Sample records for marine coastal communities

  1. Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuidong Xu; Joong Ki Choi; Yanli Lei; Eun Jin Yang

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution. The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 mum. A total of 78 species were

  2. Traditional community-based coastal marine fisheries management in Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Ruddle

    1998-01-01

    Despite more than a century of colonial occupation, radical political and administrative change, and more recent motorization of fleets and gear introductions, there remains in Viet Nam a still functioning tradition of local stakeholder organizations (van chai) by which marine fishing communities historically regulated the fishery and ensured mutual assistance for their membership. Such systems remain strong in many coastal

  3. Marine ciliate community in relation to eutrophication of coastal waters in the Yellow Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuidong Xu; Joong Ki Choi; Yanli Lei; Eun Jin Yang

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the potential of marine ciliate community as an indicator to coastal water quality using water samples collected\\u000a from four stations in the Yellow Sea in the summer 2000. The four stations were characterized by different levels of pollution.\\u000a The ciliate communities consisted primarily of tintinnids and aloricate ciliates that were <30 ?m. A total of 78 species were

  4. Shifts in coastal Antarctic marine microbial communities during and after melt water-related surface stratification.

    PubMed

    Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Meredith, Michael P; Buma, Anita G J

    2011-06-01

    Antarctic coastal waters undergo major physical alterations during summer. Increased temperatures induce sea-ice melting and glacial melt water input, leading to strong stratification of the upper water column. We investigated the composition of micro-eukaryotic and bacterial communities in Ryder Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, during and after summertime melt water stratification, applying community fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing analysis of partial 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Community fingerprinting of the eukaryotic community revealed two major patterns, coinciding with a period of melt water stratification, followed by a period characterized by regular wind-induced breakdown of surface stratification. During the first stratified period, we observed depth-related differences in eukaryotic fingerprints while differences in bacterial fingerprints were weak. Wind-induced breakdown of the melt water layer caused a shift in the eukaryotic community from an Actinocyclus sp.- to a Thalassiosira sp.-dominated community. In addition, a distinct transition in the bacterial community was found, but with a few days' delay, suggesting a response to the changes in the eukaryotic community rather than to the mixing event itself. Sequence analysis revealed a shift from an Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to a Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides-dominated community under mixed conditions. Our results show that melt water stratification and the transition to nonstabilized Antarctic surface waters may have an impact not only on micro-eukaryotic but also bacterial community composition. PMID:21303395

  5. Seasonal Variations in Virus-Host Populations in Norwegian Coastal Waters: Focusing on the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Larsen, Aud

    2006-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous components of the marine ecosystem. In the current study we investigated seasonal variations in the viral community in Norwegian coastal waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results demonstrated that the viral community was diverse, displaying dynamic seasonal variation, and that viral populations of 29 different sizes in the range from 26 to 500 kb were present. Virus populations from 260 to 500 kb and dominating autotrophic pico- and nanoeukaryotes showed similar dynamic variations. Using flow cytometry and real-time PCR, we focused in particular on one host-virus system: Synechococcus spp. and cyanophages. The two groups covaried throughout the year and were found in the highest amounts in fall with concentrations of 7.3 × 104 Synechococcus cells ml?1 and 7.2 × 103 cyanophage ml?1. By using primers targeting the g20 gene in PCRs on DNA extracted from PFGE bands, we demonstrated that cyanophages were found in a genomic size range of 26 to 380 kb. The genetic richness of the cyanophage community, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified g20 gene fragments, revealed seasonal shifts in the populations, with one community dominating in spring and summer and a different one dominating in fall. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences originating from PFGE and DGGE bands grouped the sequences into three groups, all with homology to cyanomyoviruses present in cultures. Our results show that the cyanophage community in Norwegian coastal waters is dynamic and genetically diverse and has a surprisingly wide genomic size range. PMID:16820451

  6. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  7. Marine Oxygen-Deficient Zones Harbor Depauperate Denitrifying Communities Compared to Novel Genetic Diversity in Coastal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jennifer L; Weisman, David; Yasuda, Michie; Jayakumar, Amal; Morrison, Hilary G; Ward, Bess B

    2015-08-01

    Denitrification is a critically important biogeochemical pathway that removes fixed nitrogen from ecosystems and thus ultimately controls the rate of primary production in nitrogen-limited systems. We examined the community structure of bacteria containing the nirS gene, a signature gene in the denitrification pathway, from estuarine and salt marsh sediments and from the water column of two of the world's largest marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs). We generated over 125,000 nirS gene sequences, revealing a large degree of genetic diversity including 1,815 unique taxa, the vast majority of which formed clades that contain no cultured representatives. These results underscore how little we know about the genetic diversity of metabolisms underlying this critical biogeochemical pathway. Marine sediments yielded 1,776 unique taxa when clustered at 95 % sequence identity, and there was no single nirS denitrifier that was a competitive dominant; different samples had different highly abundant taxa. By contrast, there were only 39 unique taxa identified in samples from the two ODZs, and 99 % of the sequences belonged to 5 or fewer taxa. The ODZ samples were often dominated by nirS sequences that shared a 92 % sequence identity to a nirS found in the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) genus Scalindua. This sequence was abundant in both ODZs, accounting for 38 and 59 % of all sequences, but it was virtually absent in marine sediments. Our data indicate that ODZs are remarkably depauperate in nirS genes compared to the remarkable genetic richness found in coastal sediments. PMID:25721726

  8. Foraging depths of sea otters and implications to coastal marine communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    We visually observed 1,251 dives, of 14 sea otters instrumented with TDRs in southeast Alaska, and used attribute values from observed dives to classify 180,848 recorded dives as foraging (0.64), or traveling (0.36). Foraging dives were significantly deeper, with longer durations, bottom times, and postdive surface intervals, and greater descent and ascent rates, compared to traveling dives. Most foraging occurred in depths between 2 and 30 m (0.84), although 0.16 of all foraging was between 30 and 100 m. Nine animals, including all five males, demonstrated bimodal patterns in foraging depths, with peaks between 5 and 15 m and 30 and 60 m, whereas five of nine females foraged at an average depth of 10 m. Mean shallow foraging depth was 8 m, and mean deep foraging depth was 44 m. Maximum foraging depths averaged 61 m (54 and 82 for females and males, respectively) and ranged from 35 to 100 m. Female sea otters dove to depths 20 m on 0.85 of their foraging dives while male sea otters dove to depths 45 m on 0.50 of their foraging dives. Less than 0.02 of all foraging dives were >55 m, suggesting that effects of sea otter foraging on nearshore marine communities should diminish at greater depths. However, recolonization of vacant habitat by high densities of adult male sea otters may result in initial reductions of some prey species at depths >55 m.

  9. Ecological Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Coastal Marine Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. C. Jackson; J. D. Cubit; B. D. Keller; V. Batista; K. Burns; H. M. Caffey; R. L. Caldwell; S. D. Garrity; C. D. Getter; C. Gonzalez; H. M. Guzman; K. W. Kaufmann; A. H. Knap; S. C. Levings; M. J. Marshall; R. Steger; R. C. Thompson; E. Weil

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously,

  10. Coastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    exacerbating coastal erosion and hazards · Poor water quality that impacts on aquatic lifeCoastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources Coastal Marine Group Environmental Research Institute University ofWaikato #12;Coastal Marine

  11. Archaea in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, E F

    1992-01-01

    Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments. Images PMID:1608980

  12. Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Herbert

    1999-01-01

    It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth

  13. Enrichment using an up-flow column reactor and community structure of marine anammox bacteria from coastal sediment.

    PubMed

    Kindaichi, Tomonori; Awata, Takanori; Suzuki, Yuji; Tanabe, Katsuichiro; Hatamoto, Masashi; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We established an enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria using an up-flow column reactor fed with artificial sea water supplemented with nitrogen and minerals and inoculated with coastal surface sediment collected from Hiroshima Bay. After 2 months of reactor operation, simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) was observed, suggesting that an anammox reaction was proceeding. A total nitrogen removal rate of 2.17 g-N L(-1) day(-1) was attained on day 594 while the nitrogen loading rate was 3.33 g-N L(-1) day(-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least two dominant "Candidatus Scalindua" species were present in this reactor. Moreover, many uncultured bacteria and archaea, including candidate division or ammonia-oxidizing archaea, were present. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that anammox bacteria accounted for 85.5 ± 4.5% of the total bacteria at day 393. We also designed two oligonucleotide probes specific to each dominant "Candidatus Scalindua" species. A simultaneous FISH analysis using both probes showed that two different "Candidatus Scalindua" species were clearly recognizable and coexisted during reactor operation, although there was some variation in their abundance. The marine anammox bacteria enriched in this study have potential applications to the treatment of industrial wastewater containing high levels of ammonium and salt. PMID:21487205

  14. A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Beger, Maria; Harborne, Alastair R; Dacles, Terence P; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Ledesma, Gerardo L

    2004-12-01

    Community-based coastal resource management has been widely applied within the Philippines. However, small-scale community-based reserves are often inefficient owing to management inadequacies arising because of a lack of local support or enforcement or poor design. Because there are many potential pitfalls during the establishment of even small community-based reserves, it is important for coastal managers, communities, and facilitating institutions to have access to a summary of the key factors for success. Reviewing relevant literature, we present a framework of "lessons learned" during the establishment of protected areas, mainly in the Philippines. The framework contains summary guidance on the importance of (1) an island location, (2) small community population size, (3) minimal effect of land-based development, (4) application of a bottom-up approach, (5) an external facilitating institution, (6) acquisition of title, (7) use of a scientific information database, (8) stakeholder involvement, (9) the establishment of legislation, (10) community empowerment, (11) alternative livelihood schemes, (12) surveillance, (13) tangible management results, (14) continued involvement of external groups after reserve establishment, and (15) small-scale project expansion.These framework components guided the establishment of a community-based protected area at Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental, Philippines. This case study showed that the framework was a useful guide that led to establishing and implementing a community-based marine reserve. Evaluation of the reserve using standard criteria developed for the Philippines shows that the Danjugan Island protected area can be considered successful and sustainable. At Danjugan Island, all of the lessons synthesized in the framework were important and should be considered elsewhere, even for relatively small projects. As shown in previous projects in the Philippines, local involvement and stewardship of the protected area appeared particularly important for its successful implementation. The involvement of external organizations also seemed to have a key role in the success of the Danjugan Island project by guiding local decision-makers in the sociobiological principles of establishing protected areas. However, the relative importance of each component of the framework will vary between coastal management initiatives both within the Philippines and across the wider Asian region. PMID:15633043

  15. Coastal Intelligence - A national infrastructure to support decision-making for coastal communities, economies and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil D.

    2015-04-01

    The National Ocean Service (NOS), a Line Office within NOAA, is primarily responsible for fostering healthy and sustainable marine resources, habitats and ecosystems, strengthening the resiliency of communities, as well as being the nation's leader in observing, modeling and managing coastal, ocean and Great Lakes areas. NOS and numerous partners also play a critical role along the coasts and in marine ecosystems by providing science-based products and services to support a wide variety of applications. Coastal Intelligence however, goes one step further to support ecosystems, economies and communities by providing the infrastructure to integrate numerous observing systems and interpreting the scientific data into information that people can use. This poster will focus primarily on the science, observing systems and data modeling that support Coastal Intelligence and how accurate information can ensure timely and actionable decision-making for coastal communities and ecosystems.

  16. FOOD WEB AND COMMUNITY COMPOSITION CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN FRESHWATER AND MARINE COASTAL SYSTEMS (ESTUARIES AND COASTAL WETLANDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research will investigate the mechanisms by which increased loading of nutrients to coastal waters alters the structure and dynamics of food webs, resulting in declines in populations of ecologically and commercially important organisms. Research across NHEERL Divisions will...

  17. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Materials available here include links to news articles and publications, topics of study, and regions of study. Search choices include topic, region or content type (research project, educational material, datasets, etc.). Study topics are grouped by coastal issues, marine/deep sea issues, environmental issues, and hazards, disasters, and events. Regional materials are accessible through an interactive map or by an alphabetic listing of areas. Search results are accompanied by a brief metadata description and a symbol indicating the content type.

  18. 76 FR 46753 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to permitting...not intentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who...

  19. Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, IMCS provides national and international leadership in marine science and is New Jersey's focal point for education, research, and service efforts in estuarine, coastal, and ocean environments. Site features all the latest IMCS news, information on seminars and internships, faculty, students, and IMCS research. Also includes information on the academic programs, facilities, and professional development for teachers.

  20. USGS - Coastal and Marine Geology Program Internet Map Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS

    This site from the USGS features marine geology resources, including the Coastal and Marine Map Server, the Gloria Mapping Program and data, and the Coastal and Marine Geology Program. Each of these resources presents data, maps, and publications. For example, the GLORIA system was developed specifically to map the morphology and texture of seafloor features in the deep ocean, while the Coastal and Marine Geology program features an interactive map server to view and create maps using available CMGP data sets.

  1. Coastal marine ecosystems of Mauritius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Fagoonee

    1990-01-01

    The coastal ecosystems of Mauritius island (1850 km2, 20° S and 57° E, Indian Ocean) consist of lagoons, reefs, estuaries, mangroves, salt water wetlands, and sheltered bays. Fringing reefs almost completely surround the volcanic island, enclosing a series of lagoons of variable depths (1–4 m). Tides are not important but wave heights can reach 3 m. The zonation of lagoons

  2. Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

    This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

  3. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Infobank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This clearinghouse provides organized access to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) coastal and marine data and metadata. The facilities section features material on Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) regional centers such as maps and information about staff, facilities, labs, research libraries and archives. The Atlas includes maps for specific geographic areas and information about specific types of data within the area such as bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, sampling, and others. The Field Activities section provides information about specific data collection activities (date, place, crew, equipment used, data collected, publications). The Field Activity Collection System (FACS) provides information about field activities (overviews, crew lists, equipment lists, and events). The "Geology School" provides general, broad-based information about earth science concepts, processes and terminology, indexed to keywords. There is also a set of links to additional databases, software tools and viewers, and to related topics.

  4. CHANGES IN BACTERIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ASSOCIATED WITH COASTAL COPPER ENRICHMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana C. Morán; Martha B. Hengst; Rodrigo De la Iglesia; Santiago Andrade; Juan A. Correa; Bernardo González

    2008-01-01

    Marine bacterial communities isolated from the water column, sediment, the rock surface, and the green seaweed Ulva compressa were studied in an intertidal ecosystem. The study area included a coastal zone chronically affected by copper mine waste disposals. Bacterial community composition was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes, and multivariate analyses of T-RFLP data

  5. A Multi Size-Level Assessment of Benthic Marine Communities in a Coastal Environment: Are They Different Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Claudia; Volpi, Marta; Lardicci, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Organism body size has been demonstrated to be a discriminating element in shaping the response of living beings to environmental factors, thus playing a fundamental role in community structuring. Despite the importance of studies elucidating relations among communities of different size levels in ecosystems, the attempts that have been made in this sense are still very scarce and a reliable approach for these research still has to be defined. We characterized the benthic communities of bacteria, microbial eukaryotes, meiofauna and macrofauna in a coastal environment, encompassing a 10000-fold gradient in body size, testing and discussing a mixed approach of molecular fingerprinting for microbes and morphological observations for meio- and macrofauna. We found no correlation among structures of the different size-level communities: this suggests that community composition at one size-level could have no (or very low) influence on the community composition at other size-levels. Moreover, each community responds in a different way to the environmental parameters and with a degree of sensitivity which seems to increase with organism size. Therefore, our data indicate that the characterization of all the different size levels is clearly a necessity in order to study the dynamics really acting in a system. PMID:26075405

  6. Macrobenthic community colonization and community development in dredged material disposal habitats off coastal Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Flemer; B. F. Ruth; C. M. Bundrick; G. R. Gaston

    1997-01-01

    We examined marine benthic macroinvertebrate colonization and community structure at multiple spatial scales (study areas, reference and disposal sites, and depth zones within sites) within a 3-day period at three relatively widely separated (ca 60 km) dredged material disposal areas (Mermentau and Atchafalaya Rivers and Freshwater Bayou) in coastal Louisiana. Study areas had different histories of dredged material disposal, but

  7. Coastal and Marine Bird Data Base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.H.; Geissler, P.H.; Dawson, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Summary: This report discusses the development of a coastal and marine bird data base at the Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory. The system is compared with other data bases, and suggestions for future development, such as possible adaptations for other taxonomic groups, are included. The data base is based on the Statistical Analysis System but includes extensions programmed in PL/I. The Appendix shows how the system evolved. Output examples are given for heron data and pelagic bird data which indicate the types of analyses that can be conducted and output figures. The Appendixes include a retrieval language user's guide and description of the retrieval process and listing of translator program.

  8. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  9. Coastal Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Rappé, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

  10. Compliance and Enforcement of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Regulations in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; AUDRIE SIAHAINENIA; CHRISTOVEL ROTINSULU; ASEP SUKMARA

    2004-01-01

    Community-based coastal resources management has become a popular approach to marine conservation and sustainable fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific region. One premise of this approach is that enforcement of community management initiatives is the primary responsibility of the community and that, in most instances, they have the capability to effectively enforce locally developed regulations and rules. The socioeconomic theory of

  11. Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhj, Premathilake

    2010-05-01

    Reducing Vulnerability of Coastal Communities to Coastal Hazards through Building Community Resilience B H J Premathilake Coast Conservation Department Sri Lanka Email: bhjprem@yahoo.com This paper contains two parts; Part one describes the comprehensive approach adopted by our project to build social, economical, institutional and environmental resilience of the tsunami affected communities in Sri Lanka to cope with future natural disasters. Community development, Coastal resource management and Disaster management are the three pillars of this model and these were built simultaneously to bring the community into a higher level of resilience to coastal hazards. Second part describes the application of Coastal Community Resilience (CCR) Assessment framework to evaluate the progress achieved by the project in building overall resilience of the communities during its period. It further describes how to estimate the contribution of this specific project for the improved resilience status of the selected communities in a multi stakeholder environment.

  12. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Gebeshuber, Ille Christine; Esichaikul, Ranee; Macqueen, Mark; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and Malaysian Marine Parks) and construct initial biomimetic prototypes and novel designs. Thereby, new links, networks and collaborations are established between communities of thinkers in different countries. 3D tourism aims at mapping new frontiers in emerging engineering and design fields. This provides a novel way to foster and promote innovative thinking in the sciences, and considers the need for synergy and collaboration between marine sciences, engineering and design rather than segmentation and isolation. With the concept of 3D corporate tourism the potential of Malaysian marine ecosystems...

  13. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-06-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial OTUs made up more than 75% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant OTU was Sphingomonas sp. which comprised 17% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant bacterial genera were attributed to distinctly different areas of origin, suggesting highly heterogeneous sources for bioaerosols of marine and coastal environments. Furthermore, the bacterial community was clearly affected by two environmental parameters - temperature as a function of wind direction and the sampling location itself. However, a comparison of the wind directions during the sampling and calculated backward trajectories underlined the need for more detailed information on environmental parameters for bioaerosol investigations. The current findings support the assumption of a bacterial core community in the atmosphere. They may be emitted from strong aerosolizing sources, probably being mixed and dispersed over long distances. PMID:25800495

  14. Spatial distribution of marine airborne bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Seifried, Jasmin S; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of bacterial populations in marine bioaerosol samples was investigated during a cruise from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea via Skagerrak and Kattegat. The analysis of the sampled bacterial communities with a pyrosequencing approach revealed that the most abundant phyla were represented by the Proteobacteria (49.3%), Bacteroidetes (22.9%), Actinobacteria (16.3%), and Firmicutes (8.3%). Cyanobacteria were assigned to 1.5% of all bacterial reads. A core of 37 bacterial OTUs made up more than 75% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant OTU was Sphingomonas sp. which comprised 17% of all bacterial sequences. The most abundant bacterial genera were attributed to distinctly different areas of origin, suggesting highly heterogeneous sources for bioaerosols of marine and coastal environments. Furthermore, the bacterial community was clearly affected by two environmental parameters – temperature as a function of wind direction and the sampling location itself. However, a comparison of the wind directions during the sampling and calculated backward trajectories underlined the need for more detailed information on environmental parameters for bioaerosol investigations. The current findings support the assumption of a bacterial core community in the atmosphere. They may be emitted from strong aerosolizing sources, probably being mixed and dispersed over long distances. PMID:25800495

  15. Coastal and Marine Geology Program video and photograph portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, Nadine E.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    Search all Coastal and Marine Geology Program imagery by selecting "Explore Data Layers." Or select Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf Coast to enter the portal by region. Or start with the tutorial then dive in!

  16. Fishing Families in Three Danish Coastal Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Chr. Johansen; Per Madsen; Ole Degn

    1993-01-01

    Earlier studies of population in Denmark have dealt mainly with demographic behavior in rural areas that depended on agriculture and where restricted access to limited resources resulted in very high ages at first marriage and small average household size. This study concentrates on another agrarian variant—fishing communities. Developments in three coastal communities were analyzed for the period 1787–1901. The inhabitants

  17. Coastal Resources Virginia Institute of Marine Science

    E-print Network

    exists to develop and support integrated and adaptive management of coastal zone resources. To fulfillAnnual Report 2009 Center for Coastal Resources Management Center for Coastal Resources Management supporting and tracking regulatory program activities. Background The Center for Coastal Resources Management

  18. A Coastal and Marine National Park for Scotland in partnership with Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selina M. Stead; Derek J. McGlashan

    2006-01-01

    Potential benefits and constraints of a Coastal and Marine National Park (CMNP) for the entire Scottish coastline have yet to be fully debated. This paper recommends using Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as a process to develop a CMNP. Converting the principles of ICZM into practice could be strengthened using the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000. This Act provides the

  19. NOAA HABITAT BLUEPRINT Healthy habitats that sustain resilient and thriving marine

    E-print Network

    NOAA HABITAT BLUEPRINT VISION Healthy habitats that sustain resilient and thriving marine · Recovered threatened and endangered species · Protected coastal and marine areas and habitats at risk · Resilient coastal communities · Increased coastal/marine tourism, access, and recreation PURPOSE The Habitat

  20. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  1. Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271294 A simulation model of sustainability of coastal communities

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271­294 A simulation model of sustainability of coastal communities. / Ecological Modelling 193 (2006) 271­294 Fig. 1. Total aquaculture production (EU + EFTA) (FAO Fish Stat). EU and played its part in satisfying an increasing consumer demand for marine fish (Fig. 1). It has been argued

  2. Acoustic classification of marine habitats in coastal Newfoundland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Anderson; Robert S. Gregory; William T. Collins

    2002-01-01

    A digital acoustic seabed classification system, QTC View (Series IV) was used in the coastal waters of Newfoundland to characterize and classify marine benthic habitats. The QTC View system was calibrated in Placentia Bay at sites identified independently during a submersible research program. Four different habitats were used for calibration of the QTC View system: mud, gravel, rock, and macroalgae

  3. Marine kelp: Energy resource in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschard, R. L.; Haven, K. F.

    1980-11-01

    The relationship on the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans is discussed. An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a decription of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries and other legal/institutional impacts.

  4. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering direct negative impacts of acidification. Declines in grazer populations may in turn allow primary producers such as kelps to become more abundant. Because kelp forests provide habitat for a wide array of species, OA may have a positive impact on some aspects of biodiversity. On the other hand, mussel beds also harbor hundreds of dependent species, and a loss of mussel beds due to reduced mussel growth rates and increased loss to predators would decrease biodiversity of this component of the benthic community. The predictions outlined above should be viewed as preliminary due to large gaps in our understanding. For example, the effects of OA on fertilization and other sensitive life history stages and transitions remain unquantified in the vast majority of species, and any effects of such changes on population dynamics remain unknown. Furthermore, the strength of interactions among species may change in unexpected ways due to, for example, the effects of pH on organismal physiology. Finally, the effects of ocean acidification are not occurring in isolation, and critical physiological and ecological thresholds may be crossed when OA effects are combined with increases in temperature, storm disturbance, pollution, and fishing pressure.

  5. The Florida State University Department of Biological Science and The Florida State University Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine Resource Ecology is designed for

    E-print Network

    Bass, Hank W.

    Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine's potential for a career in marine biological research. Name of Reference THE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MARINE BIOLOGY & LIVING MARINE RESOURCE ECOLOGY HTTP

  6. Valuable processes and products from marine intertidal microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; De la Rosa-García, Susana del Carmen; Camacho-Chab, Juan Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Microbial communities are ubiquitous in marine intertidal environments. These communities, which grow preferentially as biofilms on natural and artificial surfaces, carry out key processes contributing to the functioning of coastal environments and providing valuable services to human society, including carbon cycling, primary productivity, trophic linkage, and transfer and removal of pollutants. In addition, their surface-associated life style greatly influences the integrity and performance of marine infrastructure and archaeological heritage materials. The fluctuating conditions of the intertidal zone make it an extreme environment to which intertidal biofilm organisms must adapt at varying levels. This requirement has probably favored the development and spread of specific microorganisms with particular physiological and metabolic processes. These organisms may have potential biotechnological utility, in that they may provide novel secondary metabolites, biopolymers, lipids, and enzymes and even processes for the production of energy in a sustainable manner. PMID:20202811

  7. Baruch Institute for Marine & Coastal Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Found in Columbia, South Carolina, the Baruch Institute conducts basic research on environmental processes, tidal, estuarine and coastal ocean environments. Collectively the studies span the molecular to landscape level, including the effects of human activities. Site includes information on current research projects, faculty, facilities, and outreach initiatives. Also features downloadable data, imagery, and maps.

  8. The role of freshwater outflow in coastal marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Skreslet, S.

    1986-01-01

    Freshwater outflow from rivers to the ocean has profound effects on the physical, chemical, and biological processes in coastal waters. It induces circulation patterns, modifies mixing processes, and influences nutrient supply to plants, thus affecting biomass production. The increased need for hydroelectric power, flood control, and irrigation of farmland has led to greater regulation of river flow, which may have signigicant ''down-stream'' consequences, such as changes in fish production. This book adopts a systems approach for modeling how marine ecosystems respond to natural and man-made changes in freshwater outflow, and also attempts to identify research priorities in coastal zone management.

  9. Development of Regional Coastal Ocean Observatories and the Potential Benefits to Marine Sanctuaries

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    Development of Regional Coastal Ocean Observatories and the Potential Benefits to Marine. These observational assets are coupled to nowcast/forecast data assimilative models. These systems will allow the mean. Moline5 , Scott Glenn1 1: Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences

  10. Field Activities for Coastal and Marine Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of field investigations was developed by the Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) in a field-based workshop for educators. The activities focus on field work on beaches and rocky headlands (beach and cliff landscapes, wave activity, rocks and sand), and on vegetation and plant ecosystems (algae, plants, estuaries and creeks). There is also an introductory guide for teachers on how to conduct field work, a discussion of moral issues involving student behavior on outings, and a checklist of equipment for use in marine areas.

  11. Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-11-15

    Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas. PMID:25201818

  12. The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

  13. Mineralization of RDX-derived nitrogen to N2 via denitrification in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Cooper, Christopher; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J

    2015-02-17

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common constituent of military explosives. Despite RDX contamination at numerous U.S. military facilities and its mobility to aquatic systems, the fate of RDX in marine systems remains largely unknown. Here, we provide RDX mineralization pathways and rates in seawater and sediments, highlighting for the first time the importance of the denitrification pathway in determining the fate of RDX-derived N. (15)N nitro group labeled RDX ((15)N-[RDX], 50 atom %) was spiked into a mesocosm simulating shallow marine conditions of coastal Long Island Sound, and the (15)N enrichment of N2 (?(15)N2) was monitored via gas bench isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GB-IRMS) for 21 days. The (15)N tracer data were used to model RDX mineralization within the context of the broader coastal marine N cycle using a multicompartment time-stepping model. Estimates of RDX mineralization rates based on the production and gas transfer of (15)N2O and (15)N2 ranged from 0.8 to 10.3 ?mol d(-1). After 22 days, 11% of the added RDX had undergone mineralization, and 29% of the total removed RDX-N was identified as N2. These results demonstrate the important consideration of sediment microbial communities in management strategies addressing cleanup of contaminated coastal sites by military explosives. PMID:25594316

  14. Marine biodiversity conservation based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)—A case study in Quanzhou Bay, Fujian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Bin; Huang Hao; Yu Weiwei; Zheng Senlin; Wang Jinkeng; Jiang Jinlong

    2009-01-01

    Marine biodiversity conservation is a common issue in the world. Due to rapid economic development in coastal area in China, marine biodiversity conservation faces great pressure. In this paper, the idea of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was applied as a framework in marine biodiversity conservation. At first, the relationship between integrated coastal zone management and the marine biodiversity

  15. Western Regional Coastal and Marine Geology - Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Materials presented here serve to introduce the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project, an endeavour by the United States Geological Survey to produce high-resolution base maps of the sea floor. These maps are intended for use in identifying areas of erosion and deposition on the continental shelf, locating areas of geologic hazards, and locating pathways for movement of sediment and pollutants.

  16. Natural Shorelines Promote the Stability of Fish Communities in an Urbanized Coastal System

    PubMed Central

    Scyphers, Steven B.; Gouhier, Tarik C.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Beck, Michael W.; Mareska, John; Powers, Sean P.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species extinctions in terrestrial, aquatic and marine systems. Along coastlines, natural habitats support high biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services but are often replaced with engineered structures for coastal protection or erosion control. We coupled high-resolution shoreline condition data with an eleven-year time series of fish community structure to examine how coastal protection structures impact community stability. Our analyses revealed that the most stable fish communities were nearest natural shorelines. Structurally complex engineered shorelines appeared to promote greater stability than simpler alternatives as communities nearest vertical walls, which are among the most prevalent structures, were most dissimilar from natural shorelines and had the lowest stability. We conclude that conserving and restoring natural habitats is essential for promoting ecological stability. However, in scenarios when natural habitats are not viable, engineered landscapes designed to mimic the complexity of natural habitats may provide similar ecological functions. PMID:26039407

  17. Natural shorelines promote the stability of fish communities in an urbanized coastal system.

    PubMed

    Scyphers, Steven B; Gouhier, Tarik C; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Beck, Michael W; Mareska, John; Powers, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of species extinctions in terrestrial, aquatic and marine systems. Along coastlines, natural habitats support high biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services but are often replaced with engineered structures for coastal protection or erosion control. We coupled high-resolution shoreline condition data with an eleven-year time series of fish community structure to examine how coastal protection structures impact community stability. Our analyses revealed that the most stable fish communities were nearest natural shorelines. Structurally complex engineered shorelines appeared to promote greater stability than simpler alternatives as communities nearest vertical walls, which are among the most prevalent structures, were most dissimilar from natural shorelines and had the lowest stability. We conclude that conserving and restoring natural habitats is essential for promoting ecological stability. However, in scenarios when natural habitats are not viable, engineered landscapes designed to mimic the complexity of natural habitats may provide similar ecological functions. PMID:26039407

  18. National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

  19. Capacity building for sustainability: towards community development in coastal Scotland.

    PubMed

    Barker, Adam

    2005-04-01

    Capacity building is widely recognised as a central feature of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). Yet, although increased community capacity can potentially empower local communities with the ability to tackle the impacts of socio-economic change, an evaluation of ICZM performance reveals a limited interest in advancing community development initiatives. This weakness is particularly apparent in Scotland. Whilst coastal communities in Scotland have been found to suffer from a range of significant socio-economic problems, Scottish approaches to ICZM have failed to improve local development trajectories. In response, this paper considers the degree to which community based partnerships can assist in the delivery of sustainable development benefits. PMID:15748800

  20. Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

    2012-01-01

    As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

  1. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  2. Recruitment limitation of native species in invaded coastal dune communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris French; Tanya J. Mason; Natalie Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment limitation may limit the ability of sites to regenerate after disturbances such as weed invasion and weed management.\\u000a We investigated seed bank constraints and dispersal limitation in coastal dune communities on the east coast of Australia.\\u000a The ability of sites to regenerate naturally following weed removal was assessed in coastal dune communities invaded by the\\u000a invasive alien, bitou bush

  3. Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.

    PubMed

    Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

  4. Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.

    PubMed

    Mather, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

  5. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2014-11-19

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. PMID:25405962

  6. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  7. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    PubMed Central

    Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

  8. Stormwater Programs offered to Communities in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Stormwater Programs offered to Communities in New Hampshire's Coastal Watershed Protecting Water Resources and Managing Stormwater: A Bird's Eye View Provides information about on-the-ground actions for communities to improve stormwater management from landscape to site level scales. Facilitated discussion helps

  9. Resilience to climate change in coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Joanna R; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological resilience to climate change is a combination of resistance to increasingly frequent and severe disturbances, capacity for recovery and self-organization, and ability to adapt to new conditions. Here, we focus on three broad categories of ecological properties that underlie resilience: diversity, connectivity, and adaptive capacity. Diversity increases the variety of responses to disturbance and the likelihood that species can compensate for one another. Connectivity among species, populations, and ecosystems enhances capacity for recovery by providing sources of propagules, nutrients, and biological legacies. Adaptive capacity includes a combination of phenotypic plasticity, species range shifts, and microevolution. We discuss empirical evidence for how these ecological and evolutionary mechanisms contribute to the resilience of coastal marine ecosystems following climate change-related disturbances, and how resource managers can apply this information to sustain these systems and the ecosystem services they provide. PMID:22809195

  10. A coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Fran

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

  11. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. PMID:24849111

  12. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    PubMed

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns. PMID:25707316

  13. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. PMID:26003383

  14. A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang

    2010-01-01

    We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited

  15. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ille Christine Gebeshuber; Tina Rezaie Matin; Ranee Esichaikul; Mark Macqueen; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to\\u000ainnovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international\\u000ascientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine\\u000aand coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex\\u000amaterials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM\\u000aMarine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and

  16. 3D Corporate Tourism in the Marine Sciences: Application-Oriented Problem Solving in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ille Christine Gebeshuber; Tina Rezaie Matin; Ranee Esichaikul; Mark Macqueen; Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis

    2010-01-01

    3D corporate tourism in the marine sciences is a solution-based approach to innovation in science, engineering and design. Corporate international scientists, engineers and designers work with local experts in Malaysian marine and coastal environments: they jointly discover, develop and design complex materials and designs inspired by nature directly on site (e.g. at the UKM Marine Ecosystem Research Centre EKOMAR and

  17. Systems Approaches and CommunitySystems Approaches and Community Approaches for Coastal PlanningApproaches for Coastal Planning

    E-print Network

    Charles, Anthony

    & institutional factors. An assessment process can use checklists or sets of indicators... #12;(a) Sustainability Indicators ·· Resilience is the capability of a system, such as aResilience is the capability of a system, Resilience & Indicators2. Sustainability, Resilience & Indicators 3. Community3. Community--Based Coastal

  18. Soil particle sizes and plant communities on coastal dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeom-Sook Lee; Byung-Sun Ihm; Du Sung Cho; Dong-Yeob Son; Jong-Wook Kim

    2007-01-01

    To identify and assess the distribution patterns of coastal dune vegetation along the eastern, southern, and western coasts\\u000a of South Korea, we investigated the plant communities and soil factors at 30 sites. In all, 12 communities on CCA (canonical\\u000a correspondence analysis) Axis 1 and 2 could be arranged into 3 groups: 1 ) 2 communities ofElymus mollis andIschaemum anthephoroides, with

  19. Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

  20. Marine data and its potential for coastal and offshore applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Elke; Weisse, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The coastDat data set is a compilation of coastal analyses and scenarios for the future from various sources. It contains no direct measurements but results from numerical models that have been driven either by observed data in order to achieve the best possible representation of observed past conditions or by climate change scenarios for the near future. One of the key objectives for developing coastDat was to derive a consistent and mostly homogeneous database for assessing marine weather statistics and long-term changes. Here, homogeneity refers to a data set which is free from effects caused by changes in instrumentation or measurement techniques. Contrary to direct measurements which are often rare and incomplete, coastDat offers a unique combination of consistent atmospheric, oceanic, sea state and other parameters at high spatial and temporal detail, even for places and variables for which no measurements have been made. The backbones of coastDat are regional wind, wave and storm surge hindcast and scenarios mainly for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Furthermore hindcast simulations are available for temperature, salinity, water level, u- and v-components for the North Sea for last 60 years. We will discuss the methodology to derive these data, their quality and limitations in comparison with observations. Long-term changes in the temperature, wind, wave and storm surge climate will be discussed and potential future changes will be assessed. We will conclude with a number of coastal and offshore applications (e.g. ship design, coastal protection, oil risk modelling and marine energy use) of coastDat demonstrating some of the potentials of the data set in hazard assessment. For example data from coastDat have been used extensively for designing, planning and installation of offshore wind farms. Return periods of extreme wind speed, surge and wave heights are used by a variety of users involved in the design and construction of offshore wind parks. Moreover, planning of installation and maintenance requires the estimation of probabilities of weather windows; that is, for example the probability of an extended period with wave heights below a given threshold to enable installation and/or maintenance. Data from coastDat were frequently used in such cases as observational data are too often too short to derive reliable statistics. www.coastdat.de

  1. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  2. Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

  3. Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors Jérôme contributing to the chalk cliffs located on either side of the English Channel are examined. From an analysis of the cliff are drawn. Field observations of the coastal chalk cliff show that the vertical erosion

  4. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with LC-MS or HPLC UV-fluorescence. The joint analysis of the microbial properties and the concentration of the organic pollutants reflects the impact of anthropic pressure on the selected coastal areas. At the surface layers, the microbial carbon assimilation and mineralization rates were affected by the increasing concentration of pollutants. The highest concentrations of organic pollutants were detected in the deeper sediment layers (20 cm) where a significant reduction of microbial metabolic activities was observed. The results of this study can contribute to acquire information to improve the MSFD and to reach the good environmental status.

  5. Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated using a three-stage filtration process to remove larger detritus and biological particles before collecting the bacterial population on a 0.2um filter, for re-suspension in a small volume of filter-sterilized seawater. To ensure eventual carbon limitation in microbial incubations, the samples were spiked with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Oxygen measurements were made as a proxy for community carbon uptake with an Ocean Optics FOXY-R fluorescence probe. Post irradiation, 15 samples were immediately sacrificed to take t=0 oxygen measurements, and the remainder were incubated in the dark for 10-12 days. Seasonal biolabile carbon photoproduction values ranged from -1.8E-2 to 9.2E-2 mol C produced/mol photons absorbed. To compare seasonal and spatial variations over this large data set, irradiations were set at a photon dose of 3.2 mol photons/m^2. Progressive photon dose experiments shows that irradiation length strongly influences the total biolabile product as assayed with microbial measurements. A conceptual model is presented to explain this dependence on photon dose. This varying dependence on photon dose is different from other photochemical products such as CO, and further complicates attempts to quantify the effect of photochemistry on the bioavailability of carbon in marine environments.

  6. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  7. Factors influencing prokaryotic community structure composition in sub-surface coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molari, Massimiliano; Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Despite the major influence of the marine sub-surface area in carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry, there is little known of prokaryotic distribution and community structure information of the marine sub-surface and the factors that influence sub-surface prokaryotic assemblages. We provide quantitative estimations of active Bacteria and Archaea down vertical profiles of sub-surface coastal sediments from the southern Adriatic Sea (Manfredonia Gulf). Prokaryotic biomass, carbon incorporation and the metabolically active fraction were compared with environmental, trophic, and predatory variables down 100-cm sediment cores sectioned into 21 layers. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables that can explain the variance of community compositions down vertical profiles. CARD-FISH analysis showed Bacteria dominance for the first 11 cm below sediment surface. The community then changed significantly at increasing depth, towards Archaea dominance. The models tested show that prokaryotic abundance in superficial marine sediments is controlled by organic trophic resources, while in sub-surface sediments, active prokaryotic abundance is driven by environmental factors and predatory pressure, suggesting that the shift in prokaryotic community structure could be coupled to a change in life-style of microbial assemblages.

  8. Fluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural networks

    E-print Network

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    marine waters with fluorescence spectroscopy and of using artificial neural networks for data interpre with an artificial neural network. The results demonstrate the possibility of estimating oil concentrationsFluorescence diagnostics of oil pollution in coastal marine waters by use of artificial neural

  9. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Roman; James J. McCarthy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent

  10. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox): Implications for N 2 production in coastal marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia Engström; Tage Dalsgaard; Stefan Hulth; Robert C. Aller

    2005-01-01

    The respiratory reduction of nitrate (denitrification) is acknowledged as the most important process that converts biologically available nitrogen to gaseous dinitrogen (N2) in marine ecosystems. Recent findings, however, indicate that anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox) may be an important pathway for N2 formation and N removal in coastal marine sediments and in anoxic water columns of the oceans. In

  11. Mercury methylation dynamics in estuarine and coastal marine environments — A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Merritt; Aria Amirbahman

    2009-01-01

    Considerable recent research has focused on methylmercury (MeHg) cycling within estuarine and coastal marine environments. Because MeHg represents a potent neurotoxin that may magnify in marine foodwebs, it is important to understand the mechanisms and environmental variables that drive or constrain methylation dynamics in these environments. This critical review article explores the mechanisms hypothesized to influence aqueous phase and sediment

  12. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore

  13. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  14. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  15. Which coastal and marine environmental contaminants are truly emerging?

    PubMed

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Tang, Chi-Li; Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the past and present impact of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in coastal and marine ecosystems, archived samples were analyzed for a broad suite of analytes, including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), flame retardants (including PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and current-use pesticides. Surface sediment, mussels (Mytilus spp.) and sediment core samples collected from the California (USA) coast were obtained from environmental specimen banks. Selected CECs were detected in recent surface sediments, with nonylphenol (4-NP), its mono- and di-ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), triclocarban, and pyrethroid insecticides in the greatest abundance. Alkylphenols, triclocarban, and triclosan were present in sediment core segments from the 1970s, as well as in Mytilus tissue collected during the 1990s. Increasing concentrations of some CECs (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) were observed in the surface layers (ca. 2007) of a sediment core, in contrast to peak concentrations of 4-NP and triclocarban corresponding to input during the 1970s, and an apparent peak input for PBDEs during the 1990s. These results suggest that chemicals sometimes referred to as "emerging" (e.g., alkylphenols, triclocarban) have been present in the aquatic environment for several decades and are decreasing in concentration, whereas others (e.g., miconazole, triclosan) are increasing. PMID:24743956

  16. Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Sigoillot, J C; Nguyen, M H

    1992-01-01

    Anionic surfactants, especially alkylbenzene sulfonates, are discharged into marine areas in great quantities. Because of their poor biodegradability, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates accumulate in seawater and sediments. Bacterial communities that can degrade surfactants were selected from coastal seawater contaminated by urban sewage. All the isolated strains consisted of gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods or helical bacteria. Some of these, though isolated from coastal seawater, did not need sodium for growth and appeared to be related to the genera Alcaligenes and Pseudomonas. Complete surfactant biodegradation was achieved by three important steps: terminal oxidation of the alkyl chain, desulfonation, and aromatic-ring cleavage. Only a few strains were able to carry out the first two steps. The aromatic ring was then cleaved by other strains that possess very specific enzymatic activities. Finally, a number of strains grew on short acids that were end-of-metabolism products of the others. PMID:1599249

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

    1996-01-01

    For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

  18. Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

    2013-06-15

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

  19. Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

  20. Detached breakwaters: communities' preferences for sustainable coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Saengsupavanich, Cherdvong

    2013-01-30

    Detached breakwaters have been implemented for coastal protection. As society evolves and community livelihood has been acknowledged as an ingredient for sustainable coastal development, the breakwaters must do more than just dissipate wave forces. Using detached breakwaters in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand as a case study, this research provides empirical proof of such a concept. Interviewing coastal communities who have lived with the breakwaters revealed numerous expectations. Since each community's requirement might be entangled with other functions and incur more costs, coastal engineers had to prioritize preferences. Seven breakwater scenarios were synthesized based on the interview results. For each scenario, the shoreline position was simulated using calibrated LITPACK software, the construction cost was estimated, and a set of illustrations was drawn in order to standardize respondents' perceptions. An analytical hierarchical process (AHP) was applied. The AHP results suggested that the preferred breakwater scenarios were those that promoted the existing ways of life. Other aspects such as construction practice, environmental, and social aspects should also be thoroughly considered. PMID:23246771

  1. The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

  2. Variability in bacterial community structure during upwelling in the coastal ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerkhof, L.J.; Voytek, M.A.; Sherrell, R.M.; Millie, D.; Schofield, O.

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, investigations at the community level of marine bacteria and phytoplankton populations suggest they are tightly coupled. However, traditional oceanographic approaches cannot assess whether associations between specific bacteria and phytoplankton exist. Recently, molecular based approaches have been implemented to characterize specific members of different marine bacterial communities. Yet, few molecular-based studies have examined coastal upwelling situations. This is important since upwelling systems provide a unique opportunity for analyzing the association between specific bacteria and specific phytoplankton in the ocean. It is widely believed that upwelling can lead to changes in phytoplankton populations (blooms). Thus, if specific associations exist, we would expect to observe changes in the bacterial population triggered by the bloom. In this paper, we present preliminary data from coastal waters off New Jersey that confirm a shift in bacterial communities during a 1995 upwelling event recorded at a long-term earth observatory (LEO-15) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Using PCR amplification and cloning, specific bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences were found which were present in upwelling samples during a phytoplankton bloom, but were not detected in non-bloom samples (surface seawater, offshore sites or sediment samples) collected at the same time or in the same area. These findings are consistent with the notion of specific associations between bacteria and phytoplankton in the ocean. However, further examination of episodic events, such as coastal upwelling, are needed to confirm the existence of specific associations. Additionally, experiments need to be performed to elucidate the mechanisms leading to the specific linkages between a group of bacteria and a group of phytoplankton.

  3. Assessing the Effect of Marine Reserves on Household Food Security in Kenyan Coral Reef Fishing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

  4. Decoding Size Distribution Patterns in Marine and Transitional Water Phytoplankton: From Community to Species Level

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism’s behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities. PMID:25974052

  5. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities. PMID:25974052

  6. A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a 1.5 m surface penetrating mast which currently limits the operational depth, although the core vehicle can be deployed to depths in excess of 10 m. Propulsion is accomplished with two DC brushless motors driving six wide heavy tread pneumatic wheels, three on each side. Power is provided by NiMH batteries. An onboard computer controls propulsion, navigation and communications. Guidance and navigation utilize inertial sensors, an electronic compass and a GPS unit mounted on the mast. A scientist onshore can monitor data from the scientific payload as well as command the robot through a mast-mounted radio Ethernet bridge. Standard, off the shelf oceanographic sensors such as sondes and ADCPs can easily be integrated onto the robot making it a versatile sensing platform. We have successfully deployed the vehicle off a sandy beach in Lake Michigan where it has performed lawn-mower surveys in the surf zone. LMAR's design and field test results will be presented along with a discussion of how to further harden the vehicle for deployment in storms.

  7. Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Miller; H. E. Reader; L. C. Powers

    2010-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine

  8. Lead and cadmium concentrations in marine organisms from the Tarragona coastal waters, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Bosque, M.A.; Domingo, J.L.; Corbella, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Lead and cadmium are now recognized to be two of most important heavy metal contaminants of the marine environment. The Tarragona coastal area (Catalonia, NE Spain) is a biologically productive and physically diverse marine ecosystem, with a very important commercial fishing industry. Two rivers, the Ebro (South) and the Francoli (North) flow into the Mediterranean Sea at the Tarragona coastal waters, which are subjected to large loads of toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals). Although considerable data have been accumulated on the distribution and levels of heavy metals in marine species from different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, data from the Taragona coastal area are not available in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution and concentrations of lead and cadmium in the marine species commonly consumed by the population of Tarragona, as well as to learn whether these levels may constitute a health hazard for the consumers. Lead and cadmium were measured in 23 commercially significant marine species from the Tarragona coastal waters.

  9. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Three: Coastal Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Two dozen activities on the ecology of coastal areas, with special emphasis on North Carolina's coastline, comprise this manual for junior high school science teachers. Provided are a table correlating these lessons with state curriculum guidelines, and a summary of the unit's goals and behavioral objectives. Among the topics included are coastal…

  10. The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

  11. Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats: studies in the western coastal-shelf area of Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Freitas; Susana Silva; Victor Quintino; Ana Maria Rodrigues; Karl Rhynas; William T. Collins

    2003-01-01

    Freitas, R., Silva, S., Quintino, V., Rodrigues, A. M., Rhynas, K., and Collins, W. T. 2003. Acoustic seabed classification of marine habitats: studies in the western coastal-shelf area of Portugal. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 599-608. Two single-beam, seabed-classification systems, QTC VIEW Series IV and QTC VIEW Series V, were used to identify and map biosedimentary gradients in

  12. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

  13. Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

  14. A comparison of non-hydrolytic methods for extracting amino acids and proteins from coastal marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brook L. Nunn; Richard G. Keil

    2006-01-01

    Advances in analytical techniques now allow for the potential analysis of intact peptides and proteins isolated from marine sediments. However, there is no established technique for the extraction of macromolecular materials from marine sediments. Six different methods for extracting the amino acid component from coastal marine sediments were compared to the standard hot acid hydrolysis technique for their percent recovery

  15. Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-12-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem. PMID:17334056

  16. Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats E. R. Gustafsson; Lars G. Franzén

    1996-01-01

    The present paper introduces a model for the dry deposition of marine aerosols in a coastal area of SW Sweden. The model, incorporating wind speed and distance from shore, is based on repeated measurements of salt impingement on specially designed salt traps in dense profiles from the shore and inland. The measurements show that the deposited salts include two significantly

  17. Prey Selection by Marine-coastal River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in Newfoundland, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Cote; H. M. J. STEWART; R. S. Gregory; J. Gosse; J. J. Reynolds; G. B. Stenson; E. H. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that diets of river otters (Lontra canadensis) vary in response to seasonal shifts in prey availability, and that they select slowly moving fish of moderate size. To test these assumptions for marine-coastal river otters in Newfoundland, Canada, we reconstructed diets and estimated body length of important fish prey through analysis of otoliths and other hard parts

  18. Adjustment of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer to a Coastal Cape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Edwards; Audrey M. Rogerson; Clinton D. Winant; David P. Rogers

    2001-01-01

    During summer, significant changes in marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) speed and depth occur over small spatial scales (<100 km) downstream from topographic features along the California coast. In June and July 1996, the Coastal Waves 96 project collected observations of such changes at capes with an instrumented aircraft. This paper presents observations from the 7 June flight, when the

  19. An ecosystem level experiment on nutrient limitation in temperate coastal marine environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace Oviatt; Peter Doering; Barbara Nowicki; L Reed; J Cole; J Frithsen

    1995-01-01

    Which nutrients limit primary production in coastal marine environments? Using large (13 000 1) mesocosms with sediments we explored nutrient limitation in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA, over a 9 wk period. Separate and combined additions of phosphorus and nitrogen were made to the enclosures. Phytoplankton biomass, daytime whole system oxygen production and night- time whole system respiration showed an

  20. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen de Mora; Scott W. Fowler; Imma Tolosa; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Chantal Cattini

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds was investigated in the Gulf and Gulf of Oman based on marine biota (fish and various bivalves) and coastal sediment collected in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during 2000–2001. Several potential organic contaminants from agricultural (e.g., DDT and its breakdown products, lindane, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan) and industrial (PCBs) sources

  1. Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal

    E-print Network

    Programme's Agree- ment on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and ContiguousEditorial Marine Conservation on Paper I have been studying dolphins in Mediterranean coastal they were not doing well. At least in portions of the Mediterranean basin, reason- able explanations were

  2. Chlordane contamination in selected estuarine and coastal marine finfish and shellfish of New Jersey, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Kennish; Bruce E. Ruppel

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of chlordane contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey, USA, indicates consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. Gas chromatographic analysis of tissue samples from four finfish species (American eel, Anguilla rostrata; bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix; striped bass, Morone saxatilis; and weakfish,

  3. The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Michaelsen

    In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

  4. The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

    2007-01-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

  5. Short-term variability of the phytoplankton community in coastal ecosystem in response to physical and chemical conditions' changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannard, Alexandrine; Claquin, Pascal; Klein, Cécile; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

    2008-11-01

    The short-term dynamics (time scale of a few days) of phytoplankton communities in coastal ecosystems, particularly those of toxic species, are often neglected. Such phenomena can be important, especially since these very species can endanger the sustainability of shellfish farming. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in phytoplankton community structure (species succession) in two coastal zones in parallel with physical and chemical conditions. Mixing events with allochtonous waters could thus be distinguished from local processes associated with population growth when it was associated with a change in light or nutrient limitation. Mixing events and water advection influenced fluctuations in total phytoplankton biomass and concentration of dominant species, while local processes influenced delayed changes in community structure. The estuarine species Asterionellopsis glacialis increased in concentration when the water mass mixed with the nearest estuarine water masses. The biological response, measured as photosynthetic capacity, occurred after a time-lag of a few hours, while the changes in community structure occurred after a time-lag of a few days. Finally, the coastal water mass was constantly mixed with both the nearest estuarine and marine water masses, leading in turn to delayed changes in phytoplankton community structure. These changes in species composition and dominance were observed on a time scale of a few days, which means that some toxic species may be missed with a bi-weekly sampling strategy.

  6. Temporal variations in abundance and composition of intact polar lipids in North Sea coastal marine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but possible phosphorous limitation during the spring bloom did not result in changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll-a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, whilst IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year did not result in major shifts in IPL composition. This shows that the most commonly occurring IPLs have limited chemotaxonomic potential, and highlights the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  7. Nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off Northeastern Taiwan. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the analyzed elements in copepods are discussed. Owing to the upwelling intrusion of Kuroshio Water, the study area presented an enriched copepod community and the copepod abundance ranged within 106-4890 ind. m-3. The trace elements content in the analyzed copepods varied substantially, ranging from 0.01 to 780 mg kg-1. and the average concentration followed the sequence: Sr>Fe>Zn>Cr>Li>Ni>Mn>Ba>Cu>Se>As>V>Pb>Rb>Cd>Co>Ga>Ag>Cs. The trace elements can be divided into five groups according to the concentration quantity in copepods: (1) Sr; (2) Fe, Zn, Cr, Li and Ni; (3) Mn, Cu, Ba, Se, As, V, Pb and Rb; (4) Cd, Co and Ga; (5) Ag and Cs. The concentration difference in each group is nearly one order of magnitude. The trace element concentrations in copepods seem to be in proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater. The trace element log BCF values ranged within 1.32-5.66. Transition metals generally have a higher BCF value than the associated minor elements, such as Ba, Sr, Li and Rb. The trace element BCF value in copepods is in inverse proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater.

  8. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  9. Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system Hongsheng) was estimated from a 15 year time series of zooplankton samples (1996­2010) collected biweekly at a coastal dynamics. Citation: Bi, H., W. T. Peterson, and P. T. Strub (2011), Transport and coastal zooplankton

  10. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  11. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Zhou; Chuguang Huang; Hongda Fang; Weixu Cai; Dongmei Li; Xiaomin Li; Hansheng Yu

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters\\/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282–16.891) items\\/km2, with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size

  12. Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of coastal marine phytoplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WENDY A. MACCAULL; TREVOR PLATT

    1977-01-01

    The diel variations in the assimilation number, P ,', of natural assemblages of coastal ma- rine phytoplankton were examined and a working model proposed to characterize the ap- parent diel rhythm. No rhythm could be distinguished for the initial slope of the light saturation curve, a, although a! and PmB were highly correlated and the daily and hourly variations in

  13. Sustainable coastal communities in the age of coastal storms: Reconceptualising coastal planning as ‘new’ naval architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Hurricanes devastated the Gulf coast of the USA in 2005. Hurricane Katrina, in particular, highlighted the compelling,need to build more,sustainable and hazard- resilient communities. Much can be learned from recovery efforts to rebuild the Gulf coast. Personal observations and interviews with planners, academics and others involved in recovery efforts inform this analysis, which focuses on New Orleans. A conceptual

  14. Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

  15. Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

  16. Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception,

    E-print Network

    Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms, and Adaptation Committee #12;2 #12;Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms and boundedly rational storm perception. I also include endoge- nous economic growth, population growth, public

  17. Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste

    E-print Network

    Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

  18. Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

    2015-03-01

    The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent eradications using aerial bait application, the risk of mortality to exposed individual fish or shellfish appears very low. There is also a very low risk of adverse effects on humans that consume fish or shellfish containing residual concentrations in the ranges reported here. Furthermore, any brodifacoum residues that occur in marine wildlife decline to below detectable concentrations over a period of weeks. Thus potential human exposure to brodifacoum through consumption of marine wildlife containing residual brodifacoum could be minimized by defining 'no take' periods for harvest following bait application and regular monitoring to confirm the absence of detectable residues in relevant marine wildlife. PMID:25437099

  19. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  20. Lipids as indicators of eutrophication in marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Pinturier-Geiss, L; Méjanelle, L; Dale, B; Karlsen, D A

    2002-02-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and sedimentary lipid contents were investigated in the Bunnefjord, the most inner part of the Oslofjord (Norway). The Bunnefjord is an intermittent anoxic basin and has undergone major eutrophication since the early 1800s. A core from this fjord was collected at 100 m depths under anoxic remnant waters. The first 15 cm corresponding to deposits from 1500 to present were considered for analysis. Lipid classes were quantified by TLC-FID and the molecular composition of selected lipid classes was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Lipids were dominated by two main classes, phospholipids and hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons represented up to 7.4% of total lipids in the sediment layers covering the period when the most extensive cultural eutrophication took place (1900 to 1970). The higher fluxes of organic carbon produced during this period may have controlled hydrocarbon inputs into the sediments, due to the hydrophobic character of these pollutants. The hydrocarbon concentration reversed toward pre-industrial levels in the more recent layers, which suggests an improvement of the water quality, possibly in response to improved treatment of the sewage in the cities around Bunnefjord. The second most abundant pool of lipids consists in phospholipids, mostly contributed by bacteria. Even though the concentration decreased with depth, their relative proportions to total lipids remained high, mainly in the deepest layers (>80% of total lipids). A rapid decrease of the polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from the phospholipid fraction in the upper 4 cm suggests a rapid biodegradation of planktonic inputs and meiofauna. Odd branched fatty acids were more probably contributed by bacteria linked to the high sedimentary hydrocarbon content. The down core distribution of 16:1omega7, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega5 esterified to phospholipids suggests a vertical zonation of the microbial community in relation to redox conditions and available organic matter. In addition to bacterial sulphur biomass, the presence of hopanoic acids in the phospholipids fraction suggests the contribution of bacteria growing on methane. According to the sterol composition, dominated by 4alpha(H)-methylsterols, dinoflagellates represent the major contributors to the organic matter produced in the water column, particularly during the period of extensive eutrophication. Long-chain diols (1,13-C(26), 1,15-C(30) and 1,15-C(32)) and long-chain keto-ols (1,15-C(30) and 1,15-C(32)) are reported for the first time at high latitudes. Their relative distributions (diol and keto-ol indexes of Versteegh et al. [Org. Geochem. 27 (1997)]) have allowed depicting a particular event during the eutrophication period, a freshwater intrusion with inputs of land-derived organic matter. This is in accordance with the downcore distribution of freshwater/terrestrial markers as sitosterol, dehydroabietic acid and iso- and anteiso-pimaric acids. The diol and keto-ol indexes have also underlined the general transition trend from marine to more brackish waters in the Bunnefjord. These last observations provide confidence into the use of these compounds in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. PMID:11777572

  1. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan. PMID:18800202

  2. Classification of Turbidity Levels in the Texas Marine Coastal Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Weisblatt; J. B. Zaitzeff; C. A. Reeves

    1973-01-01

    The unsupervised Iterative Self-Organizing Clustering System (ISOCLS) and the supervised Earth Resources Interactive Processing System (ERIPS) were used to detect, delineate and classify near-surface turbidity patterns in the Galveston and Trinity Bays, Texas and adjacent coastal waters. Data used in the analysis was ERTS-l Multispectral Scanner (MSS) digital data in the visible spectral bands from 0.5 to 1.1 micrometers, and

  3. Establishing coastal and marine reserves — with the emphasis on fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Lindeboom; Saara Bäck

    Marine reserves or protected areas with certain restrictions are formed for several reasons: protection of species or specific life stages, protection of habitats such as spawning, resting or feeding areas, and creation of more natural age composition in populations. Areas are established to prevent continuous impacts of human actions such as certain disturbance of fishing techniques. For scientific research and

  4. Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-07-01

    Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

  5. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic biocenosis to provide excellent information on ecological processes from which ecosystem benefits arise.

  6. Effects of Land Use Change on Tropical Coastal Systems are Exacerbated by the Decline of Marine Mega-Herbivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, L. P.; Christianen, M. J.; Govers, L. L.; Kiswara, W.; Bouma, T.; Roelofs, J. G.; Van Katwijk, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land use changes in tropical regions such as deforestation, mining activities, and shrimp farming, not only affect freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, but also have a strong impact on coastal marine ecosystems. The increased influx of sediments and nutrients affects these ecosystems in multiple ways. Seagrass meadows that line coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services, e.g. sediment trapping, coastal protection and fisheries. Based on studies in East Kalimantan (Indonesia) we have shown that seagrass meadow parameters may provide more reliable indicators of land use change than the sampling of either marine sediments or water quality chemical parameters. Observations of changes in ecosystem functioning are particularly valuable for those areas where flux values are lacking and rapid surveys are needed. Time series of estuarine seagrass transects can show not only the intensity, but also the radius of action of land use change on coastal marine systems. Marine mega-herbivores pose a strong top-down control in seagrass ecosystems. We will provide a conceptual model, based on experimental evidence, to show that the global decline of marine mega-herbivore populations (as a result of large-scale poaching) may decrease the resilience of seagrass systems to increased anthropogenic forcing including land use changes. These outcomes not only urge the need for better regulation of land use change, but also for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPA's) in tropical coastal regions.

  7. Medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Schwantes; Raymond S. Addleman; Joseph D. Davidson; Matthew Douglas; David E. Meier; O Dennis Mullen; Mitchell J. Myjak; Mark E. Jones; Mitchell L. Woodring; Bryce Johnson; Peter H. Santschi

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a medium-resolution autonomous in situ gamma detection system for marine and coastal waters. The system\\u000a is designed to extract and preconcentrate isotopes of interest from natural waters prior to detection in order to eliminate\\u000a signal attenuation of the gamma rays traveling through water and lower the overall background from the presence of naturally\\u000a occurring radioactive isotopes (40K

  8. Eutrophication and the rate of denitrification and NâO production in coastal marine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SYBIL P. SEITZINGER; SCOTT W. NIXON

    1985-01-01

    Large (13 m³, 5 m deep) microcosms with coupled pelagic and benthic components were used to measure the effect of nutrient loading and eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems on the rates of benthic denitrification (Nâ) and NâO production. After 3 months or daily nutrient addition, average denitrification rates ranged from about 300 ..mu..mol N m⁻² h⁻¹ in the sediments of

  9. Climate change impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Scavia; John C. Field; Donald F. Boesch; Robert W. Buddemeier; Virginia Burkett; Daniel R. Cayan; Michael Fogarty; Mark A. Harwell; Robert W. Howarth; Curt Mason; Denise J. Reed; Thomas C. Royer; Asbury H. Sallenger; James G. Titus

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global\\u000a air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001)\\u000a was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector\\u000a review of

  10. Marine geophysics along the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula coastal area in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis G. del Castillo

    1974-01-01

    Marine geophysical studies were carried out along the coastal zone of Mexico in the Atlantic Ocean as part of CICAR and IDOE projects. An area of 200,000 km2 was covered by two reconnaissance cruises and a more limited area by tracks for more detailed research. The 15,000 km of track lines include a collection of continuous seismic profiling, bathymetry, gravity

  11. An Aerosol Model of the Marine and Coastal Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Kaloshin; I. A. Grishin

    2011-01-01

    We present a microphysical model for the surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols that is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01–100 µm particles. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of

  12. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning should be present in all the countries or locations. As this study shows, community resiliency can be measured but any such measurement must be both location- and hazard-specific. PMID:22576136

  13. Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes. PMID:22834535

  14. Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Columbia River is experiencing a far too common problem of disastrous coastal erosion that has been causing grave concern in its community. Because of this, the US Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Washington Department of Ecology created the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study to predict management scale coastal change, and provide "coastal communities with decision support tools for integrating scientific research with coastal decision making and long-term land use planning efforts." Visitors can discover the study's approach, findings, and participants. The lengthy, informative research link provides information about the study's five key components: coastal change, sediment budget, coastal processes, predictive modeling, and management support. The authors are currently compiling the data collected. Presently, researchers can find data about the beach profiles and the shorelines. The website offers a great, thorough glossary to assist users with unfamiliar terminology. This site is also reviewed in the June 11, 2004 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  15. Effects of thermal effluents on communities of benthic marine macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Devinny; J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Surveys of marine benthic macro-algae were made at two study areas receiving thermal effluents from power plants. A third, at an area where a natural thermal gradient exists, was investigated for comparison. Ordination analysis of the algal communities indicated changes in species composition of about 10% for each degree of temperature change up to 3/sup 0/C. Temperatures 7/sup 0/C above ambient altered the algal community by eliminating the large phaeophytes. Temperatures 10/sup 0/C above ambient left only a species-poor community of ephemeral populations.

  16. Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

  17. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on coastal bacterial community abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2014-10-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is an important parameter influencing the distribution of microbial life in the ocean. In this study, the response of marine bacterial populations from surface waters to pressures representative of those under deep-sea conditions was examined. Southern California coastal seawater collected 5 m below the sea surface was incubated in microcosms, using a range of temperatures (16 to 3°C) and hydrostatic pressure conditions (0.1 to 80 MPa). Cell abundance decreased in response to pressure, while diversity increased. The morphology of the community also changed with pressurization to a predominant morphotype of small cocci. The pressure-induced community changes included an increase in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Flavobacteria largely at the expense of Epsilonproteobacteria. Culturable high-pressure-surviving bacteria were obtained and found to be phylogenetically similar to isolates from cold and/or deep-sea environments. These results provide novel insights into the response of surface water bacteria to changes in hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25063663

  18. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Coastal Bacterial Community Abundance and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is an important parameter influencing the distribution of microbial life in the ocean. In this study, the response of marine bacterial populations from surface waters to pressures representative of those under deep-sea conditions was examined. Southern California coastal seawater collected 5 m below the sea surface was incubated in microcosms, using a range of temperatures (16 to 3°C) and hydrostatic pressure conditions (0.1 to 80 MPa). Cell abundance decreased in response to pressure, while diversity increased. The morphology of the community also changed with pressurization to a predominant morphotype of small cocci. The pressure-induced community changes included an increase in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Flavobacteria largely at the expense of Epsilonproteobacteria. Culturable high-pressure-surviving bacteria were obtained and found to be phylogenetically similar to isolates from cold and/or deep-sea environments. These results provide novel insights into the response of surface water bacteria to changes in hydrostatic pressure. PMID:25063663

  19. Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

  20. Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and Arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multiyear mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) buildup and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

  1. Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Crawford; I. M. Dutton; C. Rotinsulu; L. Z. Hale

    Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), a cooperative initiative of the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Many of the issues in the province, and models being es- tablished through

  2. Environmental controls on microbial community cycling in modern marine stromatolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowlin, Emily M.; Klaus, James S.; Foster, Jamie S.; Andres, Miriam S.; Custals, Lillian; Reid, R. Pamela

    2012-07-01

    Living stromatolites on the margins of Exuma Sound, Bahamas, are the only examples of modern stromatolites forming in open marine conditions similar to those that may have existed on Precambrian platforms. Six microbial mat types have previously been documented on the surfaces of stromatolites along the eastern side of Highborne Cay (Schizothrix, Solentia, heterotrophic biofilm, stalked diatom, tube diatom and Phormidium mats). Cycling of these communities create laminae with distinct microstructures. Subsurface laminae thus represent a chronology of former surface mats. The present study documents the effects of environmental factors on surface microbial communities of modern marine stromatolites and identifies potential causes of microbial mat cycling. Mat type and burial state at 43 markers along a stromatolitic reef on the margin of Highborne Cay were monitored over a two-year period (2005-2006). Key environmental parameters (i.e., temperature, light, wind, water chemistry) were also monitored. Results indicated that the composition of stromatolite surface mats and transitions from one mat type to another are controlled by both seasonal and stochastic events. All six stromatolite mat communities at Highborne Cay showed significant correlations with water temperature. Heterotrophic biofilms, Solentia, stalked diatom and Phormidium mats showed positive correlations with temperature, whereas Schizothrix and tube diatom communities showed negative correlations. A significant correlation with light (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) was detected only for the heterotrophic biofilm community. No significant correlations were found between mat type and the monitored wind intensity data, but field observations indicated that wind-related events such as storms and sand abrasion play important roles in the transitions from one mat type to another. An integrated model of stromatolite mat community cycling is developed that includes both predictable seasonal environmental variation and stochastic events. The long-term monitoring of mat communities on Highborne Cay stromatolites and the resulting model are an important step in understanding morphogenesis of modern marine stromatolites, with implications for interpreting patterns of stromatolite lamination in the geologic record.

  3. New Sequence Types and Multidrug Resistance among Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Coastal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Luna, G. M.; Rinaldi, C.; Di Cesare, A.; Danovaro, R.; Biavasco, F.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is widely recognized, but data about their sources, presence, and significance in marine environments are still limited. We examined 109 Escherichia coli strains from coastal marine sediments carrying virulence genes for antibiotic susceptibility, specific resistance genes, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons, and sequence type. Antibiotic resistance was found in 35% of strains, and multiple resistances were found in 14%; the resistances detected most frequently were against tetracycline (28%), ampicillin (16.5%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13%), and streptomycin (7%). The highest prevalence of resistant strains was in phylogenetic group A, whereas phylogroup B2 exhibited a significantly lower frequency than all the other groups. Sixty percent of multiresistant strains harbored class 1 or 2 integrase genes, and about 50% carried resistance genes (particularly dfrA and aadA) linked to a class 1 integron. Multilocus sequence typing of 14 selected strains identified eight different types characteristic of extraintestinal pathogens and three new allelic combinations. Our data suggest that coastal marine sediment may be a suitable environment for the survival of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains capable of contributing to resistance spread via integrons among benthic bacteria, and they highlight a role for these strains in the emergence of new virulent genotypes. PMID:22447595

  4. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  5. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  6. Halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Kanbara, Chika; Ochiai, Mari; Eguchi, Akifumi; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Matsuishi, Takashi; Yamada, Tadasu K; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Information on accumulation of halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammal is limited. The present study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of chlorinated and brominated phenolic contaminants (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and bromophenols) in the blood collected from pinnipeds (northern fur seal, spotted seal, Steller sea lion and ribbon seal) and small cetaceans (harbor porpoise and Dall's porpoise) from Japanese coastal waters. Concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs found in pinnipeds were the same as in small cetaceans living in the same coastal area. However, significantly lower concentrations of brominated compounds (PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs) were found in the blood of pinnipeds than the levels found in cetacean species which live same area (p < 0.05). This difference of accumulation pattern suggested pinnipeds have an enhanced capability to degrade organobromine compounds relative to cetaceans. PMID:24060385

  7. Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the

    E-print Network

    Chami, Malik

    of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations optical properties (IOP) of the water constituents (namely the absorption, scattering, and backscatteringSensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal

  8. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

  9. Cyanobacterial assimilatory nitrate reductase gene diversity in coastal and oligotrophic marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Bethany D; Zehr, Jonathan P; Gibson, Angela; Campbell, Lisa

    2006-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are important primary producers in many marine ecosystems and their abundances and growth rates depend on their ability to assimilate various nitrogen sources. To examine the diversity of nitrate-utilizing marine cyanobacteria, we developed PCR primers specific for cyanobacterial assimilatory nitrate reductase (narB) genes. We obtained amplification products from diverse strains of cultivated cyanobacteria and from several marine environments. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the narB gene are congruent with those based on ribosomal RNA genes and RNA polymerase genes. Analysis of sequence library data from coastal and oligotrophic marine environments shows distinct groups of Synechococcus sp. in each environment; some of which are represented by sequences from cultivated organisms and others that are unrelated to known sequences and likely represent novel phylogenetic groups. We observed spatial differences in the distribution of sequences between two sites in Monterey Bay and differences in the vertical distribution of sequence types at the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA, suggesting that nitrogen assimilation in Synechococcus living in different ecological niches can be followed with the nitrate reductase gene. PMID:17107550

  10. The impact of marine reserves on nekton diversity and community composition in subtropical eastern Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Australia Suzanne Pillansa,b, *, Juan-Carlos Ortizb , Richard D. Pillansc , Hugh P. Possinghamd a CRC for Coastal Zone, Estuary and Waterway Management, Australia b Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia c CSIRO Marine Research, P.O. Box 120, Cleveland, Brisbane

  11. Overview of the Coastal Marine Discovery Service: data discovery, visualization, and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cinquini, L.; O'Brien, F. J.; Resneck, G.; Siegrist, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Many resources available for coastal ocean research and management remain underutilized. Typically, the emphasis in the past has been on increasing access and usability of remote sensing satellite products from NASA data centers. Significant progress has been made in this regard although access and discovery mechanisms still remain disjointed. Less attention has been paid to discovery and usability to ocean in situ records and circulation model products, because typically these are organized and maintained on a smaller regional level such as a university or smaller division of a larger national agency. The NASA Coastal Marine Discovery Service, a NASA ACCESS funded activity, focuses on improving discovery of these regional coastal ocean web services and data portals, including databases for satellite imagery, in situ and field measurements, ocean circulation models, and GIS coverages as a few examples. Beyond resource discovery, the CMDS integrated system (http://cmds.jpl.nasa.gov) leverages open source technology for unifying coastal ocean data within the framework on a GIS web client, the Easy GIS Net Viewer. In sum, CMDS consists of an online catalog of coastal resources that allows users to quickly discover the availability of data for their region of interest, physical parameter of interest or specific regional project of interest, or any combination of these. After discovery, data can be transparently linked to Netviewer client to view, overlay and interrogate products, and make GIS-like queries on the data layers to investigate statistical relationships. In this presentation, we will review the CMDS system, it architecture and resource harvesting approach, and more importantly demonstrate real world use of cases of data exploration, visualization and ultimately understanding.

  12. Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

  13. Contrasting effects of variable species recruitment on marine sessile communities.

    PubMed

    Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    The species composition, density, and frequency of recruitment into any given habitat are highly variable in most biological systems that rely on dispersive propagules (larvae, seeds, spores, etc.). There are few direct experimental studies of how recruitment variation between single species influences the composition and assembly of whole communities in many of these systems. We manipulated recruitment of a variety of single taxa and followed their effects on the subsequent development of hard-substrate communities of sessile animals living in temperate marine waters. The effects of recruitment on communities were complex. Patterns of recruitment of individual species influenced community structure, but these effects varied greatly depending on the identity of species recruits, the time of community development, and location across three different sites. Variable recruitment of arborescent bryozoans and didemnid ascidians had little effect on community structure. At one site, recruitment of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri had short-lived effects on community structure, while barnacles had more persistent effects. At another site, recruitment of B. schlosseri and the bryozoan Watersipora subtorquata had strong persistent effects on community structure, dominating space where they recruited and influencing the abundances of a variety of different taxa. Differences in the effects of species recruitment on communities appear to be caused by differences between the ecology and life history of recruiting species as well as differences in background processes between sites. These results demonstrate that discrete recruitment events that vary between single species can be important drivers of community composition but are likely to be heavily influenced by the local environment, even within a single species. PMID:22764501

  14. Retrospective quantification of estuarine feeding activity by coastally caught marine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-10-01

    Many commercially important marine fishes are found in estuaries, particularly as juveniles. The estuaries may provide a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Here, carbon ( ?13C) and sulphur ( ?34S) stable isotope data from coastally caught common sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) were used in independent mixing models to determine relative contributions of estuarine prey to white muscle composition. The influence of assumed trophic fractionation was also investigated with sensitivity analysis. At the population level, there was evidence for estuarine contributions to muscle tissue in both species (means from 16.37% to 61.28%), though among-individual variability was considerable. ?13C and ?34S model outputs implied different estuarine contributions for the same individual, likely reflecting the slower turnover of ?34S than ?13C. Sole exhibited population level plasticity in their feeding as juveniles, separating into two distinct juvenile sub-populations; but they are less plastic as older fish when they adopt increasingly marine diets. Whiting show individual plasticity as both juveniles and adults, feeding on prey of estuarine and coastal origin.

  15. Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) Project Reports FY13 Page 1 of 219

    E-print Network

    Project Title Alaska Sea Grant Community Environmental Hazard Response Resources: Online Information of information, ideas, and best practices. Progress Summary Program CA Project Title California Sea Grant ClimateHazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) Project Reports FY13 Page 1 of 219 Program AK Project

  16. Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica

    EPA Science Inventory

    In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

  17. The effects of coastal development on sponge abundance, diversity, and community composition on Jamaican coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Stubler, Amber D; Duckworth, Alan R; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, development along the northern coast of Jamaica has accelerated, resulting in elevated levels of sedimentation on adjacent reefs. To understand the effects of this development on sponge community dynamics, we conducted surveys at three locations with varying degrees of adjacent coastal development to quantify species richness, abundance and diversity at two depths (8-10m and 15-18m). Sediment accumulation rate, total suspended solids and other water quality parameters were also quantified. The sponge community at the location with the least coastal development and anthropogenic influence was often significantly different from the other two locations, and exhibited higher sponge abundance, richness, and diversity. Sponge community composition and size distribution were statistically different among locations. This study provides correlative evidence that coastal development affects aspects of sponge community ecology, although the precise mechanisms are still unclear. PMID:25979812

  18. Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning - Efforts to Bring Law and Order to Ocean Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years a number of coastal states have engaged in planning and resource stewardship efforts that go markedly beyond single sector resource-oriented management. In some cases, proponents of such efforts have laid claim to the banner of "first" in characterizing their respective ocean (and Great Lakes) management plans. In particular, California, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island have each engaged in coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) management approaches that can be characterized as "firsts" in one way or another. This project will outline the bases upon which these claims have been made. It will employ a set of five chronologies designed to inform policy-makers, researchers, resource users and the general public with the context and contents of various state ocean management regimes. For each state, the impetus, apparatus, and status of the state's ocean (and Great Lakes) planning efforts will be examined. In each case CMSP has been legally authorized by the state. But the construction and discretion related to those legal authorizations varies. We will also examine whether there are any early 'signals' suggesting that stricter statutory control of the principles and constraints of a state's coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) effort might provide political "insulation" to executive branch personnel charged with implementing such plans but that benefit will come at the expense of a loss of employing valuable expertise and discretion of executive branch administrators. The researchers will assess each state's CMSP apparatus, in detail, to identify how the five states exert legislative control over their respective CMSP efforts. To the degree that substantial variation is identified among the five states, researchers will examine the control-status relationship to see whether and how the level of legislative control may influence the sought after objectives of a given state's CMSP management endeavor.

  19. Ultradeep 16S rRNA Sequencing Analysis of Geographically Similar but Diverse Unexplored Marine Samples Reveal Varied Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. Methods and Principal Findings In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62–71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. Conclusion This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from uncharacterised coastal region of Palk Bay, India using next generation sequencing technology. PMID:24167548

  20. Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S. [Moss Landing Marine Labs., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  2. Ecosystemic zonification as a management tool for marine protected areas in the coastal zone: Applications for the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ortiz-Lozano; A. Granados-Barba; I. Espejel

    2009-01-01

    Protected marine areas management depends mainly on the zonification schemes applied. The aim of the present work is to propose a zonification scheme for protected marine areas in the coastal zone, based on the ecosystem features. This ecosystemic zonification is based on structural and functional elements of marine ecosystems, and allows the incorporation of the main environmental characteristics into the

  3. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  4. Visible and infrared extinction of atmospheric aerosol in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Kaloshin, Gennady A

    2011-05-10

    The microphysical model Marine Aerosol Extinction Profiles (MaexPro) for surface layer marine and coastal atmospheric aerosols, which is based on long-term observations of size distributions for 0.01-100 ?m particles, is presented. The fundamental feature of the model is a parameterization of amplitudes and widths for aerosol modes of the aerosol size distribution function (ASDF) as functions of fetch and wind speed. The shape of the ASDF and its dependence on meteorological parameters, altitudes above the sea level (H), fetch (X), wind speed (U), and relative humidity is investigated. The model is primarily to characterize aerosols for the near-surface layer (within 25 m). The model is also applicable to higher altitudes within the atmospheric boundary layer, where the change in the vertical profile of aerosol is not very large. In this case, it is only valid for "clean" marine environments, in the absence of air pollution or any other major sources of continental aerosols, such desert dust or smoke from biomass burning. The spectral profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficients calculated by MaexPro are in good agreement with observational data and the numerical results obtained by the well-known Navy Aerosol Model and Advanced Navy Aerosol Model codes. Moreover, MaexPro was found to be an accurate and reliable instrument for investigation of the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. PMID:21556113

  5. On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

  6. Onshore–offshore gradient in reductive early diagenesis in coastal marine sediments of the Ria de Vigo, Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Mohamed; D. Rey; B. Rubio; M. J. Dekkers; A. P. Roberts; F. Vilas

    2011-01-01

    Early diagenetic modification of magnetic properties is an important process in marine sediments, but temporal and spatial variability of diagenetic processes have rarely been reported for recent coastal sediments. The magnetic properties of sediments from the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) define a marked three-part zonation with depth. The uppermost zone is magnetically dominated by (titano-)magnetite. In the intermediate zone,

  7. Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Digital Atlas

    E-print Network

    Dwyer, Ned

    Developing an Informational Web Portal for Coastal Data in Ireland: Data Issues in the Marine Irish Cork Abstract Data accessibility is a problem for many GIS users. In Ireland, improving accessibility. Introduction In November 2002, Ireland began the process of developing the Irish Spatial Data Infrastructure

  8. Soil chemical features as key predictors of plant community occurrence in a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angiolini, Claudia; Landi, Marco; Pieroni, Giorgia; Frignani, Flavio; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Gaggi, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    Modelling the relationships between soil chemical factors and vegetation in coastal areas provides a significant contribution to understanding the ecology and conservation of these ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. The present study relates coastal plant communities and soil chemistry using multivariate analysis and generalized additive models (GAMs) in order (a) to determine the relationships between soil factors and plant community occurrence along a coastline-lagoon gradient; (b) to build best models of soil chemical predictors for coastal plant community occurrence. Distance from coastline was the primary driver of changes in plant community composition and soil factors on the Mediterranean coast. Field capacity, pH, CaCO3, NaCl and soil organic matter were the major parameters related to the pattern of vegetation distribution. Along the costaline-lagoon gradient, however, plant community and soil changes agreed for two main sequences of habitats. The first was in the sand dune environment, involving plant communities, the species composition of which varied in response to increasing soil development. The second was near lagoons, where vegetation responded to soil salinity, acting independently of other soil factors. Coastal plant community occurrence was explained by GAMs, using a few soil chemical predictors: pH and CaCO3 were the main predictors for dune communities but only partly explained their occurrence, whereas NaCl was the key factor for salt marsh community occurrence and largely contributed to the model. The results suggest that soil chemical changes can be detected through vegetation distribution, particularly in saline habitats. Thus, habitat-based models could be a useful tool to identify the key factors for different types of vegetation occurrence in coastal habitats.

  9. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  10. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  11. A Framework of Lessons Learned from Community-Based Marine Reserves and Its Effectiveness in

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    A Framework of Lessons Learned from Community- Based Marine Reserves and Its Effectiveness factors for success. Reviewing relevant literature, we present a framework of "lessons learned" during; Community-based; coral reef conservation; Philippines; Alternative livelihood; Lessons learned Published

  12. Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080

  13. Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but no changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition due to nutrient limitation were observed. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers, in particular Phaeocystis globosa, were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, while IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year resulted in only minor shifts in the IPL composition. Principal component analysis showed that the IPLs were derived from multiple sources, and that no IPL species could be exclusively assigned to a particular algal taxa or (cyano)bacteria. Thus, the most commonly occurring IPLs appear to have limited chemotaxonomic potential, highlighting the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  14. Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters? †

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

  15. Community-scale Coastal Vulnerability Mapping in Alaska: Status and Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, N.; Gould, A.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska's extensive shorelines are incompletely mapped and under-instrumented to proceed with widespread assessments of coastal vulnerability. Despite this baseline data shortage, many of Alaska's coastal communities are involved in mitigation or adaptation efforts in response to natural hazards such as erosion and flooding. To provide coastal communities with the tools that are necessary to support local decision-making, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) has undertaken focused field studies to improve quality, quantity and access to coastal datasets such as topography, nearshore bathymetry, rates of shoreline change and relevant water levels. These efforts are inclusive of both standard approaches (e.g. lidar, repeat coastal profile measurements, Digital Shoreline Analysis System assessments and fully-instrumented tide stations) as well as alternative methodologies that improve our ability to economically accomplish this work in harsh, remote areas (e.g. Structure From Motion surface models, quantification of local knowledge observations, stop-gap tidal datum conversion tools, and pressure-sensor water level networks). We present a comprehensive summary of the geographic variability of coastal dynamics and geohazard potential along the Alaska shoreline, from the erosion-prone North Slope coastline to low-lying areas in western Alaska that are at elevated risk to storm surge inundation. This work provides a graphical summary of the existing quality and spatial extent of data in Alaskan coastal communities while highlighting critical data gaps, such as high-precision elevation models, which are delaying more robust flood and erosion vulnerability mapping. By outlining ongoing work and providing examples from recent DGGS projects we will showcase some of the new vulnerability mapping tools under development for our state and also identify opportunities for necessary collaborations in the Alaska coastal zone.

  16. Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Gamito, Sofia; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small rivers. Sampling took place in three stations along a gradient of marine influence from June 2001 to July 2002. During summer and autumn, the water in the lagoon was low, influencing positively water temperature, salinity, total solids in suspension (TSS), orthophosphates, total phosphorus (TP) and pH. In winter and spring, there was an increase of nitrates, nitrites, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and N:P ratio with the raise of water level in the lagoon. Chlorophyll a and phaeo-pigments concentrations were positively related to the previous parameters. Phytoplankton density was low and switching in dominant taxa was observed along time but the community was mainly dominated by Dinophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae were related to higher TSS and lower DIN, salinity and TP; Cyanophyceae were stimulated by the opposite conditions. The decrease of water level jointly with the raise of salinity and TP influenced positively pico-nano flagellate algae. Cryptophyceae were positively correlated with the same factors and also TSS. Several trophic state indexes and water quality indicators have been applied and an overall analysis pointed out to a coastal lagoon with mesotrophic characteristics. During the studied period no serious eutrophication events occurred, however there were some situations of nutrient enrichment due to human activities, such as agriculture and non-treated sewage discharges, which might have favoured the development of potentially toxic phytoplankton species, namely Prorocentrum minimum.

  17. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Hitchcock; Gary Kirkpatrick; Peter Minnett; Valeriy Palubok

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances.

  18. Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Michael B; Claus, C Anne; Naidoo, Robin

    2010-10-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a popular conservation strategy, but their impacts on human welfare are poorly understood. To inform future research and policy decisions, we reviewed the scientific literature to assess MPA impacts on five indicators of human welfare: food security, resource rights, employment, community organization, and income. Following MPA establishment, food security generally remained stable or increased in older and smaller MPAs. The ability of most fishing groups to govern MPA resources changed. Increased resource rights were positively correlated with MPA zoning and compliance with MPA regulations. Small sample sizes precluded statistical tests of the impacts of MPAs on employment, community organization, and income. Our results demonstrate that MPAs shape the social well-being and political power of fishing communities; impacts (positive and negative) vary within and among social groups; and social impacts are correlated with some--but not all--commonly hypothesized explanatory factors. Accordingly, MPAs may represent a viable strategy for enhancing food security and empowering local communities, but current practices negatively affect at least a minority of fishers. To inform policy making, further research must better document and explain variation in the positive and negative social impacts of MPAs. PMID:20507354

  19. Response of Bacterioplankton Communities to Cadmium Exposure in Coastal Water Microcosms with High Temporal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Chen, Xinxin; Zheng, Jialai; Hu, Changju; Yang, Yina; Zhu, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple anthropogenic disturbances to bacterial diversity have been investigated in coastal ecosystems, in which temporal variability in the bacterioplankton community has been considered a ubiquitous process. However, far less is known about the temporal dynamics of a bacterioplankton community responding to pollution disturbances such as toxic metals. We used coastal water microcosms perturbed with 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 ?g liter?1 of cadmium (Cd) for 2 weeks to investigate temporal variability, Cd-induced patterns, and their interaction in the coastal bacterioplankton community and to reveal whether the bacterial community structure would reflect the Cd gradient in a temporally varying system. Our results showed that the bacterioplankton community structure shifted along the Cd gradient consistently after a 4-day incubation, although it exhibited some resistance to Cd at low concentration (10 ?g liter?1). A process akin to an arms race between temporal variability and Cd exposure was observed, and the temporal variability overwhelmed Cd-induced patterns in the bacterial community. The temporal succession of the bacterial community was correlated with pH, dissolved oxygen, NO3?-N, NO2?-N, PO43?-P, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a, and each of these parameters contributed more to community variance than Cd did. However, elevated Cd levels did decrease the temporal turnover rate of community. Furthermore, key taxa, affiliated to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Erythrobacteraceae, Piscirickettsiaceae, and Alteromonadaceae, showed a high frequency of being associated with Cd levels during 2 weeks. This study provides direct evidence that specific Cd-induced patterns in bacterioplankton communities exist in highly varying manipulated coastal systems. Future investigations on an ecosystem scale across longer temporal scales are needed to validate the observed pattern. PMID:25326310

  20. Rutgers University: Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences -Deep Sea Microbiology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, Dr. Costantino Vetriani's Deep Sea Microbiology Lab focuses on "the physiology, ecology and evolutionary relationships of deep-sea prokaryotes, with an emphasis on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps"." The Microbiology Lab website includes a Publications section which lists book chapters and a number of downloadable, refereed journal articles that have been authored, or co-authored, by Dr. Vetriani. The site also contains a short summary of a current research project, and a listing of oceanographic expeditions dating back to 1995. The site's Deep-Sea Video Clips include some brief, yet interesting coverage of tube worms, zoarcid fish, Pompeii worms, crabs, and more. The site also contains a few intriguing DSML underwater images of microorganisms from hydrothermal vents.

  1. Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) uses spatial planning exercises in State Renewable Energy Task Force meetings to identify competing and conflicting ocean uses, and to delineate areas suitable for renewable energy development. Similarly terrestrial areas such as in national parks and national wildlife refuges managed by the Department of the Interior (DOI) prepare management plans for preservation and restoration of species and habitats of concern, some of which are protected by law. The analogy to CMSP is clear - multiple users and multiple expectations, resulting in the requirement to establish spatial plans for management of different resources and different ecosystem services. A two-day workshop on December 1-2, 2010, was convened for DOI representatives and several key non-DOI participants with roles in CMSP as a step toward clarifying national perspectives and consequences of the National Ocean Policy for the West (appendix 1). Discussions helped to develop an understanding of CMSP from the federal perspective and to identify regional priorities. An overarching theme was to promote a better understanding of current and future science needs. The workshop format included briefings by key Federal agencies on their understanding of the national focus followed by discussion of regional issues, including the needs for scientific information and coordination. The workshop also explored potential science contributions by Federal agencies and others; utilizing current capabilities, data, and information systems; and provided a foundation for possible future regional workshops focusing in turn on the West Coast Region (California, Oregon, and Washington), Pacific Islands (sometimes referred to as Oceania) and Alaska. Participants were asked to share information in the following areas, recognizing that the purpose would be to learn more about the national perspective (see appendixes 2-4): Explore how the Western U.S. (Alaska, Pacific Islands, and West Coast Region) migh

  2. Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent of urban settlements. The vulnerability assessments under different scenario could represent a suitable tool in the designing of risk mitigation strategies under uncertain scenario of hazard.

  3. Direct measurements of heat output by marine microbial and phage communities

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    particles. In these studies, by poisoning the bacterial cells or removing the cells by filtration, new phage1 Direct measurements of heat output by marine microbial and phage communities E. Djamali1, 2 , P of viruses, primarily phage, on heat output from a marine aquarium microbial community. The mean heat

  4. Macroalgal blooms alter community structure and primary productivity in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Devin A; Arvanitidis, Christos; Blight, Andrew J; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Kotta, Jonne; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Queirós, Ana M; Rilov, Gil; Somerfield, Paul J; Crowe, Tasman P

    2014-09-01

    Eutrophication, coupled with loss of herbivory due to habitat degradation and overharvesting, has increased the frequency and severity of macroalgal blooms worldwide. Macroalgal blooms interfere with human activities in coastal areas, and sometimes necessitate costly algal removal programmes. They also have many detrimental effects on marine and estuarine ecosystems, including induction of hypoxia, release of toxic hydrogen sulphide into the sediments and atmosphere, and the loss of ecologically and economically important species. However, macroalgal blooms can also increase habitat complexity, provide organisms with food and shelter, and reduce other problems associated with eutrophication. These contrasting effects make their overall ecological impacts unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall effects of macroalgal blooms on several key measures of ecosystem structure and functioning in marine ecosystems. We also evaluated some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain the highly variable effects observed in different studies. Averaged across all studies, macroalgal blooms had negative effects on the abundance and species richness of marine organisms, but blooms by different algal taxa had different consequences, ranging from strong negative to strong positive effects. Blooms' effects on species richness also depended on the habitat where they occurred, with the strongest negative effects seen in sandy or muddy subtidal habitats and in the rocky intertidal. Invertebrate communities also appeared to be particularly sensitive to blooms, suffering reductions in their abundance, species richness, and diversity. The total net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, and respiration of benthic ecosystems were higher during macroalgal blooms, but blooms had negative effects on the productivity and respiration of other organisms. These results suggest that, in addition to their direct social and economic costs, macroalgal blooms have ecological effects that may alter their capacity to deliver important ecosystem services. PMID:24890042

  5. Design and testing of 'genome-proxy' microarrays to profile marine microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Rich, Virginia I; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; DeLong, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a 'genome-proxy' microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to 13 of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual open reading frame, and distributed along each approximately 40-160 kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having community, corresponding to approximately 10(3) cells ml(-1) in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R(2) of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition, the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R(2) = 0.9999 and a limit of detection of approximately 1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array's multiple-probe, 'genome-proxy' approach and consequent ability to track both target genotypes and their close relatives is important for the array's environmental application given the recent discoveries of considerable intrapopulation diversity within marine microbial communities. PMID:18028413

  6. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  7. EXPERIENCE WITH COASTAL AND MARINE PROTECTED AREA PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan T. White; Albert Salamanca; Catherine A. Courtney

    1. Perspective on coastal management in the Philippines Coastal management has been practiced in the Philippines over the last two decades to try to stem the increasing tide of destruction to coastal habitats and the decline of fisheries. Unfortunately, after 20 years of practice, coastal resources continue to decline and deteriorate at alarming rates. While numerous experiments in coastal management

  8. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  9. Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. (Faculte de Medecine, Nice (France))

    1988-09-01

    With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

  10. Comparative phylogeography of coastal limpets across a marine disjunction in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Goldstien, Sharyn J; Schiel, David R; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-10-01

    Cook Strait, which separates the North and South Island of New Zealand, has been a transient, but re-occurring feature of the New Zealand land mass throughout the Pleistocene, maintaining its current width and depth for the past 5000 years. Historic land fragmentation coupled with the complex hydrography of the Greater Cook Strait region has created both biogeographic and phylogeographic disjunctions between the North and South Island in several marine species. Here we use mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences of three endemic intertidal limpets, Cellana ornata, Cellana radians and Cellana flava to assess intraspecific phylogeographic patterns across Cook Strait and to look for interspecific concordance of ecological and evolutionary processes among closely related taxa. We sequenced 328-359 bp in 85-321 individuals from 8-31 populations spanning the biogeographic range of the three species. Intraspecific phylogeographic analyses show moderate to strong genetic discontinuity among North and South Island populations due to allopatric fragmentation. This pattern was broadly concordant across the three species and the observed divergence among this group of intertidal limpets (0.3-2.0%) is similar to that of previously studied subtidal organisms. For each species, divergence time calculations suggest contemporary North and South Island lineages diverged from their respective most recent common ancestor approximately 200 000 to 300 000 years before present (bp), significantly earlier than previous estimates in other coastal marine taxa that arose from a miscalculation of divergence time. PMID:16968269

  11. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  12. Trophic transfer of methyl siloxanes in the marine food web from coastal area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongliang; Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Chaoqun; Hong, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Yi-Fan

    2015-03-01

    Methyl siloxanes, which belong to organic silicon compounds and have linear and cyclic structures, are of particular concern because of their potential characteristic of persistent, bioaccumulated, toxic, and ecological harm. This study investigated the trophic transfer of four cyclic methyl siloxanes (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane (D7)) in a marine food web from coastal area of Northern China. Trophic magnification of D4, D5, D6, and D7 were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels of marine food web configurations. A significant positive correlation (R = 0.44, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized D5 concentrations and trophic levels in organisms, showing the trophic magnification potential of this chemical in the marine food web. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) of D5 was estimated to be 1.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41-2.24, 99.8% probability of the observing TMF > 1). Such a significant link, however, was not found for D4 (R = 0.14 and p = 0.16), D6 (R = 0.01 and p = 0.92), and D7 (R = -0.15 and p = 0.12); and the estimated values of TMFs (95% CI, probability of the observing TMF > 1) were 1.16 (0.94-1.44, 94.7%), 1.01 (0.84-1.22, 66.9%) and 0.85 (0.69-1.04, 48.6%) for D4, D6, and D7, respectively. The TMF value for the legacy contaminant BDE-99 was also estimated as a benchmark, and a significant positive correlation (R = 0.65, p < 0.0001) was found between lipid normalized concentrations and trophic levels in organisms. The TMF value of BDE-99 was 3.27 (95% CI: 2.49-4.30, 99.7% probability of the observing TMF > 1), showing the strong magnification in marine food webs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the trophic magnification of methyl siloxanes in China, which provided important information for trophic transformation of these compounds in marine food webs. PMID:25625298

  13. Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2008-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies. PMID:18366740

  14. Inter-annual variations of macrobenthic communities over three decades in a land-locked coastal lagoon (Santo André, SW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, M. J.; Costa, J. L.; Chainho, P.; Félix, P. M.; Chaves, M. L.; Medeiros, J. P.; Silva, G.; Azeda, C.; Tavares, P.; Costa, A.; Costa, A. M.; Bernardo, J.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.; Cancela da Fonseca, L.

    2012-09-01

    Santo André is an enclosed brackish water coastal lagoon with temporary connections to the sea by a man-made channel. The exchange and mixture of saltwater and freshwater is irregular and the lagoon may show daily and seasonal fluctuations, but also long-term variation. Different benthic communities may be present along the annual cycle according to the magnitude of episodic freshwater and sea water inputs. In the last 30 years the communication with the sea has followed different regimes from year to year and, as a consequence, macrobenthic communities, assessed several times during the period before the opening to the sea, shifted from freshwater to marine affinities. Major differences were found between 1979 and 2010, with a preponderance of species with marine affinity, and the 1980s in which the organisms with freshwater affinity prevailed. Benthic communities are frequently used to assess aquatic environmental condition. Metrics used in the indices currently under discussion to assess ecological status of aquatic ecosystems within the scope of European Water Framework Directive were applied to Santo André data and the applicability of these metrics to assess quality in this coastal land-locked lagoon was discussed.

  15. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 ?g/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 ?g/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lower values up to 7500 ng/g, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant in Larymna bay. The examination of PAH molecular indices revealed that in Antikyra and Larymna bays more than 80% of the PAHs have pyrolytic origin coming from various combustion sources. On the contrary, in Aliveri bay about 60% of the PAHs are related to petrogenic/petroleum inputs. With respect to ecotoxicological effects, mean quotient Effect-Range Median (m-ERM) values, higher than 1.5, were calculated in Antikyra bay, indicating a high probability (76%) of toxicity. In Aliveri and Larymna bays the m-ERM values were between 0.11 and 0.5 bay suggesting a lower probability (21%) of toxicity. Overall, the results of our study reveal that high quantities of PAHs produced from land point sources such as the industrial units can enter into small coastal marine areas supporting activities such as aquaculture and fishing. Thus, desirable and permitted uses must be well defined and regulatory frameworks must be established.

  16. Temporal and Spatial Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Coastal Waters of the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns. PMID:23785512

  17. Differential responses of marine communities to natural and anthropogenic changes.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Micha?; Wittmer, Jacalyn M; Dexter, Troy A; Amorosi, Alessandro; Scarponi, Daniele

    2015-03-22

    Responses of ecosystems to environmental changes vary greatly across habitats, organisms and observational scales. The Quaternary fossil record of the Po Basin demonstrates that marine communities of the northern Adriatic re-emerged unchanged following the most recent glaciation, which lasted approximately 100,000 years. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene interglacial ecosystems were both dominated by the same species, species turnover rates approximated predictions of resampling models of a homogeneous system, and comparable bathymetric gradients in species composition, sample-level diversity, dominance and specimen abundance were observed in both time intervals. The interglacial Adriatic ecosystems appear to have been impervious to natural climate change either owing to their persistence during those long-term perturbations or their resilient recovery during interglacial phases of climate oscillations. By contrast, present-day communities of the northern Adriatic differ notably from their Holocene counterparts. The recent ecosystem shift stands in contrast to the long-term endurance of interglacial communities in face of climate-driven environmental changes. PMID:25673689

  18. A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Amy R; Lepère, Cécile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

    2013-01-01

    A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning–sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, ?- and ?-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change. PMID:23364354

  19. Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon provides an important link between terrestrial and marine archives of Holocene environmental change in South Georgia.

  20. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  1. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  2. The Transport of Chemicals and Biota into Coastal Rivers and Marine Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Ng, Charlene Marie

    2012-01-01

    from the ocean or coastal erosion. In situ degradation ofand sediments from coastal erosion) and degradation of theerosion has left the current estuary shallow with a greatly decreased tidal prism, consisting mainly of sand bars and coastal

  3. Disentangling Access and View Amenities in Access-restricted Coastal Residential Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ashton Morgan; Stuart E. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    In small coastal communities with uniform flood risk, amenity value is comprised of two components – view and access. Having controlled for view, it is assumed that any residual amenity value represents the benefit derived from households from accessing the beach for leisure or recreational purposes. However, as properties closer to the beach typically have improved viewsheds, the two amenities

  4. Disentangling Access and View Amenities in Access-Restricted Coastal Residential Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ashton Morgan; Stuart E. Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    In coastal communities with uniform flood risk, amenity value is comprised of two components – view and access. Having controlled for view, it is assumed that any residual amenity value represents the benefit derived from accessing the beach for leisure\\/recreational purposes. However, as properties closer to the beach typically have improved viewsheds, the two amenities are highly correlated, and disentangling

  5. Rural Education and Out-Migration: The Case of a Coastal Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I report on findings from a case study examining the relationship between formal education and out-migration in a Canadian coastal community from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. Although high rates of village-level out-migration were chronic, most migration trajectories were short-range. Contrary to large-scale quantitative…

  6. Soil microbial communities and activities in sand dunes of subtropical coastal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed-Haun Chang; Chien-Teh Chen; Tsai-Huei Chen; Chih-Yu Chiu

    2011-01-01

    To understand the soil microbial activities and community structures in different forests in a sand-dune ecosystem, we conducted a study of 2 topographic conditions, upland and lowland, under a Casuarina forest. As well, in the lowland site, we compared forest soil microbial properties under 3 coastal forests (Casuarina, Hibiscus and mixed stand). The soil microbial biomass did not significantly differ

  7. Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

  8. A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

    2013-04-15

    Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences. PMID:23500022

  9. The abundance, composition and sources of marine debris in coastal seawaters or beaches around the northern South China Sea (China).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Huang, Chuguang; Fang, Hongda; Cai, Weixu; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Hansheng

    2011-09-01

    The abundance and composition of marine debris including floating marine debris (FMD), seafloor marine debris (SMD) and beached marine debris (BMD) were investigated in coastal seawaters/beaches around the northern South China Sea during 2009 and 2010. The FMD density was 4.947 (0.282-16.891) items/km², with plastics (44.9%) and Styrofoam (23.2%) dominating. More than 99.0% of FMD was small or medium size floating marine debris. The SMD and BMD densities of were 0.693 (0.147-5.000) and 32.82 (2.83-375.00) items/km², respectively. SMD was composed of plastics (47.0%), wood (15.2%), fabric/fiber (13.6%) and glass (12.1%), while BMD was composed of plastics (42.0%) and wood (33.7%). More than 90% of FMD, 75% of SMD and 95% of BMD were not ocean-based sources but land-based sources, mostly attributed to coastal/recreational activity, because of the effect of human activities in the areas. PMID:21764082

  10. Environmental and bioeconomic characterisation of coastal and marine systems of Cameroon, including risk implications of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. G. Price; R. Klaus; C. R. C. Sheppard; M. A. Abbiss; M. Kofani; G. Webster

    2000-01-01

    We assess the status of Cameroon's coastal and marine environment, from field survey results and analysis of existing environmental and bioeconomic datasets. The study was undertaken at a broad level, and at greater resolution in the area likely to be influenced by the Chad-Cameroon pipeline. Thirty-six coastal sites are characterised using a proven, robust environmental assessment technique. Solid waste was

  11. Environmental and bioeconomic characterisation of coastal and marine systems of Cameroon, including risk implications of the Chad–Cameroon pipeline project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. G. Price; R. Klaus; C. R. C. Sheppard; M. A. Abbiss; M. Kofani; G. Webster

    2000-01-01

    We assess the status of Cameroon's coastal and marine environment, from field survey results and analysis of existing environmental and bioeconomic datasets. The study was undertaken at a broad level, and at greater resolution in the area likely to be influenced by the Chad–Cameroon pipeline. Thirty-six coastal sites are characterised using a proven, robust environmental assessment technique. Solid waste was

  12. California's Coastal Resources

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    California Coastal Commission

    This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California Coastal Systems and on California Coastal Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California Coastal Commission's California Coastal Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant communities and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: Coastal Mountains, Streams and Rivers, Marine Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, Coastal Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and coastal data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and coastal resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.

  13. CITIZENS WATER QUALITY MONITORING & MARINE HABITAT ENHANCEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant 9,000 marsh grass plants along Bayou Lafourches banks, the regions hurricane protection levees, and the marshlands surrounding Bayou Lafourche, thereby enhancing coastal areas and marine habitat. These plantings will be designed to simultaneously raise community awareness ...

  14. Ecosystem Services Transcend Boundaries: Estuaries Provide Resource Subsidies and Influence Functional Diversity in Coastal Benthic Communities

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Candida; Thrush, Simon F.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Hewitt, Judi E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that can export organic matter to coastal seas (the ‘outwelling hypothesis’). However the role of this food resource subsidy on coastal ecosystem functioning has not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of estuarine primary production as a resource subsidy and the influence of estuaries on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in coastal mollusk-dominated sediment communities. Stable isotope values (?13C, ?15N) demonstrated that estuarine primary production was exported to the adjacent coast and contributed to secondary production up to 4 km from the estuary mouth. Further, isotope signatures of suspension feeding bivalves on the adjacent coast (Dosinia subrosea) closely mirrored the isotope values of the dominant bivalves inside the estuaries (Austrovenus stutchburyi), indicating utilization of similar organic matter sources. However, the food subsidies varied between estuaries; with estuarine suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) dominant at Tairua estuary, while seagrass and fringing vegetation detritus was proportionately more important at Whangapoua estuary, with lesser contributions of estuarine SPOM. Distance from the estuary mouth and the size and density of large bivalves (Dosinia spp.) had a significant influence on the composition of biological traits in the coastal macrobenthic communities, signaling the potential influence of these spatial subsidies on ecosystem functioning. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrated that the locations where ecosystem services like productivity are generated are not necessarily where the services are utilized. Further, we identified indirect positive effects of the nutrient subsidies on biodiversity (the estuarine subsidies influenced the bivalves, which in turn affected the diversity and functional trait composition of the coastal sediment macrofaunal communities). These findings highlight the importance of integrative ecosystem-based management that maintains the connectivity of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. PMID:22880089

  15. Variations of phytoplankton community structure related to water quality trends in a tropical karstic coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A

    2006-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure in coastal areas is a result of various environmental factors such as nutrients, light, grazing, temperature, and salinity. The Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic tropical region that is strongly influenced by submerged groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone. Phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with regional and local water quality variables were studied in four ports of the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. Water quality was strongly related to SGD, and variations in phytoplankton community structure were related to local nutrient loading and hydrographic conditions, turbulence, and human impacts. Our study provides an ecological baseline for the Yucatan Peninsula and serves as a basis for establishing monitoring programs to predict changes at sites with high hydrological variation and in developing an early alert system for harmful toxic algal blooms. PMID:16194550

  16. Marine Environmental Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.

  17. Shifting microbial community structure across a marine terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    E-print Network

    Macalady, Jenn

    Shifting microbial community structure across a marine terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz Microbial community structure Microbial biomass Decline phase Grassland a b s t r a c t Changes plant productivity, and soil microbial communities across a grassland chro- nosequence (65

  18. Effects of marine reserves on coral reef fish communities from five islands in New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wantiez; P. Thollot; M. Kulbicki

    1997-01-01

    The effect of marine reserve protection on coral reef fish communities was studied on five islands located in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia. Commercial fish communities and Chaetodontidae, sampled before fishing prohibition and after five years of protection, were compared. Reference stations were also sampled to assess variability in unprotected communities on the same time scale. The hypothesis that

  19. Marine microbial diversity studied via 16S rRNA sequences: cloning results from coastal waters and counting of native archaea with fluorescent single cell probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jed A. Fuhrman; Cleber C. Ouverney

    1998-01-01

    New molecular approaches relying on 16S rRNA sequences allow qualitative and quantitative analysis of marine microbial diversity. Here we report on (1) continued development of ‘lists’ of taxa present in marine environments, in temperate coastal waters, and (2) new fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches to quantify taxonomic compositions, with an initial focus on archaea. Our cloning results come from

  20. Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Marine Phytoplankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sobecky, P. A.; Schell, M. A.; Moran, M. A.; Hodson, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    An indigenous marine Achromobacter sp. was isolated from coastal Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with a phoA hybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this "indigenous" genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phosphorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol 3-phosphate, at a concentration of 1 or 10 (mu)M. Within 48 h, a 2- to 10-fold increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphate occurred in microcosms containing the GEM (added at an initial density equivalent to 8% of the total bacterial population) relative to controls containing only natural microbial populations, natural populations with the unmodified Achromobacter sp., or natural populations with the Achromobacter sp. containing the plasmid but not the phoA gene. Secondary effects of the GEM on the phytoplankton community were observed after several days, evident as sustained increases in phytoplankton biomass (up to 14-fold) over that in controls. Even in the absence of added glycerol 3-phosphate, a numerically stable GEM population (averaging 3 to 5% of culturable bacteria) was established within 2 to 3 weeks of introduction into seawater. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity in microcosms with the GEM was substantially higher than that in controls for up to 25 days, and microcosms containing the GEM maintained the potential for net phosphate accumulation above control levels for longer than 1 month. PMID:16535222

  1. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71?×?10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments. PMID:25219532

  2. Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l?1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

  3. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Zega; R Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; F De Bernardi

    2009-01-01

    Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected

  4. Long-term effect of Sea-Nine on natural coastal phytoplankton communities assessed by pollution induced community tolerance.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Dorthe K; Wagner, Inge; Gustavson, Kim; Forbes, Valery E; Lund, Torben

    2003-01-10

    Sea-Nine211 has been introduced as a new biocide in antifouling paints with an immediate degradation when it is released from ship hulls. The active component of Sea-Nine211 is 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazoline-3-one (DCOI). In the present study, the toxicity of DCOI and the occurrence of Pollution Induced Community Tolerance (PICT) were tested in microcosms containing eutrophic coastal water with its natural composition of phytoplankton. The experiment was performed in closed systems with a single addition of the nominal concentrations 0, 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 nM DCOI, for a period of 16 days. Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) was observed in the phytoplankton communities exposed to the nominal concentrations 32 and 100 nM DCOI. Chemical analysis of DCOI in the coastal water utilised in the toxicity and PICT experiment was performed by GC-MS using a solid- phase extraction method. Half-life was calculated to be 2.5 days for the nominal concentrations 32 and 100 nM DCOI. The results of the present study show that nominal concentrations of 32 and 100 nM DCOI significantly increased the community tolerance already after 2 days of exposure and that the tolerance was maintained for a period of 16 days even when DCOI was degraded during this period. The causes for the persistent tolerance are discussed in relation to the degradation of DCOI and structural changes in the phytoplankton communities. PMID:12413792

  5. Ecology of delta marshes of coastal Louisiana: a community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Gosselink, J.G.

    1984-05-01

    This report reviews and synthesizes ecological information and data on the extensive marshes of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. Over the past 6000 years the river has built a delta onto the Continental Shelf of the Gulf of Mexico covering about 23,900 km/sup 2/. This low land is primarily marshes and represents about 22% of the total coastal wetland area of the 48 conterminous United States. The delta is notable for its high primary productivity, its valuable fishery and fur industry, and the recreational fishing and hunting it supports. The Mississippi River delta marshes are subject to the unique problem of extremely rapid marsh degradation due to a complex mixture of natural processes and human activities that include worldwide sea-level rise; subsidence; navigation and extractive industry canal dredging; flood control measures that channel the river; and pollution from domestic sewage, exotic organic chemicals, and heavy metals. 262 references, 75 figures, 34 tables.

  6. Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil platforms in the marine protected area design process. PMID:25083704

  7. Genomic island genes in a coastal marine Synechococcus strain confer enhanced tolerance to copper and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Rhona K; Brahamsha, Bianca; Busby, Kayla; Palenik, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Highly variable regions called genomic islands are found in the genomes of marine picocyanobacteria, and have been predicted to be involved in niche adaptation and the ecological success of these microbes. These picocyanobacteria are typically highly sensitive to copper stress and thus, increased copper tolerance could confer a selective advantage under some conditions seen in the marine environment. Through targeted gene inactivation of genomic island genes that were known to be upregulated in response to copper stress in Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, we found two genes (sync_1495 and sync_1217) conferred tolerance to both methyl viologen and copper stress in culture. The prevalence of one gene, sync_1495, was then investigated in natural samples, and had a predictable temporal variability in abundance at a coastal monitoring site with higher abundance in winter months. Together, this shows that genomic island genes can confer an adaptive advantage to specific stresses in marine Synechococcus, and may help structure their population diversity. PMID:23344240

  8. DDT contamination in selected estuarine and coastal marine finfish and shellfish of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kennish, M J; Ruppel, B E

    1996-08-01

    Analysis of DDT contamination in selected finfish and shellfish species from estuarine and coastal marine waters of New Jersey (USA) reveals consistently highest organochlorine pesticide levels in samples from the north and northeast regions of the state. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, DDE and DDD, in bluefish, striped bass, weakfish, and blue crabs collected at 27 stations throughout the state between 1988 and 1991 ranged from <25 to >300 microg/kg wet weight (wet wt). Gas chromatographic analysis of 175 tissue samples from these four species showed that the highest levels of DDTs (DDT plus DDE and DDD), exceeding 300 microg/kg wet wt, occurred in blue crabs (hepatopancreas) from the Hudson-Newark-Raritan Bay complex in the northeast region. Lower mean concentrations of DDTs (<200 microg/kg wet wt) were recorded in tissue samples of these species from all other regions of the state. The lowest levels of DDT contamination (mean <110 microg/kg wet wt) were found in samples from the south coast region. The greatest impact of DDT contamination is nearby metropolitan areas of the state, although the total concentrations of DDT in tissue samples from these areas are far less than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level of 5,000 microg/kg wet wt for this contaminant. PMID:8781078

  9. Trophic state of Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon (Algarve, South Portugal) based on the water quality and the phytoplankton community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Coelho; Sofia Gamito; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton community was studied in Foz de Almargem coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the trophic state of the wetland. This small coastal lagoon has temporary connections to the sea, when the sand barrier is naturally or artificially opened, but for most of the year is isolated receiving just the freshwater input from small

  10. Ecotoxicological effects of brine discharge on marine community by seawater desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Jin Yoon; Gyung Soo Park

    2011-01-01

    To determine ecotoxicological effects of brine discharge from the desalination plant and the potential tolerance impact associated with various marine communities, marine ecotoxicological assessment was carried out using four phytoplankton species (Skeletonema coastatum, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis suecica and Isochrysis galbana) and macroalgae (Ulva pertusa) as primary producer, and two zooplankton species (neonate for rotifer Brachinonus plicatilis, adult of harpacticoid copepod

  11. Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    Climate-change induced tropicalisation of marine communities in Western Australia William W. L, The University of British Columbia, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4. B Ocean Institute, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. C Centre for Marine Futures, Oceans Institute

  12. Mariner Model: Charting the Course for Health-Promoting School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Tena Bostrom

    2007-01-01

    The Mariner Model provides a step-by-step systems-building process and tool by which schools, school districts, and communities can develop capacity and create an infrastructure that supports continuous improvement in health-promoting environments for children. The Mariner Model follows a public health program planning development model that is…

  13. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

  14. Global Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) from Space Based AIS Ship Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwehr, K. D.; Foulkes, J. A.; Lorenzini, D.; Kanawati, M.

    2011-12-01

    All nations need to be developing long term integrated strategies for how to use and preserve our natural resources. As a part of these strategies, we must evalutate how communities of users react to changes in rules and regulations of ocean use. Global characterization of the vessel traffic on our Earth's oceans is essential to understanding the existing uses to develop international Coast and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP). Ship traffic within 100-200km is beginning to be effectively covered in low latitudes by ground based receivers collecting position reports from the maritime Automatic Identification System (AIS). Unfortunately, remote islands, high latitudes, and open ocean Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are not covered by these ground systems. Deploying enough autonomous airborne (UAV) and surface (USV) vessels and buoys to provide adequate coverage is a difficult task. While the individual device costs are plummeting, a large fleet of AIS receivers is expensive to maintain. The global AIS coverage from SpaceQuest's low Earth orbit satellite receivers combined with the visualization and data storage infrastructure of Google (e.g. Maps, Earth, and Fusion Tables) provide a platform that enables researchers and resource managers to begin answer the question of how ocean resources are being utilized. Near real-time vessel traffic data will allow managers of marine resources to understand how changes to education, enforcement, rules, and regulations alter usage and compliance patterns. We will demonstrate the potential for this system using a sample SpaceQuest data set processed with libais which stores the results in a Fusion Table. From there, the data is imported to PyKML and visualized in Google Earth with a custom gx:Track visualization utilizing KML's extended data functionality to facilitate ship track interrogation. Analysts can then annotate and discuss vessel tracks in Fusion Tables.

  15. Assessing habitat risk from human activities to inform coastal and marine spatial planning: a demonstration in Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkema, Katie K.; Verutes, Gregory; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Clarke, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Wood, Spencer A.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Rosenthal, Amy; McField, Melanie; de Zegher, Joann

    2014-11-01

    Integrated coastal and ocean management requires transparent and accessible approaches for understanding the influence of human activities on marine environments. Here we introduce a model for assessing the combined risk to habitats from multiple ocean uses. We apply the model to coral reefs, mangrove forests and seagrass beds in Belize to inform the design of the country’s first Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plan. Based on extensive stakeholder engagement, review of existing legislation and data collected from diverse sources, we map the current distribution of coastal and ocean activities and develop three scenarios for zoning these activities in the future. We then estimate ecosystem risk under the current and three future scenarios. Current levels of risk vary spatially among the nine coastal planning regions in Belize. Empirical tests of the model are strong—three-quarters of the measured data for coral reef health lie within the 95% confidence interval of interpolated model data and 79% of the predicted mangrove occurrences are associated with observed responses. The future scenario that harmonizes conservation and development goals results in a 20% reduction in the area of high-risk habitat compared to the current scenario, while increasing the extent of several ocean uses. Our results are a component of the ICZM Plan for Belize that will undergo review by the national legislature in 2015. This application of our model to marine spatial planning in Belize illustrates an approach that can be used broadly by coastal and ocean planners to assess risk to habitats under current and future management scenarios.

  16. The role of the European Community in the Mediterranean coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Belfiore

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to focus on the role of the European Community (EC) in the management of the coastal zones of the Mediterranean. The EC performs this role at two levels of involvement: with respect to its Mediterranean member states and through the Euro-Mediterranean co-operation, in co-ordination with international and regional initiatives, such as those of the

  17. Hair mercury level of coastal communities in Malaysia: a linkage with fish consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parvaneh Hajeb; Jinap Selamat; Ahmad Ismail; Fatimah Abu Bakar; Jamilah Bakar; Hanifah Nuryani Lioe

    2008-01-01

    Hair mercury level was assessed in four coastal communities in Malaysia with relation to fish consumption between gender,\\u000a age, and rural and urban area. Mercury level was found at a range of 0.01–21.00 (?g\\/g dry wt). The average mercury levels\\u000a were 13.69, 10.85, 9.94, and 6.78 ?g\\/g dry wt for communities in Kedah, Terengganu, Johor, and Selangor, respectively. The\\u000a same order

  18. Non-indigenous species as stressors in estuarine and marine communities: Assessing invasion impacts and interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Ruiz; Paul Fofonoff; Anson H. Hines; Edwin D. Grosholz

    1999-01-01

    Invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS) are recognized as important stressors of many communities throughout the world. Here, we evaluated available data on the role of NIS in marine and estuarine communities and their interactions with other anthropogenic stressors, using an intensive analysis of the Chesapeake Bay region as a case study. First, we reviewed the reported ecological impacts of 196

  19. Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    as marine reserve management, air-sea rescue, fisheries management, marine transport, naval defence, coastal the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization, the Convention on International Civil Aviation

  20. Microbial community analysis of a coastal salt marsh affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Beazley, Melanie J; Martinez, Robert J; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Andersen, Gary L; Hazen, Terry C; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  1. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (p<0.05) once hydrocarbon concentrations decreased. A greater decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations among marsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  2. MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

  3. Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on Marine Debris

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning Guide on Marine Debris contains three online units with objectives, background, and hands-on interactive activities. Covers definitions, characteristics and sources of marine debris; its effects on wildlife, the coastal community and human health; and how to develop solutions, get involved and educate others about marine pollution prevention.

  4. Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

  5. Fate and effects of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) on a marine plankton community in experimental enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.

    1981-10-01

    The fate and effects of a single dose of 0.3 and 1.0 mg of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) per litre on a marine plankton community enclosed in large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m/sup 3/) were studied. The plankton community was derived from North Sea coastal waters, and the model ecosystems were anchored in the harbor of Den Helder, the Netherlands, where they were exposed to a natural light and temperature regimen. Two experimental units were polluted with NFA; a third served as a control. During four weeks the development of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacteria was followed, as were a set of physicochemical parameters including nutrients, light, and temperature. The nitro group was removed from the NFA within about one day of the addition of the compound to the model ecosystems, probably as a result of the exposure to light. The intact NFA inhibited the phytoplankton slightly; the remaining molecule produced no detectable effects in the system. The development of the enclosed community was very similar in the different bags.

  6. Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis: scale matters in coastal plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Carboni, Marta; Münkemüller, Tamara; Gallien, Laure; Lavergne, Sébastien; Acosta, Alicia; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Darwin proposed two seemingly contradictory hypotheses for a better understanding of biological invasions. Strong relatedness of invaders to native communities as an indication of niche overlap could promote naturalization because of appropriate niche adaptation, but could also hamper naturalization because of negative interactions with native species (‘Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis’). Although these hypotheses provide clear and opposing predictions for expected patterns of species relatedness in invaded communities, so far no study has been able to clearly disentangle the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesize that conflicting past results are mainly due to the neglected role of spatial resolution of the community sampling. In this study, we corroborate both of Darwin’s expectations by using phylogenetic relatedness as a measure of niche overlap and by testing the effects of sampling resolution in highly invaded coastal plant communities. At spatial resolutions fine enough to detect signatures of biotic interactions, we find that most invaders are less related to their nearest relative in invaded plant communities than expected by chance (phylogenetic overdispersion). Yet at coarser spatial resolutions, native assemblages become more invasible for closely-related species as a consequence of habitat filtering (phylogenetic clustering). Recognition of the importance of the spatial resolution at which communities are studied allows apparently contrasting theoretical and empirical results to be reconciled. Our study opens new perspectives on how to better detect, differentiate and understand the impact of negative biotic interactions and habitat filtering on the ability of invaders to establish in native communities. PMID:24860240

  7. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  8. Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Eriksson; A. K. Clarke; L.-G. Franzen; M. Kuylenstierna; K. Martinez; H. Blanck

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling com- pound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIRD COMMUNITIES AND FOREST AGE, STRUCTURE, SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FRAGMENTATION IN THE WEST GULF COASTAL PLAIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    Bird communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant communities through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some species with others and cause changes

  10. Marine Stingers: Review of an Under-Recognized Global Coastal Management Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa-Ann Gershwin; Monica De Nardi; Kenneth D. Winkel; Peter J. Fenner

    2010-01-01

    Dangerous marine stingers (jellyfish) are an emotive issue in tropical Australia, where they are widely regarded as the number one marine health threat. However, numerous severe and fatal stings have been reported throughout the tropical and temperate seas of the world, indicating that marine stingers are a global health problem. Further, life-threatening jellyfish stings are more frequently reported globally now

  11. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  12. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20°N and 50°N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1°x 1° degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34°N - 44°N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35°N-39°N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35°N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  13. The Transport of Chemicals and Biota into Coastal Rivers and Marine Ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Ng, Charlene Marie

    2012-01-01

    ocean-derived particles and sediments from coastal erosion) and degradationfrom the ocean or coastal erosion. In situ degradation ofoceans depend on rates of transport and export of river-borne materials from channels versus rates of in-channel processing: degradation,

  14. Effects of salinity and water temporality on zooplankton community in coastal Mediterranean ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton-Pardo, Maria; Armengol, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Some of the predicted effects of climate warming in Mediterranean climate are the increase of temperature, change of precipitation patterns and the rise in sea levels. This will have major consequences, mainly in coastal aquatic ecosystems, by the increase of salinity and the reduction of the flooding period, affecting the whole aquatic community. To assess on the possible consequences of the global change in the zooplankton community of Mediterranean coastal lakes, we analized the zooplankton diversity in a set of lakes with different salinity and water permanence time. The ponds were classified in four groups: permanent and temporary freshwater ponds, and permanent and temporary brackish ponds. Whereas we did not detect a great effect of hydroperiod on zooplankton community, the increase in salinity produced (through direct and indirect interaction) a rise in rotifer density and a reduction in cladoceran cumulative richness, richness per visit and diversity. All these differences were remarkable in Permanent Brackish lakes, the group which showed the higher dissimilarity with the other groups of lakes. The disappearance of cladocerans in these systems can lead to an increase in the eutrophication and a reduction of diversity.

  15. Coastal wetland response to sea level rise in a marine and fluvial estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are at the risk of losing their productivity under increasing rates of sea level rise (SLR). Studies show that under extreme enough stressors, salt marshes will not have time to establish an equilibrium and may migrate landward (Donnelly and Bertness 2001; Warren and Niering 1993) or become open water. In order to investigate salt marsh productivity under SLR scenarios, an integrated hydrodynamic-marsh model was incorporated to dynamically couple physics and biology. The hydrodynamic model calculates mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) within the river and tidal creeks by analysis of simulated tidal constituents. The response of MHW and MLW is nonlinear due to local changes in the salt marsh platform elevation and biomass productivity. Spatially-varying MHW and MLW are utilized in a biologic model that is a two-dimensional application of the Marsh Equilibrium Model (Morris et al. 2002) to capture the effects of the hydrodynamics on biomass productivity and accretion. Including accurate marsh table elevations into the model is crucial to obtain accurate biomass productivity results. A lidar-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is corrected by incorporating Real Time Kinematic (RTK) surveying elevation data. Additionally, salt marshes continually adapt themselves to reach an equilibrium, in which there are ideal ranges of relative SLR and depth of inundation to increase biomass productivity (Morris et al. 2002). The inputs of the model are updated using the biomass productivity results at each coupling time step to capture the interaction between the marsh and hydrodynamic models. The hydro-marsh model is used to assess the effects of four projections of SLR (Parris et al., 2012) on salt marsh productivity for the year 2100 for the marine dominated Grand Bay, MS estuary and the fluvial dominated Apalachicola, FL estuary. The results show higher productivity under a low SLR scenario and less productivity under the intermediate low SLR. Most of the salt marshes become flooded and some of them migrate under higher SLR scenarios. These examples show how this tool can be used in any estuarine system to project salt marsh productivity and accretion under sea level change scenarios to better interpret responses and improve restoration and planning management decisions.

  16. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available

  17. Eutrophication of Marine Waters: Effects on Benthic Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz-Arend Meyer-Reil; Marion Köster

    2000-01-01

    During the last century organic pollution in coastal areas of the sea has become a serious world problem. One of the major stresses comes from the input of excessive macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) resulting in a change of the trophic status of a given body of water, which leads to eutrophication. Although the effects of eutrophication are well-known, the mechanisms governing

  18. Local community training and education in southern Tanzania—a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki Howe

    2001-01-01

    Local coastal communities are highly dependent upon the marine environment not only for protein but also as a primary source of income. In addition, there are growing economic opportunities offered within the coastal zone. As populations increase in these areas there is an increasing demand on coastal resources. This in turn requires effective management initiatives at regional, national and local

  19. Net community production and dark community respiration in a Karenia brevis (Davis) bloom in West Florida coastal waters, USA.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Minnett, Peter; Palubok, Valeriy

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen-based productivity and respiration rates were determined in West Florida coastal waters to evaluate the proportion of community respiration demands met by autotrophic production within a harmful algal bloom dominated by Karenia brevis. The field program was adaptive in that sampling during the 2006 bloom occurred where surveys by the Florida Wildlife Research Institute indicated locations with high cell abundances. Net community production (NCP) rates from light-dark bottle incubations during the bloom ranged from 10 to 42 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) with highest rates in bloom waters where abundances exceeded 10(5) cells L(-1). Community dark respiration (R) rates in dark bottles ranged from <10 to 70 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1) over 24 h. Gross primary production derived from the sum of NCP and R varied from ca. 20 to 120 µmole O2 L(-1) day(-1). The proportion of GPP attributed to NCP varied with the magnitude of R during day and night periods. Most surface communities exhibited net autotrophic production (NCP > R) over 24 h, although heterotrophy (NCP < R) characterized the densest sample where K. brevis cell densities exceed 10(6) cells L(-1). PMID:24179460

  20. Characterization of Coastal Urban Watershed Bacterial Communities Leads to Alternative Community-Based

    E-print Network

    Hazen, Terry

    . Brodie1 , Terry C. Hazen1 , Patricia A. Holden2 , Gary L. Andersen1 * 1 Ecology Department, Earth over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition

  1. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ? 0.5 ?m, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  2. Molecular Detection of Fungal Communities in the Hawaiian Marine Sponges Suberites zeteki and Mycale armata?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zheng; Li, Binglin; Zheng, Chengchao; Wang, Guangyi

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes play a variety of fundamental roles in the health and habitat ranges of their hosts. While prokaryotes in marine sponges have been broadly characterized, the diversity of sponge-inhabiting fungi has barely been explored using molecular approaches. Fungi are an important component of many marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and they may be an ecologically significant group in sponge-microbe interactions. This study tested the feasibility of using existing fungal primers for molecular analysis of sponge-associated fungal communities. None of the eight selected primer pairs yielded satisfactory results in fungal rRNA gene or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone library constructions. However, 3 of 10 denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) primer sets, which were designed to preferentially amplify fungal rRNA gene or ITS regions from terrestrial environmental samples, were successfully amplified from fungal targets in marine sponges. DGGE analysis indicated that fungal communities differ among different sponge species (Suberites zeteki and Mycale armata) and also vary between sponges and seawater. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands identified 23 and 21 fungal species from each of the two sponge species S. zeteki and M. armata, respectively. These species were representatives of 11 taxonomic orders and belonged to the phyla of Ascomycota (seven orders) and Basidiomycota (four orders). Five of these taxonomic orders (Malasseziales, Corticiales, Polyporales, Agaricales, and Dothideomycetes et Chaetothyriomcetes incertae sedis) have now been identified for the first time in marine sponges. Seven and six fungal species from S. zeteki and M. armata, respectively, are potentially new species because of their low sequence identity (?98%) with their references in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicated sponge-derived sequences were clustered into “marine fungus clades” with those from other marine habitats. This is the first report of molecular analysis of fungal communities in marine sponges, adding depth and dimension to our understanding of sponge-associated microbial communities. PMID:18676706

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  4. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  6. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  7. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area. PMID:22042409

  8. Sequence Analysis of Marine Virus Communities Reveals that Groups of Related Algal Viruses Are Widely Distributed in Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Short; Curtis A. Suttle

    2002-01-01

    Algal-virus-specific PCR primers were used to amplify DNA polymerase (pol) gene fragments from geo- graphically isolated natural virus communities. Natural algal virus communities were obtained from coastal sites in the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia, Canada, and the Southern Ocean near the Antarctic peninsula. Genetic fingerprints of algal virus communities were generated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sequencing efforts

  9. Marine Science and Technology in Africa: Present State and Future Development. Synthesis of Unesco/ECA Survey Missions to African Coastal States, 1980. Project RAF/78/024. Unesco Reports in Marine Science, No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Presented is a synthesis of reports designed to assess the development of marine science and technology in African coastal states. This situation is analyzed from a regional (i.e., continent-wide) point of view. Five chapters comprise the report: (1) summary of recommendations, (2) introduction; (3) nation-by-nation descriptions and analyses; (4)…

  10. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  11. A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-marine ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    In eastern coastal Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-marine deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-marine delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local marine highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during marine regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute

    E-print Network

    1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Business Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having on the Tutukaka Coast

  13. Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute

    E-print Network

    1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Resident Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having on the Tutukaka Coast

  14. Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute

    E-print Network

    1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute www.nztri.org Tutukaka Coast Visitor Survey The Economic Impacts of Tourism designed to gain a better understanding of the economic impacts that tourism activities are having

  15. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  16. How does mesh-size selection reshape the description of zooplankton community structure in coastal lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansera, Marco; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Minutoli, Roberta; Zagami, Giacomo; Brugnano, Cinzia

    2014-12-01

    To provide evidence of the inadequacy of using conventional sampling methods to study mesozooplankton community structure in confined environments, samples from a Mediterranean meromictic coastal lake were taken using 80-?m and 200-?m mesh nets towed at three different depths (0-18 m). Mesh size significantly affected the description of the community structure of the collected zooplankton. The 80-?m-mesh catch revealed for the first time in such an environment the overwhelming abundance of the copepod species Oithona brevicornis, as two orders of magnitude greater than recorded for the 200-?m-mesh catch. The other dominant species were Paracartia latisetosa and Pseudodiaptomus marinus, which were more efficiently sampled with the 200-?m mesh. These showed a summer abundance peak for P. latisetosa near the surface layer, and for P. marinus in the deepest stratum, close to the anoxic layer. Copepod nauplii and bivalve larvae were more efficiently caught with the 80-?m-mesh, and accounted for most of the zooplankton in winter, and showed the highest loss percentage of abundance between the two mesh-size catches. The differences in the assemblages reflect different diversity patterns, with peaks in summer and winter for the communities collected with the 80-?m-mesh and 200-?m-mesh, respectively. These findings imply the need for the development of a commonly used sampling method with paired nets, to correctly take into account both the large and small fractions of the mesozooplankton in the study of closed and semi-enclosed coastal environments, and to obtain data that can be better compared across studies.

  17. Characterization of marine prokaryotic communities via DNA and RNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Fuhrman; S. H. Lee; Y. Masuchi; A. A. Davis; R. M. Wilcox

    1994-01-01

    We know very little about species distributions in prokaryotic marine plankton. Such information is very interesting in its own right, and ignorance of it is also beginning to hamper process studies, such as those on viral infection. New DNA- and RNA-based approaches avoid many prior limitations. Here we discuss four such applications: (1) cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

    2014-11-01

    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  19. Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.

    PubMed

    de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

    2010-12-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

  20. Effect of environmental gradient in coastal vegetation on communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji

    2012-11-01

    The community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in coastal vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal communities at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal community showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the coastal vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal community. PMID:22476581

  1. The chemical changes of DOM from black waters to coastal marine waters by HPLC combined with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2011-04-01

    How dissolved organic matter (DOM) undergoes chemical changes during its transit from river to ocean remains a challenge due to its complex structure. In this study, DOM along a river transect from black waters to marine waters is characterized using an offline combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS), as well as tandem ESI-FTICR-MS. In addition, a water extract from degraded wood that mainly consists of lignins is used for comparison to the DOM from this transect. The HPLC chromatograms of all DOM samples and the wood extract show two major well-separated components; one is hydrophilic and the other is hydrophobic, based on their elution order from the C 18 column. From the FTICR-MS analysis of the HPLC fractions, the hydrophilic components mainly contain low molecular weight compounds (less than 400 Da), while the hydrophobic fractions contain the vast majority of compounds of the bulk C 18 extracted DOM. The wood extract and the DOM samples from the transect of black waters to coastal marine waters show strikingly similar HPLC chromatograms, and the FTICR-MS analysis further indicates that a large fraction of molecular formulas from these samples are the same, existing as lignin-like compounds. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments show that several representative molecules from the lignin-like compounds have similar functional group losses and fragmentation patterns, consistent with modified lignin structural entities in the wood extract and these DOM samples. Taken together, these data suggest that lignin-derived compounds may survive the transit from the river to the coastal ocean and can accumulate there because of their refractory nature.

  2. Diversity of symbiotic archaeal communities in marine sponges from Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Young Lee; Hong Kum Lee; Yoo Kyung Lee; Chung Ja Sim; Jung-Hyun Lee

    2003-01-01

    A molecular analysis of archaeal communities in eight sponges collected along the coast of Cheju Island, Korea was conducted using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in conjunction with sequencing analysis of 16S rDNA clones. The terminal-restriction fragment (T-RF) profiles showed that each sponge had a simple archaeal community represented by a single major peak of the same size except for

  3. Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene marine deposits and sea levels, Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Marine ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic coastal plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern coastal plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.

  4. Identifying sharp hydrographical changes in phytoplankton community structure using HPLC pigment signatures in coastal waters along Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Woo; Lee, Jong-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2009-03-01

    In order to characterize the distribution and community structure of phytoplankton, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, nutrients, and hydrographic variables were measured in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea, during 11-13 May 2005. The photosynthetic pigments were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and were used to calculate the algal class abundances using the CHEMTAX program. There was a distinct difference in phytoplankton abundance and community composition between the northern coastal water (NCW) and the southern coastal water (SCW) of this island. The chlorophyll a concentrations were ˜26% higher in NCW than in SCW. Diatoms were predominant (> 50%) in NCW, while the phytoplankton composition was more diverse in SCW. Considering the hydrographic conditions and nutrient distributions in the study region, the sharp structural change in phytoplankton community seems to be mainly due to the slight difference in the origin of NCW and SCW. This study shows that HPLC-pigment measurements are useful for identifying sharp structural changes in phytoplankton communities in dynamic coastal environments.

  5. Garden of the Coastal Plain at GSU Community Service Worker/Garden Volunteer Agreement P. O. Box 8039

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Garden of the Coastal Plain at GSU Community Service Worker/Garden Volunteer Agreement P. O. Box of hours. For a CSW position, contact the Garden and schedule an interview with the Education Coordinator to discuss the job duties and set up a possible work schedule. The Garden does NOT guarantee hours

  6. The Role of Participatory Governance and Community-Based Management in Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Kearney; Fikret Berkes; Anthony Charles; Evelyn Pinkerton; Melanie Wiber

    2007-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that participatory governance is crucial for contending with complex problems of managing for multiple values and outcomes to achieve ecological sustainability and economic development. Canada's Oceans Act, and federal oceans policy provide a strong basis for the participatory governance and community-based management of coastal and large ocean resources. The implementation of the Oceans Act and oceans

  7. Variation of a benthic heterotrophic bacteria community with different respiratory metabolisms in Coyuca de Benítez coastal lagoon (Guerrero, Mexico)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Jesús Ferrara-Guerrero; María Elena Castellanos-Páez; Gabriela Garza-Mouriño

    2007-01-01

    The fluctuations of the number, biomass and composition of the heterotrophic community were stud- ied daily for two days, according to depth, pH, Eh, O2 and organic carbon concentration within a zone of the canal between the Coyuca de Benítez lagoon (Guerrero, Mexico) and the coastal waters. At the three moments of the day studied (6 am, 2 pm and

  8. On the Influence of Hot-Water Discharges on Phytoplankton Communities from a Coastal Zone of the Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Martínez-Arroyo; S. Abundes; M. E. González; I. Rosas

    2000-01-01

    The influence of thermal discharges on thephytoplankton community from a coastal zone of theGulf of Mexico was evaluated through their structureand photosynthetic behaviour focusing on responses tochanges in light and temperature. Biological andphysicochemical parameters were measured over a periodof two years in an area with permanent hot waterdischarges from a thermoelectric plant. Thetemperature in the sampling area ranged from 23.5

  9. Linking activity and function to ecosystem dynamics in a coastal bacterioplankton community

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Scott M.; Sharma, Shalabh; Moran, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP) as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1–3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4–7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes), and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter). Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs), photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes), and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria). The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating a strong diel activity rhythm at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment. PMID:24795712

  10. YAIR ROSENTHAL-Curriculum Vita Institute of Marine and Coastal Science,

    E-print Network

    Trace metal biogeochemistry; Paleoceanography; Oceanic and terrestrial controls on the global carbon, Israel 1981-1982 Field geologist for the Society for the Protection of Nature, Israel 1978-1981 Regional cycle; Metal pollution in estuarine and coastal sediments Shipboard experience 2004 R/V KNORR. Co

  11. Variability and abundance of the epiphytic bacterial community associated with a green marine Ulvacean alga.

    PubMed

    Tujula, Niina A; Crocetti, Gregory R; Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Holmström, Carola; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    Marine Ulvacean algae are colonized by dense microbial communities predicted to have an important role in the development, defense and metabolic activities of the plant. Here we assess the diversity and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community of the model alga Ulva australis to identify key groups within this epiphytic community. A total of 48 algal samples of U. australis that were collected as 12 individuals at 3 monthly intervals, were processed by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and three samples from each season were subjected to catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). CARD-FISH revealed that the epiphytic microbial community was comprised mainly of bacterial cells (90%) and was dominated by the groups Alphaproteobacteria (70%) and Bacteroidetes (13%). A large portion (47%) of sequences from the Alphaproteobacteria fall within the Roseobacter clade throughout the different seasons, and an average relative proportion of 19% was observed using CARD-FISH. DGGE based spatial (between tidal pools) and temporal (between season) comparisons of bacterial community composition demonstrated that variation occurs. Between individuals from both the same and different tidal pools, the variation was highest during winter (30%) and between seasons a 40% variation was observed. The community also includes a sub-population of bacteria that is consistently present. Sequences from excised DGGE bands indicate that members of the Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes are part of this stable sub-population, and are likely to have an important role in the function of this marine epiphytic microbial community. PMID:19829319

  12. Bottom-up control of macrobenthic communities in a guanotrophic coastal system.

    PubMed

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Costa, Valentina; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-01-01

    Soft bottom macrobenthic communities were studied seasonally in three coastal ponds (Marinello ponds, Italy) at increasing distances from a gull (Larus michahellis) colony to investigate the effect of seabird-induced eutrophication (i.e. guanotrophication) on macrobenthic fauna. We hypothesized that enhanced nutrient concentration and organic load caused by guano input significantly alter the trophic and sedimentological condition of ponds, affecting benthic fauna through a bottom-up control. The influence of a set of environmental features on macrobenthic assemblages was also tested. Overall, the lowest macrobenthic abundances and functional group diversity were found in deeper sites, especially in the pond characterised by severe guanotrophication, where the higher disturbance resulted in a decline in suspension feeders and carnivores in favour of deposit feeders. An increase in opportunistic/tolerant taxa (e.g. chironomid larvae and paraonids) and totally azoic sediments were also found as an effect of the harshest environmental conditions, resulting in a very poor ecological status. We conclude that macrobenthic assemblages of the Marinello coastal system display high spatial variability due to a synergistic effect of trophic status and the geomorphological features of the ponds. The macrobenthic response to guanotrophication, which was a clear decrease in abundance, diversity and trophic functional groups, was associated with the typical response to severe eutrophication, magnified by the geomorphological features. PMID:25679400

  13. Bottom-Up Control of Macrobenthic Communities in a Guanotrophic Coastal System

    PubMed Central

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Costa, Valentina; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-01-01

    Soft bottom macrobenthic communities were studied seasonally in three coastal ponds (Marinello ponds, Italy) at increasing distances from a gull (Larus michahellis) colony to investigate the effect of seabird-induced eutrophication (i.e. guanotrophication) on macrobenthic fauna. We hypothesized that enhanced nutrient concentration and organic load caused by guano input significantly alter the trophic and sedimentological condition of ponds, affecting benthic fauna through a bottom-up control. The influence of a set of environmental features on macrobenthic assemblages was also tested. Overall, the lowest macrobenthic abundances and functional group diversity were found in deeper sites, especially in the pond characterised by severe guanotrophication, where the higher disturbance resulted in a decline in suspension feeders and carnivores in favour of deposit feeders. An increase in opportunistic/tolerant taxa (e.g. chironomid larvae and paraonids) and totally azoic sediments were also found as an effect of the harshest environmental conditions, resulting in a very poor ecological status. We conclude that macrobenthic assemblages of the Marinello coastal system display high spatial variability due to a synergistic effect of trophic status and the geomorphological features of the ponds. The macrobenthic response to guanotrophication, which was a clear decrease in abundance, diversity and trophic functional groups, was associated with the typical response to severe eutrophication, magnified by the geomorphological features. PMID:25679400

  14. Community-Level Analysis of psbA Gene Sequences and Irgarol Tolerance in Marine Periphyton?

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, K. M.; Clarke, A. K.; Franzen, L.-G.; Kuylenstierna, M.; Martinez, K.; Blanck, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes psbA gene sequences, predicted D1 protein sequences, species relative abundance, and pollution-induced community tolerance in marine periphyton communities exposed to the antifouling compound Irgarol 1051. The mechanism of action of Irgarol is the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at photosystem II by binding to the D1 protein. The metagenome of the communities was used to produce clone libraries containing fragments of the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein. Community tolerance was quantified with a short-term test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. The communities were established in a continuous flow of natural seawater through microcosms with or without added Irgarol. The selection pressure from Irgarol resulted in an altered species composition and an inducted community tolerance to Irgarol. Moreover, there was a very high diversity in the psbA gene sequences in the periphyton, and the composition of psbA and D1 fragments within the communities was dramatically altered by increased Irgarol exposure. Even though tolerance to this type of compound in land plants often depends on a single amino acid substitution (Ser264?Gly) in the D1 protein, this was not the case for marine periphyton species. Instead, the tolerance mechanism likely involves increased degradation of D1. When we compared sequences from low and high Irgarol exposure, differences in nonconserved amino acids were found only in the so-called PEST region of D1, which is involved in regulating its degradation. Our results suggest that environmental contamination with Irgarol has led to selection for high-turnover D1 proteins in marine periphyton communities at the west coast of Sweden. PMID:19088321

  15. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine virus communities.

    PubMed Central

    Weinbauer, M G; Wilhelm, S W; Suttle, C A; Garza, D R

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the potential for photoreactivation to restore infectivity to sunlight-damaged natural viral communities in offshore (chlorophyll a, < 0.1 microgram liter-1), coastal (chlorophyll a, ca. 0.2 microgram liter-1), and estuarine (chlorophyll a, ca. 1 to 5 micrograms liter-1) waters of the Gulf of Mexico. In 67% of samples, the light-dependent repair mechanisms of the bacterium Vibrio natriegens restored infectivity to natural viral communities which could not be repaired by light-independent mechanisms. Similarly, exposure of sunlight-damaged natural viral communities to > 312-nm-wavelength sunlight in the presence of the natural bacterial communities restored infectivity to 21 to 26% of sunlight-damaged viruses in oceanic waters and 41 to 52% of the damaged viruses in coastal and estuarine waters. Wavelengths between 370 and 550 nm were responsible for restoring infectivity to the damaged viruses. These results indicate that light-dependent repair, probably photoreactivation, compensated for a large fraction of sunlight-induced DNA damage in natural viral communities and is potentially essential for the maintenance of high concentrations of viruses in surface waters. PMID:9172339

  16. Integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of marine biofilm communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses were utilized to begin to understand the role varying environments play on the composition and function of complex air-water interface biofilms sampled from the hulls of two ships that were deployed in different geographic waters. Prokaryotic community analyses...

  17. Short-term meso-scale variability of mesozooplankton communities in a coastal upwelling system (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, Álvaro; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; González, Ángel F.; Gregori, María; Rosón, Gabriel; Guerra, Ángel

    2013-02-01

    The short-term, meso-scale variability of the mesozooplankton community present in the coastal upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has been analysed. Three well-defined communities were identified: coastal, frontal and oceanic, according to their holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, richness, and total abundance. These communities changed from summer to autumn due to a shift from downwelling to upwelling-favourable conditions coupled with taxa dependent changes in life strategies. Relationships between the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton and the resemblance matrices of meteorologic, hydrographic and community-derived biotic variables were determined with distance-based linear models (DistLM, 18 variables), showing an increasing amount of explained variability of 6%, 16.1% and 54.5%, respectively. A simplified model revealed that the variability found in the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton was mainly described by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, the total abundance, the influence of lunar cycles, the upwelling index and the richness; altogether accounting for 64% of the total variability. The largest variability of the mesozooplankton resemblance matrix (39.6%) is accounted by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, a simple index that describes appropriately the coastal-ocean gradient. The communities described herein kept their integrity in the studied upwelling and downwelling episodes in spite of the highly advective environment off the Ría de Vigo, presumably due to behavioural changes in the vertical position of the zooplankton.

  18. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodell, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

  19. Integrating science and management on coastal marine protected areas in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yáñez-Arancibia; A. L. Lara-Dom??nguez; J. L. Rojas Galaviz; D. J. Zárate Lomeli; G. J. Villalobos Zapata; P. Sánchez-Gil

    1999-01-01

    The coastal zone of the State of Campeche have some of the Gulf of Mexico’s richest ecosystems characterized by extensive seagrasses, mangrove forests, low-land tidal wetlands, a broad deltaic environment, including the Usumacinta\\/Laguna de Terminos estuarine ecosystem, and extensive low salinities and brackish wetlands in the Petenes region. Commercial and artisanal fishing, maritime transport, agriculture and cattle grazing in low-land

  20. On the spatial scale needed for benthos community monitoring in the coastal North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    2000-05-01

    In community monitoring an attempt is made to identify long-term trends by regular sampling of selected sites. Since the benthos is reputed to be fairly sedentary, the spatial resolution is often reduced to single sites. However, members of many benthic invertebrate species have been found drifting across sedimentary seabeds in shallow waters. Transportation by currents may result in changes of their spatial pattern in the sediment, thereby changing local community composition. The quantitative importance of drifting was tested by repeated sampling of a 2-km 2 shallow (10 m) offshore area west of the island of Sylt (North Sea). Within the fortnight period between two samplings the benthic community composition had changed dramatically. Despite fairly calm weather, translocation of organisms by currents exceeded 1 km. In about half of the species, the spatial changes in abundance within these two weeks roughly equalled the average variation between consecutive years. This example suggests that community monitoring needs a wide spatial scale to discriminate long-term temporal changes from short-term variability. Extending the sampling area from 2 to 180 km 2 strongly reduced the variability of abundance estimates. However, only in a few species was the spatial distribution over the sampling sites found on one sampling date a suitable estimator for the spatial pattern found one or two months later, at the same sites. Instead the spatial patterns of the fauna changed strongly during a single month with a spatial scale of re-distribution exceeding several km in some species. At the same time the granulometric sediment composition changed, indicating changes of habitat quality. Hence, sampling of a large area, with random selection of the sampling sites on each sampling date, is suggested to yield the most reliable estimates of population development in the coastal North Sea. However, in view of the expected spatial scale of re-distribution during storm tides and the spatial variability of recruitment, even a 180-km 2 sampling area may be too small.

  1. Fish community structure and dynamics in a coastal hypersaline lagoon: Rio Lagartos, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Cendejas, Ma. Eugenia; Hernández de Santillana, Mireya

    2004-06-01

    Rio Lagartos, a tropical coastal lagoon in northern Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, is characterized by high salinity during most of the year (55 psu annual average). Even though the area has been designated as a wetland of international importance because of its great biodiversity, fish species composition and distribution are unknown. To determine whether the salinity gradient was influencing fish assemblages or not, fish populations were sampled seasonally by seine and trawl from 1992 to 1993 and bimonthly during 1997. We identified 81 fish species, eight of which accounted for 53.1% considering the Importance Value Index ( Floridichthys polyommus, Sphoeroides testudineus, Eucinostomus argenteus, Eucinostomus gula, Fundulus majalis, Strongylura notata, Cyprinodon artifrons and Elops saurus). Species richness and density declined from the mouth to the inner zone where extreme salinity conditions are prominent (>80) and competitive interactions decreased. However, in Coloradas basin (53 average sanity) and in the inlet of the lagoon, the highest fish density and number of species were observed. Greater habitat heterogeneity and fish immigration were considered as the best explanation. Multivariate analysis found three zones distinguished by fish occurrence, abundance and distribution. Ichthyofaunal spatial differences were attributed to selective recruitment from the Gulf of Mexico due to salinity gradient and to changing climatic periods. Estuarine and euryhaline marine species are abundant, with estuarine dependent ones entering the system according to environmental preferences. This knowledge will contribute to the management of the Special Biosphere Reserve through baseline data to evaluate environmental and anthropogenic changes.

  2. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    E-print Network

    Taggart, Christopher

    to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic- dividuals away from a source location through passive and (or) active means, where the passive component

  3. Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Gade; Werner Alpers

    1999-01-01

    More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal

  4. Hamel et al.: Coastal net fisheries and beached birds 41 Marine Ornithology 37: 4160 (2009)

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    marine birds, gillnets--with fisheries landings of nearly eight million metric tons per year worldwide & Zydelis 2002) and penguins (Taylor et al. 2002), and benthic feeders such as sea ducks (Dagys & Zydelis the population impacts of gillnet fisheries remain largely unknown (Uhlmann et al. 2005, but see Davoren 2007

  5. ALLOMETRIC LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS FOR BENTHIC PREY OF AQUATIC WILDLIFE IN COASTAL MARINE HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed models to estimate the soft tissue content of benthic marine invertebrates that are prey for aquatic wildlife. Allometric regression models of tissue wet weight with shell length for 10 species of benthic invertebrates had r2 values ranging from 0.29 for hermit crabs...

  6. Anadromous alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus ) contribute marine-derived nutrients to coastal stream food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika W. Walters; Rebecca T. Barnes; David M. Post

    2009-01-01

    Diadromous fish are an important link between marine and freshwater food webs. Pacific salmon (Oncorhyn- chus spp.) strongly impact nutrient dynamics in inland waters and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) may play a similar ecological role along the Atlantic coast. The annual spawning migration of anadromous alewife contributes, on average, 1050 g of nitrogen and 120 g of phosphorus to Bride

  7. Marine bacterioplankton community turnover within seasonally hypoxic waters of a subtropical sound: Devil's Hole, Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Rachel J; Nelson, Craig E; Carlson, Craig A; Denman, Carmen C; Andersson, Andreas J; Kledzik, Andrew L; Vergin, Kevin L; McNally, Sean P; Treusch, Alexander H; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Understanding bacterioplankton community dynamics in coastal hypoxic environments is relevant to global biogeochemistry because coastal hypoxia is increasing worldwide. The temporal dynamics of bacterioplankton communities were analysed throughout the illuminated water column of Devil's Hole, Bermuda during the 6-week annual transition from a strongly stratified water column with suboxic and high-pCO2 bottom waters to a fully mixed and ventilated state during 2008. A suite of culture-independent methods provided a quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of bacterioplankton community changes, including both direct counts and rRNA gene sequencing. During stratification, the surface waters were dominated by the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the suboxic bottom waters, cells from the order Chlorobiales prevailed, with gene sequences indicating members of the genera Chlorobium and Prosthecochloris - anoxygenic photoautotrophs that utilize sulfide as a source of electrons for photosynthesis. Transitional zones of hypoxia also exhibited elevated levels of methane- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria relative to the overlying waters. The abundance of both Thaumarcheota and Euryarcheota were elevated in the suboxic bottom waters (>?10(9) cells l(-1) ). Following convective mixing, the entire water column returned to a community typical of oxygenated waters, with Euryarcheota only averaging 5% of cells, and Chlorobiales and Thaumarcheota absent. PMID:24589037

  8. Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic communities in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie coastal wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic communities.

  9. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2011-11-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery. PMID:22079832

  10. Research on Coastal Marine Systems. Review and Recommendations for Unesco Programme 1987-1989. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 52. Report of the Meeting of the Unesco/SCOR/IABO Consultative Panel on Coastal Systems (4th, Dakar, Senegal, December 15-17, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report contains a detailed analysis, both retrospective and prospective, of the Unesco Major Interregional Coastal Marine (COMAR) Project. The report cites achievements during the period 1985-1986 and reviews plans for the various COMAR components for the triennium 1987-1989. Activities under review include: (1) co-operation with ICSU and its…

  11. Molecular diversity of fungal and bacterial communities in the marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Passarini, Michel R Z; Miqueletto, Paula B; de Oliveira, Valéria M; Sette, Lara D

    2015-02-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the diversity of bacteria and filamentous fungi of southern Atlantic Ocean marine sponge Dragmacidon reticulatum using cultivation-independent approaches. Fungal ITS rDNA and 18S gene analyses (DGGE and direct sequencing approaches) showed the presence of representatives of three order (Polyporales, Malasseziales, and Agaricales) from the phylum Basidiomycota and seven orders belonging to the phylum Ascomycota (Arthoniales, Capnodiales, Dothideales, Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, and Saccharomycetales). On the other hand, bacterial 16S rDNA gene analyses by direct sequencing approach revealed the presence of representatives of seven bacterial phyla (Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Lentisphaerae, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes). Results from statistical analyses (rarefaction curves) suggested that the sampled clones covered the fungal diversity in the sponge samples studied, while for the bacterial community additional sampling would be necessary for saturation. This is the first report related to the molecular analyses of fungal and bacterial communities by cultivation-independent approaches in the marine sponges D. reticulatum. Additionally, the present work broadening the knowledge of microbial diversity associated to marine sponges and reports innovative data on the presence of some fungal genera in marine samples. PMID:25213208

  12. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be more resilient to climate change than large ones. PMID:25044507

  13. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  14. Science, Service, Stewardship 1 NATIONAL MARINE

    E-print Network

    of New England, the sandy beaches of the Mid-Atlantic and the extensive salt marsh system that runs along. Protecting life and property by helping to buffer coastal communities against natural hazards such as storms Service Role NOAA Fisheries Service is dedicated to the stewardship of living marine resources through

  15. THE RENAISSANCE OF COMMUNITY-BASED MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN OCEANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Johannes

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Twenty-five years ago, the centuries-old Pacific Island practice of community-based marine resource management (CBMRM) was in decline, the vic- tim of various impacts of westernization. During the past two decades, however, this decline has reversed in various island countries. Today CBMRM continues to grow, refuting the claim that traditional non-Western attitudes toward nature cannot provide a sound foundation

  16. Analyzing gene expression from marine microbial communities using environmental transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, Rachel S; Gifford, Scott; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna; Vila-Costa, Maria; Moran, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Analogous to metagenomics, environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) retrieves and sequences environmental mRNAs from a microbial assemblage without prior knowledge of what genes the community might be expressing. Thus it provides the most unbiased perspective on community gene expression in situ. Environmental transcriptomics protocols are technically difficult since prokaryotic mRNAs generally lack the poly(A) tails that make isolation of eukaryotic messages relatively straightforward (1) and because of the relatively short half lives of mRNAs (2). In addition, mRNAs are much less abundant than rRNAs in total RNA extracts, thus an rRNA background often overwhelms mRNA signals. However, techniques for overcoming some of these difficulties have recently been developed. A procedure for analyzing environmental transcriptomes by creating clone libraries using random primers to reverse-transcribe and amplify environmental mRNAs was recently described was successful in two different natural environments, but results were biased by selection of the random primers used to initiate cDNA synthesis (3). Advances in linear amplification of mRNA obviate the need for random primers in the amplification step and make it possible to use less starting material decreasing the collection and processing time of samples and thereby minimizing RNA degradation (4). In vitro transcription methods for amplifying mRNA involve polyadenylating the mRNA and incorporating a T7 promoter onto the 3' end of the transcript. Amplified RNA (aRNA) can then be converted to double stranded cDNA using random hexamers and directly sequenced by pyrosequencing (5). A first use of this method at Station ALOHA demonstrated its utility for characterizing microbial community gene expression (6). PMID:19229184

  17. The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair

    2014-01-01

    The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

  18. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  19. Organic UV filter concentrations in marine mussels from French coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Bachelot, Morgane; Li, Zhi; Munaron, Dominique; Le Gall, Patrik; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena

    2012-03-15

    The accumulation of EHMC, OCT and OD-PABA, three common UV filter compounds, was investigated in marine mussels. Wild Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis were sampled in ten sites along the French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts from June to November. In mussel tissues, 100% of the samples had quantifiable EHMC concentrations ranging from 3 to 256ngg(-1) dry weight, while 55% of the samples had detectable OCT concentrations ranging from under 2 to 7 112ngg(-1) dry weight. These concentrations significantly increased with the rising air temperature in summer, the recreational pressure and the geomorphological structure of the sampling sites (its lack of openness to the wide). This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of UV filters in marine mussels, thus highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. PMID:22330425

  20. Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral radiometry: The Marine Optical System ROV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Yarbrough; Michael Feinholz; Stephanie Flora; Terrance Houlihan; B. Carol Johnson; Yong S. Kim; Marilyn Y. Murphy; Michael Ondrusek; Dennis Clark

    2007-01-01

    The water-leaving spectral radiance is a basic ocean color remote sensing parameters required for the vicarious calibration. Determination of water-leaving spectral radiance using in-water radiometry requires measurements of the upwelling spectral radiance at several depths. The Marine Optical System (MOS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is a portable, fiber-coupled, high-resolution spectroradiometer system with spectral coverage from 340 nm to 960 nm.

  1. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

  2. The regulation of genetically engineered marine organisms released into the coastal environment: an exploratory analysis 

    E-print Network

    MacGregor, Carol Lea

    1988-01-01

    model for assessing the risks of releasing genetically engineered organisms into the marine environment. The current federal regulatory scheme is analyzed against the proposed model involving the following steps: 1) hazard identification; 2) risk... characterization; 3) exposure assessment; 4) hazard evaluation; and 5) risk analysis. The legal implications of a standard methodology for assessing the risks of releasing genetically engineered organisms are presented. Over the past ten years, biotechnology...

  3. The fish and prawn communities of a Malaysian coastal mangrove system, with comparisons to adjacent mud flats and inshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, V. C.; Sasekumar, A.; Leh, M. U. C.; D'Cruz, R.

    1990-11-01

    The fish and prawn communities of four coastal habitats in Selangor, Malaysia: (1) coastal mangrove swamps; (2) mud flats, including subtidal regions; (3) near inshore waters; and (4) far inshore waters, were examined with respect to species composition, abundance, diversity, similarity and sexual maturity. The number of fish species sampled for these habitats were 119, 70, 58 and 92 species respectively. For prawns, the number of species were 9, 16, 8 and 14 respectively. The mangrove community comprised 63-99% and 100% juvenile fish and prawn respectively. Despite a high species richness, it was low in fish species diversity due to the dominance (70%) of six species of fish of low economic value. In contrast, the prawn community was poor in species, and was dominated by three Penaeus spp. of high economic value. The intertidal mudflat community is largely transient and comprised mainly of species from both the mangrove and subtidal habitats. Fifty-six per cent of the fish population and 62·6% of the prawn population were juveniles. Many of the inshore fish and prawn species were also common species found in mangrove and mudflat habitats. Similarity coefficients indicate that the inshore fish and prawn communities are more similar to those of mud flats than mangroves. However, maturity studies indicate that only five species of fish are true migrants, that the majority of the fish species (juveniles and adults) are ubiquitous with a distribution that extends several nautical miles offshore. Results of this study indicate that tropical coastal mangroves function more importantly as feeding grounds than as nursery grounds for juveniles of commercially important fish species. Mangroves and mud flats are utilized during flood tides by many periodic foragers from the inshore waters. However, this study confirms that coastal mangroves and mud flats are important nursery areas for commercially important prawn species.

  4. Start with what the people know: a community based approach to integrated coastal zone management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aileen Hegarty

    1997-01-01

    While there has been increasing recognition of the role that coastal zone management has to play in dealing with coastal issues and problems, much of the debate has centred on national, pan-national or global perspectives. This paper highlights the need to work at the local scale, presenting problems of coastal zone management in the Bantry Bay area, southwest Ireland. The

  5. Microbial community analysis of an Alabama coastal salt marsh impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beazley, M. J.; Martinez, R.; Rajan, S.; Powell, J.; Piceno, Y.; Tom, L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Van Nostrand, J. D.; Zhou, J.; Mortazavi, B.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial community responses of an Alabama coastal salt marsh environment to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were studied by 16S rRNA (PhyloChip) and functional gene (GeoChip) microarray-based analysis. Oil and tar balls associated with the oil spill arrived along the Alabama coast in June 2010. Marsh and inlet sediment samples collected in June, July, and September 2010 from a salt marsh ecosystem at Point Aux Pines Alabama were analyzed to determine if bacterial community structure changed as a result of oil perturbation. Sediment total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranged from below detection to 189 mg kg-1 and were randomly dispersed throughout the salt marsh sediments. Total DNA extracted from sediment and particulates were used for PhyloChip and GeoChip hybridization. A total of 4000 to 8000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in marsh and inlet samples. Distinctive changes in the number of detectable OTUs were observed between June, July, and September 2010. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated a significant increase in the total number of OTUs between June and September that correlated with TPH concentrations. The most significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacterial richness in marsh sediments also correlated with TPH concentrations with significant changes primarily in Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria. GeoChip microarray analysis detected 5000 to 8300 functional genes in marsh and inlet samples. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated distinctive increases in the number of detectable genes and gene signal intensities in July samples compared to June. Signal intensities increased (> 1.5-fold) in genes associated with petroleum degradation. Genes related to metal resistance, stress, and carbon cycling also demonstrated increases in oiled sediments. This study demonstrates the value of applying phylogenetic and functional gene microarray technology to characterize the extensive microbial diversity of marsh environments. Moreover, this technology provides significant insight into bacterial community responses to anthropogenic oil events.

  6. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25493694

  7. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

  8. Dating of coastal marine sediments: 210Pb versus 137Cs signal on the Danube-influenced Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Laptev, Gennady

    2010-05-01

    Coastal marine sediments represent a natural archive of pelagic processes, coastal erosion and river discharge of suspended matter. Correct dating of those sediments is a prerequisite for chronological reconstruction of the flux of pollutants and organic matter from the water column to the sediments and hence, the reconstruction of the pollution and eutrophication events. In the reconstruction of the sedimentation history during the pre-industrial and industrial periods, which usually spans the past 100 years, the natural occurring radionuclide 210Pb and the artificial radionuclides 137Cs and 241Am are widely applied tracers. 137Cs is used as an independent time marker for end the atmospheric bomb test fallout in 1963 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. As the 137Cs signal is often weakened due to its mobility in sediments, 241Am, less mobile than 137Cs and derived from decay the bomb fallout of 241Pu, is used as a second time marker of the 1963 event. The northwestern shelf of the Black Sea has been seriously affected by eutrophication and pollution from the late 1960's to the mid-1990's, largely triggered by Danube River input of nutrients and pollutants. The aim of our study is ultimately to reconstruct the eutrophication history and recycling of nutrients following the deposition of organic matter. The ‘memory effect' of sediment recycling plays a critical role in maintaining eutrophic conditions in enclosed seas such as the Black Sea. Here we present results from sediment cores taken within the Danube River plume on the shallow northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. The cores have been dated in two laboratories to rule out artifacts. The sediment record is repeatedly interrupted by so-called turbidites that consist of stiff clay. The clay horizons display a drop in unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs and a higher signal of supported 210Pb than the non-clay horizons. Below the turbidite, the unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs increase again to values above the turbidite. This points to a non-marine origin of the turbidite. In such sediment sequence, the classical application of the CRS model would provide false ages and sedimentation rates. We hypothesize that the turbidite represents terrestrial clay eroded from the Danube Delta that had been transported in pulse-like events during flash floods of the Danube River.

  9. Monitoring coastal marine waters for spore-forming bacteria of faecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established recreational water quality standards limiting the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci) to ensure that these waters are safe for swimming. In the application of these hygienic water quality standards, it is assumed that there are no significant environmental sources of these faecal indicator bacteria which are unrelated to direct faecal contamination. However, we previously reported that these faecal indicator bacteria are able to grow in the soil environment of humid tropical island environments such as Hawaii and Guam and are transported at high concentrations into streams and storm drains by rain. Thus, streams and storm drains in Hawaii contain consistently high concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria which routinely exceed the EPA and WHO recreational water quality standards. Since, streams and storm drains eventually flow out to coastal marine waters, we hypothesize that all the coastal beaches which receive run-off from streams and storm drains will contain elevated concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the coastal waters at four beaches known to receive water from stream or storm drains for salinity, turbidity, and used the two faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) to establish recreational water quality standards. To determine if these coastal waters are contaminated with non-point source pollution (streams) or with point source pollution (sewage effluent), these same water samples were also assayed for spore-forming bacteria of faecal origin (Cl. perfringens) and of soil origin (Bacillus species). Using this monitoring strategy it was possible to determine when coastal marine waters were contaminated with non-point source pollution and when coastal waters were contaminated with point source pollution. The results of this study are most likely applicable to all countries in the warm and humid region of the world. PMID:11724486

  10. Impact of horizontal eddy diffusivity on Lagrangian statistics for coastal pollution from a major marine fairway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikmäe, Bert; Torsvik, Tomas; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-05-01

    Lagrangian trajectory methods are often applied as deterministic transport models, where transport is due strictly to advection without taking into account stochastic elements of particle dispersion, which raises questions about validity of the model results. The present work investigates the impact of horizontal eddy diffusivity for a case study of coastal pollution in the Gulf of Finland, where the pollutants are assumed to originate from a major fairway and are transported to the coast by surface currents. Lagrangian trajectories are calculated using the TRACMASS model from velocity fields calculated by the Rossby Centre circulation model for 1982 to 2001. Three cases are investigated: (1) trajectory calculation without eddy diffusivity, (2) stochastic modelling of eddy diffusivity with a constant diffusion coefficient and (3) stochastic modelling of eddy diffusivity with a time- and space-variable diffusion coefficient. It is found that the eddy diffusivity effect increases the spreading rate of initially closely packed trajectories and the number of trajectories that eventually reach the coast. The pattern of most frequently hit coastal sections, the probability of hit to each such section and the time the pollution spends offshore are virtually invariant with respect to inclusion of eddy diffusivity.

  11. Nutrient flux in a landscape: Effects of coastal land use and terrestrial community mosaic on nutrient transport to coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Correll; Thomas E. Jordan; Donald E. Weller

    1992-01-01

    Long-term interdisciplinary studies of the Rhode River estuary and its watershed in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain of North\\u000a America have measured fluxes of nitrogen and phosphorus fractions through the hydrologically-linked ecosystems of this landscape.\\u000a These ecosystems are upland forest, cropland, and pasture; streamside riparian forests; floodplain swamps; tidal brackish\\u000a marshes and mudflats; and an estuarine embayment. Croplands discharged far more

  12. Biogeochemical dynamics in 20 m deep coastal sediments: The transition between the shallow subsurface and the marine deep biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Melanie; Riedel, Thomas; Graue, Jutta; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Engelen, Bert

    2010-05-01

    At present a large tidal flat area extends along the coastline of the southern North Sea. On longer geological time scales this area has, however, transformed from a terrestrial- to a marine-dominated landscape owing to changes in sea level. Biogeochemistry and microbial abundance have been intensively studied in the present tidal-flat sediments, down to about 5 m depth. However, very little is known about biogeochemical and microbial processes in deeper sediment layers, which were deposited before the establishment of today's tidal flat area. To study whether the geological history of sediment accumulation and thus the paleo-environment has an impact on pore water biogeochemistry and microbial abundance, Quaternary coastal deposits were investigated down to 20 m depth. In the tidal flat area of Spiekeroog Island (NW Germany) two geological settings were selected which are located close to each other but differ in sediment age and paleo-environmental conditions: A paleo-channel filled with mainly Holocene sediments and a sedimentary succession with the oldest sediments deposited during the Saalian glaciation ca. 130,000 years ago. The interdisciplinary analysis clearly shows that microorganisms are more abundant in the Holocene sediments. Here, almost all Archaea appear to be methanogenic as indicated by the presence of the mcrA-gene. About 12% of the Bacteria harbor the key gene for sulfate reduction. In contrast, only 1% methanogens and 0.5% sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the older sediments. Furthermore, this study supports the concept that certain biogeochemical and microbiological features show astonishing similarities between the upper 5 meters of tidal-flat sediments and the upper hundred meters of deep-sea sediments. In the investigated 20 m-long sediment cores, the microbiological and geochemical response to sedimentary settings is transitional between the shallow subsurface of tidal-flat sediments and the marine deep biosphere.

  13. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community. PMID:25710497

  14. Bacterial Community Response to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Amendments in Freshwater, Marine, and Hypersaline Water-Containing Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Sousa Lima, Laryssa Ribeiro Fonseca; Dias, Felipe de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline Brazilian aquatic ecosystems (with water salinities corresponding to 0.2%, 4%, and 5%, respectively) were enriched with different hydrocarbons (heptadecane, naphthalene, or crude oil). Changes within the different microcosms of bacterial communities were analyzed using cultivation approaches and molecular methods (DNA and RNA extraction, followed by genetic fingerprinting and analyses of clone libraries based on the 16S rRNA-coding gene). A redundancy analysis (RDA) of the genetic fingerprint data and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the clone libraries revealed hydrocarbon-enriched bacterial communities specific for each ecosystem studied. However, within the same ecosystem, different bacterial communities were selected according to the petroleum hydrocarbon used. In general, the results demonstrated that Acinetobacter and Cloacibacterium were the dominant genera in freshwater microcosms; the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Cycloclasticus genera predominated in marine microcosms; and the Oceanospirillales order and the Marinobacter genus were selected in the different hydrocarbon-containing microcosms in hypersaline water. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in all microcosms after 32 days of incubation showed a decrease in the hydrocarbon concentration compared to that for the controls. A total of 50 (41.3%) isolates from the different hydrocarbon-contaminated microcosms were associated with the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) obtained from the clone libraries, and their growth in the hydrocarbon contaminating the microcosm from which they were isolated as the sole carbon source was observed. These data provide insight into the general response of bacterial communities from freshwater, marine, and hypersaline aquatic ecosystems to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:23872573

  15. Response of bacterial community structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial community structure was analyzed from coastal water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (coastal water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine coastal water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial community in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial community structure from coastal water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial community structure. PMID:24727696

  16. Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etcheverry, Jose R.

    This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

  17. The emergence of a community mapping network: coastal eelgrass mapping in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Wright, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document and theorize the emergence of a network of stewards concerned about the conservation of a marine habitat called eelgrass along the coastline of British Columbia, Canada. Today, by engaging as professional biologists, government employees, and volunteers using various mapping, outreach, and communication tools, these stewards generate knowledge on the geographic location and health of eelgrass habitat, how to educate the public, how to coordinate volunteers, and how to approach local governments--with the ultimate goal of convincing others that eelgrass is worth protecting. Our two-year ethnographic study began in the second year of a project that was designed to train twenty community coordinators how to map and monitor eelgrass habitat. The coordinators were faced with complex social, cultural, political, historical, and material landscapes--which made us wonder about how it was possible for the network to hold together while extending its reach. We provide evidence to support the claim that the network became more stable and was extended by particular performances. These performances emerged from recognition and resolution of resistances, in which the network was both resource for and object of its activity. In the process, (a) knowledge produced is made to move and do something, (b) coordinators and scientists involved acted as knowledge brokers between various communities, and (c) communication between coordinators was enabled and maintained. PMID:19579680

  18. Man Meets Coast. A Game of Coastal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barile, Diane

    Provided is an educational game in which 30 to 75 players temporarily assume new identities to explore and resolve various coastal issues facing a ficitious community. Designed for both adults and junior/senior high school students, the game: (1) demonstrates the interrelationship between the natural marine environment and human systems; (2)…

  19. NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In light of a number of recent events, there is increased concern about the management of America's coastal and ocean resources. It is a pressing issue for economic reasons, along with the simple fact that over fifty percent of the U.S. population lives close to the coastlines of two oceans and the Great Lakes. Persons interested in these matters will appreciate the NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management site, which features newsletters, information about their strategic plans, and copious amounts of material on their initiatives, which include dock management and community development partnerships. A basic overview of the issues facing coastal regions can be found in the "Coastal Issues" section of the site which contains brief summaries on marine debris, coastal hazards, water quality, and aquaculture. The site is rounded out by a "My state" section. Here, visitors can utilize a clickable map of the U.S. to learn about coastal management activities underway in their state.

  20. Stable isotope evidence of terrestrial organic matter incorporation into coastal marine food webs: impact of Rhone River inputs on five NW Mediterranean marine flatfish species.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnaude, A. M.; Salen-Picard, C.; Harmelin-Vivien, M.

    2003-04-01

    The positive influence of land-based run-off on coastal fishery production is thought to be of particular importance for oligotrophic seas such as the Mediterranean. In order to estimate the impact of the Rhone River inputs of particulate organic matter (POM) on exploited demersal fish populations, stable isotope signature in nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C) were determined for both juveniles and adults of the five main flatfish species living off the Rhone delta (Arnoglossus laterna, Buglossidium luteum, Citharus linguatula, Solea impar and Solea solea) and the main components of their food webs. The five flatfish species showed inter and intra-specific differences in isotopic signatures. The ?15N significantly increased from the smallest species to the largest ones and, in all species, from juveniles to adults (P<0.05), which indicated a global increase in trophic level with fish body size. Concerning the carbon signature, the ?13C obtained indicated an incorporation of organic material from terrestrial origin in the flesh of all the species. This incorporation was minimum for C. linguatula and reduced for all the species with the exception of S. solea for which a significantly (P<0.001) lower ?13C indicated an important use of organic matter from terrestrial origin. Mean ?13C values also differed significantly between juveniles and adults of B. luteum and S. impar (P<0.05), suggesting changes in terrestrial organic matter use with growth in these two species. To explain inter and intra-specific differences in ?13C, stable isotope data were compared with gut content analyses (prey % total contents mass, W%) performed on the same fishes. The ?13C signature of fishes was inversely related to the W% of polychaetes in their diet, and not to other prey categories. The common sole S. solea, that fed mainly on polychaetes (W% > 50% at all benthic stages of life), exhibited the most negative mean ?13C for both juveniles and adults among all the fish species studied. The isotopic analyses of the Rhone River water, the marine phytoplankton, the sediment and the main fish prey, confirmed that polychaetes represented the major pathway of terrestrial POM transfer up to fishes into coastal trophic webs. The effect of terrestrial inputs in enhancing the population dynamics of the five flatfish species studied differed thus according to their diet. Keywords : river run-off, food webs, stable isotopes, gut contents, flatfishes, fisheries, NW Mediterranean.

  1. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities In Support Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment: Task 2.1.7 Permitting and Planning Fiscal Year 2012 Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect

    Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.; Judd, Chaeli R.; Blake, Kara M.

    2012-09-01

    This fiscal year 2012 year-end report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the MHK industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, NGOs, and industry. Objectives for 2.1.7 are the following: • To work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process. • To work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development. • To communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders. • To engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which are described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning As the MHK industry works with the regulatory community and stakeholders to plan, site, permit and license MHK technologies they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under 2.1.7 is to understand these varied interests, explore mechanisms to reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately identify pathways to reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.

  2. Spatial-temporal feeding dynamics of benthic communities in an estuary-marine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Emily S.; Kasai, Akihide; Ueno, Masahiro; Ishihi, Yuka; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yoh

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the fluctuations of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in benthic consumers and their potential food sources to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the utilization of available organic matter, indicating the origin and pathways of energy from Yura Estuary to Tango Sea, Japan. Field samplings were conducted from the upper estuary to offshore with sampling frequency of twice per season from April (spring) 2006 to February (winter) 2007. The ?13C signatures of the upper and lower estuary benthos showed depleted and in wide range (-28.9‰ to -13.5‰) compared to the enriched and within narrow range signatures of marine benthos (-20.6‰ to -14.0‰) in all seasons. On the contrary, the ?15N signatures of benthic communities showed decreasing trend seaward and summer values were different from the other seasons. Using the dual isotope and multisource mixing models, we estimated the relative contributions of potential food sources to the benthos diet. River POM played an important source of energy for the estuarine benthos, especially in winter when river discharge was high. Marine POM served as an important alternative food for the estuarine benthos from spring to autumn when seawater intruded the bottom estuary. Benthic microalgae were the major food source at the shallow coast throughout the year, while marine POM fueled the deep coast and offshore benthic food webs. Spatial and temporal feeding variations in estuarine benthic communities were driven by the hydrology of the estuary, whereas primary production and transport of food source dictated diet variations of marine benthic communities. The elucidation of the dynamic energy subsidy among aquatic systems highlights the importance of the land-sea transition zones that is crucial for benthic secondary productions.

  3. On the quantitative distribution and community structure of the meio and macrofaunal communities in the coastal area of the Central Adriatic Sea (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Frontalini; Federica Semprucci; Rodolfo Coccioni; Maria Balsamo; Paolo Bittoni; Anabella Covazzi-Harriague

    2011-01-01

    Many coastal areas have served as repositories of different anthropogenic and naturally induced organic material and nutrients.\\u000a The major sources thereof are riverine inputs which strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution of benthic communities.\\u000a In this study, the benthic foraminiferal, meiofaunal, and macrofaunal colonies in front of three rivers in a poorly known,\\u000a but environmentally valuable, area of the

  4. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.

    PubMed

    Holston, Kevin C

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in coastal dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects. PMID:17119624

  5. Experimental confirmation of multiple community states in a marine ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Petraitis, Peter S.; Methratta, Elizabeth T.; Rhile, Erika C.; Vidargas, Nicholas A.; Dudgeon, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Small changes in environmental conditions can unexpectedly tip an ecosystem from one community type to another, and these often irreversible shifts have been observed in semi-arid grasslands, freshwater lakes and ponds, coral reefs, and kelp forests. A commonly accepted explanation is that these ecosystems contain multiple stable points, but experimental tests confirming multiple stable states have proven elusive. Here we present a novel approach and show that mussel beds and rockweed stands are multiple stable states on intertidal shores in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Using broad-scale observational data and long-term data from experimental clearings, we show that the removal of rockweed by winter ice scour can tip persistent rockweed stands to mussel beds. The observational data were analyzed with Anderson's discriminant analysis of principal coordinates, which provided an objective function to separate mussel beds from rockweed stands. The function was then applied to 55 experimental plots, which had been established in rockweed stands in 1996. Based on 2005 data, all uncleared controls and all but one of the small clearings were classified as rockweed stands; 37% of the large clearings were classified as mussel beds. Our results address the establishment of mussels versus rockweeds and complement rather than refute the current paradigm that mussel beds and rockweed stands, once established, are maintained by site-specific differences in strong consumer control. PMID:19399520

  6. Eutrophication and the rate of denitrification and N/sub 2/O production in coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Nixon, S.W.

    1985-11-01

    Large (13 m/sup 3/, 5 m deep) microcosms with coupled pelagic and benthic components were used to measure the effect of nutrient loading and eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems on the rates of benthic denitrification (N/sub 2/) and N/sub 2/O production. After 3 months or daily nutrient addition, average denitrification rates ranged from about 300 ..mu..mol N m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ in the sediments of the control microcosm to 880 in the most enriched microcosm, which received 65 times the nutrient input of the control. Increases in the production of N/sub 2/O were more dramatic and increased by a factor of about 100, from 0.56 ..mu..mol N m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ in the control to 51 in the most enriched microcosm. Although there was a clear increase in the denitrification rate in the more eutrophic systems, the amount of fixed nitrogen removed was a constant or progressively smaller fraction of the nitrogen input. Even in the most enriched microcosm, at least 16% of the N input was removed by denitrification.

  7. Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on coastal Louisiana marsh communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the coastal marsh communities of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh community dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in fresh, brackish/ intermediate, and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, the mechanism of hurricane influence varied across the landscape. In the western region, saltwater storm surge inundated freshwater marshes and remained for weeks, effectively causing damage that reset the vegetation community. This is in contrast to the direct physical disturbance of the storm surge in the eastern region, which flipped and relocated marsh mats, thereby stressing the vegetation communities and providing an opportunity for disturbance species to colonize. In the brackish/intermediate marsh, disturbance species took advantage of the opportunity provided by shifting species composition caused by physical and saltwater-induced perturbations, although this shift is likely to be short lived. Saline marsh sites were not negatively impacted to a severe degree by the hurricanes. Species composition of vegetation in saline marshes was not affected, and sediment deposition appeared to increase vegetative productivity. The coastal landscape of Louisiana is experiencing high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes and is experiencing subsidence rates greater than 10.0 millimeters per year (mm yr-1); therefore, it is important to understand how hurricanes influence sedimentation and soil properties. We document long-term vertical accretion rates and accumulation rates of organic matter, bulk density, carbon and nitrogen. Analyses using caesium-137 to calculate long-term vertical accretion rates suggest that accretion under impounded conditions is less than in nonimpounded conditions in the brackish marsh of the chenier plain. Our data also support previous studies indicating that accumulation rates of organic matter explain much of the variability associated with vertical accretion in brackish/intermediate and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, more of the variability associated with vertical accretion was explained by mineral accumulation than in the other mars

  8. Assessing the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy development on marine and estuarine resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Ward; Irvin R. Schultz; Dana L. Woodruff; Guritno Roesijadi; Andrea E. Copping

    2010-01-01

    The world's oceans and estuaries offer enormous potential to meet the nation's growing demand for energy. The use of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to harness the power of wave and tidal energy could contribute significantly toward meeting federaland state-mandated renewable energy goals while supplying a substantial amount of clean energy to coastal communities. Locations along the eastern and western

  9. Effects on the function of three trophic levels in marine plankton communities under stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hjorth; I. Dahllöf; V. E. Forbes

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate functional responses of natural marine planktonic communities to stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Isotope labelling techniques (14C) were applied to study bacterial incorporation of leucine, photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and grazing of labelled prey by zooplankton communities for 6 days after exposures to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50nM ZPT in

  10. Chemoautotrophic carbon fixation rates and active bacterial communities in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Boschker, Henricus T S; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W C; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)(-1), which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on sediment biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. PMID:25003508

  11. Chemoautotrophic Carbon Fixation Rates and Active Bacterial Communities in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W. C.; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, the Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m?2 d?1. Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)?1, which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on sediment biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. PMID:25003508

  12. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  13. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  14. Calcareous foraminiferal test as a proxy of cadmium in coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marechal-Abram, N.; Kitazato, H.; Debenay, J.-P.; Wada, H.

    2003-04-01

    Anthropogenic pressures exerted on estuaries and coastal areas necessitate to develop new tools for evaluation and assessment of those environments. Researches on foraminifers (Protozoan, Rhizopod) as bioindicator of anthropogenic impact increased considerably in the three last decades. Foraminiferal shell (calcite) is used as {C}d, Zn or Ba proxy in paleoceanographic studies in accordance with the hypothesis that dissolved metal concentration of seawater and foraminifer are linearly correlated. begin{center} ([{C}d]/[Ca])foram = D ([{C}d]/[Ca])SW More recently, articles reported water contamination records from the {C}d content of foraminiferal shell. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of foraminifer as proxy of cadmium contamination in coastal areas. Two complementary experiments were carried out. On the one hand, controlled culture experiments of foraminifer Ammonia sp.) in laboratory with specific {C}d concentrations ( 2.7 nmol/l to 11.0 nmol/l ) at fixed temperature and salinity. Factor D{Cd} determination on adult and juvenile foraminifer will show D{Cd} sensitivity to salinity and temperature conditions. Preliminary results at S= 28 ^0 /00 and T= 18 o{C}, lack of any difference between adults and juveniles. Cultures were made at: begin{description} [{C}d]= 4.3 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.8 , SD=0.4 n=8 [{C}d]= 6.4 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.0 , SD=0.1 n=8 [{C}d]= 8.8 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 2.2 , n=1 [{C}d]= 11.0 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.4 , n=1 Those values can be compared with data published by Havach et al., 2001. They report an average D{Cd} forAmmonia sp. of 1.0 ± 0.5, forCibicidoides sp. of 4 ± 2, forBulimina sp. of 3 ± 1, and forUvigerina sp. 2 ± 1 with S= 35 ^0 /00 and T= 10 o{C}. On the other hand, field sampling are going to be carried out to Hamanako lake ({J}apan), a lagoon surrounded by an urban belt. Determination of physicochemical parameter and {C}d content from bottom water, sediment pore water and foraminifer will be performed. The results will be compared with the experimental data on D{Cd} and suppose to give insights and greater accuracy in assessing anthropogenic impacts in costal regions.

  15. Along-strike sequence stratigraphy across the Cretaceous shallow marine to coastal-plain transition, Wasatch Plateau, Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Royhan M.; Ranson, Andrew; Cross, David B.; Hampson, Gary J.; Gani, Nahid D.; Sahoo, Hiranya

    2015-07-01

    Current sequence stratigraphic models deal with stratal packages almost exclusively along depositional-dip. A high-resolution outcrop example detailing sequence stratigraphic architecture along depositional-strike is largely lacking. This outcrop study provides a detailed sequence stratigraphic correlation along depositional-strike for a length of ~ 50 km. Moreover, this study focuses on the facies and stratigraphic relationships particularly at the very transition between coeval marine and nonmarine strata, which is relatively underdocumented. Within the Mesa Group of central and eastern Utah, the Upper Cretaceous shallow-marine Star Point Sandstone and paralic Blackhawk Formation are relatively well studied along depositional-dip in the Book Cliffs, but the nature of their spatio-temporal transition particularly along depositional-strike in the NNE-SSW trending Wasatch Plateau remains poorly documented. Facies-scale to stratigraphic-scale data were gathered from ten outcrop "windows" along the eastern margin of the Wasatch Plateau. The vertical and lateral transition between marine and nonmarine strata varies in complexity within the study area. In the southern part of the study area near the central Wasatch Plateau, the shallow-marine Star Point Sandstone passes stratigraphically upward into the nonmarine Blackhawk Formation in one simple transition without any intercalation of marine and nonmarine strata. In the northern part of the study area, however, where the Star Point Sandstone to Blackhawk Formation transition is complex, aggradationally stacked shallow-marine sandbodies (i.e., parasequences) taper and completely pinch-out within coastal-plain mudstones in a paleo-landward direction over short distances (< 1 km), representing potential stratigraphic traps. These marine sandbodies are intercalated with coeval nonmarine strata within the Blackhawk Formation. Fourth-order sequence boundaries and flooding surfaces were correlated along the lower Campanian depositional-strike. The results reveal along-strike undulations in the early Campanian depositional topography, which was characterized by alternating incised valleys, interfluvial topographic highs with mature soil development, and shoreline embayments. In particular, the variable along-strike transition-complexity from shallow-marine to coastal-plain strata is the result of differential tectonic subsidence, where the transition-complexity increases and the stacking pattern is more aggradational towards an early Campanian depocenter in the north of the study area. This study reveals that differential subsidence is the key in controlling along-strike variability of sequence stratigraphy and that correlation of sequence stratigraphic surfaces are far more challenging in nonmarine strata than in adjacent marine strata.

  16. Primary production of coral ecosystems in the Vietnamese coastal and adjacent marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tac-An, Nguyen; Minh-Thu, Phan; Cherbadji, I. I.; Propp, M. V.; Odintsov, V. S.; Propp, L. H.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reef ecosystems in coastal waters and islands of Vietnam have high primary production. Average gross primary production (GPP) in coral reef waters was 0.39 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of corals ranged from 3.12 to 4.37 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of benthic microalgae in coral reefs ranged from 2 to 10 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of macro-algae was 2.34 g C m-2 day-1. Therefore, the total of GPP of whole coral reef ecosystems could reach 7.85 to 17.10 g C m-2 day-1. Almost all values of the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in the water bodies are higher than 1, which means these regions are autotrophic systems. Wire variation of GPP in coral reefs was contributed by species abundance of coral and organisms, nutrient supports and environmental characteristics of coral ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important ecological role of biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in waters around the reefs. These results contribute valuable information for the protection, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in coral reef ecosystems in Vietnam.

  17. International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons. (Bordeaux, France, September 8-14, 1981). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    Lagoons and their characteristic coastal bay-mouth bars represent 15 percent of the world coastal zone. They are among the most productive ecosystems in the biosphere, this productivity resulting from the interplay of ocean and continent. An International Symposium on Coastal Lagoons (ISCOL) was held to: assess the state of knowledge in the…

  18. A rapid appraisal approach to evaluation of community?level fisheries management systems: Framework and field application at selected coastal fishing villages in the Philippines and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Pido; Robert S. Pomeroy; Len R. Garces; Melvin B. Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Among the recent attempts to use Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) techniques traditionally employed in agriculture and other terrestrial resource systems is in the evaluation of the coastal and marine fisheries environments. One of these approaches is called Rapid Appraisal of Fisheries Management Systems (RAFMS). which was developed at the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM). The RAFMS is

  19. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  20. Zeaxanthin production by novel marine isolates from coastal sand of India and its antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sudharshan; Rekha, P D; Young, Chiu-Chung; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Arun, A B

    2013-10-01

    Zeaxanthin carotenoids are class of commercially important natural products and diverse biomolecules produced by plants and many microorganisms. Bacteria often produce a cocktail of polar and nonpolar carotenoids limiting their industrial applications. Marine members of the family Flavobacteriaceae are known to produce potential carotenoids such as astaxanthin and zeaxanthin. A few bacterial species have been reported for the predominant production zeaxanthin. Here, we report the molecular identification of the zeaxanthin as a major carotenoid produced by two novel bacteria (YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45) isolated from sandy beaches of South West Coast of India and the effect of carbon sources on the production of zeaxanthin. The strains were identified based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a member of genus Muricauda. The closest relatives of YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 were Muricauda aquimarina (JCM 11811(T)) (98.9 %) and Muricauda olearia (JCM 15563(T)) (99.2 %), respectively, indicating that both of these strains might represent a novel species. The highest level of zeaxanthin production was achieved (YUAB-SO-11, 1.20 ± 0.11 mg g(-1)) and (YUAB-SO-45, 1.02 ± 0.13 mg g(-1)) when cultivated in marine broth supplemented with 2 % NaCl (pH 7) and incubated at 30 °C. Addition of 0.1 M glutamic acid, an intermediate of citric acid cycle, enhanced the zeaxanthin production as 18 and 14 % by the strains YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 respectively. The zeaxanthin showed in vitro nitric oxide scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl scavenging activities higher than the commercial zeaxanthin. The results of this study suggest that two novel strains YUAB-SO-11 and YUAB-SO-45 belonging to genus Muricauda produce zeaxanthin as a predominant carotenoid, and higher production of zeaxanthin was achieved on glutamic acid supplementation. The pigment showed good in vitro antioxidant activity, which can be exploited further for commercial applications. PMID:23900617

  1. Identification of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes in the Metagenome of a Marine Biofilm Community Shown to Be Dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Smith, Darren L.; Connolly, John; McDonald, James E.; Cox, Michael J.; Joint, Ian; Edwards, Clive; McCarthy, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Polysaccharides are an important source of organic carbon in the marine environment, degradation of the insoluble, globally abundant cellulose is a major component of the marine carbon cycle. Although a number of species of cultured bacteria are known to degrade crystalline cellulose, little is known of the polysaccharide hydrolases expressed by cellulose-degrading microbial communities, particularly in the marine environment. Next generation 454 Pyrosequencing was applied to analyze the microbial community that colonizes, degrades insoluble polysaccharides in situ in the Irish Sea. The bioinformatics tool MG-RAST was used to examine the randomly sampled data for taxonomic markers, functional genes,, showed that the community was dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, the identification of 211 gene sequences matched to a custom-made database comprising the members of nine glycoside hydrolase families revealed an extensive repertoire of functional genes predicted to be involved in cellulose utilization. This demonstrates that the use of an in situ cellulose baiting method yielded a marine microbial metagenome considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation. The research reported here is the first designed to specifically address the bacterial communities that colonize, degrade cellulose in the marine environment, to evaluate the glycoside hydrolase (cellulase, chitinase) gene repertoire of that community, in the absence of the biases associated with PCR-based molecular techniques. PMID:24710093

  2. COASTAL SALT MARSH COMMUNITY CHANGE IN NARRAGANSETT BAY IN RESPONSE TO CULTURAL EUTROPHICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal salt marshes are susceptible to cultural eutrophication, particularly the over-enrichment of nitrogen, because they are often located where surface water and groundwater discharge into estuaries. In this report, the current areal extent of coastal salt marshes in Narrag...

  3. Light-saturated primary production in antarctic coastal waters MARKA. MOLINE,Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903-0231

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903-0231 BARBARAB. PREZELIN occurred during the peak solar irradiance and a generally lower percentage of saturation occurred earlier

  4. Response of a Marine Sediment Microbial Community Exposed to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hogan; B. B. Ward

    1998-01-01

    Acclimation of a marine sediment microbial community to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was examined\\u000a by comparing its ability to metabolize 2,4-D before and after exposure to the herbicide. The experimental treatments (control:\\u000a 2-week exposure, seawater only; test: 2-week exposure, seawater plus 100 ppm 2,4-D) took place under simulated in situ conditions,\\u000a in an incubation chamber, which maintained the physical

  5. Negative effects of vertebrate herbivores on invertebrates in a coastal dune community.

    PubMed

    Huntzinger, Mikaela; Karban, Richard; Cushman, J Hall

    2008-07-01

    Although competition has been a major focus in ecology for the past century, most empirical and theoretical studies in this area have emphasized interactions between closely related species. However, there is growing evidence that negative interactions among distantly related taxa also occur and may be far more important than previously thought. In this study, we took advantage of an 11-year-old replicated vertebrate-exclosure experiment in a coastal dune community in northern California, USA, to examine the effects of the two most common vertebrate herbivores (jackrabbits and black-tailed deer) on the abundance of the three most visible invertebrate herbivores (two snail, a moth, and a grasshopper species). Our results indicate that four of the six possible pairwise interactions were significantly negative for the invertebrates. Jackrabbits reduced the abundances of snails by 44-75%, tiger moth caterpillars by 36%, and grasshoppers by 62%. Deer reduced the abundances of snails by 32%, increased the abundances of caterpillars by 31%, and had no measurable effect on grasshopper abundance. Our data also revealed that jackrabbits significantly decreased the volume of forbs and common shrubs and the flowering by grasses in our study plots. We were unable to detect an effect of deer on these measures of vegetation. These results suggest that by changing vegetation, jackrabbits may reduce invertebrate populations that are limited by food, protective structures, or microclimate provided by plants. Of these three mechanisms, only shade was strongly supported as limiting snail numbers in smaller-scale manipulations. In most systems, as in this one, the number of pairs of distantly related herbivores far exceeds the number of pairs of congeners. Since interactions among distantly related herbivores may be common in many cases, these interactions are likely to be important and should receive far more attention from ecologists. PMID:18705383

  6. Community ecology of euglossine bees in the coastal Atlantic forest of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar--Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  7. Four Simple Questions: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Half-Day Community Workshops Designed to Increase Awareness of Coastal Cetacean Conservation Issues in Sarawak, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Gianna; Poh, Anna Norliza Zulkifli; Ngeian, Jenny; Peter, Cindy; Tuen, Andrew Alek

    2012-01-01

    Community workshops were held in coastal locations in Sarawak to raise awareness of cetacean conservation. Interviews were conducted up to 2 years later in four "workshop communities" as well as four villages where workshops were not conducted. Comparison of responses between respondents who had attended workshops (n = 127) versus those who had…

  8. The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts.

    PubMed

    Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D; Hay, Mark E; Poore, Alistair G B; Campbell, Alexandra H; Ballesteros, Enric; Heck, Kenneth L; Booth, David J; Coleman, Melinda A; Feary, David A; Figueira, Will; Langlois, Tim; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Mizerek, Toni; Mumby, Peter J; Nakamura, Yohei; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Gupta, Alex Sen; Smale, Dan A; Tomas, Fiona; Wernberg, Thomas; Wilson, Shaun K

    2014-08-22

    Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to 'barrens' when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. PMID:25009065

  9. Effects of crude oil on marine microbial communities in short term outdoor microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Won; Park, Joon Sang; Kown, Oh Youn; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young-Ok

    2010-10-01

    To assess the effects of crude oil spills on marine microbial communities, 10 L outdoor microcosms were manipulated over an exposure period of 8 days. The responses of microbial organisms exposed to five crude oil concentrations in 10 to 10,000 ppm (v/v) were monitored in the microcosms. The abundance of microalgae and copepods decreased rapidly upon the addition of crude oil at concentrations over 1,000 ppm, whereas the total density of heterotrophic bacteria increased dramatically at the higher concentrations. Bacterial diversity, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was increased at higher concentrations. In particular, the intensity of the bands representing Jannaschia sp. and Sulfitobacter brevis increased with the addition of oil. These results indicate that crude oil spills with concentrations over 1,000 ppm seriously affected the structure of the microbial communities. PMID:21046336

  10. The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts

    PubMed Central

    Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D.; Hay, Mark E.; Poore, Alistair G. B.; Campbell, Alexandra H.; Ballesteros, Enric; Heck, Kenneth L.; Booth, David J.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Feary, David A.; Figueira, Will; Langlois, Tim; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Mizerek, Toni; Mumby, Peter J.; Nakamura, Yohei; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Gupta, Alex Sen; Smale, Dan A.; Tomas, Fiona; Wernberg, Thomas; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to ‘barrens’ when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. PMID:25009065

  11. Protection Enhances Community and Habitat Stability: Evidence from a Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001–2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change. PMID:24349135

  12. Effects of Marine Reserves versus Nursery Habitat Availability on Structure of Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G. G.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (?25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  13. Metatranscriptomics of the marine sponge Geodia barretti: tackling phylogeny and function of its microbial community.

    PubMed

    Radax, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Lanzen, Anders; Bayer, Christoph; Rapp, Hans Tore; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa

    2012-05-01

    Geodia barretti is a marine cold-water sponge harbouring high numbers of microorganisms. Significant rates of nitrification have been observed in this sponge, indicating a substantial contribution to nitrogen turnover in marine environments with high sponge cover. In order to get closer insights into the phylogeny and function of the active microbial community and the interaction with its host G. barretti, a metatranscriptomic approach was employed, using the simultaneous analysis of rRNA and mRNA. Of the 262?298 RNA-tags obtained by pyrosequencing, 92% were assigned to ribosomal RNA (ribo-tags). A total of 109?325 SSU rRNA ribo-tags revealed a detailed picture of the community, dominated by group SAR202 of Chloroflexi, candidate phylum Poribacteria and Acidobacteria, which was different in its composition from that obtained in clone libraries prepared form the same samples. Optimized assembly strategies allowed the reconstruction of full-length rRNA sequences from the short ribo-tags for more detailed phylogenetic studies of the dominant taxa. Cells of several phyla were visualized by FISH analyses for confirmation. Of the remaining 21?325 RNA-tags, 10?023 were assigned to mRNA-tags, based on similarities to genes in the databases. A wide range of putative functional gene transcripts from over 10 different phyla were identified among the bacterial mRNA-tags. The most abundant mRNAs were those encoding key metabolic enzymes of nitrification from ammonia-oxidizing archaea as well as candidate genes involved in related processes. Our analysis demonstrates the potential and limits of using a combined rRNA and mRNA approach to explore the microbial community profile, phylogenetic assignments and metabolic activities of a complex, but little explored microbial community. PMID:22364353

  14. Effects of marine reserves versus nursery habitat availability on structure of reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Grol, Monique G G; Mumby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    No-take marine fishery reserves sustain commercial stocks by acting as buffers against overexploitation and enhancing fishery catches in adjacent areas through spillover. Likewise, nursery habitats such as mangroves enhance populations of some species in adjacent habitats. However, there is lack of understanding of the magnitude of stock enhancement and the effects on community structure when both protection from fishing and access to nurseries concurrently act as drivers of fish population dynamics. In this study we test the separate as well as interactive effects of marine reserves and nursery habitat proximity on structure and abundance of coral reef fish communities. Reserves had no effect on fish community composition, while proximity to nursery habitat only had a significant effect on community structure of species that use mangroves or seagrass beds as nurseries. In terms of reef fish biomass, proximity to nursery habitat by far outweighed (biomass 249% higher than that in areas with no nursery access) the effects of protection from fishing in reserves (biomass 21% lower than non-reserve areas) for small nursery fish (? 25 cm total length). For large-bodied individuals of nursery species (>25 cm total length), an additive effect was present for these two factors, although fish benefited more from fishing protection (203% higher biomass) than from proximity to nurseries (139% higher). The magnitude of elevated biomass for small fish on coral reefs due to proximity to nurseries was such that nursery habitats seem able to overrule the usually positive effects on fish biomass by reef reserves. As a result, conservation of nursery habitats gains importance and more consideration should be given to the ecological processes that occur along nursery-reef boundaries that connect neighboring ecosystems. PMID:22675474

  15. The non-Federal oceanographic community: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swetnick, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the broad domestic non-Federal oceanographic community that represents a potential market for satellite remote sensor derived oceanographic data and/or marine environmental information is presented. The overview consists of listings of individuals and/or organizations who have used, or are likely to use such data or information for scientific research, offshore engineering purposes, marine resources exploration and utilization, marine related operational applications, or coastal zone management.

  16. Gendered Disparities in Quality of Cataract Surgery in a Marginalised Population in Pakistan: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Khabir; Zwi, Anthony B.; Tarantola, Daniel J. M.; Soomro, Abdul Qadeem; Baig, Rashid; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background Marine fishing communities are among the most marginalised and hard-to-reach groups and have been largely neglected in health research. We examined the quality of cataract surgery and its determinants, with an emphasis on gender, in marine fishing communities in Karachi, Pakistan, using multiple indicators of performance. Methods and Findings The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey was a door-to-door, cross-sectional study conducted between March 2009 and April 2010 in fishing communities living on 7 islands and in coastal areas in Keamari, Karachi, located on the Arabian Sea. A population-based sample of 638 adults, aged ? 50 years, was studied. A total of 145 eyes (of 97 persons) had undergone cataract surgery in this sample. Cataract surgical outcomes assessed included vision (presenting and best-corrected with a reduced logMAR chart), satisfaction with surgery, astigmatism, and pupil shape. Overall, 65.5% of the operated eyes had some form of visual loss (presenting visual acuity [PVA] < 6/12). 55.2%, 29.0%, and 15.9% of these had good, borderline, and poor visual outcomes based on presenting vision; with best correction, these values were: 68.3 %, 18.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. Of 7 covariates evaluated in the multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) analyses, gender was the only significant independent predictor of visual outcome. Women’s eyes were nearly 4.38 times more likely to have suboptimal visual outcome (PVA<6/18) compared with men’s eyes (adjusted odds ratio 4.38, 95% CI 1.96-9.79; P<0.001) after adjusting for the effect of household financial status. A higher proportion of women’s than men’s eyes had an irregular pupil (26.5% vs. 14.8%) or severe/very severe astigmatism (27.5% vs. 18.2%). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, more than one fourth (44/144) of cataract surgeries resulted in dissatisfaction. The only significant predictor of satisfaction was visual outcome (P <0.001). Conclusions The quality of cataract surgery in this marginalised population, especially among women, falls well below the WHO recommended standards. Gender disparities, in particular, deserve proactive attention in policy, service delivery, research and evaluation. PMID:26186605

  17. Metabolic and phylogenetic profile of bacterial community in Guishan coastal water (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qing; Li, Zhuojia; He, Zhili; Gong, Yingxue; Cao, Yucheng; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-10-01

    Characteristics of a microbial community are important as they indicate the status of aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the metabolic and phylogenetic profile of the bacterioplankton community in Guishan coastal water (Pearl River Estuary), South China Sea, at 12 sites (S1-S12) were explored by community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) with BIOLOG Eco-plate and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the core mariculture area (S6, S7 and S8) and the sites associating with human activity and sewage discharge (S11 and S12) had higher microbial metabolic capability and bacterial community diversity than others (S1-5, S9-10). Especially, the diversity index of S11 and S12 calculated from both CLPP and DGGE data ( H>3.2) was higher than that of others as sewage discharge may increase water nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient. The bacterial community structure of S6, S8, S11 and S12 was greatly influenced by total phosphorous, salinity and total nitrogen. Based on DGGE fingerprinting, proteobacteria, especially ?- and ?-proteobacteria, were found dominant at all sites. In conclusion, the aquaculture area and wharf had high microbial metabolic capability. The structure and composition of bacterial community were closely related to the level of phosphorus, salinity and nitrogen.

  18. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

  19. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

  20. Impact of phytoplankton community structure and function on marine particulate optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Malcolm Neil

    Phytoplankton are an ecologically important and diverse group of organisms whose distribution, abundance, and population dynamics vary significantly over small spatial (cm) and temporal (minutes) scales in the coastal ocean. Our inability to observe phytoplankton community structure and function at these small scales has severely limited our understanding of the fundamental ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that drive phytoplankton growth, mortality, adaptation and speciation. The goal of this dissertation was to enhance our understanding of phytoplankton ecology by improving in situ observational techniques based on the optical properties of cells, colonies, populations, and communities. Field and laboratory studies were used to determine the effects of phytoplankton species composition, morphology, and physiology on the inherent optical properties of communities and to explore the adaptive significance of bio-optically important cellular characteristics. Initial field studies found a strong association between species composition and the relative magnitude and shape of particulate absorption, scattering, and attenuation coefficient spectra. Subsequent field studies using scanning flow cytometry to directly measure optically important phytoplankton and non-algal particle characteristics demonstrated that the size and pigment content of large (>20 microm) phytoplankton cells and colonies vary significantly with the slope of particulate attenuation and absorption spectra, and with the ratio of particulate scattering to absorption. These relationships enabled visualization of phytoplankton community composition and mortality over small spatial and temporal scales derived from high resolution optical measurements acquired with an autonomous profiling system. Laboratory studies with diverse uni-algal cultures showed that morphological and physiological characteristics of cells and colonies can account for ˜30% of the optical variation observed in natural communities and that complex morphologies and low intracellular pigment concentrations minimize pigment self-shading that could otherwise limit bio-optical fitness. These results demonstrate that optical properties reveal detailed information about the distribution, abundance, morphology, and physiology of phytoplankton that can help explain their ecological dynamics over small spatial scales and the bio-optical function of diverse forms in the ocean.

  1. Fate and effects of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) in marine plankton communities in experimental enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Hanstveit, A.O.

    1984-02-01

    The fate and effects of single doses of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) on North Sea coastal plankton communities enclosed by large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m3) were studied in two experiments lasting 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. The biodegradation of DCA was also studied in laboratory experiments, which were carried out simultaneously, using water from the enclosed model ecosystems. DCA was not degraded in the laboratory tests and probably also not degraded in the enclosed plankton communities, although concentrations in the water decreased during the experiments. This decrease appeared to be partly caused by diffusion of DCA through the walls of the enclosures. After the addition of single doses of 2, 10, and 25 microgram liter-1 DCA no effects on the enclosed plankton community could be detected. The addition of 0.1 mg liter-1 DCA had a clear influence on the species composition and the biomass development of the phytoplankton, changed the relative species composition of the zooplankton, and resulted in lower numbers of bacteria. In addition to these effects 1 mg liter-1 DCA limited the phytoplankton growth and resulted in mortality and inhibition of growth of the copepods.

  2. Long-term Changes of a Brackish-water Eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) Community Indicate Effects of Coastal Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, C.; Bonsdorff, E.; Kangas, P.; Norkko, A.

    2002-11-01

    The distribution and importance of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) meadows for associated faunal communities in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea are still poorly known. In these low-saline (5-7), shallow coastal areas Z. marina grows at its limit of distribution, forming mostly patchy meadows. In June 1993, a seagrass locality (Tvärminne, SW Finland) thoroughly studied in 1968-71 was revisited in order to detect possible long-term changes in both vegetation structure (distribution, density, biomass) and benthic fauna (species composition, abundance, biomass, distribution and diversity patterns). The same sampling design as in the 1970s was used in both sparse (<20 shoots m -2) and dense (>150 shoots m -2) Z. marina. In addition, the feeding-efficiency of adult flounder ( Platichtys flesus L.) on infauna was measured by counting feeding pits in vegetated and bare sand. The analysis shows that the shoot density had increased in sparse Z. marina, while dense Z. marina patches showed similar biomass values (20 g AFDW m -2) as in the 1970s. In contrast to the vegetation, where little apparent change could be recorded, the total abundance and biomass of zoobenthos has increased significantly between 1968-71 and 1993 in the dense Z. marina patches. These changes are mainly attributed to significant increases of the bivalve Macoma balthica L., mudsnails Hydrobia spp. and oligochaetes. In sparse Z. marina diversity in terms of number of taxa exhibited minor changes over time, whereas in dense Z. marina patches the mean number of taxa has increased from 16 to 20. The vegetation cover was sufficient to reduce significantly the predation effects of flounder on seagrass infauna. This study represents a rare example of long-term persistence of seagrass communities in an area where the negative effects of nutrient enrichment are evident. The faunal changes in the Z. marina community indicate increased food availability, which is associated with positive effects of coastal eutrophication.

  3. Coastal communities and climate change : a dynamic model of risk perception, storms, and adaptation

    E-print Network

    Franck, Travis Read

    2009-01-01

    Climate change impacts, including sea-level rise and changes in tropical storm frequency and intensity, will pose signicant challenges to city planners and coastal zone managers trying to make wise investment and protection ...

  4. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Kappell, Anthony D; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[?]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH degradation. PMID:24847320

  5. Anthropogenic disturbance and biodiversity of marine benthic communities in Antarctica: a regional comparison.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jonathan S; Kim, Stacy L; Oliver, John S

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of two Antarctic stations in different regions, on marine sediment macrofaunal communities were compared: McMurdo, a very large station in the Ross Sea; and Casey, a more typical small station in East Antarctica. Community structure and diversity were compared along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance from heavily contaminated to uncontaminated locations. We examined some of the inherent problems in comparing data from unrelated studies, such as different sampling methods, spatial and temporal scales of sampling and taxonomic uncertainty. These issues generated specific biases which were taken into account when interpreting patterns. Control sites in the two regions had very different communities but both were dominated by crustaceans. Community responses to anthropogenic disturbance (sediment contamination by metals, oils and sewage) were also different. At McMurdo the proportion of crustaceans decreased in disturbed areas and polychaetes became dominant, whereas at Casey, crustaceans increased in response to disturbance, largely through an increase in amphipods. Despite differing overall community responses there were some common elements. Ostracods, cumaceans and echinoderms were sensitive to disturbance in both regions. Capitellid, dorvelleid and orbiniid polychaetes were indicative of disturbed sites. Amphipods, isopods and tanaids had different responses at each station. Biodiversity and taxonomic distinctness were significantly lower at disturbed locations in both regions. The size of the impact, however, was not related to the level of contamination, with a larger reduction in biodiversity at Casey, the smaller, less polluted station. The impacts of small stations, with low to moderate levels of contamination, can thus be as great as those of large or heavily contaminated stations. Regional broad scale environmental influences may be important in determining the composition of communities and thus their response to disturbance, but there are some generalizations regarding responses which will aid future management of stations. PMID:24919053

  6. Humpback whale populations share a core skin bacterial community: towards a health index for marine mammals?

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy; Robbins, Jooke; Eren, A Murat; Pack, Adam A; Reveillaud, Julie; Mattila, David; Moore, Michael; Niemeyer, Misty; Moore, Kathleen M T; Mincer, Tracy J

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are now well regarded for their important role in mammalian health. The microbiology of skin--a unique interface between the host and environment--is a major research focus in human health and skin disorders, but is less explored in other mammals. Here, we report on a cross-population study of the skin-associated bacterial community of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and examine the potential for a core bacterial community and its variability with host (endogenous) or geographic/environmental (exogenous) specific factors. Skin biopsies or freshly sloughed skin from 56 individuals were sampled from populations in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and South Pacific oceans and bacteria were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses revealed the ubiquity and abundance of bacteria belonging to the Flavobacteria genus Tenacibaculum and the Gammaproteobacteria genus Psychrobacter across the whale populations. Scanning electron microscopy of skin indicated that microbial cells colonize the skin surface. Despite the ubiquity of Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp., the relative composition of the skin-bacterial community differed significantly by geographic area as well as metabolic state of the animals (feeding versus starving during migration and breeding), suggesting that both exogenous and endogenous factors may play a role in influencing the skin-bacteria. Further, characteristics of the skin bacterial community from these free-swimming individuals were assembled and compared to two entangled and three dead individuals, revealing a decrease in the central or core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum and Psychrobater spp.), as well as the emergence of potential pathogens in the latter cases. This is the first discovery of a cross-population, shared skin bacterial community. This research suggests that the skin bacteria may be connected to humpback health and immunity and could possibly serve as a useful index for health and skin disorder monitoring of threatened and endangered marine mammals. PMID:24671052

  7. Phylogenetic signal in the community structure of host-specific microbiomes of tropical marine sponges

    PubMed Central

    Easson, Cole G.; Thacker, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera) can host diverse and abundant communities of microbial symbionts that make crucial contributions to host metabolism. Although these communities are often host-specific and hypothesized to co-evolve with their hosts, correlations between host phylogeny and microbiome community structure are rarely tested. As part of the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP), we surveyed the microbiomes associated with 20 species of tropical marine sponges collected over a narrow geographic range. We tested whether (1) univariate metrics of microbiome diversity displayed significant phylogenetic signal across the host phylogeny; (2) host identity and host phylogeny were significant factors in multivariate analyses of taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity; and (3) different minimum read thresholds impacted these results. We observed significant differences in univariate metrics of diversity among host species for all read thresholds, with strong phylogenetic signal in the inverse Simpson's index of diversity (D). We observed a surprisingly wide range of variability in community dissimilarity within host species (4–73%); this variability was not related to microbial abundance within a host species. Taxonomic and phylogenetic dissimilarity were significantly impacted by host identity and host phylogeny when these factors were considered individually; when tested together, the effect of host phylogeny was reduced, but remained significant. In our dataset, this outcome is largely due to closely related host sponges harboring distinct microbial taxa. Host identity maintained a strong statistical signal at all minimum read thresholds. Although the identity of specific microbial taxa varied substantially among host sponges, closely related hosts tended to harbor microbial communities with similar patterns of relative abundance. We hypothesize that microbiomes with low D might be structured by regulation of the microbial community by the host or by the presence of competitively dominant symbionts that are themselves under selection for host specificity. PMID:25368606

  8. Environmental quality assessment combining sediment metal levels, biomarkers and macrobenthic communities: application to the Óbidos coastal lagoon (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Fábio; de Pablo, Hilda; Gaspar, Miguel B; Pacheco, Mário; Vale, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Macroinvertebrate benthic communities are one of the key biological components considered for the assessment of benthic integrity in the context of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). However, under moderate contamination scenarios, the assessment of macrobenthic alterations at community level alone could be insufficient to discriminate the environmental quality of coastal and transitional waters. Keeping this in view, sediment quality of moderately contaminated sites in a coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal) was assessed by the combination of sediment metal levels, Carcinus maenas biomarkers (accumulated metals and oxidative stress responses) and macrobenthic communities. Two sites were selected in confined inner branches (BS and BB) and a third one in the middle lagoon (ML). The site BB presented slightly higher levels of metals in sediment but biological variables calculated for macrobenthic data were not significantly different between sites. The biotic index M-AMBI that is being applied to assess environmental quality of transitional waters in the scope of the WFD pointed either to high (site ML) or good quality status (BS and BB) in the selected sites. However, crabs from BB site presented significantly higher levels of Ni in hepatopancreas than those from ML and macrobenthic community structure was significantly different between BB and ML. Additionally, spatial differences were obtained for oxidative stress parameters suggesting that BB site presented stressors for crabs (higher GST and lower GSH(t) at BB site). Factor analysis (PCA) integrating sediment contamination, biomarkers in crabs and macrobenthic data also distinguished BB site as the most environmentally disturbed. On the other hand, at ML site, some macrobenthic variables (equitability and polychaetes' diversity) were found to be enhanced by current environmental conditions, suggesting the existence of a better sediment quality. Current results pointed to the usefulness of integrating macrobenthic community alterations with responses at organism level (bioaccumulation and biochemical endpoints) in order to increase the accuracy of environmental quality assessment in lagoon systems. Moreover, the application of different statistical methods was also found to be recommendable. PMID:22193632

  9. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ?1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  10. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ?1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  11. Estimating the grazing impact of marine micro-zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Landry; R. P. Hassett

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a dilution technique for estimating the micro-zooplankton grazing impact on natural communities of marine phytoplankton. Experiments performed in coastal waters off Washington, USA (October, 1980), yield estimates of micro-zooplankton impact equivalent to 6 to 24% of phytoplankton standing biomass and 17 to 52% of production per day. Indirect evidence suggests that most of this impact is due

  12. Uses of the Drupal CMS Collaborative Framework in the Woods Hole Scientific Community (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Maffei; C. L. Chandler; T. T. Work; D. Shorthouse; J. Furfey; H. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that comprise the Woods Hole scientific community (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Marine Biological Laboratory, USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center, Woods Hole Research Center, NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center, SEA Education Association) have a long history of collaborative activity regarding computing, computer network and information technologies that support common, inter-disciplinary science needs. Over the past several

  13. Tsunami sedimentary facies deposited by the Storegga tsunami in shallow marine basins and coastal lakes, western Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEIN BONDEVIK; JOHN INGE SVENDSEN; JAN MANGERUD

    1997-01-01

    Sedimentary successions in small coastal lakes situated from 0 to 11 m above the 7000 year BP shoreline along the western coast of Norway, contain a distinctive deposit, very different from the sediments above and below. The deposit is interpreted to be the result of a tsunami inundating the coastal lakes. An erosional unconformity underlies the tsunami facies and is

  14. Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

  15. Short-term community transition and selection in shallow marine embayment fauna from Pennsylvanian of north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Cate, A.S.

    1988-02-01

    Community and size-frequency analyses were obtained for macrofauna from a thin fossiliferous interval within an otherwise barren shallow marine embayment facies in the East Mountain Shale (Strawn Group). Vertically contiguous sampling of this discrete unit allowed reconstruction of short-term community transition and detection of shifts in the population structure of two gastropod species (Glabrocingulum G. grayvillensis, Straparollus A. catilloides). These biological phenomena could be related to environmental shifts brought about by deltaic progradation.

  16. NOAA satellite ocean remote sensing near real-time system for providing synthetic aperture radar data for marine and coastal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pichel, W.G.; Stone, R.N.; Tseng, W. [NOAA/National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Naval Oceanographic Office, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the University of Alaska at Fairbanks (UAF), and the Canadian Ice Service has constructed a near real-time data system for providing satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to U.S. Government users. Data processed in near real-time at the Alaska SAR Facility of the UAF, at the Gatineau Ground Station in Canada, and the Tromso Satellite Station in Norway (with the McMurdo Ground Station in Antarctica to be added in the future), are brought electronically to the NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Active Archive where they are provided to US Government subscribers in near real-time or retrospectively. A SAR data display and analysis system developed by NRL is provided to users to aid in applying these data to marine and coastal environmental problems. Targeted applications include operational sea and lake ice analysis, river ice jam monitoring, flood mapping, oil spill tracking, ocean feature detection, fisheries management and enforcement, fisheries studies, and river plume monitoring. Initial coastal and marine users include the US National Ice Center, the NOAA CoastWatch Regional Nodes and the US Coast Guard.

  17. Analyses of sublittoral macrobenthic community change in a marine nature reserve using similarity profiles (SIMPROF).

    PubMed

    Somerfield, P J; Burton, M; Sanderson, W G

    2014-12-01

    Sublittoral macrobenthic communities in the Skomer Marine Nature Reserve (SMNR), Pembrokeshire, Wales, were sampled at 10 stations in 1993, 1996, 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2009 using a Day grab and a 0.5 mm mesh. The time series is analysed using Similarities Profiles (SIMPROF) tests and associated methods. Q-mode analysis using clustering with Type 1 SIMPROF addresses multivariate structure among samples, showing that there is clear structure associated with differences among years. Inverse (r-mode) analysis using Type 2 SIMPROF decisively rejects a hypothesis that species are not associated with each other. Clustering of the variables (species) with Type 3 SIMPROF identifies groups of species which covary coherently through the time-series. The time-series is characterised by a dramatic decline in abundances and diversity between the 1993 and 1996 surveys. By 1998 there had been a shift in community composition from the 1993 situation, with different species dominating. Communities had recovered in terms of abundance and species richness, but different species dominated the community. No single factor could be identified which unequivocally explained the dramatic changes observed in the SMNR. Possible causes were the effects of dispersed oil and dispersants from the Sea Empress oil spill in February 1996 and the cessation of dredge-spoil disposal off St Annes Head in 1995, but the most likely cause was severe weather. With many species, and a demonstrable recovery from an impact, communities within the SMNR appear to be diverse and resilient. If attributable to natural storms, the changes observed here indicate that natural variability may be much more important than is generally taken into account in the design of monitoring programmes. PMID:25012227

  18. Habitat dynamics, marine reserve status, and the decline and recovery of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Williamson, David H; Ceccarelli, Daniela M; Evans, Richard D; Jones, Geoffrey P; Russ, Garry R

    2014-02-01

    Severe climatic disturbance events often have major impacts on coral reef communities, generating cycles of decline and recovery, and in some extreme cases, community-level phase shifts from coral-to algal-dominated states. Benthic habitat changes directly affect reef fish communities, with low coral cover usually associated with low fish diversity and abundance. No-take marine reserves (NTRs) are widely advocated for conserving biodiversity and enhancing the sustainability of exploited fish populations. Numerous studies have documented positive ecological and socio-economic benefits of NTRs; however, the ability of NTRs to ameliorate the effects of acute disturbances on coral reefs has seldom been investigated. Here, we test these factors by tracking the dynamics of benthic and fish communities, including the important fishery species, coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), over 8?years in both NTRs and fished areas in the Keppel Island group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Two major disturbances impacted the reefs during the monitoring period, a coral bleaching event in 2006 and a freshwater flood plume in 2011. Both disturbances generated significant declines in coral cover and habitat complexity, with subsequent declines in fish abundance and diversity, and pronounced shifts in fish assemblage structure. Coral trout density also declined in response to the loss of live coral, however, the approximately 2:1 density ratio between NTRs and fished zones was maintained over time. The only post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks were within the NTRs that escaped the worst effects of the disturbances. Although NTRs had little discernible effect on the temporal dynamics of benthic or fish communities, it was evident that the post-disturbance refuges for coral trout spawning stocks within some NTRs may be critically important to regional-scale population persistence and recovery. PMID:24634720

  19. Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities 2010 Annual Report Due to shrinking budgets, the Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) focus team convened via

    E-print Network

    who construct wind- resistant buildings. The NC Insurance Commissioner increased credits understanding and building capacity with targeted audiences, Sea Grant efforts lead to policy changes that help of a potential Cascadia-Subduction-Zone earthquake and tsunami. As a result, several communities changed public

  20. Impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on a demersal hard-bottom fish community in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    In the coming decades, artificial defence structures will increase in importance worldwide for the protection of coasts against the impacts of global warming. However, the ecological effects of such structures on the natural surroundings remain unclear. We investigated the impact of experimentally introduced tetrapod fields on the demersal fish community in a hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. The results indicated a significant decrease in fish abundance in the surrounding area caused by migration effects towards the artificial structures. Diversity (HB) and evenness (E) values exhibited greater variation after the introduction of the tetrapods. Additionally, a distinct increase in young-of-the-year (YOY) fish was observed near the structures within the second year after introduction. We suggest that the availability of adequate refuges in combination with additional food resources provided by the artificial structures has a highly species-specific attraction effect. However, these findings also demonstrate that our knowledge regarding the impact of artificial structures on temperate fish communities is still too limited to truly understand the ecological processes that are initiated by the introduction of artificial structures. Long-term investigations and additional experimental in situ work worldwide will be indispensable for a full understanding of the mechanisms by which coastal defence structures interact with the coastal environment. PMID:23176871

  1. Toxicity of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)Treated Wood to NonTarget Marine Fouling Communities in Langstone Harbour, Portsmouth, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig J Brown; Rodney A Eaton

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative chromated copper arsenate (CCA) (a pressure impregnated solution of copper, chromium and arsenic compounds) on non-target marine fouling animals was investigated during a subtidal exposure trial. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m?3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at a coastal

  2. Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster on Hawaii's Kaneohe Bay Bacterial Communities

    E-print Network

    Heller, Paul

    Impacts of Radioactive 137Cs on Marine Bacterioplankton: Effects of the Fukushima Disaster such catastrophe, a tsunami off the coast of Japan, occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused the Fukushima on the bacterioplankton community of Kaneohe Bay in Oahu, Hawaii. The bay is in the direct path of Fukushima's radioactive

  3. Structure of Sediment-Associated Microbial Communities along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient in the Marine Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Gillan; Bruno Danis; Philippe Pernet; Guillemette Joly; Philippe Dubois

    2005-01-01

    Microbial community composition and structure were characterized in marine sediments contaminated for >80 years with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Four sampling sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads were compared in a Norwegian fjord (Sørfjord). HCl-extractable metals and organic matter constantly decreased from the most contaminated site (S1) to the control site (S4). All sampling sites

  4. Fluorescently Labeled Virus Probes Show that Natural Virus Populations Can Control the Structure of Marine Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KILIAN P. HENNES; CURTIS A. SUTTLE; ANDAMY M. CHAN

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescently stained viruses were used as probes to label, identify, and enumerate specific strains of bacteria and cyanobacteria in mixed microbial assemblages. Several marine virus isolates werefluorescently stained with YOYO-1 or POPO-1 (Molecular Probes, Inc.) and added to seawater samples that contained natural microbial communities. Cells to which the stained viruses adsorbed were easily distinguished from nonhost cells; typically, there

  5. Title: Sustainable Communities Based on a New Clean Energy Source -Marine & Hydrokinetic Power: Roosevelt Island and Beyond

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Title: Sustainable Communities Based on a New Clean Energy Source - Marine & Hydrokinetic Power: Roosevelt Island and Beyond Host: Todd Cowen May 30, 2012 Abstract: UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who electric system that will not only meet a large faction of base load electric needs but also allow electric

  6. Niche distribution and influence of environmental parameters in marine microbial communities: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Felipe H.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dutilh, Bas E.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between microorganisms occur extensively throughout Earth’s oceans. Understanding how microbial communities are assembled and how the presence or absence of species is related to that of others are central goals of microbial ecology. Here, we investigate co-occurrence associations between marine prokaryotes by combining 180 new and publicly available metagenomic datasets from different oceans in a large-scale meta-analysis. A co-occurrence network was created by calculating correlation scores between the abundances of microorganisms in metagenomes. A total of 1,906 correlations amongst 297 organisms were detected, segregating them into 11 major groups that occupy distinct ecological niches. Additionally, by analyzing the oceanographic parameters measured for a selected number of sampling sites, we characterized the influence of environmental variables over each of these 11 groups. Clustering organisms into groups of taxa that have similar ecology, allowed the detection of several significant correlations that could not be observed for the taxa individually.

  7. Accessing Novel Conoidean Venoms: Biodiverse Lumun-lumun Marine Communities, An Untapped Biological and Toxinological Resource

    PubMed Central

    Seronay, Romell A.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Astilla, Mary Anne; Watkins, Maren; Saguil, Noel; Heralde, Francisco M.; Tagaro, Sheila; Poppe, Guido T.; Aliño, Porfirio M.; Oliverio, Marco; Kantor, Yuri I.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2010-01-01

    Cone snail venoms have yielded pharmacologically-active natural products of exceptional scientific interest. However, cone snails are a small minority of venomous molluscan biodiversity, the vast majority being tiny venomous morphospecies in the family Turridae. A novel method called lumun-lumun opens access to these micromolluscs and their venoms. Old fishing nets are anchored to the sea bottom for a period of 1–6 months and marine biotas rich in small molluscs are established. In a single lumun-lumun community, we found a remarkable gastropod biodiversity (155 morphospecies). Venomous predators belonging to the superfamily Conoidea (36 morphospecies) were the largest group, the majority being micromolluscs in the family Turridae. We carried out an initial analysis of the most abundant of the turrid morphospecies recovered, Clathurella (Lienardia) cincta (Dunker, 1871). In contrast to all cDNA clones characterized from cone snail venom ducts, one of the C. cincta clones identified encoded two different peptide precursors presumably translated from a single mRNA. The prospect of easily accessing so many different morphospecies of venomous marine snails raises intriguing toxinological possibilities: the 36 conoidean morphospecies in this one net alone have the potential to yield thousands of novel pharmacologically-active compounds. PMID:20005243

  8. Holocene sea-level changes in Bunger Oasis, East Antarctica, as inferred by diatom assemblages in sediment cores from marine and freshwater basins, and coastal geomorphological evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleshchuk, Ksenia; Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina

    2014-05-01

    Information on postglacial relative sea-level changes in Bunger Oasis was obtained by study of sea bays and freshwater lakes bottom sediments, and coastal geomorphologic evidences. The Bunger Oasis, the coastal ice-free area in East Antarctica, is surrounded by ice masses from all sides. It comprises terrestrial landscapes and marine bays. The latter, filling deep tectonic depressions in the oasis bedrock relief, are connected with each other and with the open ocean beneath the Shackleton Ice Shelf and partly floating outlet glaciers. The bathymetries of the basins and the amount of ocean-water penetration, relative to the fresh-water supply, strongly depend on relative sea-level changes. Four sediment sequences, sampled in three basins of different modern environments, were radiocarbon dated and analyzed for their diatom assemblages, since diatoms are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in the ecology of the basins. Holocene maximum sea-level rise data received from diatom complexes of the freshwater Lake Figurnoye bottom sediments, reflecting the periods of sea water invasions to the basin. The morphology features of marine terraces and beaches of the Bunger oasis sea shores presented information about the past sea-level parameters. The chronology of these sea-level changes was restored by using age determinations of fossil shells in the marine sediments. The comparative analysis of all mentioned paleogeographical evidences allowed reconstructing the Holocene relative sea-level curve in the Bunger oasis region. The sea level reached its maximum between 8 and 5 ka BP, achieving 11-12 m height above present sea level. The following sea-level decrease during the deglaciation and isostatic uplift of oasis territory was, probably, interrupted by short-time rise in during period 2 - 1 ka BP.

  9. Disturbance caused by freshwater releases of different magnitude on the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities of two coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Rieradevall, Maria

    2010-06-01

    The response of the aquatic macroinvertebrate communities to freshwater releases of different magnitude and persistence was investigated in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons (Ca l'Arana and Ricarda). The study was carried out during 14 months (June 2004-July 2005) in which different environmental variables and the macroinvertebrate communities associated with two different habitats, the Phragmites australis belt and the deep area of the lagoons, were sampled monthly. Additionally, potential colonizing sources were identified through the analysis of Chironomidae pupal exuviae. The initial response of the communities to the freshwater releases was similar, being characterized by a peak of opportunistic taxa (mainly Naididae), but the late response was different for each lagoon. In the Ca l'Arana, the magnitude of the freshwater release was higher (salinity dropped below five, which is the limit commonly established for most freshwater species) and its persistence was also higher, allowing the colonization of the lagoon by new insect taxa, which replaced the brackish water species. In the Ricarda, the salinity never dropped beyond five and pre-disturbance conditions were rapidly re-established. This, together with the acclimatizing mechanisms showed by the species Chironomus riparius and Hediste diversicolor, permitted the recovery of the pre-disturbance macroinvertebrate community.

  10. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  11. Episodic physical forcing and the structure of phytoplankton communities in the coastal waters of New Jersey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Moline; Shelley M. Blackwell; Robert Chant; Matthew J. Oliver; Trisha Bergmann; Scott Glenn; Oscar M. E. Schofield

    2004-01-01

    The high variability in physical, biological, and chemical properties in coastal waters have limited our ability to sample the appropriate timescale and space scale to resolve physical forcing of the ecosystem. To improve our understanding, a multiplatform adaptive sampling program at the Long-term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the coast of New Jersey examined the relationship between episodic summertime upwelling and

  12. Marine Birds on Land: A Review of Plant Biomass, Species Richness, and Community Composition in Seabird Colonies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie C. Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Seabirds are chemical and physical engineers that are capable of transforming terrestrial vegetation by altering edaphic conditions,\\u000a generating physical disturbance, and affecting seed dispersal. Substantial changes in seabird populations are occurring worldwide\\u000a and are likely to have important consequences for plant community composition on islands and coastal areas. This review focuses\\u000a on the impact of seabirds on plant biomass, species

  13. Simulation of coastal oil spills using the random walk particle method with Gaussian kernel weighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. Zhang; A. K. Easton; J. M. Steiner

    1997-01-01

    Oil spills, amongst the most common marine hazards, are a major community concern, particularly in coastal areas where there are competing requirements due to population centres, conservation of the natural environment, industrial development and transport. It has become common practice to include simulations and modelling exercises in applications for development, so that oil spill trajectory studies are regularly carried out

  14. Influence of the Summer Marine Layer on Maritime Chaparral and Implications for Conservation Policy in the California Coastal Zone

    E-print Network

    Vasey, Michael Charles

    2012-01-01

    manifested in community seed banks? Ecology, 89, 1850-1858.manifested in community seed banks? Ecology, 89, 1850-1858.Seed arrival and ecological filters interact to assemble high-diversity plant communities. Ecology

  15. The authors are with the Milford Laboratory, Middle Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 212 Rog-

    E-print Network

    . The New York Bight, which is receiving international attention because of the large amount of was for scientists investigating heavy-metal stress in marine animals. In- creasingly in the past decade, allention stress on these areas. and such stress fosters conditions that diminish the harvest of marine resources

  16. Ammonia oxidation kinetics and temperature sensitivity of a natural marine community dominated by Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Rachel E A; Qin, Wei; Schauer, Andy J; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Moffett, James W; Stahl, David A; Devol, Allan H

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOAs) are increasingly recognized as prominent members of natural microbial assemblages. Evidence that links the presence of AOA with in situ ammonia oxidation activity is limited, and the abiotic factors that regulate the distribution of AOA natural assemblages are not well defined. We used quantitative PCR to enumerate amoA (encodes ?-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) abundances; AOA amoA gene copies greatly outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and amoA transcripts were derived primarily from AOA throughout the water column of Hood Canal, Puget Sound, WA, USA. We generated a Michaelis–Menten kinetics curve for ammonia oxidation by the natural community and found that the measured Km of 98±14?nmol?l?1 was close to that for cultivated AOA representative Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. Temperature did not have a significant effect on ammonia oxidation rates for incubation temperatures ranging from 8 to 20?°C, which is within the temperature range for depths of measurable ammonia oxidation at the site. This study provides substantial evidence, through both amoA gene copies and transcript abundances and the kinetics response, that AOA are the dominant active ammonia oxidizers in this marine environment. We propose that future ammonia oxidation experiments use a Km for the natural community to better constrain ammonia oxidation rates determined with the commonly used 15NH4+ dilution technique. PMID:23657360

  17. Microbial Communities from Methane Hydrate-Bearing Deep Marine Sediments in a Forearc Basin

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David W.; Fujita, Yoshiko; Delwiche, Mark E.; Blackwelder, D. Brad; Sheridan, Peter P.; Uchida, Takashi; Colwell, Frederick S.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial communities in cores obtained from methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments (down to more than 300 m below the seafloor) in the forearc basin of the Nankai Trough near Japan were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers generally decreased with sediment depth. Lipid biomarker analyses indicated the presence of viable biomass at concentrations greater than previously reported for terrestrial subsurface environments at similar depths. Archaeal lipids were more abundant than bacterial lipids. Methane was produced from both acetate and hydrogen in enrichments inoculated with sediment from all depths evaluated, at both 10 and 35°C. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated that archaeal clones could be discretely grouped within the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The bacterial clones exhibited greater overall diversity than the archaeal clones, with sequences related to the Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and green nonsulfur groups. The majority of the bacterial clones were either members of a novel lineage or most closely related to uncultured clones. The results of these analyses suggest that the microbial community in this environment is distinct from those in previously characterized methane hydrate-bearing sediments. PMID:12147470

  18. Shifts in Microbial Community Structure with Changes in Cathodic Potential in Marine Sediment Microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, B. R.; Rowe, A. R.; Nealson, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms comprise more than 90% of the biomass of the ocean. Their ability to thrive and survive in a wide range of environments from oligotrophic waters to the deep subsurface stems from the great metabolic versatility that exists among them. This metabolic versatility has further expanded with the discovery of extracellular electron transport (EET). EET is the capability of microorganisms to transfer electrons to and from insoluble substrates outside of the cell. Much of what is known about EET comes from studies of model metal reducing microorganisms in the groups Shewanellaceae and Geobacteraceae. However, EET is not limited to these metal reducing microorganisms, and may play a large role in the biogeochemical cycling of several elements. We have developed an electrochemical culturing technique designed to target microorganisms with EET ability and tested these methods in marine sediments. The use of electrodes allows for greater control and quantification of electrons flowing to insoluble substrates as opposed to insoluble substrates such as minerals that are often difficult to measure. We have recently shown that poising electrodes at different redox potentials will enrich for different microbial groups and thus possible metabolisms. In marine sediment microcosms, triplicate electrodes were poised at different cathodic (electron donating) potentials (-300, -400, -500 and -600 mV) and incubated for eight weeks. Community analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that at lower negative potentials (-500 and -600 mV), more sulfate reducing bacteria in the class Deltaproteobacteria were enriched in comparison to the communities at -300 and -400 mV being dominated by microorganisms within Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia. This can be explained by sulfate (abundant in seawater) becoming a more energetically favorable electron acceptor with lower applied potentials. In addition, communities at higher potentials showed greater enrichment of the candidate division WS3. We are currently conducting enrichments at lower negative potentials to probe for other possible microbial groups capable of cathode oxidation. Our studies will contribute to the elucidation of the depth and breadth of EET across phylogenies and provide understanding to the extent of EET in nature.

  19. Bancroftian filariasis: house-to-house variation in the vectors and transmission — and the relationship to human infection — in an endemic community of coastal Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Rwegoshora; P. E. Simonsen; D. W. Meyrowitsch; M. N. Malecela-Lazaro; E. Michael; E. M. Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    The house-to-house variation in Wuchereria bancrofti vector abundance and transmission intensity, and the relationship of these parameters to human infection, were investigated in an endemic community in coastal Tanzania. Vector mosquitoes were collected in light traps set up in 50 randomly selected households once weekly for 1 year. They were identified, dissected and checked for filarial larvae. Vector densities and

  20. Gymnopilus maritimus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales), a new species from coastal psammophilous plant communities of northern Sardinia, Italy, and notes on G. arenophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Guzmán-Dávalos; A. Ortega; M. Contu; A. Vizzini; A. Rodríguez; A. R. Villalobos-Arámbula; A. Santerre

    2009-01-01

    The new species Gymnopilus maritimus is described from coastal plant communities of Juncus maritimus, growing on sandy soil or on decaying plants, from northwestern Sardinia (Italy). The distinguishing features of G. maritimus are: (1) an unusual habitat, (2) robust basidiomata, (3) mild taste, and (4) big and strongly warted spores. The new species\\u000a is compared with the micromorphologically similar species

  1. A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California coastal scrub communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1995-01-01

    Passerine birds within two California (USA) coastal scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland site, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island site during the study. At the mainland coastal scrub site, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.

  2. Modeling catchment nutrients and sediment loads to inform regional management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems: a comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Wilkinson, Scott N; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Kool, Johnathan; Brodie, Jon

    2014-12-15

    Human-induced changes in flows of water, nutrients, and sediments have impacts on marine ecosystems. Quantifying these changes to systematically allocate management actions is a priority for many areas worldwide. Modeling nutrient and sediment loads and contributions from subcatchments can inform prioritization of management interventions to mitigate the impacts of land-based pollution on marine ecosystems. Among the catchment models appropriate for large-scale applications, N-SPECT and SedNet have been used to prioritize areas for management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems. However, an assessment of their relative performance, parameterization, and utility for regional-scale planning is needed. We examined how these considerations can influence the choice between the two models and the areas identified as priorities for management actions. We assessed their application in selected catchments of the Gulf of California, where managing land-based threats to marine ecosystems is a priority. We found important differences in performance between models. SedNet consistently estimated spatial variations in runoff with higher accuracy than N-SPECT and modeled suspended sediment (TSS) loads mostly within the range of variation in observed loads. N-SPECT overestimated TSS loads by orders of magnitude when using the spatially-distributed sediment delivery ratio (SDR), but outperformed SedNet when using a calibrated SDR. Differences in subcatchments' contribution to pollutant loads were principally due to explicit representation of sediment sinks and particulate nutrients by SedNet. Improving the floodplain extent model, and constraining erosion estimates by local data including gully erosion in SedNet, would improve results of this model and help identify effective management responses. Differences between models in the patterns of modeled pollutant supply were modest, but significantly influenced the prioritization of subcatchments for management. PMID:25173725

  3. Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Gough; James B. Grace

    1998-01-01

    Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in\\u000a the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes\\u000a may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this\\u000a response.

  4. A comparison of weed communities of coastal rice fields in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M A; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M M; Selamat, A

    2013-09-01

    A survey was conducted at 100 different rice fields in coastal areas of West Malaysia to identify most common and prevalent weeds associated with rice. Fields surveyed were done according to the quantitative survey method by using 0.5m x 0.5m size quadrate with 20 samples from each field. A total of 53 different weed species belong to 18 families were identified of which 32 annual and 21 perennial; 12 grassy, 13 sedges and 28 broadleaved weeds. Based on relative abundance the most prevalent and abundant weed species were selected in the coastal rice field. Among the 10 most abundant weed species, there were four grasses viz. Echinochloa crusgalli, Leptochloo chinensis, Echinochloo colona, Oryza sotivo L. (weedy rice).; four sedges viz. Fimbristylis miliacea, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Scirpus grossus and two broadleaved weeds viz. Sphenocleo zeylonica, Jussiaea linifolio. Leptochloa chinensis, E. crusgalli, F. miliocea, E. colona were more prevalent and abundant species out of the 10 most dominant weed species in the coastal rice field of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:24558797

  5. 75 FR 82382 - Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...coastal recreation waters, including the Great Lakes. EPA encourages coastal and Great Lakes states and tribes that have received BEACH...defined in CWA section 502(21) to mean the Great Lakes and marine coastal waters (including...

  6. Eutrophication risk assessment in coastal embayments using simple statistical models

    E-print Network

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Eutrophication risk assessment in coastal embayments using simple statistical models G. Arhonditsis for assessing the risk of eutrophication in marine coastal embayments. The procedure followed of exogenous nutrient loading. Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Eutrophication; Coastal

  7. Phospholipid-Derived Fatty Acids and Quinones as Markers for Bacterial Biomass and Community Structure in Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kunihiro, Tadao; Veuger, Bart; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Pozzato, Lara; Le Guitton, Marie; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Kuwae, Michinobu; Omori, Koji; Boschker, Henricus T. S.; van Oevelen, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) and respiratory quinones (RQ) are microbial compounds that have been utilized as biomarkers to quantify bacterial biomass and to characterize microbial community structure in sediments, waters, and soils. While PLFAs have been widely used as quantitative bacterial biomarkers in marine sediments, applications of quinone analysis in marine sediments are very limited. In this study, we investigated the relation between both groups of bacterial biomarkers in a broad range of marine sediments from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. We found a good log-log correlation between concentrations of bacterial PLFA and RQ over several orders of magnitude. This relationship is probably due to metabolic variation in quinone concentrations in bacterial cells in different environments, whereas PLFA concentrations are relatively stable under different conditions. We also found a good agreement in the community structure classifications based on the bacterial PLFAs and RQs. These results strengthen the application of both compounds as quantitative bacterial biomarkers. Moreover, the bacterial PLFA- and RQ profiles revealed a comparable dissimilarity pattern of the sampled sediments, but with a higher level of dissimilarity for the RQs. This means that the quinone method has a higher resolution for resolving differences in bacterial community composition. Combining PLFA and quinone analysis as a complementary method is a good strategy to yield higher resolving power in bacterial community structure. PMID:24769853

  8. Carbon flow and trophic structure of an Antarctic coastal benthic community as determined by ? 13C and ? 15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, C. L.; Stark, J. S.; Johnstone, G. J.; Smith, S. D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to determine the different carbon pathways and trophic assemblages amongst coastal benthic fauna of the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Macroalgae, pelagic POM, sediment POM and sea ice POM had well-separated ? 13C signatures, which ranged from -36.75‰ for the red alga Phyllophora antarctica, to -10.35‰ for sea ice POM. Consumers were also well separated by ? 13C, ranging from -21.42‰ for the holothurian Staurocucumis sp. up to -7.47‰ for the urchin Sterechinus neumayeri. Analysis of ? 13C and ? 15N revealed distinct groups for suspension feeders, grazer/herbivores and deposit feeders, whilst predators and predator/scavengers showed less grouping. Consumers spanned a ? 15N range of 8.71‰, equivalent to four trophic levels, although ? 15N ratios amongst consumers were continuous, rather than grouped into discrete trophic levels. The study has built a trophic model for the Windmill Islands and summarises three main carbon pathways utilised by the benthos: (1) pelagic POM; (2) macroalgae/epiphytic/benthic diatoms and (3) sediment POM/benthic diatoms. The movement of carbon within the coastal benthic community of the Windmill Islands is considered complex, and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were valuable tools in determining specific feeding guilds and in tracing carbon flow, particularly amongst lower-order consumers.

  9. Modeling management scenarios and the effects of an introduced apex predator on a coastal riverine fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, William E., III; Kwak, T.J.; Rice, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris, a carnivorous fish species native to most of the central interior basin of North America, has been introduced into at least 13 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province. Concurrent declines in abundance of native fishes have been reported in aquatic systems where flathead catfish have been introduced. To evaluate the potential impact of this invasive species on the native fish community we developed an ecosystem simulation model (including flathead catfish) based on empirical data collected from a North Carolina coastal river. The model results suggest that flathead catfish suppress native fish community biomass by 5-50% through both predatory and competitive interactions. However, our model suggests these reductions could be mitigated through sustained exploitation of flathead catfish by recreational or commercial fishers at rates equivalent to those for native flathead catfish populations (annual exploitation = 6-25%). These findings demonstrate the potential for using directed harvest of an invasive species to assist in restoring native communities. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  10. The implications of MARPOL Annex V on the management of ports and coastal communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H. Brillat; Michael Liffmann

    1991-01-01

    The passage of the Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987 (MPPRCA), which codified Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), has encompassed every commercial and recreational shipping and boating facility in the United States. As a group, these ports, harbors, and marinas form a significant, although proportionately small, portion of

  11. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  12. Linking activity and function to ecosystem dynamics in a coastal bacterioplankton community

    E-print Network

    Gifford, Scott Michael

    For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression ...

  13. The HMSC in Newport is one of the largest marine labs in the Pacific Northwest, a thriving research community where students interact with university faculty and government agency scientists and have easy access to the

    E-print Network

    access to the "living laboratory" of Oregon's coastal estuaries and the ocean. On the OSU main campus in world-class labs and facilities. Marine Science Internships in Oregon From Estuaries to the Deep Sea

  14. Seasonal composition and activity of sulfate-reducing prokaryotic communities in seagrass bed sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) play a key role in the carbon and nutrient cycles of coastal marine, vegetated ecosystems, but the interactions of SRP communities with aquatic plants remain little studied. The abundance, activity, and community composition of SRP was studied i...

  15. Benthic microbial communities of coastal terrestrial and ice shelf Antarctic meltwater ponds

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Stephen D. J.; McDonald, Ian R.; Herbold, Craig W.; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    The numerous perennial meltwater ponds distributed throughout Antarctica represent diverse and productive ecosystems central to the ecological functioning of the surrounding ultra oligotrophic environment. The dominant taxa in the pond benthic communities have been well described however, little is known regarding their regional dispersal and local drivers to community structure. The benthic microbial communities of 12 meltwater ponds in the McMurdo Sound of Antarctica were investigated to examine variation between pond microbial communities and their biogeography. Geochemically comparable but geomorphologically distinct ponds were selected from Bratina Island (ice shelf) and Miers Valley (terrestrial) (<40 km between study sites), and community structure within ponds was compared using DNA fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. More than 85% of total sequence reads were shared between pooled benthic communities at different locations (OTU0.05), which in combination with favorable prevailing winds suggests aeolian regional distribution. Consistent with previous findings Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla representing over 50% of total sequences; however, a large number of other phyla (21) were also detected in this ecosystem. Although dominant Bacteria were ubiquitous between ponds, site and local selection resulted in heterogeneous community structures and with more than 45% of diversity being pond specific. Potassium was identified as the most significant contributing factor to the cosmopolitan community structure and aluminum to the location unique community based on a BEST analysis (Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.632 and 0.806, respectively). These results indicate that the microbial communities in meltwater ponds are easily dispersed regionally and that the local geochemical environment drives the ponds community structure. PMID:26074890

  16. Benthic microbial communities of coastal terrestrial and ice shelf Antarctic meltwater ponds.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen D J; McDonald, Ian R; Herbold, Craig W; Lee, Charles K; Cary, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    The numerous perennial meltwater ponds distributed throughout Antarctica represent diverse and productive ecosystems central to the ecological functioning of the surrounding ultra oligotrophic environment. The dominant taxa in the pond benthic communities have been well described however, little is known regarding their regional dispersal and local drivers to community structure. The benthic microbial communities of 12 meltwater ponds in the McMurdo Sound of Antarctica were investigated to examine variation between pond microbial communities and their biogeography. Geochemically comparable but geomorphologically distinct ponds were selected from Bratina Island (ice shelf) and Miers Valley (terrestrial) (<40 km between study sites), and community structure within ponds was compared using DNA fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. More than 85% of total sequence reads were shared between pooled benthic communities at different locations (OTU0.05), which in combination with favorable prevailing winds suggests aeolian regional distribution. Consistent with previous findings Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla representing over 50% of total sequences; however, a large number of other phyla (21) were also detected in this ecosystem. Although dominant Bacteria were ubiquitous between ponds, site and local selection resulted in heterogeneous community structures and with more than 45% of diversity being pond specific. Potassium was identified as the most significant contributing factor to the cosmopolitan community structure and aluminum to the location unique community based on a BEST analysis (Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.632 and 0.806, respectively). These results indicate that the microbial communities in meltwater ponds are easily dispersed regionally and that the local geochemical environment drives the ponds community structure. PMID:26074890

  17. Reorganization of a marine trophic network along an inshore-offshore gradient due to stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Dorothée; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Cachera, Marie; Villanueva, Maria Ching; Ernande, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical considerations have highlighted the importance of the pelagic-benthic coupling in marine food webs. In continental shelf seas, it was hypothesized that the trophic network structure may change along an inshore-offshore gradient due to weakening of the pelagic-benthic coupling from coastal to offshore areas. We tested this assumption empirically using the eastern English Channel (EEC) as a case study. We sampled organisms from particulate organic matter to predatory fishes and used baseline-corrected carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) to determine their trophic position. First, hierarchical clustering on ?13C and ?15N coupled to bootstrapping and estimates of the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic carbon sources to consumers' diet showed that, at mesoscale, the EEC food web forms a continuum of four trophic levels with trophic groups spread across a pelagic and a benthic trophic pathway. Second, based on the same methods, a discrete approach examined changes in the local food web structure across three depth strata in order to investigate the inshore-offshore gradient. It showed stronger pelagic-benthic coupling in shallow coastal areas mostly due to a reorganization of the upper consumers relative to the two trophic pathways, benthic carbon sources being available to pelagic consumers and, reciprocally, pelagic sources becoming accessible to benthic species. Third a continuous approach examined changes in the mean and variance of upper consumers' ?13C and ?15N with depth. It detected a significant decrease in ?13C variance and a significant increase in ?15N variance as depth increases. A theoretical two-source mixing model showed that an inshore-offshore decrease in the pelagic-benthic coupling was a sufficient condition to produce the ?13C variance pattern, thus supporting the conclusions of the discrete approach. These results suggest that environmental gradients such as the inshore-offshore one should be accounted for to better understand marine food webs dynamics.

  18. Utility of Marine Benthic Associations as a Multivariate Proxy of Paleobathymetry: A Direct Test from Recent Coastal Ecosystems of North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Carrie L.; Kowalewski, Micha?

    2014-01-01

    Benthic marine fossil associations have been used in paleontological studies as multivariate environmental proxies, with particular focus on their utility as water depth estimators. To test this approach directly, we evaluated modern marine invertebrate communities along an onshore-offshore gradient to determine the relationship between community composition and bathymetry, compare the performance of various ordination techniques, and assess whether restricting community datasets to preservable taxa (a proxy for paleontological data) and finer spatial scales diminishes the applicability of multivariate community data as an environmental proxy. Different indirect (unconstrained) ordination techniques (PCoA, CA, DCA, and NMDS) yielded consistent outcomes: locality Axis 1 scores correlated with actual locality depths, and taxon Axis 1 scores correlated with actual preferred taxon depths, indicating that changes in faunal associations primarily reflect bathymetry, or its environmental correlatives. For datasets restricted to taxa with preservable hard parts, heavily biomineralized mollusks, open ocean habitats, and a single onshore-offshore gradient, the significant correlation between water depth and Axis 1 was still observed. However, for these restricted datasets, the correlation between Axis 1 and bathymetry was reduced and, in most cases, notably weaker than estimates produced by subsampling models. Consistent with multiple paleontological studies, the direct tests carried out here for a modern habitat using known bathymetry suggests that multivariate proxies derived from marine benthic associations may serve as a viable proxy of water depth. The general applicability of multivariate paleocommunity data as an indirect proxy of bathymetry is dependent on habitat type, intrinsic ecological characteristics of dominant faunas, taxonomic scope, and spatial and temporal scales of analysis, highlighting the need for continued testing in present-day depositional settings. PMID:24752221

  19. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity?†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so other compounds/mechanisms must be present in the other Pseudoalteromonas strains with antifouling activity. PMID:22003011

  20. Helping coastal communities at risk from tsunamis: the role of U.S. Geological Survey research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Reid, Jane A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1946, 1960, and 1964, major tsunamis (giant sea waves usually caused by earthquakes or submarine landslides) struck coastal areas of the Pacific Ocean. In the U.S. alone, these tsunamis killed hundreds of people and caused many tens of millions of dollars in damage. Recent events in Papua New Guinea (1998) and elsewhere are reminders that a catastrophic tsunami could strike U.S. coasts at any time. The USGS, working closely with NOAA and other partners in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program, is helping to reduce losses from tsunamis through increased hazard assessment and improved real-time warning systems.

  1. The dynamics of carbon exchange in vertically stratified coastal bacterioplankton communities

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, P.

    1998-07-01

    This research focuses on the development and application of novel molecular methods to measure bacterioplankton growth state in situ. These methods included bulk or population-based studies and single cell studies. Due to the limited duration of support and subsequent termination of the molecular-focused PIs, only the former bulk method was applied to marine samples. In addition, basic laboratory studies were completed which addressed why the selected biomarkers were regulated by bacterial growth state.

  2. INTERACTIONS OF NITROGEN AND NONLIVING ORGANIC MATTER IN THE FORMATION AND DECOMPOSITION OF CDOM IN COASTAL MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The colored components of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in coastal waters have important effects on a number of biological and chemical processes on a global scale, including primary production, UV exposure of living organisms, and carbon turnover rates. CDOM also interferes w...

  3. Comparison of Measured Ozone Production Efficiencies in the Marine Boundary Layer at Two European Coastal Sites under Different Pollution Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Rickard; G. Salisbury; P. S. Monks; A. C. Lewis; S. Baugitte; B. J. Bandy; K. C. Clemitshaw; S. A. Penkett

    2002-01-01

    Ozone production efficiencies (EN), which can be defined as the netnumber of ozone molecules produced per molecule of NOxoxidised, have been calculated from measurements taken during three intensive field campaigns (one in the spring, EASE 96, and two in the summer, EASE 97 and TIGER 95), at two European coastal sites (Mace Head, Ireland (EASE) and Weybourne, Norfolk (TIGER)) impacted

  4. Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial ß-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLISON E. MCCAIG; CAROL J. PHILLIPS; JOHN R. STEPHEN; GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; S. MARTYN HARVEY; RODNEY A. HERBERT; T. MARTIN EMBLEY; JAMES I. PROSSER

    1999-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to study the effects of pollution from a marine fish farm on nitrification rates and on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the underlying sediment. Organic content, ammonium concentrations, nitrification rates, and ammonia oxidizer most-probable-number counts were determined in samples of sediment collected from beneath a fish cage and on a transect at 20

  5. Comparing and integrating community-based and science-based approaches to prioritizing marine areas for protection.

    PubMed

    Ban, Natalie C; Picard, Chris R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2009-08-01

    We compared and integrated marine protected areas proposed through community and scientific assessments in 2 regions of British Columbia, Canada. The community priorities were identified during individual and group interviews with knowledgeable resource users. The scientific priorities were developed with abiotic and biotic data in Marxan, a decision-support tool. The resulting maps of community-based and science-based priorities were very similar for the inshore areas, which lent credibility to both approaches. The resource users thought the science-based maps were fairly good at highlighting areas important for conservation, but preferred the scenarios that integrated the 2 maps to either constituent map. Incorporating spatial variation in human impacts on the marine areas and commercial fishing, which are both costs of protection, into our Marxan analyses led to scenarios that were different from either constituent map. Our results show the value of integrating community-based and science-based approaches in conservation planning to achieve community acceptance and conservation utility. They also reveal that people's assessments on the basis of their traditional ecological knowledge may serve as a reasonable proxy for scientific approaches in selecting areas of ecological value. PMID:19627319

  6. Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    . Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ BAMA MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ BSMAS areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Science/Biology Marine biologistsUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2013-2014 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

  7. Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    . Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ B.A.M.A MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ B areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Biology Marine biologists studyUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2012-2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

  8. Comparative Human Health Risk Analysis of Coastal Community Water and Waste Service Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years ...

  9. Genetic diversity in marine algal virus communities as revealed by sequence analysis of DNA polymerase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, F; Suttle, C A; Short, S M

    1996-01-01

    Algal-virus-specific PCR primers were used to amplify DNA polymerase gene (pol) fragments (683 to 689 bp) from the virus-sized fraction (0.02 to 0.2 microns) concentrated from inshore and offshore water samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Algal-virus-like DNA pol genes were detected in five samples collected from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum. PCR products from an offshore station were cloned, and the genetic diversity of 33 fragments was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis. The five different genotypes or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were identified on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism banding patterns were present in different relative abundances (9 to 34%). One clone from each OTU was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the OTUs fell within the family Phycodnaviridae. Four of the OTUs fell within a group of viruses (MpV) which infect the photosynthetic picoplankter Micromonas pusilla. The genetic diversity among these genotypes was as large as that previously found for MpV isolates from different oceans. The remaining genotype formed its own clade between viruses which infect M. pusilla and Chrysochromulina brevifilum. These results imply that marine virus communities contain a diverse assemblage of MpV-like viruses, as well as other unknown members of the Phycodnaviridae. PMID:8702280

  10. Psuty, N.P., Steinberg, P.E., and Wright, D.J., in press, Coastal and marine geography in Gaile, G.L. and Willmott, C.J. (Eds.), Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century, New York: Oxford University Press, Spring 2002.

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Psuty, N.P., Steinberg, P.E., and Wright, D.J., in press, Coastal and marine geography in Gaile, G. Wright Introduction The 1990s witnessed a significant increase in popular interest in the US regarding

  11. Humidity fluctuations in the marine boundary layer measured at a coastal site with an infrared humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, Anna M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1996-02-01

    An extensive set of humidity turbulence data has been analyzed from 22-m height in the marine boundary layer. Fluctuations of humidity were measured by an “OPHIR”, an infrared humidity sensor with a 10 Hz scanning frequency and humidity spectra were produced. The shapes of the normalized spectra follow the established similarity functions. However the 10-min time averaged measurements underestimate the value of the absolute humidity. The importance of the humidity flux contribution in a marine environment in calculating the Obukhov stability length has been studied. Deviations from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory seem to be connected to a low correlation between humidity and temperature.

  12. Effects of cold winters and regime shifts on macrofauna communities in shallow coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröncke, Ingrid; Reiss, Henning; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2013-03-01

    Several ecosystem components in the North Sea have undergone fundamental changes following climatic change and this paper aims to establish if these changes also have affected macrofauna communities in the southern North Sea. From 1978 to 2005, the macrofauna communities were sampled seasonally in the sublittoral zone off the island of Norderney, one of the East Frisian barrier islands. Abundance, biomass and species numbers of single species or larger taxonomic groups showed differences in long-term variability and eurytherm species dominated in the study area. After the cold winter of 1978/79 until the mid 1980s a higher percentage of arctic-boreal species were found, while after 1988 the percentage of species with a southern distribution in the North Sea increased in connection with a smooth biological regime shift and a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Interface-feeders dominated the communities, followed by sand lickers and subsurface deposit-feeders. The latter were more abundant after cold winters, probably due to their ability to utilise dead buried faunal organic matter. Multivariate analyses revealed that cold winters affected the community structure more briefly, while a smooth biological regime shift in 1989/1990 and a climate regime shift induced abrupt biological regime shift in 2001/2002 caused longer-term progressive change in the macrofauna community structure. The significant correlation between macrofauna abundance, biomass and species number and the NAO index failed until 2001 due to a change in climate systems over the northern Atlantic hemisphere.

  13. The Contribution of Marine Organics to the Air Quality of the Western United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of marine organic emissions to the air quality in coastal areas of the western United States is studied using the latest version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv4.7) modeling system. Emissions ...

  14. Factors controlling the distribution of anaerobic methanotrophic communities in marine environments: Evidence from intact polar membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossel, Pamela E.; Elvert, Marcus; Ramette, Alban; Boetius, Antje; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Three distinct types of microbial consortia appear to mediate the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor in marine sediments and are distributed ubiquitously. These consortia consist of ANerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea of the ANME-1, ANME-2 and ANME-3 clades and their sulfate-reducing bacterial partners either of the Desulfosarcina- Desulfococcus (ANME-1/DSS and ANME-2/DSS) or Desulfobulbus spp. (ANME-3/DBB) branches. Frequently one consortium type dominates the community, but the selective factors are not well constrained. Here we analyzed patterns in the composition of intact polar lipids extracted from bacterial and archaeal communities of different marine seep environments. Further, we investigated if different environmental and geographical factors were responsible for the observed patterns, and hence could be important in the selection of seep communities. Intact polar lipids (IPLs) provide a more robust distinction of the composition of extant communities than their less polar derivatives. In ANME-1/DSS-dominated communities, glycosidic- and phospho-glyceroldialkylglyceroltetraethers were abundant, while ANME-2/DSS and ANME-3/DBB-dominated communities showed abundant archaeol-based IPLs, either with glycosidic and phospho-headgroups or only phospho-headgroups, respectively. The relative proportion of bacterial IPLs varied widely from 0% to 93% and was generally lower in samples of the ANME-1 type, suggesting lower bacterial biomasses in the respective communities. In addition to these lipid signatures, distinctive features were related to the habitat characteristics of these communities: lower amounts of phosphate-based IPLs were generally observed in communities from calcified microbial mats compared to sediments, which may reflect phosphate limitation. Based on statistical analyses of IPLs and environmental data this study constrained for the first time the occurrence of three environmental factors controlling the distribution of different ANME-associated communities in a wide range of hydrocarbon seep systems. Habitats dominated by ANME-1/DSS communities were characterized by high temperature and low oxygen content in bottom waters (or even anoxia), while ANME-2/DSS and ANME-3/DBB-dominated sediments were located in settings with lower temperatures and higher oxygen content in bottom waters. Furthermore, ANME-2/DSS communities were particularly prominent in environments in which a relatively high supply of sulfate was sustained.

  15. Miocene marine shelf-bar and deltaic petroleum reservoirs of coastal Alabama and Mississippi/Alabama shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, R.M.; Mancini, E.A.; Bearden, B.L.

    1989-03-01

    Middle and upper Miocene gas reservoirs found in coastal Alabama and the Mississippi/Alabama shelf are predominantly inner to middle neritic shelf-bar or deltaic sands. A Miocene delta system prograded from the west-northwest in offshore Louisiana-Mississippi into coastal Alabama and the Mississippi/Alabama shelf. Deltaic sedimentation primarily affected the western portion of the Mississippi/Alabama shelf, while neritic sedimentation predominated in the northeastern portion of the region in coastal Alabama. Basinal clays are prevalent in the southeastern portion of the Mississippi/Alabama shelf. The productive Miocene reservoir sands occur between depths of 1100 and 5100 ft and generally are from 10 to 200 ft thick. The quartz-rich sands range from fine to coarse grained and have subangular to rounded and moderately to well-sorted quartz grains. Reservoir porosity is primary intergranular and generally ranges from 21% to 35%, with permeabilities that may exceed 2000 md. The natural gas in these shallow reservoirs is primarily biogenic in origin. Productivity of the reservoirs is highly variable and is often characterized by high water saturation. Reservoir pressures, which generally range from 550 to 2300 psi, are also a major factor controlling productivity of these reservoirs. Middle Miocene reservoirs are most common in coastal Alabama, and upper Miocene reservoirs are most common in the Mississippi/Alabama shelf. Petroleum traps are principally sandstone porosity and permeability pinch-outs against regional dip with subtle closure and anticlinal nosing as secondary factors in many of the traps. These middle and upper Miocene gas sands are best delineated with relative amplitude seismic reflection data no which gas-charged sands are apparent as bright spots.

  16. Marine vs. terrigenous organic matter in Louisiana coastal sediments: The uses of bromine:organic carbon ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Mayer; Linda L. Schick; Mead A. Allison; Kathleen C. Ruttenberg; Samuel J. Bentley

    2007-01-01

    Recent data on the sources of organic carbon buried in the ocean have emphasized the probable importance of terrigenous organic matter in burial budgets of deltaic depocenters. The many markers used to assess relative importance of marine vs. terrestrial sources each have ambiguities. We use the ratio of bromine to organic carbon (Br:OC) as a source indicator for organic matter

  17. Sources and reactivities of marine-derived organic matter in coastal sediments as determined by alkaline CuO oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIGUEL A. GoFa

    1995-01-01

    Alkaline CuO oxidation of ubiquitous biochemicals such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, yields specific products, including fatty acids, diacids, and carboxylated phenols. Oxidation of a variety of marine organisms, including macrophytes, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacteria, yields these CuO products in characteristic patterns that can often differentiate these biological sources. Sediments from Skan Bay (Unalaska Island, Alaska) display organic carbon and

  18. Onshoreoffshore gradient in reductive early diagenesis in coastal marine sediments of the Ria de Vigo, Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) define a marked three-part zonation with depth. The uppermost zone with depth. This zonation is controlled by organic matter diagenesis, which varies with water depth and wave. Such a zonation seems to be a common feature in shallow water marine environments. If preserved, the described

  19. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Saba; M. A. M. Friedrichs; D. Antoine; R. A. Armstrong; I. Asanuma; M. J. Behrenfeld; A. M. Ciotti; M. Dowell; N. Hoepffner; K. J. W. Hyde; J. Ishizaka; T. Kameda; J. Marra; F. Mélin; A. Morel; J. O'Reilly; M. Scardi; W. O. Smith Jr.; T. J. Smyth; S. Tang; J. Uitz; K. Waters; T. K. Westberry

    2010-01-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP

  20. Can Static Habitat Protection Encompass Critical Areas for Highly Mobile Marine Top Predators? Insights from Coastal East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Omar, Mohamed; Katello, Jillo; Kinyua, Mark; Oro, Daniel; Louzao, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Along the East African coast, marine top predators are facing an increasing number of anthropogenic threats which requires the implementation of effective and urgent conservation measures to protect essential habitats. Understanding the role that habitat features play on the marine top predator’ distribution and abundance is a crucial step to evaluate the suitability of an existing Marine Protected Area (MPA), originally designated for the protection of coral reefs. We developed species distribution models (SDM) on the IUCN data deficient Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We followed a comprehensive ecological modelling approach to study the environmental factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of dolphins while developing SDMs. Through the combination of ensemble prediction maps, we defined recurrent, occasional and unfavourable habitats for the species. Our results showed the influence of dynamic and static predictors on the dolphins’ spatial ecology: dolphins may select shallow areas (5-30 m), close to the reefs (< 500 m) and oceanic fronts (< 10 km) and adjacent to the 100m isobath (< 5 km). We also predicted a significantly higher occurrence and abundance of dolphins within the MPA. Recurrent and occasional habitats were identified on large percentages on the existing MPA (47% and 57% using presence-absence and abundance models respectively). However, the MPA does not adequately encompass all occasional and recurrent areas and within this context, we propose to extend the MPA to incorporate all of them which are likely key habitats for the highly mobile species. The results from this study provide two key conservation and management tools: (i) an integrative habitat modelling approach to predict key marine habitats, and (ii) the first study evaluating the effectiveness of an existing MPA for marine mammals in the Western Indian Ocean. PMID:26186438

  1. Can Static Habitat Protection Encompass Critical Areas for Highly Mobile Marine Top Predators? Insights from Coastal East Africa.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Omar, Mohamed; Katello, Jillo; Kinyua, Mark; Oro, Daniel; Louzao, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Along the East African coast, marine top predators are facing an increasing number of anthropogenic threats which requires the implementation of effective and urgent conservation measures to protect essential habitats. Understanding the role that habitat features play on the marine top predator' distribution and abundance is a crucial step to evaluate the suitability of an existing Marine Protected Area (MPA), originally designated for the protection of coral reefs. We developed species distribution models (SDM) on the IUCN data deficient Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We followed a comprehensive ecological modelling approach to study the environmental factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of dolphins while developing SDMs. Through the combination of ensemble prediction maps, we defined recurrent, occasional and unfavourable habitats for the species. Our results showed the influence of dynamic and static predictors on the dolphins' spatial ecology: dolphins may select shallow areas (5-30 m), close to the reefs (< 500 m) and oceanic fronts (< 10 km) and adjacent to the 100m isobath (< 5 km). We also predicted a significantly higher occurrence and abundance of dolphins within the MPA. Recurrent and occasional habitats were identified on large percentages on the existing MPA (47% and 57% using presence-absence and abundance models respectively). However, the MPA does not adequately encompass all occasional and recurrent areas and within this context, we propose to extend the MPA to incorporate all of them which are likely key habitats for the highly mobile species. The results from this study provide two key conservation and management tools: (i) an integrative habitat modelling approach to predict key marine habitats, and (ii) the first study evaluating the effectiveness of an existing MPA for marine mammals in the Western Indian Ocean. PMID:26186438

  2. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: geothermal community heating for Cape Charles, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Leffel, C.S. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    An economic feasibility study for a geothermal community heating system has been made for the residential heat load of Cape Charles, Virginia using the JHU/APL GRITS Computer Program. The effects of inflation, interest rates, wellhead temperatures, and the addition of reinjection wells are investigated.

  3. National Initiatives, Local Effects: Trade Liberalization, Shrimp Aquaculture, and Coastal Communities in Orissa, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolagobinda Pradhan; Mark Flaherty

    2007-01-01

    Commercial shrimp farming in India expanded rapidly after trade liberalization initiatives were introduced in the early 1990s. This article examines the social, economic and environmental impacts that have been generated in communities along Orissa's Coast in east India. The results suggest that macro-level policies such as trade liberalization are useful at the national level, but at the local level they

  4. The relationship between phytoplankton diversity and community function in a coastal lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Duarte; Maria Filomena Macedo; Luís Fonseca

    The decrease of biodiversity related to the phenomena of global climate change is stimulating the scientific community towards a better understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In ecosystems where marked biodiversity changes occur at seasonal time scales, it is easier to relate them with ecosystem functioning. The objective of this work is to analyse the relationship between

  5. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world. However, their microbial community structure is only beginning to be defined and understood. Our objectives for this study were to characterize the microbial populations found in the soils of this rip...

  6. Effects of early recruits on temperate sessile marine community composition depend on other species recruiting at the time.

    PubMed

    Sams, Michael A; Keough, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    In many environments recruitment of dispersive propagules (e.g. seeds, spores and larvae) can vary from situations when particular taxa recruit in relative isolation to times when they recruit simultaneously with other, functionally quite different taxa. Differences in the identity and density of recruiting taxa can have important consequences on community structure, but it is still not clear how the effects of individual taxa on communities are modified when they recruit together with other species. Using an experimental approach we compared early development of a temperate marine sessile community after the recruitment of mixtures of botryllid ascidians and barnacles to that when barnacles or botryllid ascidians recruited alone. Communities exposed to recruitment of botryllid ascidians in isolation differed from those that received barnacles, a mixture of botryllids and barnacles or no recruitment in 2-week-old communities. These early differences were driven by higher abundances of the species that were present as initial recruits in experimental treatments. After 2 months communities also differed between barnacle and mixed recruitment treatments but not mixed and botryllid or botryllid and barnacle treatments. These differences were not directly due to differences in the abundances of our manipulated taxa but occurred because of two abundant arborescent bryozoans, Bugula dentata, which occupied more space in communities that initially received mixed recruitment than in those that received barnacle or no recruitment, and Zoobotryon verticillatum, which occupied more space in communities that initially received only barnacle recruitment than those that initially received botryllid or mixed recruitment. These effects did not persist, and communities did not differ after 6 months. These results suggest that, more generally, species may influence community dynamics differently when they recruit alongside other species than when they recruit in relative isolation. PMID:23386046

  7. Estuary-enhanced upwelling of marine nutrients fuels coastal productivity in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kristen A.; Banas, Neil S.; Giddings, Sarah N.; Siedlecki, Samantha A.; MacCready, Parker; Lessard, Evelyn J.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Hickey, Barbara M.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) shelf is the most biologically productive region in the California Current System. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is used to investigate the influence of freshwater inputs on the productivity of PNW shelf waters using realistic hindcasts and model experiments that omit outflow from the Columbia River and Strait of Juan de Fuca (outlet for the Salish Sea estuary). Outflow from the Strait represents a critical source of nitrogen to the PNW shelf-accounting for almost half of the primary productivity on the Vancouver Island shelf, a third of productivity on the Washington shelf, and a fifth of productivity on the Oregon shelf during the upwelling season. The Columbia River has regional effects on the redistribution of phytoplankton, but does not affect PNW productivity as strongly as does the Salish Sea. A regional nutrient budget shows that nitrogen exiting the Strait is almost entirely (98%) of ocean-origin—upwelled into the Strait at depth, mixed into surface waters by tidal mixing, and returned to the coastal ocean. From the standpoint of nitrogen availability in the coastal euphotic zone, the estuarine circulation driven by freshwater inputs to the Salish Sea is more important than the supply of terrigenous nitrogen by rivers. Nitrogen-rich surface waters exiting the Strait follow two primary pathways—to the northwest in the Vancouver Island Coastal Current and southward toward the Washington and Oregon shelves. Nitrogen flux from the Juan de Fuca Strait and Eddy Region to these shelves is comparable to flux from local wind-driven upwelling.

  8. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coastal dune plant communities II. Spore formation of Glomus spp. predominates under geographically separated patches of Elymus mollis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-ichi P. Abe; Keizo Katsuya

    1995-01-01

    Five study sites in Japan with pure patches ofElymus mollis near to the shoreline were chosen. Abundance of spore formation ofGlomus spp. underE. mollis patches were studied at four sites to understand the factors determining the development of VA mycorrhizal fungal communities at the edge of coastal sand dune vegetation. At each study site, eight soil samples from two soil

  9. Habitats and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt I. Deltaic Mediterranean coastal habitat.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Omar, G

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims at investigating the vegetation-soil relationships in the Deltaic Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. The Deltaic coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt can be distinguished into five habitat types, namely: sand dunes, salt marshes, sand sheets, sandy fertile lands and lake shorelines (Manzala, Burullus and Idku). These habitats are categorized into four vegetation groups namely, group A dominated by Rumex pictus, group B codominated by Pancratium maritimum-Cyperus capitatus-Lolium perenne, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Atriplex portulacoides-Typha domingensis and group D codominated by Echinochloa stagnina-Typha domingensis-Phragmites australis. One hundred and thirty plant species are recorded in this coast and belonging to 38 families. Out of the recorded species, about 41.54% are annuals, 2.31% biennials and 56.15% perennials. The percentages of the life-form indicated that, therophytes attained the highest representation (43.85%). The floristic analysis revealed that, 55.38% of the recorded species are Mediterranean elements. The ecological amplitudes of the leading species along the gradient of edaphic factors are discussed. PMID:19260330

  10. Ten years after the prestige oil spill: seabird trophic ecology as indicator of long-term effects on the coastal marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rocío; Jover, Lluís; Diez, Carmen; Sardà-Palomera, Francesc; Sardà, Francesc; Sanpera, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Major oil spills can have long-term impacts since oil pollution does not only result in acute mortality of marine organisms, but also affects productivity levels, predator-prey dynamics, and damages habitats that support marine communities. However, despite the conservation implications of oil accidents, the monitoring and assessment of its lasting impacts still remains a difficult and daunting task. Here, we used European shags to evaluate the overall, lasting effects of the Prestige oil spill (2002) on the affected marine ecosystem. Using ? ¹?N and Hg analysis, we trace temporal changes in feeding ecology potentially related to alterations of the food web due to the spill. Using climatic and oceanic data, we also investigate the influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the sea surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll a (Chl a) on the observed changes. Analysis of ? ¹?N and Hg concentrations revealed that after the Prestige oil spill, shag chicks abruptly switched their trophic level from a diet based on a high percentage of demersal-benthic fish to a higher proportion of pelagic/semi-pelagic species. There was no evidence that Chl a, SST and NAO reflected any particular changes or severity in environmental conditions for any year or season that may explain the sudden change observed in trophic level. Thus, this study highlighted an impact on the marine food web for at least three years. Our results provide the best evidence to date of the long-term consequences of the Prestige oil spill. They also show how, regardless of wider oceanographic variability, lasting impacts on predator-prey dynamics can be assessed using biochemical markers. This is particularly useful if larger scale and longer term monitoring of all trophic levels is unfeasible due to limited funding or high ecosystem complexity. PMID:24130877

  11. Source and migration of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in the coastal East China Sea using multiproxies of marine organic geochemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongshan; Li, Huijuan; Wang, Yawei; Li, Guoliang; Cao, Yali; Zeng, Lixi; Lan, Jing; Wang, Thanh; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-05-21

    Multiple proxies of terrestrial organic matters (TOM) were introduced to study the migration behaviors of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the coastal East China Sea (ECS). The contents of SCCPs in the surface sediment collected from Changjiang (Yangtze) River Delta (CRD) and along the Zhejiang-Fujian coastline ranged from 9.0 to 37.2 ng/g (dry weight, d.w.), displaying a "band-style" distribution trend. Spatial distribution patterns of SCCP congeners presented an increasing trend seaward and southward along the coastline for shorter carbon length (C?? + C??) and lower chlorinated (Cl? + Cl? + Cl?) congeners, suggesting a spreading tendency seaward and southward from the CRD and the north of the inner shelf. The significant relationship between ?SCCPs and total organic carbons (TOC) (r(2) = 0.402, p < 0.05) indicated that the migration of SCCPs in sediments was markedly affected by TOC. The spatial patterns of the TOM proxies of TOC ?(13)C, the contents of ?C?? + C?? + C?? n-alkanes, terrestrial marine biomarker ratio (TMBR), and terrestrial TOC (T-TOC) were all similar to that of ?SCCPs. Linear relationships between SCCP contents and both the contents of ?C?? + C?? + C?? n-alkanes (r(2) = 0.537, p < 0.05) and T-TOC (r(2) = 0.495, p < 0.05) were also observed. The consistence demonstrated that a major portion of sedimentary SCCPs in the coastal ECS should be from the river input of Changjiang River and deposited in the CRD and along the inner shelf of the ECS, but only a minor fraction was transported to the offshore areas. PMID:23611620

  12. Community analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ammophila arenaria in Dutch coastal sand dunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Kowalchuk; Francisco A. de Souza; Johannes A. van Veen

    2002-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) approach for the detection and characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was developed and applied to the study of AMF communities associated with the main sand-stabilizing plant species of the Dutch sand dunes, marram. grass (Ammophila arenaria, L.). DNA was extracted directly from plant roots, soil or isolated

  13. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Diversity and Community Function in a Coastal Lagoon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Duarte; Maria Filomena Macedo; Luís Cancela da Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    The decrease of biodiversity related to the phenomena of global climate change is stimulating the scientific community towards\\u000a a better understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In ecosystems where marked biodiversity\\u000a changes occur at seasonal time scales, it is easier to relate them with ecosystem functioning. The objective of this work\\u000a is to analyse the relationship between

  14. Microbial Communities Associated with Geological Horizons in Coastal Subseafloor Sediments from the Sea of Okhotsk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Inagaki; Masae Suzuki; Ken Takai; Hanako Oida; Tatsuhiko Sakamoto; Kaori Aoki; Kenneth H. Nealson; Koki Horikoshi

    2003-01-01

    Microbial communities from a subseafloor sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk were evaluated by performing both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent (molecular) analyses. The core, which extended 58.1 m below the seafloor, was composed of pelagic clays with several volcanic ash layers containing fine pumice grains. Direct cell counting and quantitative PCR analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene

  15. The utility of Skylab photo-interpreted earth resources data in studies of marine geology and coastal processes in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumbull, J. V. A. (principal investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three Skylab earth resources passes over Puerto Rico and St. Croix on 6 June and 30 November 1973 and 18 January 1974 resulted in color photography and multispectral photography and scanner imagery. Bathymetric and turbid water features are differentiable by use of the multispectral data. Photography allows mapping of coral reefs, offshore sand deposits, areas of coastal erosion, and patterns of sediment transport. Bottom sediment types could not be differentiated. Patterns of bottom dwelling biologic communities are well portrayed but are difficult to differentiate from bathymetric detail. Effluent discharges and oil slicks are readily detected and are differentiated from other phenomena by the persistence of their images into the longer wavelength multispectral bands.

  16. A year in hypoxia: epibenthic community responses to severe oxygen deficit at a subsea observatory in a coastal inlet.

    PubMed

    Matabos, Marjolaine; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Juniper, S Kim; Dean, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Changes in ocean ventilation driven by climate change result in loss of oxygen in the open ocean that, in turn, affects coastal areas in upwelling zones such as the northeast Pacific. Saanich Inlet, on the west coast of Canada, is a natural seasonally hypoxic fjord where certain continental shelf species occur in extreme hypoxia. One study site on the VENUS cabled subsea network is located in the hypoxic zone at 104 m depth. Photographs of the same 5 m(2) area were taken with a remotely-controlled still camera every 2/3 days between October 6(th) 2009 and October 18(th) 2010 and examined for community composition, species behaviour and microbial mat features. Instruments located on a near-by platform provided high-resolution measurements of environmental variables. We applied multivariate ordination methods and a principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices to determine temporal structures in our dataset. Responses to seasonal hypoxia (0.1-1.27 ml/l) and its high variability on short time-scale (hours) varied among species, and their life stages. During extreme hypoxia, microbial mats developed then disappeared as a hippolytid shrimp, Spirontocaris sica, appeared in high densities (200 m(-2)) despite oxygen below 0.2 ml/l. The slender sole Lyopsetta exilis was abundant in severe hypoxia and diminished as oxygen increased in the summer. This planktivore may be responding to changes in the depth of the diurnal migration of zooplankton. While the squat lobster Munida quadrispina was common at all times, juveniles disappeared in fluctuating conditions. Despite low oxygen conditions, animal densities were high indicating that the risk from hypoxia is balanced by factors such as food availability and escape from less tolerant predators. As hypoxia increases on the continental shelf, we expect benthic communities to become dominated by low diversity, hypoxia-tolerant species of low commercial significance. PMID:23029145

  17. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasserberg, G.; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  18. Community Interactions Modify the Effects of Pharmaceutical Exposure: A Microcosm Study on Responses to Propranolol in Baltic Sea Coastal Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Thorsén, Gunnar; Danielsson, Gabriela; Kumblad, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the uptake and effects of a common human pharmaceutical, propranolol, on the structure and function of a coastal Baltic Sea model community consisting of macroalga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mussels (Mytilus edulis trossulus), amphipods (Gammarus spp.), water and sediment. The most sensitive species, the mussel, was affected to the same extent as in previous single species studies, while the effects on the amphipod and alga were smaller or even positive compared to experiments performed in less complex test systems. The observed cascade of beneficial effects was a result of inter-specific species interactions that buffered for more severe effects. The poor condition of the mussel led to a feeding shift from alga to mussel by the amphipods. The better food quality, due to the dietary shift, counteracted the effects of the exposure. Less amphipod grazing, together with increased levels of nutrients in the water was favourable for the alga, despite the negative effects of propranolol. This microcosm study showed effects on organisms on different organizational levels as well as interactions among the different components resulting in indirect exposure effects of both functional and structural nature. The combination of both direct and indirect effects would not have been detected using simpler single- or even two-species study designs. The observed structural changes would in the natural environment have a long-term influence on ecosystem function, especially in a low-biodiversity ecosystem like the Baltic Sea. PMID:24713620

  19. Composition and predicted functional ecology of mussel-associated bacteria in Indonesian marine lakes.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Daniel F R; Becking, Leontine E; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we sampled bacterial communities associated with mussels inhabiting two distinct coastal marine ecosystems in Kalimantan, Indonesia, namely, marine lakes and coastal mangroves. We used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and predicted metagenomic analysis to compare microbial composition and function. Marine lakes are small landlocked bodies of seawater isolated to varying degrees from the open sea environment. They contain numerous endemic taxa and represent natural laboratories of speciation. Our primary goals were to (1) use BLAST search to identify closely related organisms to dominant bacterial OTUs in our mussel dataset and (2) to compare bacterial communities and enrichment in the predicted bacterial metagenome among lakes. Our sequencing effort yielded 3553 OTUs belonging to 44 phyla, 99 classes and 121 orders. Mussels in the largest marine lake (Kakaban) and the coastal mangrove habitat were dominated by bacteria belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria whereas smaller lakes, located on the island of Maratua, were dominated by bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Tenericutes. The single most abundant OTU overall was assigned to the genus Mycoplasma. There were several significant differences among locations with respect to metabolic pathways. These included enrichment of xenobiotic biodegradation pathways in the largest marine lake and coastal mangrove. These locations were also the most enriched with respect to nitrogen metabolism. The presence of genes related to isoquinoline alkaloids, polyketides, hydrolases, mono and dioxygenases in the predicted analysis of functional pathways is an indication that the bacterial communities of Brachidontes mussels may be potentially important sources of new marine medicines and enzymes of industrial interest. Future work should focus on measuring how mussel microbial communities influence nutrient dynamics within the marine lake environment and isolating microbes with potential biotechnological applications. PMID:25563637

  20. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888