybenzone, padimate-o and sulisobenzone). The results were used to examine the relationship between beach use and the distribution of UV-F compounds along coastal South Carolina, USA. Five of the seven target analytes were detected in seawater along coastal South Carolina during this study. Dioxybenzone and sulisobenzone were not detected. The highest concentrations measured were >3700 ng octocrylene/L and ~2200 ng oxybenzone/L and beach use was greatest at this site; a local beach front park. Patterns in concentrations were assessed based on season and a measure of beach use. PMID:26541983

  17. Progress in marine science supported by European joint coastal observation systems: The JERICO-RI research infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Farcy, P.; Durand, D.; Karlson, B.; Petihakis, G.; Seppälä, J.; Sparnocchia, S.

    2016-10-01

    Coastal systems are of the most productive ones although they are the most impacted by direct pressures from human activities. These ecosystems exhibit a high level of complexity with many different and interconnected processes operating at various spatial and temporal scales and providing a range of ecosystem services. Coastal observations are tremendous importance in order to understand those complex marine processes. Moreover, they support the use and further development of coastal ocean numerical models, including physical models and coupled physical-biogeochemical models. Coastal data have also many applications in the domain of coastal engineering such as for instance in the design of a coastal structure, or in the prevention of extreme events (e.g. flooding). As a consequence, the number of marine observing systems has quickly increased around European coastal seas, under the pressure of both monitoring requirements and marine research. Present demands for such observing systems include reliable, high-quality and comprehensive observations of key environmental parameters, automated platforms and sensors systems for continuous observations, as well as autonomy over long time periods. In-situ data collected can be combined with remote sensing and/or models to detect, understand and/or forecast the most crucial coastal processes over extensive areas within the various marine environments.

  18. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a 5-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional......

  19. Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangki

    Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical

  20. Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Atanu; Knight, John C; Babichuk, Nicole A; Mulay, Shree

    2015-10-01

    Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs. PMID:26142926

  1. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  2. Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process. PMID:23056406

  3. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  4. Effects of Land Use Change on Tropical Coastal Systems are Exacerbated by the Decline of Marine Mega-Herbivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, L. P.; Christianen, M. J.; Govers, L. L.; Kiswara, W.; Bouma, T.; Roelofs, J. G.; Van Katwijk, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land use changes in tropical regions such as deforestation, mining activities, and shrimp farming, not only affect freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, but also have a strong impact on coastal marine ecosystems. The increased influx of sediments and nutrients affects these ecosystems in multiple ways. Seagrass meadows that line coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services, e.g. sediment trapping, coastal protection and fisheries. Based on studies in East Kalimantan (Indonesia) we have shown that seagrass meadow parameters may provide more reliable indicators of land use change than the sampling of either marine sediments or water quality chemical parameters. Observations of changes in ecosystem functioning are particularly valuable for those areas where flux values are lacking and rapid surveys are needed. Time series of estuarine seagrass transects can show not only the intensity, but also the radius of action of land use change on coastal marine systems. Marine mega-herbivores pose a strong top-down control in seagrass ecosystems. We will provide a conceptual model, based on experimental evidence, to show that the global decline of marine mega-herbivore populations (as a result of large-scale poaching) may decrease the resilience of seagrass systems to increased anthropogenic forcing including land use changes. These outcomes not only urge the need for better regulation of land use change, but also for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPA's) in tropical coastal regions.

  5. Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Edgar, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

  6. Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

  7. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem. PMID:26824176

  8. Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

    2010-11-01

    We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

  9. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  10. The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal

  11. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  12. Biodiversity of benthic microbial communities in bioturbated coastal sediments is controlled by geochemical microniches.

    PubMed

    Bertics, Victoria J; Ziebis, Wiebke

    2009-11-01

    We used a combination of field and laboratory approaches to address how the bioturbation activity of two crustaceans, the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the fiddler crab Uca crenulata, affects the microbial diversity in the seabed of a coastal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, CA, USA). Detailed geochemical analyses, including oxygen microsensor measurements, were performed to characterize environmental parameters. We used a whole-assemblage fingerprinting approach (ARISA: amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to compare bacterial diversity along geochemical gradients and in relation to subsurface microniches. The two crustaceans have different burrowing behaviors. The ghost shrimp maintains complex, deep-reaching burrows and permanently lives subterranean, supplying its burrow with oxygen-rich water. In contrast, the fiddler crab constructs simpler, J-shaped burrows, which it does not inhabit permanently and does not actively ventilate. Our goal was to address how varying environmental parameters affect benthic microbial communities. An important question in benthic microbial ecology has been whether burrows support similar or unique communities compared with the sediment surface. Our results showed that sediment surface microbial communities are distinct from subsurface assemblages and that different burrow types support diverse bacterial taxa. Statistical comparisons by canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the availability of oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron) play a key role in determining the presence and abundance of different taxa. When geochemical parameters were alike, microbial communities associated with burrows showed significant similarity to sediment surface communities. Our study provides implications on the community structure of microbial communities in marine sediments and the factors controlling their distribution. PMID:19458658

  13. Field Evaluation of Seepage Meters in the Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cable, J. E.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Cable, P. H.

    1997-09-01

    The response of seepage meters was evaluated in a nearshore marine environment where water motion effects are more pronounced than in lake settings, where these meters have been used traditionally. Temporal and spatial variations of seepage, as well as potential artifacts, were evaluated using empty and 1000-ml pre-filled bag measurements. Time-series measurements confirmed earlier observations that anomalously high fluxes occur during the early stages (≤10 min) of collection. As deployment times increased (30-60 min), measured flow rates stabilized at a level thought to represent the actual seepage flux. Pre-filling the plastic measurement bags effectively alleviated this anomalous, short-term influx. Reliable seepage measurements required deployment times sufficient to allow a net volume of at least 150 ml into the collection bag. Control experiments, designed by placing seepage meters inside sand-filled plastic swimming pools, served as indicators of external effects on these measurements, i.e. they served as seepage meter blanks. When winds were under 15 knots, little evidence was found that water motion caused artifacts in the seepage measurements. Tidal cycle influences on seepage rates were negligible in the present study area, but long-term temporal variations (weeks to months) proved substantial. Observed long-term changes in groundwater flux into the Gulf of Mexico correlated with water table elevation at a nearby monitoring well.

  14. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems. PMID:26648483

  15. North Carolina Marine Education Manual. Connections: Guide to Marine Resources, Living Marine Systems and Coastal Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, L.; Medlicott, J.

    This collection of teaching and resource materials is designed to help middle school teachers put marine perspectives into their lessons. Materials are organized into three parts. Part 1 describes the preparation and maintenance of brackish water aquariums, marine aquariums, and touch tanks. Activities related to and sources of information on…

  16. Do anthropogenic, continental or coastal aerosol sources impact on a marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Vaishya, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head north-east (NE) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station compared to that of aerosol over the pristine open-ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to potentially enhanced coastal sources, possibly leading to artificially high values of aerosol concentrations, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic or continental aerosol and its potential dominance over, or perturbation of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here, we review the results of previous experimental studies on marine aerosols over the NE Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of a pristine open-ocean aerosol, i.e. with negligible anthropogenic/continental influence. Particular focus is given to submicron organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) in marine air conforming to clean-air sampling criteria, either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations, up to observed peak values of 3.8 μg m-3, are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing techniques corroborate the conclusion that there is a predominant natural source of OM, with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean-air conditions, rising to ∼98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak OM mass concentrations > 3 μg m-3 are observed. Similarly, a maximum contribution of 20% OM mass coming from non-marine sources was established by dual carbon isotope analysis. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head

  17. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Thirty-one papers were selected for the database from Volume 2 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 2 include: optics and models; air-sea interactions and sea ice; sensors and information systems; hyperspectral sensors and applications; charting and mapping; and color imagery.

  18. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  19. The sociological perspective in coastal management and geoengineering approach: effects of hydraulic structures on the resilience of fishing communities (NW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Fernando; Pires, Ana; Chamine, Helder

    2014-05-01

    The coast plays an important role in global transportation and is the most popular tourist destination around the world. During the years coastal scientists "walking on the shore", have tried to understand the shoreline in relation to the processes that shape it, and its interrelationships with the contiguous superficial marine and terrestrial hinterland environments. Those factors encourage the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), because of its possible use in identifying coastal management issues to take into account in policy strategies, measures and planning. Therefore this research presents an integrated strategy and a holistic approach to researching and studying coastal areas involving a wide number of sciences including sociology. Because of the numerous types of hazards in coastal areas the only possible response involves a holistic, integrated and long term approach. Combining marine sociological research, resilience and flexibility of a particular coastal community with other scientific fields will help to understand and manage marine social problems. This study also shows an integrative and "eclectic" methodology and adapts it to coastal management. Hence a new integrated coastal geoengineering approach for maritime environments was proposed, which is the core foundation of this approach. Also it was important to incorporate in a broader sense coastal geosciences and geoengineering GIS mapping to this final equation resulting in conceptual models. In Portugal there are several areas buffeted by sea invasions, coastal erosion and severe storms. The Portuguese coastal zone is one of Europe's most vulnerable regarding coastal erosion. The case study presented herein is an example of one of the most vulnerable sites in Portugal in terms of coastal erosion and sea invasions and how the meeting of local fishing community and coastal projects are extremely important. The coastal stretch between Figueira da Foz and Espinho (Centre and NW

  20. State of knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity of Indian Ocean countries.

    PubMed

    Wafar, Mohideen; Venkataraman, Krishnamurthy; Ingole, Baban; Ajmal Khan, Syed; Lokabharathi, Ponnapakkam

    2011-01-01

    The Indian Ocean (IO) extends over 30% of the global ocean area and is rimmed by 36 littoral and 11 hinterland nations sustaining about 30% of the world's population. The landlocked character of the ocean along its northern boundary and the resultant seasonally reversing wind and sea surface circulation patterns are features unique to the IO. The IO also accounts for 30% of the global coral reef cover, 40,000 km² of mangroves,some of the world's largest estuaries, and 9 large marine ecosystems. Numerous expeditions and institutional efforts in the last two centuries have contributed greatly to our knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity within the IO. The current inventory, as seen from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, stands at 34,989 species, but the status of knowledge is not uniform among countries. Lack of human, institutional, and technical capabilities in some IO countries is the main cause for the heterogeneous level of growth in our understanding of the biodiversity of the IO. The gaps in knowledge extend to several smaller taxa and to large parts of the shelf and deep-sea ecosystems, including seamounts. Habitat loss, uncontrolled developmental activities in the coastal zone, over extraction of resources, and coastal pollution are serious constraints on maintenance of highly diverse biota, especially in countries like those of the IO, where environmental regulations are weak. PMID:21297949

  1. Downscaling and extrapolating dynamic seasonal marine forecasts for coastal ocean users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Hobday, Alistair J.; Little, L. Richard; Spillman, Claire M.

    2016-04-01

    Marine weather and climate forecasts are essential in planning strategies and activities on a range of temporal and spatial scales. However, seasonal dynamical forecast models, that provide forecasts in monthly scale, often have low offshore resolution and limited information for inshore coastal areas. Hence, there is increasing demand for methods capable of fine scale seasonal forecasts covering coastal waters. Here, we have developed a method to combine observational data with dynamical forecasts from POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia; Australian Bureau of Meteorology) in order to produce seasonal downscaled, corrected forecasts, extrapolated to include inshore regions that POAMA does not cover. We demonstrate the method in forecasting the monthly sea surface temperature anomalies in the Great Australian Bight (GAB) region. The resolution of POAMA in the GAB is approximately 2° × 1° (lon. × lat.) and the resolution of our downscaled forecast is approximately 1° × 0.25°. We use data and model hindcasts for the period 1994-2010 for forecast validation. The predictive performance of our statistical downscaling model improves on the original POAMA forecast. Additionally, this statistical downscaling model extrapolates forecasts to coastal regions not covered by POAMA and its forecasts are probabilistic which allows straightforward assessment of uncertainty in downscaling and prediction. A range of marine users will benefit from access to downscaled and nearshore forecasts at seasonal timescales.

  2. Bacterial communities in the initial stage of marine biofilm formation on artificial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Nam, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2008-04-01

    Succession of bacterial communities during the first 36 h of biofilm formation in coastal water was investigated at 3 approximately 15 h intervals. Three kinds of surfaces (i.e., acryl, glass, and steel substratum) were submerged in situ at Sacheon harbor, Korea. Biofilms were harvested by scraping the surfaces, and the compositions of bacterial communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. While community structure based on T-RFLP analysis showed slight differences by substratum, dramatic changes were commonly observed for all substrata between 9 and 24 h. Identification of major populations by 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that gamma-Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Alteromonas, and uncultured gamma-Proteobacteria) were predominant in the community during 0 approximately 9 h, while the ratio of alpha-Proteobacteria (Loktanella, Methylobacterium, Pelagibacter, and uncultured alpha-Proteobacteria) increased 2.6 approximately 4.8 folds during 24 approximately 36 h of the biofilm formation, emerging as the most predominant group. Previously, alpha-Proteobacteria were recognized as the pioneering organisms in marine biofilm formation. However, results of this study, which revealed the bacterial succession with finer temporal resolution, indicated some species of gamma-Proteobacteria were more important as the pioneering population. Measures to control pioneering activities of these species can be useful in prevention of marine biofilm formation. PMID:18545967

  3. Temporal stability of the microbial community in sewage-polluted seawater exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota.

    PubMed

    Sassoubre, Lauren M; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2015-03-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  4. Temporal Stability of the Microbial Community in Sewage-Polluted Seawater Exposed to Natural Sunlight Cycles and Marine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Sassoubre, Lauren M.; Yamahara, Kevan M.

    2015-01-01

    Billions of gallons of untreated wastewater enter the coastal ocean each year. Once sewage microorganisms are in the marine environment, they are exposed to environmental stressors, such as sunlight and predation. Previous research has investigated the fate of individual sewage microorganisms in seawater but not the entire sewage microbial community. The present study used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine how the microbial community in sewage-impacted seawater changes over 48 h when exposed to natural sunlight cycles and marine microbiota. We compared the results from microcosms composed of unfiltered seawater (containing naturally occurring marine microbiota) and filtered seawater (containing no marine microbiota) to investigate the effect of marine microbiota. We also compared the results from microcosms that were exposed to natural sunlight cycles with those from microcosms kept in the dark to investigate the effect of sunlight. The microbial community composition and the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed over 48 h in all microcosms. Exposure to sunlight had a significant effect on both community composition and OTU abundance. The effect of marine microbiota, however, was minimal. The proportion of sewage-derived microorganisms present in the microcosms decreased rapidly within 48 h, and the decrease was the most pronounced in the presence of both sunlight and marine microbiota, where the proportion decreased from 85% to 3% of the total microbial community. The results from this study demonstrate the strong effect that sunlight has on microbial community composition, as measured by NGS, and the importance of considering temporal effects in future applications of NGS to identify microbial pollution sources. PMID:25576619

  5. Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxa–time relationships and distance–decay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification. PMID:25756110

  6. Marine and coastal environmental awareness building within the context of UNESCO's activities in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Maarten W M

    2003-01-01

    UNESCO is one of the specialized agencies under the United Nations charged with the advancement and improvement of education, social and natural sciences, culture and communication. This global mandate translates into programmes in the field tailored to the member states' specific requirements that build on the full breadth of expertise available in UNESCO. Environmental awareness building is an integral component of many of UNESCO's programmes. This paper describes how UNESCO addresses the need for awareness building in a variety of settings under different programmes and sectors. A first example is taken from the work of the education sector, which aims at introducing innovative learning methods and curricula that change or cultivate the perspective of people of all ages on sustainable development. The second example is taken from the Man and Biosphere Programme. The Biosphere Reserve concept has had a long history within UNESCO and is increasingly applied to protected areas in the coastal zone. Notable examples are Ranong Biosphere Reserve in Thailand, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve in Vietnam and the Island of Palawan in the Philippines. The concept is currently experiencing a revival as more and more countries realize the importance of striking a balance between human development and strict conservation. Many people know about UNESCO through the so-called World Heritage Sites. These are sites that are recognized by the world community as particular monuments, either natural or cultural, that warrant preservation for the whole of mankind. In the Asia-Pacific region, there are quite a number of coastal and marine sites that have been designated as natural world heritage sites, e.g. Halong Bay in Vietnam, the Komodo marine national park, Indonesia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, East-Rennell Island in the Solomon Islands, and Tubbataha Reef in the Philippines. The need for a cross-sectoral approach is evident under the so-called Coastal Zone and Small Islands

  7. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain. PMID:27164873

  8. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  9. Halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Kanbara, Chika; Ochiai, Mari; Eguchi, Akifumi; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Matsuishi, Takashi; Yamada, Tadasu K; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Information on accumulation of halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammal is limited. The present study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of chlorinated and brominated phenolic contaminants (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and bromophenols) in the blood collected from pinnipeds (northern fur seal, spotted seal, Steller sea lion and ribbon seal) and small cetaceans (harbor porpoise and Dall's porpoise) from Japanese coastal waters. Concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs found in pinnipeds were the same as in small cetaceans living in the same coastal area. However, significantly lower concentrations of brominated compounds (PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs) were found in the blood of pinnipeds than the levels found in cetacean species which live same area (p < 0.05). This difference of accumulation pattern suggested pinnipeds have an enhanced capability to degrade organobromine compounds relative to cetaceans. PMID:24060385

  10. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized. PMID:21141035

  11. Marine Chemical Ecology: Chemical Signals and Cues Structure Marine Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.

  12. Effects of thermal effluents on communities of benthic marine macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Devinny; J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Surveys of marine benthic macro-algae were made at two study areas receiving thermal effluents from power plants. A third, at an area where a natural thermal gradient exists, was investigated for comparison. Ordination analysis of the algal communities indicated changes in species composition of about 10% for each degree of temperature change up to 3/sup 0/C. Temperatures 7/sup 0/C above ambient altered the algal community by eliminating the large phaeophytes. Temperatures 10/sup 0/C above ambient left only a species-poor community of ephemeral populations.

  13. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  14. Structuring factors and recent changes in subtidal macrozoobenthic communities of a coastal lagoon, Arcachon Bay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Chardy, Pierre; Bachelet, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Fourteen years after a previous investigation in Arcachon Bay (SW France), the quantitative distribution of subtidal macrozoobenthic communities was assessed in 2002 through a stratified sampling strategy involving a larger number of stations (89 vs. 18) than in 1988. A total of 226 taxa were recorded. Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis identified nine station groups corresponding to benthic faunal assemblages and their characteristic species. Multiple Discriminant Analysis showed that the main environmental factors influencing the distribution of faunal assemblages were sediment parameters and distance from the ocean. Depth was a minor structuring factor. At the scale of the lagoon, biogenic structures such as Zostera marina beds, Crepidula fornicata-dominated bottoms or dead oyster shell bottoms did not display any particular assemblage of infauna. Comparison with previous quantitative data from the 1988 survey provided more precision on the distribution of benthic assemblages and revealed community changes at a 14-year scale. These modifications reflected a general increase of silt and clay content in the sediment in the internal parts of channels, inducing community change. These changes can be correlated to the recent first signs of a moderate eutrophication process which have appeared, since 1988, through the development of green macroalgae in some parts of the lagoon. This trend was enhanced in transverse channels with reduced hydrodynamics and led to muddy areas where green macroalgae tended to accumulate. Locally, the dredging of sandbanks induced stronger currents and allowed the marine influence to occur, and also induced community change. These observations confirm that surveys of macrobenthic communities are useful tools to assess coastal ecosystem change even in moderately disturbed environments.

  15. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  16. Is the Coastal Ocean a Source of Mercury to Marine Advective Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, W. A.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Fernandez, D.; Byington, A.; Bonnema, A.; Beebe, C.; Chiswell, H.; Olson, A.; Coale, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Marine advective fog is a common feature along the California coast during the summer season. This fog provides an important water source to many endemic fauna and flora. Studies are underway to better understand the chemical makeup of Pacific marine fog as it is an important input to the hydrologic cycle. We report results from our study focused on investigating the potential for coastal ocean upwelling to contribute volatile organic mercury to the overlying atmosphere where it could be incorporated into cloud droplets as monomethyl mercury (MMHg). Preliminary research by this group has indicated that fog water inputs to certain coastal locations may contribute up to 99% of the MMHg flux to land compared to the MMHg flux in rain. Mercury measurements, including total mercury (Hgt), MMHg, elemental mercury (Hg0), and dimethyl mercury (DMHg), were made to unfiltered water collected from depth profiles at 12 stations from Big Sur to Trinidad Head over the California shelf during summer 2014. Profiles of Hgt ranged from 0.3-2.4 pM and were similar to other reported measurements of Hgt for the North Pacific. A large range in concentration was observed for MMHg (10-540 fM) with elevated values generally occurring below the oxycline (>50m). Concentrations of Hg0 were 0.06 to 0.57 pM with elevated concentrations at depth relative to surface values. Depth profiles of DMHg were similar to MMHg and concentrations were measured from 10-295 fM with highest concentrations observed below the oxycline. Surface concentrations of DMHg averaged 40 ± 22 fM. Given the observed profiles for DMHg and the fact that it is sparingly soluble in water, a net flux of DMHg to the atmosphere is likely occurring. Based on these findings and the fact that MMHg and DMHg concentrations in the coastal ocean were highest in the low oxygen zone, we speculate that mercury is methylated in the water column and/or sediments as DMHg and that this water is upwelled seasonally in the coastal zones and

  17. Do anthropogenic or coastal aerosol sources impact on a clean marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head North East (N.E.) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station to that of aerosol over the open ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to enhanced coastal sources, thereby leading to artificially high values to aerosol parameters, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol and its potential dominance over, or drowning-out of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here we review the results of previous experimental studies into marine aerosols over the N.E. Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of an open ocean aerosol with negligible anthropogenic influence. Particular focus is given to organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations up to peak values of 3.8 μg m-3 are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing corroborate the natural source of OM with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean air conditions, rising to 98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak concentrations >3 μg m-3 are observed. A range of other experiments are discussed which corroborate the dominance of a marine signal under Mace Head clean air criteria along. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head clean air criteria ensures anthropogenic and

  18. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  19. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko

    2005-05-15

    In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks. PMID:15952346

  20. Impact of Roundup on the marine microbial community, as shown by an in situ microcosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Stachowski-Haberkorn, Sabine; Becker, Beatriz; Marie, Dominique; Haberkorn, Hansy; Coroller, Louis; de la Broise, Denis

    2008-09-29

    The effects of the herbicide Roundup (glyphosate) on natural marine microbial communities were assessed in a 7-day field experiment using microcosms. Bottles were maintained underwater at 6m depth, and 10% of their water content was changed every other day. The comparison of control microcosms and surrounding surface water showed that the microcosm system tested here can be considered as representative of the natural surrounding environment. A temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was run on 16S and 18S rDNA-amplified extracts from the whole microbial community. Cluster analysis of the 16S gel showed differences between control and treatment fingerprints for Roundup at 1 microg L(-1) (ANOSIM, p=0.055; R=0.53), and 10 microg L(-1) (ANOSIM, p=0.086; R=0.40). Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in the prasinophyte-like population when Roundup concentration was increased to 10 microg L(-1). This study demonstrates that a disturbance was caused to the marine microbial community exposed to 1 microg L(-1) Roundup concentration, a value typical of those reported in coastal waters during a run-off event. PMID:18760491

  1. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  2. Cyanobacterial assimilatory nitrate reductase gene diversity in coastal and oligotrophic marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Bethany D; Zehr, Jonathan P; Gibson, Angela; Campbell, Lisa

    2006-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems and their abundances and growth rates depend on their ability to assimilate various nitrogen sources. To examine the diversity of nitrate-utilizing marine cyanobacteria, we developed PCR primers specific for cyanobacterial assimilatory nitrate reductase (narB) genes. We obtained amplification products from diverse strains of cultivated cyanobacteria and from several marine environments. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the narB gene are congruent with those based on ribosomal RNA genes and RNA polymerase genes. Analysis of sequence library data from coastal and oligotrophic marine environments shows distinct groups of Synechococcus sp. in each environment; some of which are represented by sequences from cultivated organisms and others that are unrelated to known sequences and likely represent novel phylogenetic groups. We observed spatial differences in the distribution of sequences between two sites in Monterey Bay and differences in the vertical distribution of sequence types at the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA, suggesting that nitrogen assimilation in Synechococcus living in different ecological niches can be followed with the nitrate reductase gene. PMID:17107550

  3. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment. PMID:26379094

  4. Victims or vectors: a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Ellis, Julie C; Dennett, Mark; Pugliares, Katie R; Lentell, Betty J; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1-4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5-13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health. PMID:18828560

  5. COASTAL WETLAND INSECT COMMUNITIES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insects of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have received little attention in spite of their importance in food webs and sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors. We characterized insect communities from four coastal wetlands that spanned the length of a trophic gradient in Green Bay d...

  6. Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

    2012-07-01

    Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats. The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored. Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another. An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal

  7. Multiresolution in CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debreu, Laurent; Auclair, Francis; Benshila, Rachid; Capet, Xavier; Dumas, Franck; Julien, Swen; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model [1]) is a new oceanic modeling system built upon ROMS_AGRIF and the non-hydrostatic kernel of SNH, gradually including algorithms from MARS3D (sediments)and HYCOM (vertical coordinates). An important objective of CROCO is to provide the possibility of running truly multiresolution simulations. Our previous work on structured mesh refinement [2] allowed us to run two-way nesting with the following major features: conservation, spatial and temporal refinement, coupling at the barotropic level. In this presentation, we will expose the current developments in CROCO towards multiresolution simulations: connection between neighboring grids at the same level of resolution and load balancing on parallel computers. Results of preliminary experiments will be given both on an idealized test case and on a realistic simulation of the Bay of Biscay with high resolution along the coast. References: [1] : CROCO : http://www.croco-ocean.org [2] : Debreu, L., P. Marchesiello, P. Penven, and G. Cambon, 2012: Two-way nesting in split-explicit ocean models: algorithms, implementation and validation. Ocean Modelling, 49-50, 1-21.

  8. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Blake A; Kurtz, Janis C; Hein, Michael K

    2012-08-01

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by group diversity, evenness, relative abundance and biovolume. Sixty-six taxa were identified in addition to eight potentially harmful algal genera including Gymnodinium sp. Phytoplankton group diversity was lowest at Vermillion Bay in February 2008, but otherwise ranged between 2.16 and 3.40. Phytoplankton evenness was also lowest at Vermillion Bay in February 2008, but otherwise ranged between 0.54 and 0.77. Dissolved oxygen increased with increased biovolume (R² = 0.85, p < 0.001) and biovolume decreased with increased light attenuation (R² = 0.34, p = 0.007), which supported the importance of light in regulating oxygen dynamics. Diatoms were dominant in relative abundance and biovolume at almost all stations and all cruises. Brunt-Väisälä frequency was used as a measure of water column stratification and was negatively correlated (p = 0.02) to diatom relative percent total abundance. PMID:22498318

  9. Seasonal succession and UV sensitivity of marine bacterioplankton at an Antarctic coastal site.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Davidson, Andrew T; Buma, Anita G J

    2010-07-01

    Despite extensive microbial biodiversity studies around the globe, studies focusing on diversity and community composition of Bacteria in Antarctic coastal regions are still scarce. Here, we studied the diversity and development of bacterioplankton communities from Prydz Bay (Eastern Antarctic) during spring and early summer 2002-2003. Additionally, we investigated the possible shaping effects of solar UV radiation (UV-R: 280-400 nm) on bacterioplankton communities incubated for 13-14 days in 650-L minicosm tanks. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of the natural bacterioplankton communities revealed an initial springtime community composed of three evenly abundant bacterial classes: Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes (CFB), Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. At the end of spring, a shift occurred toward a CFB-dominated community, most likely a response to the onset of a springtime phytoplankton bloom. The tail end of Prydz Bay clone library diversity revealed sequences related to Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobiales, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes and an unclassified bacterium (ANT4E12). Minicosm experiments showed that incubation time was the principal determinant of bacterial community composition and that UV-R treatment significantly changed the composition in only two of the four experiments. Thus, the successional maturity of the microbial community in our minicosm studies appears to be a greater determinant of bacterial community composition rather than the nonprofound and subtle effects of UV-R. PMID:20455939

  10. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  11. Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, G. B.; Russell, N.

    2010-12-01

    California’s coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate change and sea level rise, local government staff is typically removed from this information and often lack the time or resources necessary for keeping up with the most recent information. Specifically, there is a disconnect between the latest science and the practice of coastal planners in dealing with sea level rise issues. Improving the transfer of relevant information and resources from scientists to decision-makers should encourage and assist local governments in their responses to this developing issue. Designing and implementing adaptation plans and developing policies for sea level rise are challenging. Each coastal community is unique in its geographic setting and demographics and therefore faces vulnerabilities that differ from those of other communities. Uplift and subsidence, for example, cause regional variations in the rate of sea level rise. Planning staff needs to understand the local impacts of sea level rise in order to take appropriate actions. Even when the potential threats are reasonably well understood, the gradual nature of sea level rise can make it hard to formulate, approve and implement policies that may not affect communities for decades to come. Fortunately, there are tools and resources available to assist planners. Several communities in California have recently completed climate change adaptation plans or are in the process of preparing such plans. However, these documents are not focused solely upon the specific issues associated with sea level rise. A study is underway to fill that void, which includes the development of an informative guide for local government agencies to use

  12. Hydrologic signals and patterns in coastal mangrove communities using space-borne remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    The coastal mangrove ecotone, along the southern edge of the Florida Everglades, is the transition zone between the marine waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay, and the freshwater from the "River of Grass". Hydrologically-dependent ecosystems, like the Florida Everglades, have been experiencing greater threats in the past decade from climate change, increased fresh water demand, and urban growth and development. Identifying changes to water chemistry and evapotranspiration (ET) over the coastal landscape is important to understanding the ecosystem response and adaptation with respect to environmental restoration projects, water management practices and sea-level rise. Space-borne remote sensing can be a cost-effective tool to remotely measure water chemistry and ET changes in remote areas of the coastal Everglades on a regional scale. The objectives of this research were to; 1) to measure surface and subsurface water chemistry by building relationships between satellite-based mangrove reflectance data and the ionic and nutrient concentrations in the surface water and groundwater across the coastal mangrove ecotone; and 2) to estimate ET across the coastal everglades. Water chemistry and Landsat 5TM satellite data were used to develop a linear model to quantitatively predict water chemistry on the landscape scale within the coastal mangrove communities of south Florida on seasonal and annual timescales. A satellite-based energy balance approach was used to determine regional scale ET estimates. Using this satellite-energy balance approach, we were able to account for the spatial variability in surface temperature, changes in albedo, and vegetation reflectance. Water samples were collected from the surface water and groundwater from five Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that spanned a variety of mangrove communities and biomass production. Surface water samples were collected from 2008-2012 and groundwater samples were collected from 2009-2012. All

  13. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning - Efforts to Bring Law and Order to Ocean Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years a number of coastal states have engaged in planning and resource stewardship efforts that go markedly beyond single sector resource-oriented management. In some cases, proponents of such efforts have laid claim to the banner of "first" in characterizing their respective ocean (and Great Lakes) management plans. In particular, California, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island have each engaged in coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) management approaches that can be characterized as "firsts" in one way or another. This project will outline the bases upon which these claims have been made. It will employ a set of five chronologies designed to inform policy-makers, researchers, resource users and the general public with the context and contents of various state ocean management regimes. For each state, the impetus, apparatus, and status of the state's ocean (and Great Lakes) planning efforts will be examined. In each case CMSP has been legally authorized by the state. But the construction and discretion related to those legal authorizations varies. We will also examine whether there are any early 'signals' suggesting that stricter statutory control of the principles and constraints of a state's coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) effort might provide political "insulation" to executive branch personnel charged with implementing such plans but that benefit will come at the expense of a loss of employing valuable expertise and discretion of executive branch administrators. The researchers will assess each state's CMSP apparatus, in detail, to identify how the five states exert legislative control over their respective CMSP efforts. To the degree that substantial variation is identified among the five states, researchers will examine the control-status relationship to see whether and how the level of legislative control may influence the sought after objectives of a given state's CMSP management endeavor.

  14. Uncovering the volatile nature of tropical coastal marine ecosystems in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Exton, Dan A; McGenity, Terry J; Steinke, Michael; Smith, David J; Suggett, David J

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), in particular dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and isoprene, have fundamental ecological, physiological and climatic roles. Our current understanding of these roles is almost exclusively established from terrestrial or oceanic environments but signifies a potentially major, but largely unknown, role for BVOCs in tropical coastal marine ecosystems. The tropical coast is a transition zone between the land and ocean, characterized by highly productive and biodiverse coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, which house primary producers that are amongst the greatest emitters of BVOCs on the planet. Here, we synthesize our existing understanding of BVOC emissions to produce a novel conceptual framework of the tropical marine coast as a continuum from DMS-dominated reef producers to isoprene-dominated mangroves. We use existing and previously unpublished data to consider how current environmental conditions shape BVOC production across the tropical coastal continuum, and in turn how BVOCs can regulate environmental stress tolerance or species interactions via infochemical networks. We use this as a framework to discuss how existing predictions of future tropical coastal BVOC emissions, and the roles they play, are effectively restricted to present day 'baseline' trends of BVOC production across species and environmental conditions; as such, there remains a critical need to focus research efforts on BVOC responses to rapidly accelerating anthropogenic impacts at local and regional scales. We highlight the complete lack of current knowledge required to understand the future ecological functioning of these important systems, and to predict whether feedback mechanisms are likely to regulate or exacerbate current climate change scenarios through environmentally and ecologically mediated changes to BVOC budgets at the ecosystem level. PMID:25311223

  15. Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

    2014-08-01

    Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multi-year mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) build-up and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

  16. Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and Arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multiyear mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) buildup and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

  17. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)

    PubMed Central

    Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ, and δ subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

  18. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  19. The Seasonality of California Coastal Marine Layer Clouds from a New Satellite-Derived Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Low coastal stratiform clouds (typically stratus and fog), referred to here as marine layer clouds (MLCs), are a persistent seasonal feature of coastal California (CA). We have created a novel record of MLC spatial extent for CA and the near-shore waters utilizing NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The low cloud satellite retrieval is optimized and validated against coastal airport cloud observations and is shown to be of excellent quality. The record spans 17 summers and is rich in its spatial (4 km) and temporal (half hourly day and night) resolution. This new data provides a detailed record of MLC variability on diurnal, intra-seasonal, and interannual time scales since 1997. The data reveal that MLC in the Southern California Bight has a greater inland and offshore diurnal movement than the MLC in central and northern CA. Differences also emerge in the seasonality of cloudiness. Seasonal peak MLC cover along the southern California coast is part of a tongue of high early summer cloud cover that extends to the southwest, while peak MLC in later summer along central and northern California is a pattern that occurs broadly in the offshore California region. The data indicates there is interesting differences in seasonal variability that operate diurnally over southern CA and central and northern CA coastal regions. These climatological tendencies are overlain by considerable spatial and temporal variation from synoptic to interannual time scales, which are also under investigation. Satellite retrieval findings are supported by airport cloud observations since 1950. Focusing first on the intricate structure of the seasonal cycle, we then begin to describe and quantify synoptic weather and large scale climatic controls on the finely resolved space-time variability of MLCs.

  20. Remnants of marine bacterial communities can be retrieved from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Langenheder, Silke; Comte, Jérôme; Zha, Yinghua; Samad, Md Sainur; Sinclair, Lucas; Eiler, Alexander; Lindström, Eva S

    2016-08-01

    Some bacteria can be preserved over time in deep sediments where they persist either in dormant or slow-growing vegetative stages. Here, we hypothesized that such cells can be revived when exposed to environmental conditions similar to those before they were buried in the sediments. To test this hypothesis, we collected bacteria from sediment samples of different ages (140-8500 calibrated years before present, cal BP) from three lakes that differed in the timing of their physical isolation from the Baltic Sea following postglacial uplift. After these bacterial communities were grown in sterile water from the Baltic Sea, we determined the proportion of 16S rRNA sequence reads associated with marine habitats by extracting the environment descriptive terms of homologous sequences retrieved from public databases. We found that the proportion of reads associated with marine descriptive term was significantly higher in cultures inoculated with sediment layers formed under Baltic conditions and where salinities were expected to be similar to current levels. Moreover, a similar pattern was found in the original sediment layers. Our study, therefore, suggests that remnants of marine bacterial communities can be preserved in sediments over thousands of years and can be revived from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin. PMID:26929161

  1. Spillover effects of a community-managed marine reserve.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Marques; Hill, Nick; Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Dornelas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The value of no-take marine reserves as fisheries-management tools is controversial, particularly in high-poverty areas where human populations depend heavily on fish as a source of protein. Spillover, the net export of adult fish, is one mechanism by which no-take marine reserves may have a positive influence on adjacent fisheries. Spillover can contribute to poverty alleviation, although its effect is modulated by the number of fishermen and fishing intensity. In this study, we quantify the effects of a community-managed marine reserve in a high poverty area of Northern Mozambique. For this purpose, underwater visual censuses of reef fish were undertaken at three different times: 3 years before (2003), at the time of establishment (2006) and 6 years after the marine reserve establishment (2012). The survey locations were chosen inside, outside and on the border of the marine reserve. Benthic cover composition was quantified at the same sites in 2006 and 2012. After the reserve establishment, fish sizes were also estimated. Regression tree models show that the distance from the border and the time after reserve establishment were the variables with the strongest effect on fish abundance. The extent and direction of the spillover depends on trophic group and fish size. Poisson Generalized Linear Models show that, prior to the reserve establishment, the survey sites did not differ but, after 6 years, the abundance of all fish inside the reserve has increased and caused spillover of herbivorous fish. Spillover was detected 1 km beyond the limit of the reserve for small herbivorous fishes. Six years after the establishment of a community-managed reserve, the fish assemblages have changed dramatically inside the reserve, and spillover is benefitting fish assemblages outside the reserve. PMID:25927235

  2. Spillover Effects of a Community-Managed Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Isabel Marques; Hill, Nick; Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Dornelas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The value of no-take marine reserves as fisheries-management tools is controversial, particularly in high-poverty areas where human populations depend heavily on fish as a source of protein. Spillover, the net export of adult fish, is one mechanism by which no-take marine reserves may have a positive influence on adjacent fisheries. Spillover can contribute to poverty alleviation, although its effect is modulated by the number of fishermen and fishing intensity. In this study, we quantify the effects of a community-managed marine reserve in a high poverty area of Northern Mozambique. For this purpose, underwater visual censuses of reef fish were undertaken at three different times: 3 years before (2003), at the time of establishment (2006) and 6 years after the marine reserve establishment (2012). The survey locations were chosen inside, outside and on the border of the marine reserve. Benthic cover composition was quantified at the same sites in 2006 and 2012. After the reserve establishment, fish sizes were also estimated. Regression tree models show that the distance from the border and the time after reserve establishment were the variables with the strongest effect on fish abundance. The extent and direction of the spillover depends on trophic group and fish size. Poisson Generalized Linear Models show that, prior to the reserve establishment, the survey sites did not differ but, after 6 years, the abundance of all fish inside the reserve has increased and caused spillover of herbivorous fish. Spillover was detected 1km beyond the limit of the reserve for small herbivorous fishes. Six years after the establishment of a community-managed reserve, the fish assemblages have changed dramatically inside the reserve, and spillover is benefitting fish assemblages outside the reserve. PMID:25927235

  3. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-04-01

    Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments worldwide. Interestingly, organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events to potential CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and high biological activity (HBA, i.e. a high mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in spring 2002. Additionally, a PHA-UCPC (pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter) technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity (LBA, i.e. a lower mass concentration of chlorophyll a of the ocean) in October 2002. The overall results of the UFO-TDMA and the PHA-UCPC measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine/coastal biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation by iodine, hydroxyl radical, and ozone. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the UFO-TDMA results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to

  4. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  5. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 μm particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. PMID:21556113

  6. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  7. Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling. PMID:21177688

  8. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1 < 30 m isobath and Type 2 > 30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2. PMID:27334343

  9. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  10. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  11. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  12. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  13. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  14. Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

  15. On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

  16. Stratified Communities of Active Archaea in Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Ketil B.; Teske, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Archaeal 16S rRNA was extracted from samples of deep marine subsurface sediments from Peru Margin site 1227, Ocean Drilling Program leg 201. The amounts of archaeal 16S rRNA in each extract were quantified by serial dilution and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The results indicated a 1,000-fold variation in rRNA content with depth in the sediment, with the highest concentrations found near the sediment surface and in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). The phylogenetic composition of the active archaeal population revealed by cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products changed with depth. Several phylotypes affiliated with marine benthic group B (MBGB) dominated clone libraries from the upper part of the SMTZ and were detected only in this layer. Members of the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group (MCG) dominated clone libraries from the other layers. These results demonstrate that archaeal communities change in activity and community composition over short distances in geochemically distinct zones of deep subseafloor sediments and that these changes are traceable in the rRNA pool. It was shown for the first time that members of both the MCG and MBGB Archaea are more active in the SMTZ than in layers above and below. This indicates that they benefit either directly or indirectly from the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They also appear to be ecophysiologically flexible, as they have been retrieved from a wide range of marine sediments of various geochemical properties. PMID:16820449

  17. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  18. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  19. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  20. Assessing societal vulnerability of U.S. Pacific Northwest communities to storm-induced coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Heather M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ruggerio, Peter; Allan, Jonathan; Corcoran, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Progressive increases in storm intensities and extreme wave heights have been documented along the U.S. West Coast. Paired with global sea level rise and the potential for an increase in El Niño occurrences, these trends have substantial implications for the vulnerability of coastal communities to natural coastal hazards. Community vulnerability to hazards is characterized by the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of human-environmental systems that influence potential impacts. To demonstrate how societal vulnerability to coastal hazards varies with both physical and social factors, we compared community exposure and sensitivity to storm-induced coastal change scenarios in Tillamook (Oregon) and Pacific (Washington) Counties. While both are backed by low-lying coastal dunes, communities in these two counties have experienced different shoreline change histories and have chosen to use the adjacent land in different ways. Therefore, community vulnerability varies significantly between the two counties. Identifying the reasons for this variability can help land-use managers make decisions to increase community resilience and reduce vulnerability in spite of a changing climate.

  1. Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080

  2. Detection of Large Numbers of Novel Sequences in the Metatranscriptomes of Complex Marine Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Field, Dawn; Huang, Ying; Edwards, Rob; Li, Weizhong; Gilna, Paul; Joint, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequencing the expressed genetic information of an ecosystem (metatranscriptome) can provide information about the response of organisms to varying environmental conditions. Until recently, metatranscriptomics has been limited to microarray technology and random cloning methodologies. The application of high-throughput sequencing technology is now enabling access to both known and previously unknown transcripts in natural communities. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a study of a complex marine metatranscriptome obtained from random whole-community mRNA using the GS-FLX Pyrosequencing technology. Eight samples, four DNA and four mRNA, were processed from two time points in a controlled coastal ocean mesocosm study (Bergen, Norway) involving an induced phytoplankton bloom producing a total of 323,161,989 base pairs. Our study confirms the finding of the first published metatranscriptomic studies of marine and soil environments that metatranscriptomics targets highly expressed sequences which are frequently novel. Our alternative methodology increases the range of experimental options available for conducting such studies and is characterized by an exceptional enrichment of mRNA (99.92%) versus ribosomal RNA. Analysis of corresponding metagenomes confirms much higher levels of assembly in the metatranscriptomic samples and a far higher yield of large gene families with >100 members, ∼91% of which were novel. Conclusions/Significance This study provides further evidence that metatranscriptomic studies of natural microbial communities are not only feasible, but when paired with metagenomic data sets, offer an unprecedented opportunity to explore both structure and function of microbial communities – if we can overcome the challenges of elucidating the functions of so many never-seen-before gene families. PMID:18725995

  3. Changes in bacterial community dynamics associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunhee; Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul

    2014-05-01

    the fresh groundwater discharge. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the mixed water samples were separated from seawater samples, which resulted from significant increase in Shewanella sp. (ebb tide sample) and marine bacteria such as SAR11 and SAR116 clade belonging to α-Proteobacteria (flood tide sample). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two principal components explained about 84% of the variance in the sequence data. The microbial community in the seawater samples formed a distinct cluster. The microbial diversity in the mixed water samples changed depending on the seawater stage, showing similar trends in the phylogenetic classification. Our study results demonstrate that the microbial environment in the coastal zone subject to SGD and sea level fluctuation may change dynamically over short time period (< 1day). * This study was supported by the Basic Research Projects (14-3211-2) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

  4. Magnetic mineral distribution in coastal marine sediments collected from off the southwestern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Noriko; Ishikawa, Naoto; Kurasawa, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    In order to reveal magnetic mineral distributions in coastal marine sediments taken from off the southwestern Chile, we studied rock magnetic characteristics of surface sediments and performed chemical analysis in bottom water. The samples analyzed were unlithified terrigenous and calcareous sediments recovered by a multiple corer at five stations. Results show that rock magnetic parameters of sediments change with iron and oxygen concentrations in bottom water. Magnetite (Fe3O4) and goethite (αFeOOH) were common in the samples, whereas (titeno)maghemite (rFe2O3) and hematite (αFe2O3) were recognized at the oxic stations. Results also indicate a general change in mean grain size of magnetic minerals with iron and oxygen concentrations in bottom water. Fine grained magnetic minerals are distributed under anoxic condition. It is suggested that preferential dissolution of magnetic mineral grains occurred.

  5. Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation

  6. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A.

    2003-07-01

    Marine organisms have occupied hard substrates since the Archaean. Shells, rocks, wood and sedimentary hardgrounds offer relatively stable habitats compared to unconsolidated sediments, but the plants and animals which inhabit them must develop means to gain and defend this premium attachment space. Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit. While mobile grazers, organically attached and even soft-bodied organisms may leave evidence of their former presence in ancient hard substrate communities, a superior fossil record is left by sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons and by borers which leave trace fossils. Furthermore, encrusters and borers are preserved in situ, retaining their spatial relationships to one another and to the substrate. Spatial competition, ecological succession, oriented growth, and differential utilisation of exposed vs. hidden substrate surfaces can all be observed or inferred. Hard substrate communities are thus excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years. Here we review the research on modern and ancient hard substrate communities, and point to some changes that have affected them over geological time scales. Such changes include a general increase in bioerosion of hard substrates, particularly carbonate surfaces, through the Phanerozoic. This is, at least in part, analogous to the infaunalisation trends seen in soft substrate communities. Encrusting forms show an increase in skeletalisation from the Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which may be a response to increasing levels of predation. Hard substrate communities, considering borers and encrusters together, show a rough increase in tiering through the Phanerozoic which again parallels trends seen in soft substrate communities. This extensive review of the literature on living and fossil hard substrate organisms shows that

  7. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  8. Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica

    EPA Science Inventory

    In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

  9. Origins and fates of PAHs in the coastal marine environment off San Diego (California)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, E.Y.; Yu, C.C.; Vista, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    The main inputs of anthropogenic hydrocarbons to the coastal marine environment off San Diego include the Point Lama wastewater outfall (City of San Diego), Tijuana River (crossing the boarder between the US and Mexico) and several storm drains along the coastline and in San Diego Bay, inadvertent spills, and aerial deposition. Samples collected (in January and June 1994) from the Point Loma wastewater effluent, Tijuana River runoff, and microlayer, sediment trap, and surface sediment at several locations adjacent to the Point Loma outfall, entrance of Tijuana River into the ocean, and San Diego Bay (near the San Diego International Airport) were analyzed to determine the origins and fates of PAHs in the coastal marine environment. Alkyl homologue distributions (AHDS) for naphthalene indicated a mainly petrogenic origin for low molecular-weight PAHs in the effluent, water column particle, and sediment near the outfall. Parent compound distributions (PCDS) for PAHs with molecular weights 178, 202, 228, 252, 276, and 278 showed combustion-related inputs in the water column particle and sediment, especially for mid to high molecular-weight PAHs. PAHs with molecular weight equal to or higher than 252 were not detected in the effluent. The compositions of PAHs were substantially different in the effluent particulates and filtrates, implying a great deal about the fates of PAHs from the outfall and their bioaccumulation by organisms. PAHs detected in Tijuana River runoff had similar AHDs and PCDs to those of the Point Loma outfall effluent. AHDs in the San Diego Bay sediment exhibited marked seasonal variation; low molecular-weight PAHs were significantly combustion-related in January and more petrogenic in June. Microlayer samples generally contained dominant combustion-generated PAHs. The impact of the wastewater outfall discharge on the nearby water column and sediment appeared compromised by other non-point source inputs.

  10. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

  11. Territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in Chile.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Fernández, Miriam; Godoy, Natalio; Canepa, Antonio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries have been advocated as a way to achieve sustainable resource management. However, few researchers have empirically assessed their potential as ancillary marine conservation instruments by comparing them to no-take marine protected areas. In kelp (Lessonia trabeculata) forests of central Chile, we compared species richness, density, and biomass of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes among territorial-user-right areas with low-level and high-level enforcement, no-take marine protected areas, and open-access areas in 42 100-m subtidal transects. We also assessed structural complexity of the kelp forest and substratum composition. Multivariate randomized permutation tests indicated macroinvertebrate and reef fish communities associated with the different access regimes differed significantly. Substratum composition and structural complexity of kelp forest did not differ among access regimes. Univariate analyses showed species richness, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes were greater in highly enforced territorial-user-right areas and no-take marine protected areas than in open-access areas. Densities of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes of economic importance were not significantly different between highly enforced territorial-user-right and no-take marine protected areas. Densities of economically important macroinvertebrates in areas with low-level enforcement were significantly lower than those in areas with high-level enforcement and no-take marine protected areas but were significantly higher than in areas with open access. Territorial-user-right areas could be important ancillary conservation instruments if they are well enforced. PMID:22971114

  12. High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.

    PubMed

    Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

    2004-06-01

    The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system. PMID:15173911

  13. Effects of eutrophication on the planktonic food web dynamics of marine coastal ecosystems: The case study of two tropical inlets.

    PubMed

    Schmoker, Claire; Russo, Francesca; Drillet, Guillaume; Trottet, Aurore; Mahjoub, Mohamed-Sofiane; Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Larsen, Ole; Tun, Karenne; Calbet, Albert

    2016-08-01

    We studied the plankton dynamics of two semi-enclosed marine coastal inlets of the north of Jurong Island separated by a causeway (SW Singapore; May 2012-April 2013). The west side of the causeway (west station) has residence times of ca. one year and is markedly eutrophic. The east side (east station) has residence times of one month and presents lower nutrient concentrations throughout the year. The higher nutrient concentrations at the west station did not translate into significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll a, with the exception of some peaks at the end of the South West Monsoon. Microzooplankton were more abundant at the west station. The west station exhibited more variable abundances of copepods during the year than did the east station, which showed a more stable pattern and higher diversity. Despite the higher nutrient concentrations at the west station (never limiting phytoplankton growth), the instantaneous phytoplankton growth rates there were generally lower than at the east station. The phytoplankton communities at the west station were top-down controlled, largely by microzooplankton grazing, whereas those of the east station alternated between top-down and bottom-up control, with mesozooplankton being the major grazers. Overall, the trophic transfer efficiency from nutrients to mesozooplankton in the eutrophic west station was less efficient than in the east station, but this was mostly because a poor use of inorganic nutrients by phytoplankton rather than an inefficient trophic transfer of carbon. Some hypotheses explaining this result are discussed. PMID:27326462

  14. Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but no changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition due to nutrient limitation were observed. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers, in particular Phaeocystis globosa, were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, while IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year resulted in only minor shifts in the IPL composition. Principal component analysis showed that the IPLs were derived from multiple sources, and that no IPL species could be exclusively assigned to a particular algal taxa or (cyano)bacteria. Thus, the most commonly occurring IPLs appear to have limited chemotaxonomic potential, highlighting the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  15. Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S.

    1995-05-01

    Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Connecting subsistence harvest and marine ecology: A cluster analysis of communities by fishing and hunting patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Martin; Huntington, Henry P.

    2014-11-01

    Alaska Native subsistence hunters and fishers are engaged in environmental sampling, influenced by harvest technology and cultural preferences as well as biogeographical factors. We compared subsistence harvest patterns in 35 communities along the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort coasts of Alaska to identify affinities and groupings, and to compare those results with previous ecological analyses done for the same region. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to reveal spatial patterns in subsistence harvest records of coastal Alaska Native villages from the southern Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea. Three main clusters were identified, correlating strongly with geography. The main division separates coastal villages of western Alaska from arctic villages along the northern Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and on islands of the Bering Sea. K-means groupings corroborate this result, with some differences. The second node splits the arctic villages, along the Chukchi, Beaufort and northern Bering Seas, where marine mammals dominate the harvest, from those on islands of the Bering Sea, characterized by seabird and seal harvests. These patterns closely resemble eco-regions proposed on biological grounds. Biogeography thus appears to be a significant factor in groupings by harvest characteristics, suggesting that subsistence harvests are a viable form of ecosystem sampling.

  17. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  18. Marine Phytophthora species can hamper conservation and restoration of vegetated coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Meffert, Johan P; Bouma, Tjeerd J; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Heusinkveld, Jannes H T; Orth, Robert J; van Katwijk, Marieke M; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2016-08-31

    Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives. This is surprising, as marine plants form vital habitats in coastal zones worldwide (i.e. mangrove forests, salt marshes, seagrass beds), and disease may be an important bottleneck for the conservation and restoration of these rapidly declining ecosystems. We are the first to report on widespread infection of Phytophthora and Halophytophthora species on a common seagrass species, Zostera marina (eelgrass), across the northern Atlantic and Mediterranean. In addition, we tested the effects of Halophytophthora sp. Zostera and Phytophthora gemini on Z. marina seed germination in a full-factorial laboratory experiment under various environmental conditions. Results suggest that Phytophthora species are widespread as we found these oomycetes in eelgrass beds in six countries across the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. Infection by Halophytophthora sp. Zostera, P. gemini, or both, strongly affected sexual reproduction by reducing seed germination sixfold. Our findings have important implications for seagrass ecology, because these putative pathogens probably negatively affect ecosystem functioning, as well as current restoration and conservation efforts. PMID:27559058

  19. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  20. Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Mats E. R.; Franzén, Lars G.

    The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly different components, one dynamic containing large droplets, with short residence time in the air, deposited close to the shore, the other one being microscopic droplets, with long residence time in the air and with a low deposition velocity (principally, the system is similar to that of mineral particles, i.e. saltating dune sand vs loess). The deposition of marine aerosols has various effects on the terrestrial environments. Aside from those associated to human activities, i.e. technical effects on outdoor electrical installations, increased corrosion of cars, etc. there are others associated to natural ecosystems. Hence, salts are important contributors to major and trace elements for plant growth. On the other hand, the deposition of windborne salt spray is believed to form an important stress factor on forests and especially to exposed stands of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.). In this latter sense it is the authors' opinion that the rising number of westerly gales reported on the Swedish west coast during the last two decades might give an important contribution to the increasing amounts of damage observed from coniferous forests in SW Sweden.

  1. Nitryl chloride and molecular chlorine in the coastal marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Theran P; Bertram, Timothy H; Crisp, Timia A; Williams, Eric J; Lerner, Brian M; Vlasenko, Alexander; Li, Shao-Meng; Gilman, Jessica; de Gouw, Joost; Bon, Daniel M; Wagner, Nicholas L; Brown, Steven S; Thornton, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    The magnitude and sources of chlorine atoms in marine air remain highly uncertain but have potentially important consequences for air quality in polluted coastal regions. We made continuous measurements of ambient ClNO(2) and Cl(2) concentrations from May 15 to June 8 aboard the Research Vessel Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 field study. In the Los Angeles region, ClNO(2) was more ubiquitous than Cl(2) during most nights of the study period. ClNO(2) and Cl(2) ranged from detection limits at midday to campaign maximum values at night reaching 2100 and 200 pptv, respectively. The maxima were observed in Santa Monica Bay when sampling the Los Angeles urban plume. Cl(2) at times appeared well correlated with ClNO(2), but at other times, there was little to no correlation implying distinct and varying sources. Well-confined Cl(2) plumes were observed, largely independent of ClNO(2), providing support for localized industrial emissions of reactive chlorine. Observations of ClNO(2), Cl(2), and HCl are used to constrain a simple box model that predicts their relative importance as chlorine atom sources in the polluted marine boundary layer. In contrast to the emphasis in previous studies, ClNO(2) and HCl are dominant primary chlorine atom sources for the Los Angeles basin. PMID:22443276

  2. Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. )

    1988-09-01

    With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

  3. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    PubMed

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. PMID:25256299

  4. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  5. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2008-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information

  6. Trophic transfer of methyl siloxanes in the marine food web from coastal area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongliang; Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Chaoqun; Hong, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-03-01

    Methyl siloxanes, which belong to organic silicon compounds and have linear and cyclic structures, are of particular concern because of their potential characteristic of persistent, bioaccumulated, toxic, and ecological harm. This study investigated the trophic transfer of four cyclic methyl siloxanes (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)) in a marine food web from coastal area of Northern China. Trophic magnification of D4, D5, D6, and D7 were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels of marine food web configurations. A significant positive correlation (R = 0.44, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized D5 concentrations and trophic levels in organisms, showing the trophic magnification potential of this chemical in the marine food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of D5 was estimated to be 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.24, 99.8% probability of the observing TMF > 1). Such a significant link, however, was not found for D4 (R = 0.14 and p = 0.16), D6 (R = 0.01 and p = 0.92), and D7 (R = -0.15 and p = 0.12); and the estimated values of TMFs (95% CI, probability of the observing TMF > 1) were 1.16 (0.94-1.44, 94.7%), 1.01 (0.84-1.22, 66.9%) and 0.85 (0.69-1.04, 48.6%) for D4, D6, and D7, respectively. The TMF value for the legacy contaminant BDE-99 was also estimated as a benchmark, and a significant positive correlation (R = 0.65, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized concentrations and trophic levels in organisms. The TMF value of BDE-99 was 3.27 (95% CI: 2.49-4.30, 99.7% probability of the observing TMF > 1), showing the strong magnification in marine food webs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the trophic magnification of methyl siloxanes in China, which provided important information for trophic transformation of these compounds in marine

  7. Spatial patterns in community structure of motile epibenthic fauna in coastal habitats along the Skagerrak - Baltic salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohrén, Emma; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

    2009-08-01

    Patterns in community structure and functioning of motile epibenthic fauna were investigated in shallow (0-1 m) sediment habitats along the Skagerrak-Baltic estuarine gradient (salinity range from 4 to 34). The study area was divided into five regions, reflecting different sea-basins along the 1260 km coastline, and fauna was collected at six sites within each region. Ten replicate samples of motile epibenthic fauna were taken randomly at each site with a portable drop trap (bottom area 1 m 2) in June and September in 2004. All together, 110 taxa were found, of which 45 had a marine and 65 a limnic origin. The marine species decreased along the salinity gradient while the limnic showed the opposite pattern. Number of species and abundance of epibenthic fauna exhibited considerable local and regional variation, with a trend of increase with decreasing salinity. Fauna biomass, on the other hand was significantly higher (six times) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area compared to the Baltic. There was a significant difference in fauna composition among regions and season, but with high similarity within the five regions, which implies that management of such coastal habitats should preferably be based on scales of a region (ca. 100 km) or smaller. Predators were the dominant functional group in all coastal regions, with a species shift from Crustacea to Insecta along the salinity gradient and with gobid fish occurring in all regions. Grazers were the second most important group in the Skagerrak-Kattegat area, but planktovores were more important in two of the Baltic regions. The importance of shallow sediment bottoms as feeding and nursery grounds for coastal fish assemblages is discussed and compared throughout the investigated area.

  8. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  9. Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon

  10. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  11. The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. )

    1993-03-15

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Key geochemical factors regulating Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Taillefert, Martial

    2014-05-01

    The reduction of Mn(IV) oxides coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of NH4+ has been proposed for more than a decade to contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in marine sediments, yet the existence of this process is still under debate. In this study, surface sediments from an intertidal salt marsh were incubated with MnO2 in the presence of elevated concentrations of NH4+ to test the hypothesis that the reduction of Mn(IV) oxides catalyzes anaerobic NH4+ oxidation to NO2- or NO3-. Geochemical factors such as the ratio of Mn(IV) to NH4+, the type of Mn(IV) oxides (amorphous or colloidal MnO2), and the redox potential of the sediment significantly affect the activity of anaerobic nitrification. Incubations show that the net production of NO3- is stimulated under anaerobic conditions with external addition of colloidal but not amorphous MnO2 and is facilitated by the presence of high concentrations of NH4+. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that anaerobic NH4+ oxidation contributes to the net consumption of NH4+, providing another piece of evidence for the occurrence of Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in coastal marine sediments. Finally, anaerobic nitrification is stimulated by the amendment of small concentrations of NO3- or the absence of sulfate reduction, suggesting that moderately reducing conditions favor anaerobic NH4+ oxidation. Overall, these findings suggest that Mn(IV)-catalyzed anaerobic nitrification in suboxic sediments with high N/Mn concentration ratios and highly reactive manganese oxides may be an important source of NO2- and NO3- for subsequent marine nitrogen loss via denitrification or anammox.

  13. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

    2015-02-01

    Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

  14. Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent

  15. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  16. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  17. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  18. Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These

  19. Community-scale Coastal Vulnerability Mapping in Alaska: Status and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, N.; Gould, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska's extensive shorelines are incompletely mapped and under-instrumented to proceed with widespread assessments of coastal vulnerability. Despite this baseline data shortage, many of Alaska's coastal communities are involved in mitigation or adaptation efforts in response to natural hazards such as erosion and flooding. To provide coastal communities with the tools that are necessary to support local decision-making, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has undertaken focused field studies to improve quality, quantity and access to coastal datasets such as topography, nearshore bathymetry, rates of shoreline change and relevant water levels. These efforts are inclusive of both standard approaches (e.g. lidar, repeat coastal profile measurements, Digital Shoreline Analysis System assessments and fully-instrumented tide stations) as well as alternative methodologies that improve our ability to economically accomplish this work in harsh, remote areas (e.g. Structure From Motion surface models, quantification of local knowledge observations, stop-gap tidal datum conversion tools, and pressure-sensor water level networks). We present a comprehensive summary of the geographic variability of coastal dynamics and geohazard potential along the Alaska shoreline, from the erosion-prone North Slope coastline to low-lying areas in western Alaska that are at elevated risk to storm surge inundation. This work provides a graphical summary of the existing quality and spatial extent of data in Alaskan coastal communities while highlighting critical data gaps, such as high-precision elevation models, which are delaying more robust flood and erosion vulnerability mapping. By outlining ongoing work and providing examples from recent DGGS projects we will showcase some of the new vulnerability mapping tools under development for our state and also identify opportunities for necessary collaborations in the Alaska coastal zone.

  20. Adaptation to coastal hazards: the livelihood struggles of a fishing community in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Santha, Sunil D

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the coastal hazard adaptation strategies of a fishing community in a village in Kerala, India. It shows that formal adaptation strategies are highly techno-centric, costly, and do not take into account the vulnerabilities of the fishing community. Instead, they have contributed to ecological, livelihood, and knowledge uncertainties. The adaptation strategies of the fishing community are a response to these uncertainties. However, they may not lead to the fishing community's recovery from its vulnerability contexts. This case study is primarily qualitative in nature. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Insights reveal that when actors with diverse values, interests, knowledge, and power evolve or design their respective adaptation strategies, the resulting interface often aggravates existing uncertainties associated with hazards. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that local discourses on coastal hazards are livelihood-centric and socially constructed within the struggle of the fishing community to access resources and to acquire the right to development. PMID:25230704

  1. Sea Level Rise Decision Support Tools for Adaptation Planning in Vulnerable Coastal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozum, J. S.; Marcy, D.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA is involved in a myriad of climate related research and projects that help decision makers and the public understand climate science as well as climate change impacts. The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) provides data, tools, trainings and technical assistance to coastal resource managers. Beginning in 2011, NOAA OCM began developing a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer which provides nationally consistent data sets and analyses to help communities with coastal management goals such as: understanding and communicating coastal flood hazards, performing vulnerability assessments and increasing coastal resilience, and prioritizing actions for different inundation/flooding scenarios. The Viewer is available on NOAA's Digital Coast platform: (coast.noaa.gov/ditgitalcoast/tools/slr). In this presentation we will share the lessons learned from our work with coastal decision-makers on the role of coastal flood risk data and tools in helping to shape future land use decisions and policies. We will also focus on a recent effort in California to help users understand the similarities and differences of a growing array of sea level rise decision support tools. NOAA staff and other partners convened a workshop entitled, "Lifting the Fog: Bringing Clarity to Sea Level Rise and Shoreline Change Models and Tools," which was attended by tool develops, science translators and coastal managers with the goal to create a collaborative communication framework to help California coastal decision-makers navigate the range of available sea level rise planning tools, and to inform tool developers of future planning needs. A sea level rise tools comparison matrix will be demonstrated. This matrix was developed as part of this effort and has been expanded to many other states via a partnership with NOAA, Climate Central, and The Nature Conservancy.

  2. A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

    2013-04-15

    Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences. PMID:23500022

  3. Relative sea level and coastal environments in arctic Alaska during Marine Isotope Stage 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, L. M.; Mann, D. H.; Jones, B. M.; Rittenour, T. M.; Grosse, G.; Groves, P.

    2015-12-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 was characterized by marked fluctuations in climate, the warmest being MIS 5e (124-119 ka) when relative sea level (RSL) stood 2-10 m higher than today along many coastlines. In northern Alaska, marine deposits now 5-10 m above modern sea level are assigned to this time period and termed the Pelukian transgression (PT). Complicating this interpretation is the possibility that an intra-Stage 5 ice shelf extended along the Alaskan coast, causing isostatic depression along its grounded margins, which caused RSL highs even during periods of low, global RSL. Here we use optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date inferred PT deposits on the Beaufort Sea coastal plain. A transition from what we interpret to be lagoonal mud to sandy tidal flat deposits lying ~ 2.75 m asl dates to 113+/-18 ka. Above this, a 5-m thick gravelly barrier beach dates to 95 +/- 20 ka. This beach contains well-preserved marine molluscs, whale vertebrae, and walrus tusks. Pleistocene-aged ice-rich eolian silt (yedoma) blanket the marine deposits and date to 57.6 +/-10.9 ka. Our interpretation of this chronostratigraphy is that RSL was several meters higher than today during MIS 5e, and lagoons or brackish lakes were prevalent. Gravel barrier beaches moved onshore as local RSL rose further after MIS 5e. The error range of the OSL age of the barrier-beach unit spans the remaining four substages of MIS 5; however, the highstand of RSL on this arctic coastline appears to occurr after the warmest part of the last interglacial and appears not to be coeval with the eustatic maximum reached at lower latitudes during MIS 5. One possibility is that RSL along the Beaufort Sea coast was affected by isostatic depression caused by an ice shelf associated with widespread, intra-Stage 5 glaciation that was out of phase with lower latitude glaciation and whose extent and timing remains enigmatic.

  4. Response of Bacterioplankton Communities to Cadmium Exposure in Coastal Water Microcosms with High Temporal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 μg liter−1 of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 μg liter−1). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3−-N, NO2−-N, PO43−-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. PMID:25326310

  5. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

    2011-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas. PMID:21764082

  6. Changes in microbial communities in coastal sediments along natural CO2 gradients at a volcanic vent in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Raulf, Felix F; Fabricius, Katharina; Uthicke, Sven; de Beer, Dirk; Abed, Raeid M M; Ramette, Alban

    2015-10-01

    Natural CO2 venting systems can mimic conditions that resemble intermediate to high pCO2 levels as predicted for our future oceans. They represent ideal sites to investigate potential long-term effects of ocean acidification on marine life. To test whether microbes are affected by prolonged exposure to pCO2 levels, we examined the composition and diversity of microbial communities in oxic sandy sediments along a natural CO2 gradient. Increasing pCO2 was accompanied by higher bacterial richness and by a strong increase in rare members in both bacterial and archaeal communities. Microbial communities from sites with CO2 concentrations close to today's conditions had different structures than those of sites with elevated CO2 levels. We also observed increasing sequence abundance of several organic matter degrading types of Flavobacteriaceae and Rhodobacteraceae, which paralleled concurrent shifts in benthic cover and enhanced primary productivity. With increasing pCO2 , sequences related to bacterial nitrifying organisms such as Nitrosococcus and Nitrospirales decreased, and sequences affiliated to the archaeal ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota Nitrosopumilus maritimus increased. Our study suggests that microbial community structure and diversity, and likely key ecosystem functions, may be altered in coastal sediments by long-term CO2 exposure to levels predicted for the end of the century. PMID:25471738

  7. Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

  8. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  9. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M.; Dexter, Troy A.; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100 000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  10. A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Amy R; Lepère, Cécile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

    2013-01-01

    A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning–sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, α- and β-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change. PMID:23364354

  11. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Michał; Wittmer, Jacalyn M; Dexter, Troy A; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-03-22

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100,000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  12. Small copepods structuring mesozooplankton community dynamics in a tropical estuary-coastal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, M.; Raman, A. V.; Ganesh, T.; Chandramohan, P.; Dehairs, F.

    2013-07-01

    It is important to know the ultimate role of small copepods in structuring mesozooplankton community pattern and diversity on an estuary-coastal gradient. Here multivariate analyses were used to elucidate this in the Godavari estuary, on the east coast of India. During May 2002, corresponding to the spring intermonsoon, mesozooplankton were sampled from 4 GPS fixed stations in the estuarine reaches of River Godavari and 19 in the coastal waters where Godavari enters the Bay of Bengal. There were 91 mesozooplankton taxa represented by 23 divergent groups. Copepods were by far the most prominent in terms of species richness, numerical abundance, and widespread distribution followed by appendicularians. Small copepods of families Paracalanidae, Acartiidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae, and Euterpinidae dominated. There were differing regional mesozooplankton/copepod communities, that segregated the estuary-coastal sites into different biotic assemblages: Group-I representing the estuary proper, Group-II estuary mouth and near shore, Group-III the intermediate coastal stations and Group-IV the coastal-offshore waters. Alpha (SRp, H', J', Δ*) and beta diversity (MVDISP, β, β-dissimilarity) measures varied noticeably across these assemblages/areas. The significant correlation of small copepod abundance with total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (mgDM.m-3) in the estuarine (r: 0.40) and coastal (r: 0.46-0.83) waters together with a regression analysis of diversity measures have revealed the importance of small copepods in the overall mesozooplankton/copepod community structure. There were 'characterizing' and 'discriminating' species, responsible for the observed assemblage patterns. Mesozooplankton/copepod community structure and the size-spectra observed during this study indicate an estuarine-coastal gradient in plankton tropho-dynamics that may shift between a microbial dominated system inside the estuary and mixotrophy in the coastal waters. The

  13. Design and testing of 'genome-proxy' microarrays to profile marine microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rich, Virginia I; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; DeLong, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a 'genome-proxy' microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to 13 of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual open reading frame, and distributed along each approximately 40-160 kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having community, corresponding to approximately 10(3) cells ml(-1) in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R(2) of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition, the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R(2) = 0.9999 and a limit of detection of approximately 1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array's multiple-probe, 'genome-proxy' approach and

  14. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  15. Random error analysis of marine xCO2 measurements in a coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cueva, Alejandro; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and identifying measurement error is an ongoing challenge for carbon cycle science to constrain measurable uncertainty related to the sources and sinks of CO2. One source of uncertainty in measurements is derived from random errors (ε); thus, it is important to quantify their magnitude and their relationship to environmental variability in order to constrain local-to-global carbon budgets. We applied a paired-observation method to determine ε associated with marine xCO2 in a coastal upwelling zone of an eastern boundary current. Continuous data (3-h resolution) from a mooring platform during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons was analyzed off of northern Baja California in the California Current. To test the rigor of the algorithm to calculate ε we propose a method for determining daily mean time series values that may be affected by ε. To do this we used either two or three variables in the function, but no significant differences for ε mean values were found due to the large variability in ε (-0.088 ± 27 ppm for two variables and -0.057 ± 28 ppm for three variables). Mean ε values were centered on zero, with low values of ε more frequent than greater values, and follow a double exponential distribution. Random error variability increased with higher magnitudes of xCO2, and in general, ε variability increased in relation to upwelling conditions (up to ∼9% of measurements). Increased ε during upwelling suggests the importance of meso-scale processes on ε variability and could have a large influence seasonal to annual CO2 estimates. This approach could be extended and modified to other marine carbonate system variables as part of data quality assurance/quality control and to quantify uncertainty (due to ε) from a wide variety of continuous oceanographic monitoring platforms.

  16. Evidence for distinct coastal and offshore communities of bottlenose dolphins in the north east Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Machiel G; Visser, Fleur; Englund, Anneli; Rogan, Emer; Ingram, Simon N

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphin stock structure in the northeast Atlantic remains poorly understood. However, fine scale photo-id data have shown that populations can comprise multiple overlapping social communities. These social communities form structural elements of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) [corrected] populations, reflecting specific ecological and behavioural adaptations to local habitats. We investigated the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the waters of northwest Ireland and present evidence for distinct inshore and offshore social communities. Individuals of the inshore community had a coastal distribution restricted to waters within 3 km from shore. These animals exhibited a cohesive, fission-fusion social organisation, with repeated resightings within the research area, within a larger coastal home range. The offshore community comprised one or more distinct groups, found significantly further offshore (>4 km) than the inshore animals. In addition, dorsal fin scarring patterns differed significantly between inshore and offshore communities with individuals of the offshore community having more distinctly marked dorsal fins. Specifically, almost half of the individuals in the offshore community (48%) had characteristic stereotyped damage to the tip of the dorsal fin, rarely recorded in the inshore community (7%). We propose that this characteristic is likely due to interactions with pelagic fisheries. Social segregation and scarring differences found here indicate that the distinct communities are likely to be spatially and behaviourally segregated. Together with recent genetic evidence of distinct offshore and coastal population structures, this provides evidence for bottlenose dolphin inshore/offshore community differentiation in the northeast Atlantic. We recommend that social communities should be considered as fundamental units for the management and conservation of bottlenose dolphins and their habitat specialisations. PMID:25853823

  17. Evidence for Distinct Coastal and Offshore Communities of Bottlenose Dolphins in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, Machiel G.; Visser, Fleur; Englund, Anneli; Rogan, Emer; Ingram, Simon N.

    2015-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphin stock structure in the northeast Atlantic remains poorly understood. However, fine scale photo-id data have shown that populations can comprise multiple overlapping social communities. These social communities form structural elements of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations, reflecting specific ecological and behavioural adaptations to local habitats. We investigated the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the waters of northwest Ireland and present evidence for distinct inshore and offshore social communities. Individuals of the inshore community had a coastal distribution restricted to waters within 3 km from shore. These animals exhibited a cohesive, fission-fusion social organisation, with repeated resightings within the research area, within a larger coastal home range. The offshore community comprised one or more distinct groups, found significantly further offshore (>4 km) than the inshore animals. In addition, dorsal fin scarring patterns differed significantly between inshore and offshore communities with individuals of the offshore community having more distinctly marked dorsal fins. Specifically, almost half of the individuals in the offshore community (48%) had characteristic stereotyped damage to the tip of the dorsal fin, rarely recorded in the inshore community (7%). We propose that this characteristic is likely due to interactions with pelagic fisheries. Social segregation and scarring differences found here indicate that the distinct communities are likely to be spatially and behaviourally segregated. Together with recent genetic evidence of distinct offshore and coastal population structures, this provides evidence for bottlenose dolphin inshore/offshore community differentiation in the northeast Atlantic. We recommend that social communities should be considered as fundamental units for the management and conservation of bottlenose dolphins and their habitat specialisations. PMID:25853823

  18. Community composition has greater impact on the functioning of marine phytoplankton communities than ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Sarah L; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Barcelos E Ramos, Joana; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Gallo, Francesca; Matthiessen, Birte

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (ω(2) ) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. This study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans. PMID:24115206

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of a marine bacterial community enriched with dimethylsulfoniopropionate.

    PubMed

    Vila-Costa, Maria; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Sun, Shulei; Sharma, Shalabh; Poretsky, Rachel; Moran, Mary Ann

    2010-11-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an important source of reduced sulfur and carbon for marine microbial communities, as well as the precursor of the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). In this study, we used metatranscriptomic sequencing to analyze gene expression profiles of a bacterial assemblage from surface waters at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) station with and without a short-term enrichment of DMSP (25 nM for 30 min). An average of 303 143 reads were obtained per treatment using 454 pyrosequencing technology, of which 51% were potential protein-encoding sequences. Transcripts from Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased in relative abundance on DMSP addition, yet there was little change in the contribution of two bacterioplankton groups whose cultured members harbor known DMSP degradation genes, Roseobacter and SAR11. The DMSP addition led to an enrichment of transcripts supporting heterotrophic activity, and a depletion of those encoding light-related energy generation. Genes for the degradation of C3 compounds were significantly overrepresented after DMSP addition, likely reflecting the metabolism of the C3 component of DMSP. Mapping these transcripts to known biochemical pathways indicated that both acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA may be common entry points of this moiety into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In a short time frame (30 min) in the extremely oligotrophic Sargasso Sea, different gene expression patterns suggest the use of DMSP by a diversity of marine bacterioplankton as both carbon and sulfur sources. PMID:20463763

  20. Ascaridoid parasites infecting in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal area of China: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Chen, Hui-Xia; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Marine fishes represent the important components of the diet in the coastal areas of China and they are also natural hosts of various parasites. However, to date, little is known about the occurrence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in China. In order to determine the presence of ascaridoid parasites in the frequently consumed marine fishes in the coastal town Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, 211 fish representing 45 species caught from the South China Sea (off Daya Gulf) were examined. Five species of ascaridoid nematodes at different developmental stages were detected in the marine fishes examined herein, including third-stage larva of Anisakis typica (Diesing, 1860), third and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge, 2013, adult and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium zhoushanense Li, Liu & Zhang, 2014, adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu, 1949) and adults of Raphidascaris longispicula Li, Liu & Zhang, 2012. The overall prevalence of infection is 18.0%. Of them, Hysterothylacium sp. IV-A with the highest prevalence (17.5%) and intensity (mean=14.6) of infection was the predominant species. The prevalence and intensity of A. typica were very low (1/211 of marine fish infected with an intensity of one parasite per fish). The morphological and molecular characterization of all nematode species was provided. A cladistic analysis based on ITS sequence was constructed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships of these ascaridoid parasites obtained herein. The present study provided important information on the occurrence and diagnosis of ascaridoid nematodes in the commercially important marine fishes from the South China Sea. The low level of infection and the species composition of ascaridoid nematodes seem to indicate the presence of low risk of human anisakidosis when local population consumed these marine fishes examined herein. PMID:26546570

  1. The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

    2013-01-01

    After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

  2. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

  3. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404-411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  4. Development of a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy for analysis of the marine phytoplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Ho; Kang, Hye-Eun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Sang Heon; Ahn, Do-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404–411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy. The novel strategy was used to analyze the phytoplankton community structure of six water samples from the East/Japan Sea: surface and 50 m depths at coastal and open-sea sites, with collections in May and July 2014. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which covered most of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal phyla, including Dinophyta, Rhodophyta, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Streptophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, and Cyanophyta. This highlights the importance of plastid 23S primers, which perform better than the currently used 16S primers for phytoplankton community surveys. The findings also revealed that more efforts should be made to update 23S rDNA sequences as well as those of 16S in the databases. Analysis of algal proportions in the six samples showed that community structure differed depending on location, depth and season. Across the six samples evaluated, the numbers of OTUs in each phylum were similar but their relative proportions varied. This novel strategy would allow laboratories to analyze large numbers of samples at reasonable expense, whereas this has not been possible to date due to cost and time. In addition, we expect that this strategy will generate a large amount of novel data that could potentially change established methods and tools that are currently used in the realms of

  5. Contribution of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota to cyclopentyl tetraethers in the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea: impact on the TEX86 paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Zhang, C. L.; Xie, W.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, P.

    2015-08-01

    TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms) has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature (SST). While Marine Group I (MG I) Thaumarchaeota have been commonly believed to be the source for GDGTs, Marine Group II (MG II Euryarchaeota) have recently been suggested to contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. However, little is known how the MG II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs may influence TEX86 in marine sediment record. In this study, we characterize MG II Euryarchaeota-produced GDGTs and assess the likely effect of these tetraether lipids on TEX86. Analyses of core lipid (CL-) and intact polar lipid (IPL-) based GDGTs, 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting MG II Euryarchaeota were performed on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water) and its estuary (mixing water) to the coastal South China Sea (seawater). The results showed that the community composition varied along the salinity gradient with MG II Euryarchaeota as the second dominant group in the mixing water and seawater. qPCR data indicated that the abundance of MG II Euryarchaeota in the mixing water was three to four orders of magnitude higher than the river water and seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG II Euryarchaeota vs. total archaea and the relative abundance of GDGTs-1, -2, -3, or -4 as well as the ring index based on these compounds, which collectively suggest that MG II Euryarchaeota may actively produce GDGTs in the water column. These results also show strong evidence that MG II Euryarchaeota synthesizing GDGTs with 1-4 cyclopentane moieties may bias TEX86 in the water column and sediments. This study highlights that valid interpretation of TEX86 in sediment record, particularly in coastal oceans, needs to consider the

  6. Do pharmaceuticals bioaccumulate in marine molluscs and fish from a coastal lagoon?

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Huerta, B; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2016-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of 20 pharmaceuticals in cockle (Cerastodema glaucum), noble pen shell (Pinna nobilis), sea snail (Murex trunculus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and black goby (Gobius niger) was evaluated, considering their distribution throughout the Mar Menor lagoon and their variations in spring and autumn 2010. The analytical procedure was adapted for the different matrices as being sensitive and reproducible. Eighteen out of the 20 compounds analysed were found at low ngg(-1) in these species throughout the lagoon. Hydrochlorothiazide and carbamazepine were detected in all species considered. The bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals was heterogeneous in the lagoon, with a higher number of pharmaceuticals being detected in fish (18) than in wild molluscs (8), particularly in golden grey mullet muscle (16). В-blockers and psychiatric drugs were preferentially bioccumulated in fish and hydrochlorothiazide was also confirmed in caged clams. The higher detection frequency and concentrations found in golden grey mullet suggested that mugilids could be used as an indicator of contamination by pharmaceuticals in coastal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows data about hydrochlorothiazide, levamisole and codeine in wild marine biota. PMID:26775009

  7. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alberto V; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m(-2) d(-1)) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m(-2) d(-1)). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L(-1)) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. PMID:27283125

  8. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m−2 d−1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m−2 d−1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m−2 d−1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L−1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. PMID:27283125

  9. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m‑2 d‑1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m‑2 d‑1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m‑2 d‑1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L‑1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  10. Mercury concentrations in the coastal marine food web along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of seasonal (wet and dry seasons) and spatial (five sites) variation of mercury concentration in seven marine organisms representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters and including species of commercial importance. Total mercury levels were recorded in the green algae (Ulva lactuca); the brown mussel (Perna perna); the Caramote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus); and in the liver and muscles of the following fish: Solea senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron, and Sardinella aurita. The total selenium (Se) contents were determined only in the edible part of Perna perna, Penaeus kerathurus and in the muscles of Sardinella aurita and Solea senegalensis. Hg concentration in fish species was higher in liver compared to the muscle. Between species differences in Hg, concentrations were recorded with the highest concentration found in fish and the lowest in algae. The spatiotemporal study showed that there was no clear seasonal pattern in Hg concentrations in biota, but spatial differences existed with highest concentrations in sites located near important anthropogenic pressure. For shrimp, mussel, and the muscles of sardine and sole, Hg concentrations were below the health safety limits for human consumption as defined by the European Union. The Se/Hg molar ratio was always higher than one whatever the species or location suggesting a protection of Se against Hg potential adverse effect. PMID:26961529

  11. Medium-resolution Autonomous in situ Gamma Detection System for Marine and Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Douglas, Matthew; Meier, David E.; Mullen, O Dennis; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Jones, Mark E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Johnson, Bryce; Santschi, Peter H.

    2009-12-01

    We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes (40K and U/Th series radionuclides). Filtration is used to preconcentrate target isotopes residing on suspended particles, while chemosorption is employed to preferentially extract truly dissolved components from the water column. A variety of commercial and in-house nano-porus chemosorbents have been selected, procured or produced, and tested. Used filter and chemosorbent media are counted autonomously using two LaBr3 detectors in a near 4-pi configuration around the samples. A compact digital pulse processing system developed in-house and capable of running in coincidence mode is used to process the signal from the detectors to a small on-board computer. The entire system is extremely compact (9” dia. x 30” len.) and platform independent, but designed for initial deployment on a research buoy.

  12. DDT contamination in selected estuarine and coastal marine finfish and shellfish of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kennish, M J; Ruppel, B E

    1996-08-01

    Analysis of DDT contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey (USA) reveals consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, in bluefish, striped bass, weakfish, and blue crabs collected at 27 stations throughout the state between 1988 and 1991 ranged from <25 to >300 microg/kg wet weight (wet wt). Gas chromatographic analysis of 175 tissue samples from these four species showed that the highest levels of DDTs (DDT plus DDE and DDD), exceeding 300 microg/kg wet wt, occurred in blue crabs (hepatopancreas) from the Hudson-Newark-Raritan Bay complex in the northeast region. Lower mean concentrations of DDTs (<200 microg/kg wet wt) were recorded in tissue samples of these species from all other regions of the state. The lowest levels of DDT contamination (mean <110 microg/kg wet wt) were found in samples from the south coast region. The greatest impact of DDT contamination is nearby metropolitan areas of the state, although the total concentrations of DDT in tissue samples from these areas are far less than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 5,000 microg/kg wet wt for this contaminant. PMID:8781078

  13. Adjustment of the summertime marine atmospheric boundary layer to the western Iberia coastal morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Isabel T.; Santos, Aires J.; Belo-Pereira, Margarida; Oliveira, Paulo B.

    2016-04-01

    During summer (June, July, and August), northerly winds driven by the Azores anticyclone are prevalent over western Iberia. The Quick Scatterometer Satellite 2000 to 2009 summertime estimates reveal a broad high wind speed (≥7 ms-1) area extending about 300 km from shore and along the entire Iberian west coast. Nested in this large high-speed region, preferred maximum regions anchored in the Iberian major capes, Finisterre, Roca, and S. Vicente, are found. Composite analyses of wind maxima were performed to diagnose the typical summertime synoptic-scale pressure distribution associated with these smaller size high-speed regions. The flow low-level structure was further studied with a mesoscale numerical prediction model for three northerly events characterized by typical summertime synoptic conditions. A low-level coastal jet, setting the background conditions to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) response to topography, was found in the three cases. The causes for wind maximum downwind capes were investigated, focusing on the hypothesis that western Iberia MABL responds to hydraulic forcing. For the three events supercritical and transcritical flow conditions were identified and expansion fan signatures were found downwind each cape. Aircraft measurements, performed during one of the events, gave additional evidence of the expansion fan leeward Cape Roca. The importance of other forcing mechanisms was also assessed by considering the hypothesis of downslope wind acceleration and found to be in direct conflict with soundings and surface observations.

  14. Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height under marine upstream flow conditions at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PeñA, A.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A. N.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractWe investigate several lidar-type instruments and methodologies for boundary layer height (BLH) estimation during 2 days at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site for winds that experience <span class="hlt">marine</span> upstream flow conditions. Wavelet and profile fitting procedures on the aerosol backscatter signals from a ceilometer and an aerosol lidar reveal similar BLHs, but their agreement depends on the presence of clouds and the instrument signal, among others. BLHs derived by a threshold on the carrier-to-noise profiles of a wind lidar agree well with those derived by using a threshold on the backscatter profile of the ceilometer and are used as reference for a 10 day BLH intercomparison. Furthermore, the BLHs from the aerosol analysis are comparable to those derived from wind speed and direction profiles from combined mast/wind lidar measurements. The BLH derived from simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model shows similar behavior compared to the lidar observations. The seasonal diurnal variation of the BLH for 2010, derived from the wind lidar and ceilometer thresholds, shows similar BLHs but generally higher values compared to that from WRF. No clear BLH diurnal variation is observed neither from the observations nor from the WRF model outputs, except in summer for the latter. Both observations and WRF model simulations reveal higher BLHs during autumn compared to spring time. These BLHs are used to evaluate the intra-annual variation and show high peaks in September, November, and February.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25943904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25943904"><span id="translatedtitle">XoxF encoding an alternative methanol dehydrogenase is widespread in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taubert, Martin; Grob, Carolina; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The xoxF gene, encoding a pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenase, is found in all known proteobacterial methylotrophs. In several newly discovered methylotrophs, XoxF is the active methanol dehydrogenase, catalysing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Apart from that, its potential role in methylotrophy and carbon cycling is unknown. So far, the diversity of xoxF in the environment has received little attention. We designed PCR primer sets targeting clades of the xoxF gene, and used 454 pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons obtained from the DNA of four <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments for a unique assessment of the diversity of xoxF in these habitats. Phylogenetic analysis of the data obtained revealed a high diversity of xoxF genes from two of the investigated clades, and substantial differences in sequence composition between environments. Sequences were classified as being related to a wide range of both methylotrophs and non-methylotrophs from Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The most prominent sequences detected were related to the family Rhodobacteraceae, the genus Methylotenera and the OM43 clade of Methylophilales, and are thus related to organisms that employ XoxF for methanol oxidation. Furthermore, our analyses revealed a high degree of so far undescribed sequences, suggesting a high number of unknown bacterial species in these habitats. PMID:25943904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409961"><span id="translatedtitle">Selenium: an essential element for growth of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, N.M.; Thompson, P.A.; Harrison, P.J.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>An obligate requirement for selenium is demonstrated in axenic culture of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (clone 3H) (Hust.) Hasle and Heimdal grown in artificial seawater medium. Selenium deficiency was characterized by a reduction in growth rate and eventually by a cessation of cell division. The addition of 10 M Na2SeO3 to nutrient enriched artificial seawater resulted in excellent growth of T. pseudonana and only a slight inhibition of growth occurred at Na2SeO3 concentrations of 10 T and 10 S M. By contrast, Na2SeO4 failed to support growth of T. pseudonana when supplied at concentrations less than 10 X M and the growth rate at this concentration was only one quarter of the maximum growth rate. The addition of 10 T and 10 S M Na2SeO4 to the culture medium was toxic and cell growth was completely inhibited. Eleven trace elements were tested for their ability to replace the selenium requirement by this alga and all were without effect. In selenium-deficient and selenium-starved cultures of T. pseudonana cell volume increased as much as 10-fold as a result of an increase in cell length (along the pervalvar axis) but cell width was constant. It is concluded that selenium is an indispensable element for the growth of T. pseudonana and it should be included as a nutrient enrichment to artificial seawater medium when culturing this alga.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSR....43..209K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JSR....43..209K"><span id="translatedtitle">New and important roles for DMSP in <span class="hlt">marine</span> microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiene, R. P.; Linn, L. J.; Bruton, J. A.</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>The algal osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is recognised as the major precursor of <span class="hlt">marine</span> dimethylsulfide (DMS), a volatile sulfur compound that affects atmospheric chemistry and global climate. Recent studies, using 35S-DMSP tracer techniques, suggest that DMSP may play additional very important roles in the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of the surface ocean. DMSP may serve as an intracellular osmolyte in bacteria that take up phytoplankton-derived DMSP from seawater. In addition, DMSP appears to support from 1 to 13% of the bacterial carbon demand in surface waters, making it one of the most significant single substrates for bacterioplankton so far identified. Furthermore, the sulfur from DMSP is efficiently incorporated into bacterial proteins (mostly into methionine) and DMSP appears to be a major source of sulfur for <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacterioplankton. Assimilatory metabolism of DMSP is via methanethiol (MeSH) that is produced by a demethylation/demethiolation pathway which dominates DMSP degradation in situ. Based on the linkage between assimilatory metabolism of DMSP and bacterial growth, we offer a hypothesis whereby DMSP availability to bacteria controls the production of DMS by the competing DMSP lyase pathway. Also linked with the assimilatory metabolism of DMSP is the production of excess MeSH which, if not assimilated into protein, reacts to form dissolved non-volatile compounds. These include sulfate and DOM-metal-MeSH complexes, both of which represent major short-term end-products of DMSP degradation. Because production rates of MeSH in seawater are high (3-90 nM d -1), reaction of MeSH with trace metals could affect metal availability and chemistry in seawater. Overall, results of recent studies provide evidence that DMSP plays important roles in the carbon, sulfur and perhaps metal and DOM cycles in <span class="hlt">marine</span> microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. These findings, coupled with the fact that the small fraction of DMSP converted to DMS may influence atmospheric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25873467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25873467"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilience and adjustments of surface sediment bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in an enclosed shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon, Magdalen Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Lovejoy, Connie</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Bacteria regulate global biogeochemical cycles and much of this activity occurs in shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments; however, little is known of the seasonality or how changes in environmental conditions influence the active sediment bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Havre-aux-Maisons (Magdalen Islands, Canada), a relatively pristine enclosed shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon, is of particular biological interest since it has no inflowing rivers and provides an opportunity to investigate non-estuarine shallow <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments. Potentially active taxa in surface sediments were identified over a 15-month period using high-throughput rRNA amplicon sequencing. Sediment bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> were diverse at the species level, with high Beta diversity. Throughout most of the sampling period, <span class="hlt">communities</span> consisted of taxa that were closely related to each other, suggesting that specific environmental conditions at a given time point favored taxa with similar ecological traits. However, bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes were remarkably similar over time with a predominantly sulfur cycling <span class="hlt">community</span> composed of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria persisting over much of the sampling period, despite the oxygenated water column. This <span class="hlt">community</span> was disrupted after a storm and less common phyla became relatively more abundant. Following this disruption, a high proportion of benthic Cyanobacteria colonized the sediment before the reestablishment of the sulfur-cycle-dominated <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:25873467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24658047"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population: implications for osmoregulation in <span class="hlt">marine</span> snake prototypes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and <span class="hlt">marine</span> life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to <span class="hlt">marine</span> life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several <span class="hlt">marine</span> snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of <span class="hlt">marine</span> snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population in Bulgaria. Our results show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3962449','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3962449"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Snake Prototypes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and <span class="hlt">marine</span> life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to <span class="hlt">marine</span> life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several <span class="hlt">marine</span> snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of <span class="hlt">marine</span> snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> population in Bulgaria. Our results show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l−1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMNH32A..06G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMNH32A..06G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goff, J. R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.H51P..04N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.H51P..04N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrodynamic Based Decision Making Framework for Impact Assessment of Extreme Storm Events on <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nazari, R.; Miller, K.; Hurler, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and inland flooding has been a problematic occurrence, specifically over the past century. Global warming has caused an 8 inch sea level rise since 1990, which made the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> flood zone wider, deeper and more damaging. Additionally, riverine flooding is extremely damaging to the country's substructure and economy as well which causes river banks to overflow, inundating low-lying areas. New Jersey and New York are two areas at severe risk for flood hazard, sea level rise, land depletion and economic loss which are the main study area of this work. A decision making framework is being built to help mitigate the impacts of the environmental and economical dangers of storm surges, sea level rise, flashfloods and inland flooding. With vigorous research and the use of innovative hydrologic modeling software, this tool can be built and utilized to form resiliency for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>. This will allow the individuals living in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> to understand the details of climatic hazards in their area and risks associated to their <span class="hlt">communities</span>. This tool will also suggest the best solution for the problem each <span class="hlt">community</span> faces. Atlantic City and New York City has been modeled and compared using potential storm events and the outcomes have been analyzed. The tool offers all the possible solutions for the type of flooding that occurs. Green infrastructure such as rain gardens, detention basins and green roofs can be used as small scale solutions. Greater scale solutions such as removable flood barriers, concrete walls and height adjustable walls will also be displayed if that poses as the best solution. The results and benefits from the simulation and modeling techniques, will allow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> to choose the most appropriate method for building a long lasting and sustainable resilience plan in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1241138"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fate of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Quigg, Antonietta</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4646686','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4646686"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fate of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. The fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans. PMID:26571122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1241138-fate-marine-bacterial-exopolysaccharide-natural-marine-microbial-communities','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1241138-fate-marine-bacterial-exopolysaccharide-natural-marine-microbial-communities"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fate of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Quigg, Antonietta</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not bemore » completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. Finally, the fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571122"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fate of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial Exopolysaccharide in Natural <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zilian; Chen, Yi; Wang, Rui; Cai, Ruanhong; Fu, Yingnan; Jiao, Nianzhi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), and bacterial EPS represent an important source of dissolved organic carbon in <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. It was proposed that bacterial EPS rich in uronic acid is resistant to mineralization by microbes and thus has a long residence time in global oceans. To confirm this hypothesis, bacterial EPS rich in galacturonic acid was isolated from Alteromonas sp. JL2810. The EPS was used to amend natural seawater to investigate the bioavailability of this EPS by native populations, in the presence and absence of ammonium and phosphate amendment. The data indicated that the bacterial EPS could not be completely consumed during the cultivation period and that the bioavailability of EPS was not only determined by its intrinsic properties, but was also determined by other factors such as the availability of inorganic nutrients. During the experiment, the humic-like component of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) was freshly produced. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure analysis indicated that the class Flavobacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes was the major contributor for the utilization of EPS. This report is the first to indicate that Flavobacteria are a major contributor to bacterial EPS degradation. The fraction of EPS that could not be completely utilized and the FDOM (e.g., humic acid-like substances) produced de novo may be refractory and may contribute to the carbon storage in the oceans. PMID:26571122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/912041','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/912041"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reed, David William; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark Edmond; Blackwelder, David Bradley; Colwell, Frederick Scott; Uchida, T.</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........27Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........27Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Observational and numerical studies of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> stratocumulus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xue</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation investigates the impacts of meteorological factors and aerosol indirect effects on the costal <span class="hlt">marine</span> stratocumulus (Sc) variations in the southeast Pacific, a region that has been largely unexplored and is a major challenge of the modeling <span class="hlt">community</span>, through both observational and numerical studies. This study provides a unique dataset for documenting the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> Sc-topped BL off the coast of Northern Chile. The observational study shows that the boundary layer (BL) over this region was well mixed and topped by a thin and non-drizzling Sc layer on days synoptically-quiescent with little variability between this region and the coast. The surface wind, the surface fluxes and the BL turbulence appeared to be weaker than those over other ocean regions where stratocumulus clouds exist. The weaker turbulence in the BL may contribute to a relatively low entrainment rate calculated from the near cloud top fluxes. This in-situ data set can help us better understand cloud processes within this <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regime, and also be valuable for the calibration of the satellite retrievals and the evaluation of numerical models operating at a variety of scales. A strong positive correlation between the liquid water path (LWP) and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was observed under similar boundary layer conditions. This correlation cannot be explained by some of the hypotheses based on previous modeling studies. The satellite retrievals obtained upstream one day prior to the flight observations reveal some sign that the clouds under the high CCN concentrations have minimal LWP loss due to precipitation suppression effects. The results from large eddy simulations with a two-momentum bulk microphysics scheme under different idealized environment scenarios based on aircraft observations indicate that (1) the simulated Sc responds more quickly to changes in large-scale subsidence than to those changes in surface fluxes, free-tropospheric humidity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4340961','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4340961"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and <span class="hlt">Community</span> Composition of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition (β diversity) of two groups of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in <span class="hlt">community</span> composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where <span class="hlt">coastal</span> breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25997808','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25997808"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of bacterial assemblages and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments subjected to contrasted oxygen regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Militon, Cécile; Jézéquel, Ronan; Gilbert, Franck; Corsellis, Yannick; Sylvi, Léa; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Cuny, Philippe</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>To study the impact of oxygen regimes on the removal of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oil-spill-affected <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, we used a thin-layer incubation method to ensure that the incubated sediment was fully oxic, anoxic, or was influenced by oxic-anoxic switches without sediment stirring. Hydrocarbon content and microbial assemblages were followed during 60 days to determine PAH degradation kinetics and microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics according to the oxygenation regimes. The highest PAH removal, with 69 % reduction, was obtained at the end of the experiment under oxic conditions, whereas weaker removals were obtained under oscillating and anoxic conditions (18 and 12 %, respectively). Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure during the experiment was determined using a dual 16S rRNA genes/16S rRNA transcripts approach, allowing the characterization of metabolically active bacteria responsible for the functioning of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> in the contaminated sediment. The shift of the metabolically active bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> showed that the selection of first responders belonged to Pseudomonas spp. and Labrenzia sp. and included an unidentified Deltaproteobacteria-irrespective of the oxygen regime-followed by the selection of late responders adapted to the oxygen regime. A novel unaffiliated phylotype (B38) was highly active during the last stage of the experiment, at which time, the low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAH biodegradation rates were significant for permanent oxic- and oxygen-oscillating conditions, suggesting that this novel phylotype plays an active role during the restoration phase of the studied ecosystem. PMID:25997808</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN11B1278S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN11B1278S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how <span class="hlt">communities</span> of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED138461.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED138461.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Down Where the Water Is: A <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Awareness Activity Book. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bulletin No. 22.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Callaghan, Sara S.</p> <p></p> <p>This activity booklet was prepared as part of the Rhode Island <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resources Management Council's public education program. It was designed to inform youngsters about the importance and use of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources. Line-drawn pictures of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> activities may be employed in a variety of ways to promote discussion and an awareness of the coastal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12..865S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12..865S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph <span class="hlt">community</span> in the temperate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region of the northwestern North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the <span class="hlt">marine</span> nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and nifH gene diversity within the euphotic zone in the temperate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmolN L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). During periods with high nitrogen fixation, the nifH sequences of UCYN-A were recovered, suggesting that these groups played a key role in nitrogen fixation. The nifH genes were also recovered in spring and winter when nitrogen fixation was undetectable. These genes consisted of many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria), which hitherto have rarely been reported to be abundant in surface diazotroph <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113733V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113733V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> geo-hazard in the Campi Flegrei <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area (Eastern Tyrrhenian sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Violante, C.; Angelino, A.; Buonocunto, F. P.; di Fiore, V.; Esposito, E.; Molisso, F.; Porfido, S.; Sacchi, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Campi Flegrei (i.e. "burning plains") are located on the eastern Tyrrhenian margin, an area characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. It is a densely urbanized <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone, including the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, where documented human activities have been developing for more than two thousand years. In the Pozzuoli area two major periods of eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. These periods were followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Numerous monogenic volcanoes formed close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flow and surge, has been detected offshore. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. In the Campi Flegrei, magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1883 on Ischia, and 1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. Volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity mainly associate with inferred resurgent calderas whose uplift have caused mass wasting phenomena, faulting and erosional activity both on land and at sea. Major geohazard features resulting from <span class="hlt">marine</span> geophysical and sedimentological investigations include (1) extensive landslide deposits and associated hummocky topographies off Ischia volcanic island, (2) seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fan, (3) superficial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5228Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5228Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Monitoring Network For The Integrated Knowledge of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zappalà, G.; Azzaro, F.; Bergamasco, A.; Caruso, G.; Decembrini, F.; Crisafi, E.</p> <p></p> <p>In the framework of the Cluster 10 MIUR, a program funded by the Italian Ministry for Scientific Research, an integrated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring network is being developed and installed in selected areas of Southern Italy. The network comprises seven monitoring buoys and a small equipped boat. The buoys will be deployed on 15-25 meters depth in positions chosen to investigate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters state and quality in areas subjected to human induced alterations (both of industrial or urban origin) in Messina Strait (Messina), Southern Tyrrhenian (Gioia Tauro, Milazzo, Palermo), Southern Adriatic (Manfredonia) and Ionian (Taranto, Augusta) Seas. Each buoy will be equipped with real time and pseudo (about 15 minutes) real time data acquisition and transmission system, based on GSM data transmission, SMS and e_mail procedures. Physical and Physico-Chemical parameters (T, C, DO, Turbidity, Fluorescence), Nutrients (NH4, NO2, NO3, PO4) will be monitored on water samples pumped from various depths. These measurements will be integrated with meteorological and ADCP observations and with laboratory bacteriological analysis of water samples collected using an ex- pressly designed water sampler. The use of such a device will support the develop- ment of new bacteriological methods rapid enough to be applied in the monitoring of seawater pollution. In particular, microscopical detection by immunofluorescence which has previously proved to be a useful technique for detection and quantification of the microorganism Escherichia coli, will be applied as the choice method for the determination of the most usual indicator of faecal contamination. Collected data will be included in a specifically-developed database with a client/server internet-like ar- chitecture. The data and metadata format complies with those stated at international level for <span class="hlt">marine</span> and oceanographic data exchange. Software procedures will allow data entry and retrieval via browser. A GIS application will enable to merge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k4016A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k4016A"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arkema, Katie K.; Verutes, Gregory; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Wood, Spencer A.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Rosenthal, Amy; McField, Melanie; de Zegher, Joann</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Integrated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to <span class="hlt">marine</span> spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027737"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel genetic divergence among <span class="hlt">coastal-marine</span> ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (<span class="hlt">marine</span> vs. <span class="hlt">coastal</span>) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each <span class="hlt">coastal-marine</span> ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow <span class="hlt">marine</span> fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions. PMID:27027737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27242747','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27242747"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> prokaryotic <span class="hlt">communities</span> to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole <span class="hlt">community</span> treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the <span class="hlt">communities</span> was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4876119','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4876119"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> prokaryotic <span class="hlt">communities</span> to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole <span class="hlt">community</span> treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the <span class="hlt">communities</span> was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233214&keyword=trade+AND+policy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77933124&CFTOKEN=77396992','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=233214&keyword=trade+AND+policy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77933124&CFTOKEN=77396992"><span id="translatedtitle">Decision-making in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Over half of the US population lives in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watersheds, creating a regional pressure for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy <span class="hlt">communities</span> and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marin</span>...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679689"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the response of structural complexity and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition to environmental change in <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Bridge, Tom; Hustache, Julie; Williams, Stefan B; Byrne, Maria; Figueira, Will</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Habitat structural complexity is a key factor shaping <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>. However, accurate methods for quantifying structural complexity underwater are currently lacking. Loss of structural complexity is linked to ecosystem declines in biodiversity and resilience. We developed new methods using underwater stereo-imagery spanning 4 years (2010-2013) to reconstruct 3D models of coral reef areas and quantified both structural complexity at two spatial resolutions (2.5 and 25 cm) and benthic <span class="hlt">community</span> composition to characterize changes after an unprecedented thermal anomaly on the west coast of Australia in 2011. Structural complexity increased at both resolutions in quadrats (4 m(2)) that bleached, but not those that did not bleach. Changes in complexity were driven by species-specific responses to warming, highlighting the importance of identifying small-scale dynamics to disentangle ecological responses to disturbance. We demonstrate an effective, repeatable method for quantifying the relationship among <span class="hlt">community</span> composition, structural complexity and ocean warming, improving predictions of the response of <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems to environmental change. PMID:26679689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70103631','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70103631"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of a nitrogen-enriched <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> lagoon during the summertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Howarth, Robert W.; Hayn, Melanie; Marino, Roxanne M.; Ganju, Neil; Foreman, Kenneth H.; McGlathery, Karen; Giblin, Anne E.; Berg, Peter; Walker, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We measured metabolism rates in a shallow, nitrogen-enriched <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystem on Cape Cod (MA, USA) during seven summers using an open-water diel oxygen method. We compared two basins, one directly receiving most of the nitrogen (N) load (“Snug Harbor”) and another further removed from the N load and better flushed (“Outer Harbor”). Both dissolved oxygen and pH varied greatly over the day, increasing in daylight and decreasing at night. The more N-enriched basin frequently went hypoxic during the night, and the pH in both basins was low (compared to standard seawater) when the oxygen levels were low, due to elevated carbon dioxide. Day-to-day variation in gross primary production (GPP) was high and linked in part to variation in light. Whole-ecosystem respiration tended to track this short-term variation in GPP, suggesting that respiration by the primary producers often dominated whole-system respiration. GPP was higher in the more N-loaded Snug Harbor. Seagrasses covered over 60 % of the area of the better-flushed, Outer Harbor throughout our study and were the major contributors to GPP there. Seagrasses covered 20 % of the area in Snug Harbor for the first 5 years of our study, and their contribution to GPP was relatively small. The seagrasses in Snug Harbor died off completely in the 6th year, but GPP remained high then and in the subsequent year. Overall, rates of phytoplankton GPP were relatively low, suggesting that benthic micro- and macro-algae may be the dominant primary producers in Snug Harbor in most years. Net ecosystem production in both Snug Harbor and the Outer Harbor was variable from year to year, showing net heterotrophy in some years and net autotrophy in others, with a trend towards increasing autotrophy over the 7 years reported here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...108...25W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR...108...25W"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Suriname</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (<40 m) <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area, revealing three spatially distinct species assemblages, related to clear gradients in some environmental parameters. A species-poor <span class="hlt">coastal</span> assemblage was discerned within the muddy, turbid-water zone (6-20 m depth), dominated by Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Crustacea: Penaeoidea). Near the 30 m isobath, sediments were much coarser (median grain size on average 345±103 μm vs. 128±53 μm in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> assemblage) and water transparency was much higher (on average 7.6±3.5 m vs. 2.4±2.1 m in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> assemblage). In this zone, a diverse offshore assemblage was found, characterized by brittle stars (mainly Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname <span class="hlt">coastal</span> shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16496181"><span id="translatedtitle">Osmoregulatory capacity and the ability to use <span class="hlt">marine</span> food sources in two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> songbirds (Cinclodes: Furnariidae) along a latitudinal gradient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabat, Pablo; Maldonado, Karin; Fariña, Jose Miguel; del Rio, Carlos Martínez</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Cinclodes nigrofumosus and C. oustaleti are two closely related songbirds that inhabit the northern Chilean coast during the austral fall and winter. This stretch spans a dramatic north to south latitudinal gradient in rainfall and temperature. Whereas C. nigrofumosus lives exclusively on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments, C. oustaleti shifts seasonally from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments to inland freshwater ones. We used the delta13C of these two species' tissues to investigate whether the reliance on <span class="hlt">marine</span> versus terrestrial sources varied from the hyper-arid north to the wet south. We also investigated latitudinal variation in the renal traits that mediate how these birds cope with dehydration and a salty <span class="hlt">marine</span> diet. Both species increased the incorporation of terrestrial carbon, as measured by delta13C, as terrestrial productivity increased southwards. However, C. nigrofumosus had consistently more positive (i.e. more <span class="hlt">marine</span>) and less variable delta13C values than C. oustaleti. The osmoregulatory traits of both species varied with latitude as well. Urine osmolality decreased from extremely high values in the north to moderate values in the south, while C. nigrofumosus produced more concentrated urine than C. oustaleti. In both species, the proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue decreased from north to south, and kidney size increased significantly with latitude. Cinclodes nigrofumosus had larger kidneys with larger proportions of medullary tissue than C. oustaleti. C. nigrofumosus and C. oustaleti are terrestrial organisms subsidized by a rich <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment where it is adjacent to an unproductive terrestrial. Variation in the reliance on <span class="hlt">marine</span> food sources seems to be accompanied by adjustments in the osmoregulatory mechanisms used by these birds to cope with salt and dehydration. PMID:16496181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593432"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems: a modelling approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A; Fulton, Elizabeth A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625232','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625232"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Pre-Existing Disturbances in the Effect of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Reserves on <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecosystems: A Modelling Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....60...38R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....60...38R"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure revealed distinct <span class="hlt">community</span> groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..276C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..276C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of organic pollution and physical stress on benthic macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">communities</span> from two intermittently closed and open <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons (ICOLLs)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Benthic macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">communities</span> and environmental conditions were studied in two intermittently closed and open <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs), located in southern Algarve (Foz do Almargem e Salgados), with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution, originated mainly from wastewater discharges, and the physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoons. Most of the year, lagoons were isolated from the sea, receiving the freshwater inputs from small rivers and in Salgados, also from the effluents of a wastewater plant. According to environmental and biotic conditions, Foz do Almargem presented a greater <span class="hlt">marine</span> influence and a lower trophic state (mesotrophic) than Salgados (hypereutrophic). Benthic macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the lagoons were distinct, just as their relations with environmental parameters. Mollusca were the most abundant macroinvertebrates in Foz do Almargem, while Insecta, Oligochaeta and Crustacea were more relevant in Salgados. Corophium multisetosum occurred exclusively in Salgados stations and, just as Chironomus sp., other Insecta and Oligochaeta, densities were positively related to total phosphorus, clay content and chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment, chlorophyll a concentration in water and with total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Abra segmentum, Cerastoderma glaucum, Peringia ulvae and Ecrobia ventrosa occurred only in Foz do Almargem, with lower values of the above mentioned parameters. Both lagoons were dominated by deposit feeders and taxa tolerant to environmental stress, although in Salgados there was a greater occurrence of opportunistic taxa associated to pronounced unbalanced situations, due to excess organic matter enrichment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..113..133L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..113..133L"><span id="translatedtitle">Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fish species in a Mediterranean <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">marine</span> biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase <span class="hlt">marine</span> protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118950','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118950"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span> on Oil Platforms in Gabon, West Africa: High Biodiversity Oases in a Low Biodiversity Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">marine</span> biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase <span class="hlt">marine</span> protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81639&keyword=les&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76634005&CFTOKEN=51591748','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81639&keyword=les&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76634005&CFTOKEN=51591748"><span id="translatedtitle">CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & <span class="hlt">MARINE</span> HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and <span class="hlt">marine</span> habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise <span class="hlt">community</span> awareness ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED395067.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED395067.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilitating <span class="hlt">Community</span> Change. A Case Study of <span class="hlt">Marin</span> City Families First.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Quiett, Douglas; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This report documents the development and progress of <span class="hlt">Marin</span> City Families First (MCFF), a project undertaken in <span class="hlt">Marin</span> City (California) in 1993 by the Far West Laboratory's (FWL) Center for Child and Family Studies. Its goal was to develop a model comprehensive child and family support system for low-income <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In pursuing its objective…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22setting+objectives%22&pg=3&id=ED501910','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22setting+objectives%22&pg=3&id=ED501910"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Mariner</span> Model: Charting the Course for Health-Promoting School <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoyle, Tena Bostrom</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Mariner</span> Model provides a step-by-step systems-building process and tool by which schools, school districts, and <span class="hlt">communities</span> can develop capacity and create an infrastructure that supports continuous improvement in health-promoting environments for children. The <span class="hlt">Mariner</span> Model follows a public health program planning development model that is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26990671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26990671"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> responses to climate-driven species redistribution to guide monitoring and adaptive ecosystem-based management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marzloff, Martin Pierre; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Hamon, Katell G; Hoshino, Eriko; Jennings, Sarah; van Putten, Ingrid E; Pecl, Gretta T</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>As a consequence of global climate-driven changes, <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems are experiencing polewards redistributions of species - or range shifts - across taxa and throughout latitudes worldwide. Research on these range shifts largely focuses on understanding and predicting changes in the distribution of individual species. The ecological effects of <span class="hlt">marine</span> range shifts on ecosystem structure and functioning, as well as human <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>, can be large, yet remain difficult to anticipate and manage. Here, we use qualitative modelling of system feedback to understand the cumulative impacts of multiple species shifts in south-eastern Australia, a global hotspot for ocean warming. We identify range-shifting species that can induce trophic cascades and affect ecosystem dynamics and productivity, and evaluate the potential effectiveness of alternative management interventions to mitigate these impacts. Our results suggest that the negative ecological impacts of multiple simultaneous range shifts generally add up. Thus, implementing whole-of-ecosystem management strategies and regular monitoring of range-shifting species of ecological concern are necessary to effectively intervene against undesirable consequences of <span class="hlt">marine</span> range shifts at the regional scale. Our study illustrates how modelling system feedback with only limited qualitative information about ecosystem structure and range-shifting species can predict ecological consequences of multiple co-occurring range shifts, guide ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change and help prioritise future research and monitoring. PMID:26990671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-23/pdf/2010-20851.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-23/pdf/2010-20851.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Ecological Classification Standard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-23</p> <p>... changes will be made available to the public on the FGDC Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span>... CMECS domain extends from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> tidal splash zone to the deep ocean, including all substrate and water column features of the oceans as well as the deep waters of the Great Lakes. CMECS describes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33F0245O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33F0245O"><span id="translatedtitle">Dom Export from <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-<span class="hlt">Marine</span> Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span> samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span> sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, <span class="hlt">marine</span> food webs, and climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23474896"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal <span class="hlt">communities</span> with respect to zonal vegetation in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawahara, Ai; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> dune vegetation distributes zonally along the environmental gradients of, e.g., soil disturbance. In the preset study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune ecosystem were characterized with respect to tolerance to soil disturbance. Two grass species, Elymus mollis and Miscanthus sinensis, are distributed zonally in the seaward and landward slopes, respectively, in the primary dunes in Ishikari, Japan. The seaward slope is severely disturbed by wind, while the landward slope is stabilized by the thick root system of M. sinensis. The roots and rhizosphere soils of the two grasses were collected from the slopes. The soils were sieved to destruct the fungal hyphal networks, and soil trap culture was conducted to assess tolerance of the <span class="hlt">communities</span> to disturbance, with parallel analysis of the field <span class="hlt">communities</span> using a molecular ecological tool. In the landward <span class="hlt">communities</span>, large shifts in the composition and increases in diversity were observed in the trap culture compared with the field, but in the seaward <span class="hlt">communities</span>, the impact of trap culture was minimal. The landward field <span class="hlt">community</span> was significantly nested within the landward trap culture <span class="hlt">community</span>, implying that most members in the field <span class="hlt">community</span> did not disappear in the trap culture. No nestedness was observed in the seaward <span class="hlt">communities</span>. These observations suggest that disturbance-tolerant fungi have been preferentially selected in the seaward slope due to severe disturbance in the habitat. Whereas a limited number of fungi, which are not necessarily disturbance-sensitive, dominate in the stable landward slope, but high-potential diversity has been maintained in the habitat. PMID:23474896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25408076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25408076"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> from a Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356981"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Community</span> structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a <span class="hlt">marine</span> pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Marine</span> microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable <span class="hlt">community</span> composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments affected by <span class="hlt">marine</span> oil spills. PMID:24356981</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13H0288A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13H0288A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetland response to sea level rise in a <span class="hlt">marine</span> and fluvial estuarine system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.; Medeiros, S. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> wetlands are at the risk of losing their productivity under increasing rates of sea level rise (SLR). Studies show that under extreme enough stressors, salt marshes will not have time to establish an equilibrium and may migrate landward (Donnelly and Bertness 2001; Warren and Niering 1993) or become open water. In order to investigate salt marsh productivity under SLR scenarios, an integrated hydrodynamic-marsh model was incorporated to dynamically couple physics and biology. The hydrodynamic model calculates mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) within the river and tidal creeks by analysis of simulated tidal constituents. The response of MHW and MLW is nonlinear due to local changes in the salt marsh platform elevation and biomass productivity. Spatially-varying MHW and MLW are utilized in a biologic model that is a two-dimensional application of the Marsh Equilibrium Model (Morris et al. 2002) to capture the effects of the hydrodynamics on biomass productivity and accretion. Including accurate marsh table elevations into the model is crucial to obtain accurate biomass productivity results. A lidar-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is corrected by incorporating Real Time Kinematic (RTK) surveying elevation data. Additionally, salt marshes continually adapt themselves to reach an equilibrium, in which there are ideal ranges of relative SLR and depth of inundation to increase biomass productivity (Morris et al. 2002). The inputs of the model are updated using the biomass productivity results at each coupling time step to capture the interaction between the marsh and hydrodynamic models. The hydro-marsh model is used to assess the effects of four projections of SLR (Parris et al., 2012) on salt marsh productivity for the year 2100 for the <span class="hlt">marine</span> dominated Grand Bay, MS estuary and the fluvial dominated Apalachicola, FL estuary. The results show higher productivity under a low SLR scenario and less productivity under the intermediate low SLR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176698"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> to determine environmental quality status of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan <span class="hlt">communities</span> have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the <span class="hlt">community</span> structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. PMID:24176698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552837','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552837"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Habitat Use by Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) from Baited Underwater Video Data in a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Terres, Maria A.; Lawrence, Emma; Hosack, Geoffrey R.; Haywood, Michael D. E.; Babcock, Russell C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Baited Underwater Video (BUV) systems have become increasingly popular for assessing <span class="hlt">marine</span> biodiversity. These systems provide video footage from which biologists can identify the individual fish species present. Here we explore the relevance of spatial dependence and <span class="hlt">marine</span> park boundaries while estimating the distribution and habitat associations of the commercially and recreationally important snapper species Chrysophrys auratus in Moreton Bay <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Park during a period when new <span class="hlt">Marine</span> National Parks zoned as no-take or “green” areas (i.e., areas with no legal fishing) were introduced. BUV studies typically enforce a minimum distance among BUV sites, and then assume that observations from different sites are independent conditional on the measured covariates. In this study, we additionally incorporated the spatial dependence among BUV sites into the modelling framework. This modelling approach allowed us to test whether or not the incorporation of highly correlated environmental covariates or the geographic placement of BUV sites produced spatial dependence, which if unaccounted for could lead to model bias. We fitted Bayesian logistic models with and without spatial random effects to determine if the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> National Park boundaries and available environmental covariates had an effect on snapper presence and habitat preference. Adding the spatial dependence component had little effect on the resulting model parameter estimates that emphasized positive association for particular <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitat types by snapper. Strong positive relationships between the presence of snapper and rock habitat, particularly rocky substrate composed of indurated freshwater sediments known as coffee rock, and kelp habitat reinforce the consideration of habitat availability in <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserve design and the design of any associated monitoring programs. PMID:26317655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.174...75M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoJI.174...75M"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">marine</span> magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified <span class="hlt">coastal</span> pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small <span class="hlt">coastal</span>, <span class="hlt">marine</span> basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1158987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1158987"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and sources of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Y. -N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><p>The chemical composition of aerosol particles (<i>D</i><sub>p</sub> ≤ 1.5 μm) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the <span class="hlt">marine</span> stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the <span class="hlt">marine</span> boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2−</sup>, followed by Na<sup>+</sup>, Cl<sup>−</sup>, Org (total organics), NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>, and NO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup>, in decreasing order of importance; CH<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup> (MSA), Ca<sup>2+</sup>, and K<sup>+</sup> rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> to SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2−</sup> equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl<sup>−</sup> deficits caused by both HNO<sub>3</sub> and H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2−</sup>. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH<sub>3</sub> is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877373','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877373"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Microbial <span class="hlt">Community</span> Succession on Mild Steel in Estuarine and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environments: Exploring the Role of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McBeth, Joyce M.; Emerson, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a complex biogeochemical process involving interactions between microbes, metals, minerals, and their environment. We hypothesized that sediment-derived iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would colonize and become numerically abundant on steel surfaces incubated in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. To test this, steel coupons were incubated on sediments over 40 days, and samples were taken at regular intervals to examine microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> succession. The experiments were conducted at two locations: (1) a brackish salt marsh stream and (2) a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> bay. We analyzed DNA extracted from the MIC biofilms for bacterial diversity using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, and two coupons from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site were single cell sorted and screened for the SSU rRNA gene. We quantified <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Zetaproteobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and total bacteria and archaea using qPCR analyses. Zetaproteobacteria and SRB were identified in the sequencing data and qPCR analyses for samples collected throughout the incubations and were also present in adjacent sediments. At the brackish site, the diversity of Zetaproteobacteria was lower on the steel compared to sediments, consistent with the expected enrichment of FeOB on steel. Their numbers increased rapidly over the first 10 days. At the <span class="hlt">marine</span> site, Zetaproteobacteria and other known FeOB were not detected in sediments; however, the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria increased dramatically within 10 days on the steel surface, although their diversity was nearly clonal. Iron oxyhydroxide stalk biosignatures were observed on the steel and in earlier enrichment culture studies; this is evidence that the Zetaproteobacteria identified in the qPCR, pyrosequencing, and single cell data were likely FeOB. In the brackish environment, members of freshwater FeOB were also present, but were absent in the fully <span class="hlt">marine</span> site. This work indicates there is a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27252686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27252686"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Microbial <span class="hlt">Community</span> Succession on Mild Steel in Estuarine and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environments: Exploring the Role of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McBeth, Joyce M; Emerson, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a complex biogeochemical process involving interactions between microbes, metals, minerals, and their environment. We hypothesized that sediment-derived iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would colonize and become numerically abundant on steel surfaces incubated in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. To test this, steel coupons were incubated on sediments over 40 days, and samples were taken at regular intervals to examine microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> succession. The experiments were conducted at two locations: (1) a brackish salt marsh stream and (2) a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> bay. We analyzed DNA extracted from the MIC biofilms for bacterial diversity using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, and two coupons from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site were single cell sorted and screened for the SSU rRNA gene. We quantified <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Zetaproteobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and total bacteria and archaea using qPCR analyses. Zetaproteobacteria and SRB were identified in the sequencing data and qPCR analyses for samples collected throughout the incubations and were also present in adjacent sediments. At the brackish site, the diversity of Zetaproteobacteria was lower on the steel compared to sediments, consistent with the expected enrichment of FeOB on steel. Their numbers increased rapidly over the first 10 days. At the <span class="hlt">marine</span> site, Zetaproteobacteria and other known FeOB were not detected in sediments; however, the numbers of Zetaproteobacteria increased dramatically within 10 days on the steel surface, although their diversity was nearly clonal. Iron oxyhydroxide stalk biosignatures were observed on the steel and in earlier enrichment culture studies; this is evidence that the Zetaproteobacteria identified in the qPCR, pyrosequencing, and single cell data were likely FeOB. In the brackish environment, members of freshwater FeOB were also present, but were absent in the fully <span class="hlt">marine</span> site. This work indicates there is a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26507511"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of typical lipophilic <span class="hlt">marine</span> toxins in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments from three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bays of China using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Junhui; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Xiaoru; Zheng, Li</p> <p>2015-12-30</p> <p>A method based on sample preparation by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated and used for determination of seven typical lipophilic <span class="hlt">marine</span> toxins (LMTs) in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediment samples collected from three typical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> bays in China. Satisfactory specificity, reproducibility (RSDs ≤ 14.76%), stability (RSDs ≤ 17.37%), recovery (78.0%-109.0%), and detection limit (3.440 pg/g-61.85 pg/g) of the developed method were achieved. The results obtained from the analysis of samples from Hangzhou Bay revealed okadaic acid as the predominant LMT with concentrations ranging from 186.0 to 280.7 pg/g. Pecenotoxin-2 was quantified in sediment samples from Laizhou Bay at the concentrations from 256.4 to 944.9 pg/g. These results suggested that the proposed method was reliable for determining the typical LMTs in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments and that the sediments obtained from Hangzhou Bay, Laizhou Bay and Jiaozhou Bay were all contaminated by certain amounts of LMTs. PMID:26507511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6685464','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6685464"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology of Pacific Northwest <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sand dunes: a <span class="hlt">community</span> profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wiedemann, A.M.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27236627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27236627"><span id="translatedtitle">Drained <span class="hlt">coastal</span> peatlands: A potential nitrogen source to <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems under prolonged drought and heavy storm events-A microcosm experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongjun; Richardson, Curtis J; Ho, Mengchi; Flanagan, Neal</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Over the past several decades there has been a massive increase in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> eutrophication, which is often caused by increased runoff input of nitrogen from landscape alterations. Peatlands, covering 3% of land area, have stored about 12-21% of global soil organic nitrogen (12-20Pg N) around rivers, lakes and coasts over millennia and are now often drained and farmed. Their huge nitrogen pools may be released by intensified climate driven hydrologic events-prolonged droughts followed by heavy storms-and later transported to <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems. In this study, we collected peat monoliths from drained, natural, and restored <span class="hlt">coastal</span> peatlands in the Southeastern U.S., and conducted a microcosm experiment simulating coupled prolonged-drought and storm events to (1) test whether storms could trigger a pulse of nitrogen export from drought-stressed peatlands and (2) assess how differentially hydrologic managements through shifting plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> affect nitrogen export by combining an experiment of nitrogen release from litter. During the drought phase, we observed a significant temporal variation in net nitrogen mineralization rate (NMR). NMR spiked in the third month and then decreased rapidly. This pattern indicates that drought duration significantly affects nitrogen mineralization in peat. NMR in the drained site reached up to 490±110kgha(-1)year(-1), about 5 times higher than in the restored site. After the 14-month drought phase, we simulated a heavy storm by bringing peat monoliths to saturation. In the discharge waters, concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen in the monoliths from the drained site (72.7±16.3mgL(-1)) was about ten times as high as from the restored site. Our results indicate that previously drained peatlands under prolonged drought are a potent source of nitrogen export. Moreover, drought-induced plant <span class="hlt">community</span> shifts to herbaceous plants substantially raise nitrogen release with lasting effects by altering litter quality in peatlands. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27136617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27136617"><span id="translatedtitle">Is economic valuation of ecosystem services useful to decision-makers? Lessons learned from Australian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts. PMID:27136617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1502G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1502G"><span id="translatedtitle">Information Needs Assessment for <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldsmith, Kaitlin A.; Granek, Elise F.; Lubitow, Amy</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, <span class="hlt">coastal</span>, and nearshore <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus <span class="hlt">coastal</span> decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..102C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ECSS..167..102C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon in southern Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span>' dynamics were studied in Salgados <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399869','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399869"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Community</span> Analysis of a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> of a Gulf of Mexico <span class="hlt">coastal</span> salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1502/1781.abstract+;+http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1502/1781.full.pdf+html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1502/1781.abstract+;+http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1502/1781.full.pdf+html"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal dynamics of species richness in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fish <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lekve, K.; Boulinier, T.; Stenseth, N.C.; Gjøsaeter, J.; Fromentin, J-M.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Determining patterns of change in species richness and the processes underlying the dynamics of biodiversity are of key interest within the field of ecology, but few studies have investigated the dynamics of vertebrate <span class="hlt">communities</span> at a decadal temporal scale. Here, we report findings on the spado-temporal variability in the richness and composition of fish <span class="hlt">communities</span> along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast having been surveyed for more than half a century. Using statistical models incorporating non-detection and associated sampling variance, we estimate local species richness and changes in species composition allowing us to compute temporal variability in species richness. We tested whether temporal variation could be related to distance to the open sea and to local levels of pollution. Clear differences in mean species richness and temporal variability are observed between fjords that were and were not exposed to the effects of pollution. Altogether this indicates that the fjord is an appropriate scale for studying changes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fish <span class="hlt">communities</span> in space and time. The year-to-year rates of local extinction and turnover were found to be smaller than spatial differences in <span class="hlt">community</span> composition. At the regional level, exposure to the open sea plays a homogenizing role, possibly due to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> currents and advection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS53B1976L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS53B1976L"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural and Human Impacts on the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment of Taiwan Recorded in <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Sediments During the last century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution <span class="hlt">marine</span> records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), δ13CTOC, δ13C and δ18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The δ13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The δ18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region of Taiwan not only caused changes in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020168"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plant <span class="hlt">communities</span>, Louisiana, United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marsh <span class="hlt">communities</span> were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while <span class="hlt">community</span> biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but <span class="hlt">community</span> composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993158','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993158"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic Differences in Attached and Free-Living Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in a Temperate <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lagoon during Summer, Revealed via High-Throughput 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Toupoint, Nicolas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most of what is known about <span class="hlt">coastal</span> free-living and attached bacterial diversity is based on open coasts, with high particulate and nutrient riverine supply, terrestrial runoffs, and anthropogenic activities. The Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) are dominated by shallow lagoons with small, relatively pristine catchments and no freshwater input apart from rain. Such conditions provided an opportunity to investigate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> free-living and attached <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacterial diversity in the absence of confounding effects of steep freshwater gradients. We found significant differences between the two <span class="hlt">communities</span> and marked temporal patterns in both. Taxonomic richness and diversity were greater in the attached than in the free-living <span class="hlt">community</span>, increasing over summer, especially within the least abundant bacterial phyla. The highest number of reads fell within the SAR 11 clade (Pelagibacter, Alphaproteobacteria), which dominated free-living <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The attached <span class="hlt">communities</span> had deeper phylum-level diversity than the free-living fraction. Distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration was the main variable separating early and late summer samples with salinity and temperature changes also significantly correlated to bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. Our approach using high-throughput sequencing detected differences in free-living versus attached bacteria in the absence of riverine input, in keeping with the concept that <span class="hlt">marine</span> attached <span class="hlt">communities</span> are distinct from cooccurring free-living taxa. This diversity likely reflects the diverse microhabitats of available particles, implying that the total bacterial diversity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems is linked to particle supply and variability, with implications for understanding microbial biodiversity in <span class="hlt">marine</span> systems. PMID:24463966</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1512547M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1512547M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice nucleating particles at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosols and <span class="hlt">marine</span> biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site likely originated from terrestrial rather than <span class="hlt">marine</span> sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1516273M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1516273M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice nucleating particles at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosols and <span class="hlt">marine</span> biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site likely originated from terrestrial rather than <span class="hlt">marine</span> sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880629"><span id="translatedtitle">Salinity-dominated change in <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and ecological function of Archaea from the lower Pearl River to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> South China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhou, Xuedan; Wang, Peng</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Archaea have multiple roles in global biogeochemical cycles. However, we still have limited knowledge about how environmental factors affect the diversity and function of different archaeal lineages. The goal of this study was to examine the change in the abundance and <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of Archaea in the sediments collected from the lower Pearl River (mainly North River tributary), its estuary, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> South China Sea (SCS) in order to evaluate how archaeal ecological function might change along the salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA gene of Archaea was performed on sediment samples from Feilaixia Dam on the North River tributary to Wanshan islands, which have a salinity range of 0.1 to 31.2‰. Consistent with the salt tolerance of cultivated representatives, methanogens in the genera Methanoregula, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina and Nitrososphaera within Thaumarchaeota of the ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were abundant in freshwater sediments of the North River tributary, whereas the <span class="hlt">marine</span>-associated genera Methanococcoides and Nitrosopumilus were the most abundant methanogens and AOA, respectively, in the estuary and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> SCS. However, the percentages of total methanogens decreased and Thaumarchaeota increased with salinity, respectively. The phylum Crenarchaeota was largely represented by class-level lineages with no cultivated representatives, which collectively were more abundant in the estuary and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> SCS in comparison to freshwater sites. This study indicates that salinity is the dominating factor affecting archaeal <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and ecological function from the North River tributary of the Pearl River, its estuary, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> SCS, which is consistent with salinity control on microbial diversity in other regions of the world. PMID:24880629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475127','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475127"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span> on lactic acid bacteria <span class="hlt">communities</span> in raw broiler fillet strips</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nieminen, T. T.; Välitalo, H.; Säde, E.; Paloranta, A.; Koskinen, K.; Björkroth, J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Marination</span> with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span>, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The <span class="hlt">communities</span> were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the <span class="hlt">marinated</span> fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that <span class="hlt">marination</span> changed the <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. <span class="hlt">Marination</span> increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in <span class="hlt">marinated</span> meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with <span class="hlt">marinated</span> and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1475601','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1475601"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) on carbon biogeochemistry in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kristensen, Erik</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Known effects of bioturbation by common polychaetes (Nereis spp. and Arenicola marina) in Northern European <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters on sediment carbon diagenesis is summarized and assessed. The physical impact of irrigation and reworking activity of the involved polychaete species is evaluated and related to their basic biology. Based on past and present experimental work, it is concluded that effects of bioturbation on carbon diagenesis from manipulated laboratory experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in situ conditions. The 45–260% flux (e.g., CO2 release) enhancement found in the laboratory is much higher than usually observed in the field (10–25%). Thus, the faunal induced enhancement of microbial carbon oxidation in natural sediments instead causes a reduction of the organic matter inventory rather than an increased release of CO2 across the sediment/water interface. The relative decrease in organic inventory (Gb/Gu) is inversely related to the relative increase in microbial capacity for organic matter decay (kb/ku). The equilibrium is controlled by the balance between organic input (deposition of organic matter at the sediment surface) and the intensity of bioturbation. Introduction of oxygen to subsurface sediment and removal of metabolites are considered the two most important underlying mechanisms for the stimulation of carbon oxidation by burrowing fauna. Introduction of oxygen to deep sediment layers of low microbial activity, either by downward irrigation transport of overlying oxic water or by upward reworking transport of sediment to the oxic water column will increase carbon oxidation of anaerobically refractory organic matter. It appears that the irrigation effect is larger than and to a higher degree dependent on animal density than the reworking effect. Enhancement of anaerobic carbon oxidation by removal of metabolites (reduced diffusion scale) may cause a significant increase in total sediment metabolism. This is caused by three possible</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999164"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspergillus Sydowii <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Fungal Bloom in Australian <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian <span class="hlt">marine</span> fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived <span class="hlt">marine</span> fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26999164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..55..653A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..55..653A"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal concentrations in <span class="hlt">marine</span> green, brown, and red seaweeds from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three <span class="hlt">marine</span> algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different <span class="hlt">marine</span> algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that <span class="hlt">marine</span> alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4810073','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4810073"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspergillus Sydowii <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Fungal Bloom in Australian <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J.; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3) forming a floating raft that covered a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian <span class="hlt">marine</span> fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived <span class="hlt">marine</span> fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26999164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18185953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18185953"><span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of human visitation on mussel bed <span class="hlt">communities</span> along the California coast: are regulatory <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves effective in protecting these <span class="hlt">communities</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Jayson R; Fong, Peggy; Ambrose, Richard F</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Rocky intertidal habitats frequently are used by humans for recreational, educational, and subsistence-harvesting purposes, with intertidal populations damaged by visitation activities such as extraction, trampling, and handling. California <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Managed Areas, particularly regulatory <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves (MRs), were established to provide legal protection and enhancement of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resources and include prohibitions on harvesting intertidal populations. However, the effectiveness of MRs is unclear as enforcement of no-take laws is weak and no regulations protect intertidal species from other detrimental visitor impacts such as trampling. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine impacts from human visitation on California mussel populations (Mytilus californianus) and mussel bed <span class="hlt">community</span> diversity; and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of regulatory MRs in reducing visitor impacts on these populations. Surveys of mussel populations and bed-associated diversity were compared: (1) at sites subjected to either high or low levels of human use, and (2) at sites either unprotected or with regulatory protection banning collecting. At sites subjected to higher levels of human visitation, mussel populations were significantly lower than low-use sites. Comparisons of mussel populations inside and outside of regulatory MRs revealed no consistent pattern suggesting that California no-take regulatory reserves may have limited effectiveness in protecting mussel <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In areas where many people visit intertidal habitats for purposes other than collecting, many organisms will be affected by trampling, turning of rocks, and handling. In these cases, effective protection of rocky intertidal <span class="hlt">communities</span> requires an approach that goes beyond the singular focus on collecting to reduce the full suite of impacts. PMID:18185953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.411B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.411B"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating meteo <span class="hlt">marine</span> climatic model inputs for the investigation of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hydrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellafiore, D.; Bucchignani, E.; Umgiesser, G.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>One of the major aspects discussed in the recent works on climate change is how to provide information from the global scale to the local one. In fact the influence of sea level rise and changes in the meteorological conditions due to climate change in strategic areas like the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone is at the base of the well known mitigation and risk assessment plans. The investigation of the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone hydrodynamics, from a modeling point of view, has been the field for the connection between hydraulic models and ocean models and, in terms of process studies, finite element models have demonstrated their suitability in the reproduction of complex <span class="hlt">coastal</span> morphology and in the capability to reproduce different spatial scale hydrodynamic processes. In this work the connection between two different model families, the climate models and the hydrodynamic models usually implemented for process studies, is tested. Together, they can be the most suitable tool for the investigation of climate change on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems. A finite element model, SHYFEM (Shallow water Hydrodynamic Finite Element Model), is implemented on the Adriatic Sea, to investigate the effect of wind forcing datasets produced by different downscaling from global climate models in terms of surge and its <span class="hlt">coastal</span> effects. The wind datasets are produced by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CIRA), and by EBU-POM model (Belgrade University), both downscaling from ECHAM4. As a first step the downscaled wind datasets, that have different spatial resolutions, has been analyzed for the period 1960-1990 to compare what is their capability to reproduce the measured wind statistics in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone in front of the Venice Lagoon. The particularity of the Adriatic Sea meteo climate is connected with the influence of the orography in the strengthening of winds like Bora, from North-East. The increase in spatial resolution permits the more resolved wind dataset to better reproduce meteorology and to provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=spring&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65350271&CFTOKEN=67969713','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=spring&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65350271&CFTOKEN=67969713"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> exposed to hypoxia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biogeochemical changes in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments during <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3122/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3122/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Ecological Classification Standard III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial <span class="hlt">marine</span> processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1393195','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1393195"><span id="translatedtitle">Denitrifier <span class="hlt">Community</span> Composition along a Nitrate and Salinity Gradient in a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Aquifer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santoro, Alyson E.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Francis, Christopher A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Nitrogen flux into the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment via submarine groundwater discharge may be modulated by microbial processes such as denitrification, but the spatial scales at which microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> act and vary are not well understood. In this study, we examined the denitrifying <span class="hlt">community</span> within the beach aquifer at Huntington Beach, California, where high-nitrate groundwater is a persistent feature. Nitrite reductase-encoding gene fragments (nirK and nirS), responsible for the key step in the denitrification pathway, were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced from DNAs extracted from aquifer sediments collected along a cross-shore transect, where groundwater ranged in salinity from 8 to 34 practical salinity units and in nitrate concentration from 0.5 to 330 μM. We found taxonomically rich and novel <span class="hlt">communities</span>, with all nirK clones exhibiting <85% identity and nirS clones exhibiting <92% identity at the amino acid level to those of cultivated denitrifiers and other environmental clones in the database. Unique <span class="hlt">communities</span> were found at each site, despite being located within 40 m of each other, suggesting that the spatial scale at which denitrifier diversity and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition vary is small. Statistical analyses of nir sequences using the Monte Carlo-based program ∫-Libshuff confirmed that some populations were indeed distinct, although further sequencing would be required to fully characterize the highly diverse denitrifying <span class="hlt">communities</span> at this site. PMID:16517659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21225312"><span id="translatedtitle">Fecal pollution in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks. PMID:21225312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED054931.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED054931.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Directory of Personnel in Research, Technology, Education, Administration and Management. Development Activities in the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environment of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mecca, Christyna E.</p> <p></p> <p>Listed in this directory are individuals concerned currently with <span class="hlt">marine</span> activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plains Region. The categories for the listings include educational institutions, state and county agencies, and federal agencies. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025728','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025728"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental application of remote sensing methods to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025730','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025730"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental application of remote sensing methods to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609423"><span id="translatedtitle">Rate of biological invasions is lower in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ardura, A; Juanes, F; Planes, S; Garcia-Vazquez, E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Marine</span> biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between <span class="hlt">marine</span> protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016778','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016778"><span id="translatedtitle">Rate of biological invasions is lower in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ardura, A.; Juanes, F.; Planes, S.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Marine</span> biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between <span class="hlt">marine</span> protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction. PMID:27609423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430872"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury exposure as a function of fish consumption in two Asian <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Xiaoyu; Newman, Michael C</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fish consumption and associated mercury exposure were explored for two Asian-dominated church <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Virginia and compared with that of two non-Asian church <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Seafood-consumption rates for the Chinese (36.9 g/person/day) and Vietnamese (52.7 g/person/day) church <span class="hlt">communities</span> were greater than the general United States fish-consumption rate (12.8 g/person/day). Correspondingly, hair mercury concentrations for people from the Chinese (0.52 µg/g) and the Vietnamese church (1.46 µg/g) were greater than the overall level for United States women (0.20 µg/g) but lower than the published World Health Organization exposure threshold (14 µg/g). A conventional regression model indicated a positive relationship between seafood consumption rates and hair mercury concentrations suggesting the importance of mercury exposure through seafood consumption. The annual-average daily methylmercury intake rate for the studied <span class="hlt">communities</span> calculated by Monte Carlo simulations followed the sequence: Vietnamese <span class="hlt">community</span> > Chinese <span class="hlt">community</span> > non-Asian <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Regardless, their daily methylmercury intake rates were all lower than the United States Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 µg/kg body weight-day. In conclusion, fish-consumption patterns differed among <span class="hlt">communities</span>, which resulted in different levels of mercury exposure. The greater seafood and mercury ingestion rates of studied Asian groups compared with non-Asian groups suggest the need for specific seafood consumption advice for ethnic <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the United States. Otherwise the health benefits from fish consumption could be perceived as trivial compared with the ill-defined risk of mercury exposure. PMID:25430872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25597300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25597300"><span id="translatedtitle">Mycorrhizal fungal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sand dunes and heaths investigated by pyrosequencing analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botnen, Synnøve; Kauserud, Håvard; Carlsen, Tor; Blaalid, Rakel; Høiland, Klaus</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Maritime sand dunes and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ericaceous heaths are unstable and dynamic habitats for mycorrhizal fungi. Creeping willow (Salix repens) is an important host plant in these habitats in parts of Europe. In this study, we wanted to assess which mycorrhizal fungi are associated with S. repens in four different <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation types in Southern Norway, three types from sand dunes and one from heaths. Moreover, we investigated which ecological factors are important for the fungal <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in these vegetation types. Mycorrhizal fungi on S. repens root samples were identified by 454 pyrosequencing of tag-encoded internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons. Significantly higher fungal richness was observed in hummock dunes and dune slacks compared to eroded dune vegetation. The compositional variation was mainly accounted for by location (plot) and vegetation type and was significantly correlated to content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in soil. The investigated maritime sand dunes and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ericaceous heaths hosted mycorrhizal taxa mainly associated with Helotiales, Sebacinales, Thelephorales and Agaricales. PMID:25597300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035407','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035407"><span id="translatedtitle">A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Maine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local <span class="hlt">marine</span> highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during <span class="hlt">marine</span> regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5115185"><span id="translatedtitle">Estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters need help</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levenson, H.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>For years, our <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments-estuaries, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, <span class="hlt">marine</span> waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat <span class="hlt">marine</span> pollution: the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters from degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127198"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Antarctic microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> composition at sub-mesoscale: spatial distance or environmental filtering?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreno-Pino, Mario; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Nelson; Henríquez-Castilo, Carlos; Galán, Alexander; Díez, Beatriz; Trefault, Nicole</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Spatial environmental heterogeneity influences diversity of organisms at different scales. Environmental filtering suggests that local environmental conditions provide habitat-specific scenarios for niche requirements, ultimately determining the composition of local <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In this work, we analyze the spatial variation of microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> across environmental gradients of sea surface temperature, salinity and photosynthetically active radiation and spatial distance in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. We hypothesize that environmental filters are the main control of the spatial variation of these <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Thus, strong relationships between <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and environmental variation and weak relationships between <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and spatial distance are expected. Combining physical characterization of the water column, cell counts by flow cytometry, small ribosomal subunit genes fingerprinting and next generation sequencing, we contrast the abundance and composition of photosynthetic eukaryotes and heterotrophic bacterial local <span class="hlt">communities</span> at a submesoscale. Our results indicate that the strength of the environmental controls differed markedly between eukaryotes and bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Whereas eukaryotic photosynthetic assemblages responded weakly to environmental variability, bacteria respond promptly to fine-scale environmental changes in this polar <span class="hlt">marine</span> system. PMID:27127198</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ECA&pg=4&id=ED204172','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ECA&pg=4&id=ED204172"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> Science and Technology in Africa: Present State and Future Development. Synthesis of Unesco/ECA Survey Missions to African <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> States, 1980. Project RAF/78/024. Unesco Reports in <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Science, No. 14.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.</p> <p></p> <p>Presented is a synthesis of reports designed to assess the development of <span class="hlt">marine</span> science and technology in African <span class="hlt">coastal</span> states. This situation is analyzed from a regional (i.e., continent-wide) point of view. Five chapters comprise the report: (1) summary of recommendations, (2) introduction; (3) nation-by-nation descriptions and analyses; (4)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179460"><span id="translatedtitle">Net <span class="hlt">community</span> production and dark <span class="hlt">community</span> respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hitchcock, Gary L; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters to evaluate the proportion of <span class="hlt">community</span> respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net <span class="hlt">community</span> production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 10(5) cells L(-1). <span class="hlt">Community</span> dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1). The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface <span class="hlt">communities</span> exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 10(6) cells L(-1). PMID:24179460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=farming+AND+practices&pg=5&id=ED541577','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=farming+AND+practices&pg=5&id=ED541577"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robadue, Donald D., Jr.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Those advocating for effective management of the use of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7840E..1QL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7840E..1QL"><span id="translatedtitle">On the comparison of spatial interpolation methods of <span class="hlt">marine</span> temperature and salinity based on Arcgis software: a case study of Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; Liu, Wenling; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The paper attempts to make a general comparison on different spatial interpolation methods by a case of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> temperature and salinity (T-S) of Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai bay. It discusses four spatial interpolation methods: Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Ordinary Kriging and Universal Kriging. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> temperature and salinity of 15 stations during summer and winter cruises of 2006 in Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters are employed in this study. It carries out the four spatial interpolation methods in the 14 stations which are compared and validated by the other surplus 1 stations. The criteria (Mean Error, Mean Absolute Error, and Root Mean Square Error) demonstrates that Ordinary Kriging and IDW methods are both suitable for <span class="hlt">marine</span> temperature which were sampled during summer and winter cruises of 2006 and for <span class="hlt">marine</span> salinity which were sampled during summer cruise of 2006, specially IDW method is appropriate for <span class="hlt">marine</span> salinity during winter cruise of 2006. As a result, Simple Kriging method slightly is superior to IDW methods, while Universal Kriging method is inferior to Simple Kriging and IDW methods, and RBF method is the bad method in Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7840E..1QL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7840E..1QL"><span id="translatedtitle">On the comparison of spatial interpolation methods of <span class="hlt">marine</span> temperature and salinity based on Arcgis software: a case study of Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; Liu, Wenling; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The paper attempts to make a general comparison on different spatial interpolation methods by a case of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> temperature and salinity (T-S) of Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai bay. It discusses four spatial interpolation methods: Inverse Distance Weighing (IDW), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Ordinary Kriging and Universal Kriging. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> temperature and salinity of 15 stations during summer and winter cruises of 2006 in Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters are employed in this study. It carries out the four spatial interpolation methods in the 14 stations which are compared and validated by the other surplus 1 stations. The criteria (Mean Error, Mean Absolute Error, and Root Mean Square Error) demonstrates that Ordinary Kriging and IDW methods are both suitable for <span class="hlt">marine</span> temperature which were sampled during summer and winter cruises of 2006 and for <span class="hlt">marine</span> salinity which were sampled during summer cruise of 2006, specially IDW method is appropriate for <span class="hlt">marine</span> salinity during winter cruise of 2006. As a result, Simple Kriging method slightly is superior to IDW methods, while Universal Kriging method is inferior to Simple Kriging and IDW methods, and RBF method is the bad method in Tianjin <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters in the Bohai Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026679','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026679"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves and urchin disease on southern Californian rocky reef <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>While the species level effects of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves are widely recognized, <span class="hlt">community</span> level shifts due to <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves have only recently been documented. Protection from fishing of top predators may lead to trophic cascades, which have <span class="hlt">community</span>-wide implications. Disease may act in a similar manner, regulating population levels of dominant species within a <span class="hlt">community</span>. Two decades of data from the Channel Islands National Park Service's Kelp Forest Monitoring database allowed us to compare the effects of fishing and urchin disease on rocky reef <span class="hlt">community</span> patterns and dynamics. Different size-frequency distributions of urchins inside and outside of reserves indicated reduced predation on urchins at sites where fishing removes urchin predators. Rocky reefs inside reserves were more likely to support kelp forests than were fished areas. We suggest that this results from cascading effects of the fishery on urchin predators outside the reserves, which releases herbivores (urchins) from predation. After periods of prevalent urchin disease, the reef <span class="hlt">community</span> shifted more towards kelp forest assemblages. Specific groups of algae and invertebrates were associated with kelp forest and barrens <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics leading to transitions between kelp forests and barrens are driven by both fishing and disease; however the fishery effect was of greater magnitude. This study further confirms the importance of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves not only for fisheries conservation, but also for the conservation of historically dominant <span class="hlt">community</span> types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745443','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745443"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic Framework and Biosurfactant Gene Expression Analysis of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Bacillus spp. of Eastern <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain of Tamil Nadu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Swaathy, Sreethar; Kavitha, Varadharajan; Sahaya Pravin, Arockiasamy; Sekaran, Ganesan; Gnanamani, Arumugam</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study emphasizes the diversity assessment of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Bacillus species with special reference to biosurfactant production, respective gene expression, and discrimination among Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. Among the 200 individual species of eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain of Tamil Nadu screened, five biosurfactant producing potential bacterial species with entirely different morphology were selected. Biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested that all the said five species belong to Bacillus genera but differ in species levels. Biosurfactant of all the five species fluctuates in greater levels with respect to activity as well as to constituents but showed partial similarity to the commercially available surfactin. The expression of srf gene was realized in all of the five species. However, the sfp gene expression was observed only in three species. In conclusion, both B. licheniformis and B. subtilis demonstrate srf gene; nevertheless, sfp gene was expressed only by Bacillus subtilis. PMID:26904741</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ECSS...92..205L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ECSS...92..205L"><span id="translatedtitle">The chemical changes of DOM from black waters to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters by HPLC combined with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhanfei; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>How dissolved organic matter (DOM) undergoes chemical changes during its transit from river to ocean remains a challenge due to its complex structure. In this study, DOM along a river transect from black waters to <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters is characterized using an offline combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS), as well as tandem ESI-FTICR-MS. In addition, a water extract from degraded wood that mainly consists of lignins is used for comparison to the DOM from this transect. The HPLC chromatograms of all DOM samples and the wood extract show two major well-separated components; one is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic, based on their elution order from the C 18 column. From the FTICR-MS analysis of the HPLC fractions, the hydrophilic components mainly contain low molecular weight compounds (less than 400 Da), while the hydrophobic fractions contain the vast majority of compounds of the bulk C 18 extracted DOM. The wood extract and the DOM samples from the transect of black waters to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters show strikingly similar HPLC chromatograms, and the FTICR-MS analysis further indicates that a large fraction of molecular formulas from these samples are the same, existing as lignin-like compounds. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments show that several representative molecules from the lignin-like compounds have similar functional group losses and fragmentation patterns, consistent with modified lignin structural entities in the wood extract and these DOM samples. Taken together, these data suggest that lignin-derived compounds may survive the transit from the river to the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean and can accumulate there because of their refractory nature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24635985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24635985"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>The effects of a thermal discharge from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. PMID:24635985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611863"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> of a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Chilika, the largest tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon. PMID:26611863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26166784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26166784"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Trends in Local-Scale <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Biodiversity Reflect <span class="hlt">Community</span> Structure and Human Impacts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elahi, Robin; O'Connor, Mary I; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Dunic, Jillian; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Hensel, Marc J S; Kearns, Patrick J</p> <p>2015-07-20</p> <p>The modern biodiversity crisis reflects global extinctions and local introductions. Human activities have dramatically altered rates and scales of processes that regulate biodiversity at local scales. Reconciling the threat of global biodiversity loss with recent evidence of stability at fine spatial scales is a major challenge and requires a nuanced approach to biodiversity change that integrates ecological understanding. With a new dataset of 471 diversity time series spanning from 1962 to 2015 from <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems, we tested (1) whether biodiversity changed at local scales in recent decades, and (2) whether we can ignore ecological context (e.g., proximate human impacts, trophic level, spatial scale) and still make informative inferences regarding local change. We detected a predominant signal of increasing species richness in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems since 1962 in our dataset, though net species loss was associated with localized effects of anthropogenic impacts. Our geographically extensive dataset is unlikely to be a random sample of <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">coastal</span> habitats; impacted sites (3% of our time series) were underrepresented relative to their global presence. These local-scale patterns do not contradict the prospect of accelerating global extinctions but are consistent with local species loss in areas with direct human impacts and increases in diversity due to invasions and range expansions in lower impact areas. Attempts to detect and understand local biodiversity trends are incomplete without information on local human activities and ecological context. PMID:26166784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25346571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25346571"><span id="translatedtitle">Seaweeds: an opportunity for wealth and sustainable livelihood for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rebours, Céline; Marinho-Soriano, Eliane; Zertuche-González, José A; Hayashi, Leila; Vásquez, Julio A; Kradolfer, Paul; Soriano, Gonzalo; Ugarte, Raul; Abreu, Maria Helena; Bay-Larsen, Ingrid; Hovelsrud, Grete; Rødven, Rolf; Robledo, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The European, Canadian, and Latin American seaweed industries rely on the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. As several countries wish to increase their activity, the harvest should be managed according to integrated and participatory governance regimes to ensure production within a long-term perspective. Development of regulations and directives enabling the sustainable exploitation of natural resources must therefore be brought to the national and international political agenda in order to ensure environmental, social, and economic values in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas around the world. In Europe, Portugal requires an appraisal of seaweed management plans while Norway and Canada have developed and implemented <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management plans including well-established and sustainable exploitation of their natural seaweed resources. Whereas, in Latin America, different scenarios of seaweed exploitation can be observed; each country is however in need of long-term and ecosystem-based management plans to ensure that exploitation is sustainable. These plans are required particularly in Peru and Brazil, while Chile has succeeded in establishing a sustainable seaweed-harvesting plan for most of the economically important seaweeds. Furthermore, in both Europe and Latin America, seaweed aquaculture is at its infancy and development will have to overcome numerous challenges at different levels (i.e., technology, biology, policy). Thus, there is a need for regulations and establishment of "best practices" for seaweed harvesting, management, and cultivation. Trained human resources will also be required to provide information and education to the <span class="hlt">communities</span> involved, to enable seaweed utilization to become a profitable business and provide better income opportunities to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>. PMID:25346571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..154..234K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..154..234K"><span id="translatedtitle">Connectivity patterns of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fishes following different dispersal scenarios across a transboundary <span class="hlt">marine</span> protected area (Bonifacio strait, NW Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeck, Barbara; Gérigny, Olivia; Durieux, Eric Dominique Henri; Coudray, Sylvain; Garsi, Laure-Hélène; Bisgambiglia, Paul-Antoine; Galgani, François; Agostini, Sylvia</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The Strait of Bonifacio constitutes one of the rare transboundary <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protected Areas (MPA) of the Mediterranean Sea (between Sardinia, Italy and Corsica, France). Based on the hypothesis that no-take zones will produce more fish larvae, compared to adjacent fished areas, we modeled the outcome of larvae released by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> fishes inside the no-take zones of the MPA in order to: (1) characterize the dispersal patterns across the Strait of Bonifacio; (2) identify the main potential settlement areas; (3) quantify the connectivity and the larval supply from the MPAs to the surrounding areas. A high resolution hydrodynamic model (MARS 3D, Corse 400 m) combined to an individual based model (Ichthyop software) was used to model the larval dispersal of fish following various scenarios (Pelagic Larval Duration PLD and release depth) over the main spawning period (i.e. between April and September). Dispersal model outputs were then compared with those obtained from an ichthyoplankton sampling cruise performed in August 2012. There was a significant influence of PLD to the connectivity between <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. The synchronization between spawning and hydrodynamic conditions appeared to be determinant in the larval transport success. Biotic and abiotic parameters affecting the dispersal dynamic of fish larvae within the Strait of Bonifacio were identified and synthesis maps were established as a tool for conservation planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012300','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012300"><span id="translatedtitle">Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene <span class="hlt">marine</span> deposits and sea levels, Atlantic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain of the southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cronin, T. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Marine</span> ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658109','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4658109"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive Effect of UVR and Phosphorus on the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">Community</span> of the Western Mediterranean Sea: Unravelling Eco-Physiological Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Presentación; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M.; Herrera, Guillermo; Durán, Cristina; Segovia, María; Cortés, Dolores; Salles, Soluna; Korbee, Nathalie; L. Figueroa, Félix; Mercado, Jesús M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Some of the most important effects of global change on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> systems include increasing nutrient inputs and higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm), which could affect primary producers, a key trophic link to the functioning of <span class="hlt">marine</span> food webs. However, interactive effects of both factors on the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> have not been assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. An in situ factorial experiment, with two levels of ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR+PAR vs. PAR) and nutrients (control vs. P-enriched), was performed to evaluate single and UVR×P effects on metabolic, enzymatic, stoichiometric and structural phytoplanktonic variables. While most phytoplankton variables were not affected by UVR, dissolved phosphatase (APAEX) and algal P content increased in the presence of UVR, which was interpreted as an acclimation mechanism of algae to oligotrophic <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters. Synergistic UVR×P interactive effects were positive on photosynthetic variables (i.e., maximal electron transport rate, ETRmax), but negative on primary production and phytoplankton biomass because the pulse of P unmasked the inhibitory effect of UVR. This unmasking effect might be related to greater photodamage caused by an excess of electron flux after a P pulse (higher ETRmax) without an efficient release of carbon as the mechanism to dissipate the reducing power of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26599583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599583"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive Effect of UVR and Phosphorus on the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">Community</span> of the Western Mediterranean Sea: Unravelling Eco-Physiological Mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Presentación; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M; Herrera, Guillermo; Durán, Cristina; Segovia, María; Cortés, Dolores; Salles, Soluna; Korbee, Nathalie; Figueroa, Félix L; Mercado, Jesús M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Some of the most important effects of global change on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> systems include increasing nutrient inputs and higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm), which could affect primary producers, a key trophic link to the functioning of <span class="hlt">marine</span> food webs. However, interactive effects of both factors on the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> have not been assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. An in situ factorial experiment, with two levels of ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR+PAR vs. PAR) and nutrients (control vs. P-enriched), was performed to evaluate single and UVR×P effects on metabolic, enzymatic, stoichiometric and structural phytoplanktonic variables. While most phytoplankton variables were not affected by UVR, dissolved phosphatase (APAEX) and algal P content increased in the presence of UVR, which was interpreted as an acclimation mechanism of algae to oligotrophic <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters. Synergistic UVR×P interactive effects were positive on photosynthetic variables (i.e., maximal electron transport rate, ETRmax), but negative on primary production and phytoplankton biomass because the pulse of P unmasked the inhibitory effect of UVR. This unmasking effect might be related to greater photodamage caused by an excess of electron flux after a P pulse (higher ETRmax) without an efficient release of carbon as the mechanism to dissipate the reducing power of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26599583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70117068','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70117068"><span id="translatedtitle">Nekton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure varies in response to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To assess the potential influence of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI < 3.0). We then examined the nekton <span class="hlt">community</span> from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-<span class="hlt">community</span> structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the <span class="hlt">community</span> was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13K..05A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13K..05A"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing New Strategies for Coping with Weather: Work in Alaskan and Canadian <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atkinson, D. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - <span class="hlt">community</span>, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous <span class="hlt">community</span> residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">community</span>, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042409"><span id="translatedtitle">Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery in California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub lands?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub recovery on the study area. PMID:22042409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB41F..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB41F..05H"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity and Life Histories in Freshwater Mussel <span class="hlt">Communities</span> of the Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haag, W. R.; Warren, M. L.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain supports a diverse mussel fauna including many endemic species. Richness among drainages was associated strongly and positively with watershed size. Assemblage similarity among drainages identified three major faunal groupings: Pontchartrain-Pearl-Pascagoula-Mobile; Escambia-Choctawhatchee; and Apalachicola-Ochlockonee-Suwannee. The Escambia-Choctawhatchee showed greater affinity to the Apalachicola than to the Mobile Basin. Patterns of mussel assemblages among drainages were associated strongly with fish assemblages suggesting two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1) biogeographic history affected both groups similarly, and 2) the fish host relationship was important in shaping mussel <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Based on interspecific variation in life history traits including host use, longevity, offspring size, and fecundity, we established seven guilds to represent regional diversity in life history strategies. The number of guilds decreased from west to east indicating reduced ecological complexity. For widely represented guilds, drainages showed either 1) similar guild composition because of replacement by ecologically similar species, or 2) a shift in dominance among guilds along a west-east continuum. This dichotomy cannot be reconciled currently because data are lacking for numerous species of Elliptio, a dominant genus in eastern Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain mussel <span class="hlt">communities</span>. This information gap illustrates the abundant opportunities for ecological research in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApWS..tmp...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApWS..tmp...99K"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Gulf of Mannar <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water quality around Rameswaram Island.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Earth+Day%22&id=EJ907345','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Earth+Day%22&id=EJ907345"><span id="translatedtitle">MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environment--Primary Science Focus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Preston, Christine</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and <span class="hlt">communities</span> during a number…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991954','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991954"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urban watershed bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> leads to alternative <span class="hlt">community</span>-based indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed <span class="hlt">community</span> composition resulted in alternative <span class="hlt">community</span>-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2890573','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2890573"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Urban Watershed Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> Leads to Alternative <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Cindy H.; Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Wong, Jakk; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Holden, Patricia A.; Andersen, Gary L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and α-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC∶A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed <span class="hlt">community</span> composition resulted in alternative <span class="hlt">community</span>-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health. PMID:20585654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..21W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6405E..21W"><span id="translatedtitle">Inflight experimentation and preliminary <span class="hlt">marine</span> application of AISA+ in Chinese <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Gong, Fang; Mao, Zhihua</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Airborne remote sensing has the characteristics of flexible action, wide coverage area and high space resolution, and the hyper-spectral scanner is of very high spectral resolution with more than two hundreds channels in the visible light domain, containing large amount of information, which has tremendous potential in <span class="hlt">marine</span> application. In 2005, an airborne hyper spectral system AISA+ made by Specim Co. Finland has been tested onboard the Chinese <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Surveillance Plane. After experimentation and processing with ENVI and some own algorithms, sea surface suspended material is retrieved plus other water quality parameters, showing its application in ocean remote sensing. In this paper, we describe the system futures and experimentation, and then explain the performing of data processing. Some products, such as sea surface suspended material concentration has been obtained. The preliminary result shows that hyper spectral system AISA+ is of much use for <span class="hlt">marine</span> surveillance, but more technologies are required to develop for monitoring water quality by AISA+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ECSS..175...79L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ECSS..175...79L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fish <span class="hlt">community</span> responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A