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1

Seasonal changes in the abundance and composition of marine heterotrophic bacterial communities in an Antarctic coastal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 1-year period, systematic observations of the Antarctic coastal marine bacterioplankton were recorded. Three field stations were sampled weekly in 1989 in “Terre Adélie” area. The survey included physicochemical (temperature and particulate organic matter) and bacteriological (total and heterotrophic counts, estimation of bacterial production) measurements. The bacterial community structure was investigated by carrying out 27 morphological and biochemical tests

D. Delille; M. Curie

1993-01-01

2

Quorum quenching in cultivable bacteria from dense marine coastal microbial communities.  

PubMed

Acylhomoserine lactone (AHLs)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) processes seem to be common in the marine environment and among marine pathogenic bacteria, but no data are available on the prevalence of bacteria capable of interfering with QS in the sea, a process that has been generally termed 'quorum quenching' (QQ). One hundred and sixty-six strains isolated from different marine dense microbial communities were screened for their ability to interfere with AHL activity. Twenty-four strains (14.4%) were able to eliminate or significantly reduce N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone activity as detected by the biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, a much higher percentage than that reported for soil isolates, which reinforces the ecological role of QS and QQ in the marine environment. Among these, 15 strains were also able to inhibit N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone activity and all of them were confirmed to enzymatically inactivate the AHL signals by HPLC-MS. Active isolates belonged to nine different genera of prevalently or exclusively marine origin, including members of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria (8), Actinobacteria (2), Firmicutes (4) and Bacteroidetes (1). Whether the high frequency and diversity of cultivable bacteria with QQ activity found in near-shore marine isolates reflects their prevalence among pelagic marine bacterial communities deserves further investigation in order to understand the ecological importance of AHL-mediated QS and QQ processes in the marine environment. PMID:21155853

Romero, Manuel; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Cabello, Ana María; Otero, Ana

2011-02-01

3

Shifts in coastal Antarctic marine microbial communities during and after melt water-related surface stratification.  

PubMed

Antarctic coastal waters undergo major physical alterations during summer. Increased temperatures induce sea-ice melting and glacial melt water input, leading to strong stratification of the upper water column. We investigated the composition of micro-eukaryotic and bacterial communities in Ryder Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, during and after summertime melt water stratification, applying community fingerprinting (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and sequencing analysis of partial 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Community fingerprinting of the eukaryotic community revealed two major patterns, coinciding with a period of melt water stratification, followed by a period characterized by regular wind-induced breakdown of surface stratification. During the first stratified period, we observed depth-related differences in eukaryotic fingerprints while differences in bacterial fingerprints were weak. Wind-induced breakdown of the melt water layer caused a shift in the eukaryotic community from an Actinocyclus sp.- to a Thalassiosira sp.-dominated community. In addition, a distinct transition in the bacterial community was found, but with a few days' delay, suggesting a response to the changes in the eukaryotic community rather than to the mixing event itself. Sequence analysis revealed a shift from an Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to a Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides-dominated community under mixed conditions. Our results show that melt water stratification and the transition to nonstabilized Antarctic surface waters may have an impact not only on micro-eukaryotic but also bacterial community composition. PMID:21303395

Piquet, Anouk M-T; Bolhuis, Henk; Meredith, Michael P; Buma, Anita G J

2011-06-01

4

Marine Bacterioplankton Diversity and Community Composition in an Antarctic Coastal Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial community inhabiting the water column at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) was examined by the fluorescent\\u000a in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 606 bacterial isolates. Overall,\\u000a the FISH analysis revealed a bacterioplankton composition that was typical of Antarctic marine environments with the Cytophaga\\/Flavobacter (CF) group of Bacteroidetes that was equally dominant

Angelina Lo Giudice; Consolazione Caruso; Santina Mangano; Vivia Bruni; Maria De Domenico; Luigi Michaud

5

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth of phytoplankton and fast growing pelagic macroalgae while rooted plants (sea-grasses) and benthic are suppressed due to reduced light availability. This shift from benthic to pelagic primary production introduces large diurnal variations in oxygen concentrations in the water column. In addition oxygen consumption in the surface sediments increases due to the deposition of readily degradable biomass. In this review the physico-chemical and biological factors regulating nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems are considered in relation to developing effective management programmes to rehabilitate seagrass communities in lagoons currently dominated by pelagic macroalgae and/or cyanobacteria. PMID:10525167

Herbert, R A

1999-10-01

6

Ecological Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Coastal Marine Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously,

J. B. C. Jackson; J. D. Cubit; B. D. Keller; V. Batista; K. Burns; H. M. Caffey; R. L. Caldwell; S. D. Garrity; C. D. Getter; C. Gonzalez; H. M. Guzman; K. W. Kaufmann; A. H. Knap; S. C. Levings; M. J. Marshall; R. Steger; R. C. Thompson; E. Weil

1989-01-01

7

Ecological effects of a major oil spill on Panamanian coastal marine communities  

SciTech Connect

In 1986 more than 8 million liters of crude oil spilled into a complex region of mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs just east of the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal. This was the largest recorded spill into coastal habitats in the tropical Americas. Many populations of plants and animals in both oiled and unoiled sites had been studied previously, thereby providing an unprecedented measure of ecological variation before the spill. Documentation of the spread of oil and its biological effects begun immediately. Intertidal mangroves, seagrasses, algae, and associated invertebrates were covered by oil and died soon after. More surprisingly, there was also extensive mortality of shallow subtidal reef corals and infauna of seagrass beds. After 1.5 years only some organisms in areas exposed to the open sea have recovered.

Jackson, J.B.C.; Cubit, J.D.; Keller, B.D.; Batista, V.; Burns, K.; Caffey, H.M.; Caldwell, R.L.; Garrity, S.D.; Getter, C.D.; Gonzalez, C.; Guzman, H.M.; Kaufmann, K.W.; Knap, A.H.; Levings, S.C.; Marshall, M.J.; Steger, R.; Thompson, R.C.; Weil, E. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa (Panama))

1989-01-06

8

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth

R. A. Herbert

1999-01-01

9

The role of epibenthic predators in structuring the marine invertebrate community of a British coastal salt marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine fauna of salt marshes are subjected to predation by birds, tidally feeding flatfish, crabs, prawns and small gobiid fish. The role of these epibenthic predators in structuring the community was investigated using cages to exclude predators. A range of designs of cages and partial cages was employed to control for artefacts due to caging, and sufficient cages were employed so that each cage was only sampled once to prevent the compounding of disturbance due to predation and sampling. Two mesh sizes were employed, a fine mesh excluding epibenthic predators and a coarse mesh allowing access by small crabs, prawns and gobiid fish but excluding birds and larger fish. The exclusion was maintained for 2 years. The presence of any experimental structure had a significant effect on the sedimentary regime within the cage. Epibentic predator exclusion let to an increase in infaunal predator density, but had no significant effect on the infaunal deposit feeders. There was some evidence that predators limit the surface deposit feeding gastropood Hydrobia ulvae during the winter. The gastropod Littorina littorea responded positively to the presence of any caging structure; this may be the result of changes in the availability of food, as the sides of a cage support a diatom flora which this species can exploit. The lack of a response from the infaunal deposit feeders is attributed to their horizontal mobility within the sediment. The possible interactions between epibenthic and infaunal predators are discussed.

Frid, C. L. J.; James, R.

10

Coastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources  

E-print Network

exacerbating coastal erosion and hazards · Poor water quality that impacts on aquatic lifeCoastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources Coastal Marine Group Environmental Research Institute University ofWaikato #12;Coastal Marine

Waikato, University of

11

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

of Ireland, Cork Institute of Technology, the Port of Cork, the Industrial Development Authority, the Marine together with researchers from UCC's Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC) and the Sustainable

Schellekens, Michel P.

12

Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J.L.

2003-01-01

13

Comparison between Atlantic and Pacific Tropical Marine Coastal Ecosystems: Community Structure, Ecological Processes, and Productivity. Results and Scientific Papers of a Unesco/COMAR Workshop (Suva, Fiji, March 24-29, 1986). Unesco Reports in Marine Science 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the Unesco workshop conclusions concerning important differences among tropical seas in terms of ecological processes in coastal marine ecosystems, and the corresponding implications for resource management guidelines. The conclusions result from the presentation and discussion of eight review papers which are included in this…

Birkeland, Charles, Ed.

14

Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism of microbial planktonic communities in an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: seasonal dynamics and episodic events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 18 month study was performed in the Bay of Villefranche to assess the episodic and seasonal variation of autotrophic and heterotrophic ecosystem processes. A typical spring bloom was encountered, where maximum of gross primary production (GPP) was followed by maxima of bacterial respiration (BR) and production (BP). The trophic balance (heterotrophy vs. autotrophy) of the system did not exhibit any seasonal trend although a strong intra-annual variability was observed. On average, the community tended to be net heterotrophic with a GPP threshold for a balanced metabolism of 1.1 ?mol O2 l-1 d-1. Extended forest fires in summer 2003 and a local episodic upwelling in July 2003 likely supplied orthophosphate and nitrate into the system. These events were associated with an enhanced bacterioplankton production (up to 2.4-fold), respiration (up to 4.5-fold) and growth efficiency (up to 2.9-fold) but had no effect on GPP. A Sahara dust wet deposition event in February 2004 stimulated bacterial abundance, production and growth efficiency but not GPP. Our study suggests that short-term disturbances such as wind-driven upwelling, forest fires and Sahara dust depositions can have a significant but previously not sufficiently considered influence on phytoplankton- and bacterioplankton-mediated ecosystem functions and can modify or even mask the seasonal dynamics. The study also indicates that atmospheric deposition of nutrients and particles not only impacts phytoplankton but also bacterioplankton and could, at times, also shift systems stronger towards net heterotrophy.

Bonilla-Findji, O.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Pizay, M.-D.; Weinbauer, M. G.

2010-11-01

15

Autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism of microbial planktonic communities in an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: seasonal dynamics and episodic events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 18 month study was performed in the Bay of Villefranche to assess the episodic and seasonal variation of autotrophic and heterotrophic ecosystem processes. A typical spring bloom was encountered, where maximum of gross primary production (GPP) was followed by maxima of bacterial respiration (BR) and production (BP). The trophic balance (heterotrophy vs. autotrophy) of the system did not exhibit any seasonal trend although a strong intra-annual variability was observed. On average, the community tended to be net heterotrophic with a GPP threshold for a balanced metabolism of 2.8 ?mol O2 l-1 d-1. Extended forest fires in summer 2003 and a local episodic upwelling in July 2003 likely supplied orthophosphate and nitrate into the system. These events were associated with an enhanced bacterioplankton production (up to 2.4-fold), respiration (up to 4.5-fold) and growth efficiency (up to 2.9-fold) but had no effect on GPP. A Sahara dust wet deposition event in February 2004 stimulated bacterial abundance, production and growth efficiency but not GPP. Our study suggests that short-term disturbances such as wind-driven upwelling, forest fires and Sahara dust depositions can have a significant but previously not sufficiently considered influence on phytoplankton- and bacterioplankton-mediated ecosystem functions and can modify or even mask the seasonal dynamics. The study also indicates that atmospheric deposition of nutrients and particles not only impacts phytoplankton but also bacterioplankton and could, at times, also shift systems stronger towards net heterotrophy.

Bonilla-Findji, O.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Pizay, M.-D.; Weinbauer, M. G.

2010-03-01

16

Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

Richardson, Laurie L.

2000-01-01

17

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

Stormwater, Climate Change and Wisconsin's Coastal Communities Johnson Foundation at Wingspread · Precipitation and high water · Adapting to our changing climate · Assisting coastal communities Photo: WDNR #12 source of risk from changing climate. City of Green Bay watershed - #12;Predicted climate includes

Sheridan, Jennifer

18

Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

Holm, Amy E.

19

Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.  

PubMed

Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

2003-04-01

20

Coastal bacterioplankton community dynamics in response to a natural disturbance.  

PubMed

In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

Yeo, Sara K; Huggett, Megan J; Eiler, Alexander; Rappé, Michael S

2013-01-01

21

Coastal Bacterioplankton Community Dynamics in Response to a Natural Disturbance  

PubMed Central

In order to characterize how disturbances to microbial communities are propagated over temporal and spatial scales in aquatic environments, the dynamics of bacterial assemblages throughout a subtropical coastal embayment were investigated via SSU rRNA gene analyses over an 8-month period, which encompassed a large storm event. During non-perturbed conditions, sampling sites clustered into three groups based on their microbial community composition: an offshore oceanic group, a freshwater group, and a distinct and persistent coastal group. Significant differences in measured environmental parameters or in the bacterial community due to the storm event were found only within the coastal cluster of sampling sites, and only at 5 of 12 locations; three of these sites showed a significant response in both environmental and bacterial community characteristics. These responses were most pronounced at sites close to the shoreline. During the storm event, otherwise common bacterioplankton community members such as marine Synechococcus sp. and members of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria decreased in relative abundance in the affected coastal zone, whereas several lineages of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and members of the Roseobacter clade of Alphaproteobacteria increased. The complex spatial patterns in both environmental conditions and microbial community structure related to freshwater runoff and wind convection during the perturbation event leads us to conclude that spatial heterogeneity was an important factor influencing both the dynamics and the resistance of the bacterioplankton communities to disturbances throughout this complex subtropical coastal system. This heterogeneity may play a role in facilitating a rapid rebound of regions harboring distinctly coastal bacterioplankton communities to their pre-disturbed taxonomic composition. PMID:23409156

Rappe, Michael S.

2013-01-01

22

Development and validation of an experimental life support system for assessing the effects of global climate change and environmental contamination on estuarine and coastal marine benthic communities.  

PubMed

An experimental life support system (ELSS) was constructed to study the interactive effects of multiple stressors on coastal and estuarine benthic communities, specifically perturbations driven by global climate change and anthropogenic environmental contamination. The ELSS allows researchers to control salinity, pH, temperature, ultraviolet radiation (UVR), tidal rhythms and exposure to selected contaminants. Unlike most microcosms previously described, our system enables true independent replication (including randomization). In addition to this, it can be assembled using commercially available materials and equipment, thereby facilitating the replication of identical experimental setups in different geographical locations. Here, we validate the reproducibility and environmental quality of the system by comparing chemical and biological parameters recorded in our ELSS with those prevalent in the natural environment. Water, sediment microbial community and ragworm (the polychaete Hediste diversicolor) samples were obtained from four microcosms after 57 days of operation. In general, average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients (NO3 (-) ; NH4 (+) and PO4 (-3) ) in the water column of the ELSS experimental control units were within the range of concentrations recorded in the natural environment. While some shifts in bacterial community composition were observed between in situ and ELSS sediment samples, the relative abundance of most metabolically active bacterial taxa appeared to be stable. In addition, ELSS operation did not significantly affect survival, oxidative stress and neurological biomarkers of the model organism Hediste diversicolor. The validation data indicate that this system can be used to assess independent or interactive effects of climate change and environmental contamination on benthic communities. Researchers will be able to simulate the effects of these stressors on processes driven by microbial communities, sediment and seawater chemistry and to evaluate potential consequences to sediment toxicity using model organisms such as Hediste diversicolor. PMID:23616466

Coelho, Francisco J R C; Rocha, Rui J M; Pires, Ana C C; Ladeiro, Bruno; Castanheira, José M; Costa, Rodrigo; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Lillebø, Ana Isabel; Ribeiro, Rui; Pereira, Ruth; Lopes, Isabel; Marques, Catarina; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Calado, Ricardo; Cleary, Daniel F R; Gomes, Newton C M

2013-08-01

23

Compliance and Enforcement of Community-Based Coastal Resource Management Regulations in North Sulawesi, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based coastal resources management has become a popular approach to marine conservation and sustainable fisheries management in the Asia-Pacific region. One premise of this approach is that enforcement of community management initiatives is the primary responsibility of the community and that, in most instances, they have the capability to effectively enforce locally developed regulations and rules. The socioeconomic theory of

BRIAN R. CRAWFORD; AUDRIE SIAHAINENIA; CHRISTOVEL ROTINSULU; ASEP SUKMARA

2004-01-01

24

PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

25

Coastal-marine discontinuities and synergisms: implications for biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal-marine biodiversity conservation must focus increasingly at the level of the land- and seascape. Five cases illustrate discontinuities and synergisms and how system changes may take place. For Caribbean coral reefs, the result of overfishing and disease has been a ‘shrinkage’ in the entire system, the effects of which may cascade through the coastal seascape. For Beringia, patterns of benthic

G. Carleton Ray

1996-01-01

26

The marine and coastal access actA hornets' nest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 is now enacted into law. This paper looks at predictions made about new law by one of the authors, Peter Jones, in his paper The Marine Bill: Cornucopia or Pandora's Box [1] and assesses how successful the Act has been in turning aspirations into law. The paper focuses on the following areas: ecosystem

Tom Appleby; Peter J. S. Jones

2012-01-01

27

Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.

Kennedy, V.S. [Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies, Cambridge, MD (United States). Horn Point Environmental Lab.

1994-12-31

28

Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: Ecological and geochemical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denitrification occurs in essentially all river, lake, and coastal marine ecosystems that have been studied. In general, the range ofdenitrification rates measured in coastal marine sediments is greater than that measured in lake or river sediments. In various estuarine and coastal marine sediments, rates commonly range between 50 and 250 pmol N m--:! h-l, with extremes from 0 to 1,067.

Sybil P. Seitzinger

1998-01-01

29

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google

C. Reiss; C. Steele; A. Ma; J. Chin

2006-01-01

30

Marine snow: major site of primary production in coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile aggregate particles, or `marine snow', were collected by SCUBA from coastal surface waters using trace metal-free techniques, and their primary production (rates of photosynthesis by associated phytoplankton) was determined relative to corresponding water column production. Primary production associated with these particles was found to range from 11 to 58% of total production, indicating that large particles can have an

G. A. Knauer; D. Hebel; F. Cipriano

1982-01-01

31

Marine kelp: Energy resource in the coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship on the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans is discussed. An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a decription of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries and other legal/institutional impacts.

Ritschard, R. L.; Haven, K. F.

1980-11-01

32

THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

33

Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering direct negative impacts of acidification. Declines in grazer populations may in turn allow primary producers such as kelps to become more abundant. Because kelp forests provide habitat for a wide array of species, OA may have a positive impact on some aspects of biodiversity. On the other hand, mussel beds also harbor hundreds of dependent species, and a loss of mussel beds due to reduced mussel growth rates and increased loss to predators would decrease biodiversity of this component of the benthic community. The predictions outlined above should be viewed as preliminary due to large gaps in our understanding. For example, the effects of OA on fertilization and other sensitive life history stages and transitions remain unquantified in the vast majority of species, and any effects of such changes on population dynamics remain unknown. Furthermore, the strength of interactions among species may change in unexpected ways due to, for example, the effects of pH on organismal physiology. Finally, the effects of ocean acidification are not occurring in isolation, and critical physiological and ecological thresholds may be crossed when OA effects are combined with increases in temperature, storm disturbance, pollution, and fishing pressure.

Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

2010-12-01

34

Field Activities for Coastal and Marine Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of field investigations was developed by the Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) in a field-based workshop for educators. The activities focus on field work on beaches and rocky headlands (beach and cliff landscapes, wave activity, rocks and sand), and on vegetation and plant ecosystems (algae, plants, estuaries and creeks). There is also an introductory guide for teachers on how to conduct field work, a discussion of moral issues involving student behavior on outings, and a checklist of equipment for use in marine areas.

35

The role of freshwater outflow in coastal marine ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Freshwater outflow from rivers to the ocean has profound effects on the physical, chemical, and biological processes in coastal waters. It induces circulation patterns, modifies mixing processes, and influences nutrient supply to plants, thus affecting biomass production. The increased need for hydroelectric power, flood control, and irrigation of farmland has led to greater regulation of river flow, which may have signigicant ''down-stream'' consequences, such as changes in fish production. This book adopts a systems approach for modeling how marine ecosystems respond to natural and man-made changes in freshwater outflow, and also attempts to identify research priorities in coastal zone management.

Skreslet, S.

1986-01-01

36

Discovering factors that influence the success of community-based marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based marine protected areas have become a popular coastal resources management method advocated in many projects and programs. While many case studies have been written about factors contributing to project success, few empirical studies using quantitative methods have been employed. A study was conducted of 45 community-based marine protected areas in Philippines. Several success measures were developed and analyzed in

Richard B. Pollnac; Brian R. Crawford; Maharlina L. G. Gorospe

2001-01-01

37

Systems Approaches and CommunitySystems Approaches and Community Approaches for Coastal PlanningApproaches for Coastal Planning  

E-print Network

ManagementBased Coastal Management 4. Integrated Impact Analysis4. Integrated Impact Analysis 5. Networking in coastal areas requires that we pay attention to a range of ecological, socio- economic, community

Charles, Anthony

38

The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

2003-01-01

39

Phosphorus cycling in a coastal marine sediment, Aarhus Bay, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in P sedimentation, sediment P release, and sediment P pools was studied in a coastal marine sediment at 16-m water depth. Net sedimentation of P amounted to 5 l-63 mmol m-2 yr- l, compared to a sediment P release of 34 mmol m-2 yr- l. The resulting deficit corresponded with a burial flux of 18 mmol P m-2

HENNING S. JENSEN; P. B. MORTENSEN; F. O. ANDERSEN; E. RASMUSSEN; A. JENSEN

1995-01-01

40

Western Regional Coastal and Marine Geology - Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Materials presented here serve to introduce the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project, an endeavour by the United States Geological Survey to produce high-resolution base maps of the sea floor. These maps are intended for use in identifying areas of erosion and deposition on the continental shelf, locating areas of geologic hazards, and locating pathways for movement of sediment and pollutants.

41

Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.  

PubMed

Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas. PMID:25201818

Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

2014-11-15

42

Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors  

E-print Network

- 1 - Coastal chalk cliff erosion: experimental investigation on the role of marine factors Jérôme of the cliff are drawn. Field observations of the coastal chalk cliff show that the vertical erosion abbreviated title : Marine factors of cliff erosion Abstract : In this paper the marine factors of erosion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Jarrett E. Byrnes1,2  

E-print Network

, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid cappedInvasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs Jarrett E. Byrnes1,2 *, Pamela L effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems

Stachowicz, Jay

44

Coastal Dune Forest Development and the Regeneration of Millipede Communities  

E-print Network

Coastal Dune Forest Development and the Regeneration of Millipede Communities Bereket H. Redi,1 to a post-mining coastal dune for- est rehabilitation program with those developing spon- taneously farther away. Key words: coastal dune forests, millipedes, regeneration, rehabilitation, succession

Pretoria, University of

45

Reproductive strategies of coastal marine fishes in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis of ethnobiological, behavioral and physical oceanographic information leads to the conclusion that temperate zone models of reproductive strategy are inapplicable to many fishes of the coastal tropics. Intense predation appears to exert heavy selection pressure on fishes that spend their adult lives in coral, mangrove or tropical seagrass communities. Many exhibit spawning behaviors and spawn at times and

Robert E. Johannes

1978-01-01

46

The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for an ecologically-relevant ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes, creating a potential connection between water and air quality in the coastal environment.

Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-12-01

47

75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...Commerce. ACTION: Notice of supplemental funding for NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration...administer the approximately 3 percent of funding that remains from the original...

2010-02-04

48

Predator decline leads to decreased stability in a coastal fish community.  

PubMed

Fisheries exploitation has caused widespread declines in marine predators. Theory predicts that predator depletion will destabilise lower trophic levels, making natural communities more vulnerable to environmental perturbations. However, empirical evidence has been limited. Using a community matrix model, we empirically assessed trends in the stability of a multispecies coastal fish community over the course of predator depletion. Three indices of community stability (resistance, resilience and reactivity) revealed significantly decreasing stability concurrent with declining predator abundance. The trophically downgraded community exhibited weaker top-down control, leading to predator-release processes in lower trophic levels and increased susceptibility to perturbation. At the community level, our results suggest that high predator abundance acts as a stabilising force to the naturally stochastic and highly autocorrelated dynamics in low trophic species. These findings have important implications for the conservation and management of predators in marine ecosystems and provide empirical support for the theory of predatory control. PMID:25224645

Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Minto, Cóilín; Ferretti, Francesco; Boero, Ferdinando; Lotze, Heike K

2014-12-01

49

Oceanic rafting by a coastal community  

PubMed Central

Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400–600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa. PMID:20843850

Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

50

USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMG) Infobank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USGS created the Infobank to educate users about the data and information collected by the Coastal and Marine Geology research group, which conducts "multidisciplinary scientific research in the coastal and offshore areas ⦠and in other waterways of the United States." The website provides numerous maps and data for bathymetry, seismology, geodetic, magnetics, and many additional data sets collected by the group. In the Activities link, users can search for field data by ID, year, platform, region, participant, or project. Visitors can utilize the Field Activity Collection System (FACS) to gather information about field activities. The website offers a link to a fantastic image-packed glossary defining earthquake-related phenomena.

51

Late Pleistocene marine transgression of North Slope coastal plain  

SciTech Connect

Two late Pleistocene marine transgressions of contrasting character are recorded by deposits of the Arctic coastal plain. Deposits of the oldest trangression extend from Harrison Bay west to near Barrow and contain a fauna that documents interglacial conditions. Five thermoluminescence (TL) dates on the marine deposits average 127 Ka and indicate a correlation with oxygen isotope stage 5e. Sedimentary structures characteristic of the swash zone occur at altitudes within the commonly accepted range (6 not equal 4m) for eustatic high sea level at that time, showing that this part of the coastal plain has been tectonically stable for the past 125,000 years. Deposits of the youngest transgression are glaciomarine sediments that contain ice-rafted erratics of Canadian provenance. They compose the flaxman member of the Gubik Formation and occur locally along the Beaufort Sea coast and inland to altitudes of about 7 m. TL dates on these sediments suggest that the Flaxman transgression occurred between 70 and 80 ka and is correlative with deposits dated to this interval that are exposed near sea level on the North Carolina coastal plain. However, the deep-sea oxygen-isotope record is commonly interpreted to indicate that sea level was below its modern position at that time. The present altitude of the Flaxman deposits cannot be attributed to tectonism because their distribution includes the part of the coastal plain determined to be tectonically stable for the past 125 ka. Isostatic depression and subsequent elevation are unlikely considering the correlative deposits of North Carolina. This paradox could be explained if enormous volumes of floating glacial ice were produced by the rapid breakup of a large part of the Laurentide ice sheet, and recent work indeed suggests that the Hudson Bay lowlands were ice free at this time.

Carter, L.D.

1985-04-01

52

Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:21408023

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

2011-01-01

53

Microarray-Based Characterization of Microbial Community Functional Structure and Heterogeneity in Marine Sediments from the Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments of coastal margins are important sites of carbon sequestration and nitrogen cycling. To determine the metabolic potential and structure of marine sediment microbial communities, two cores were collected each from the two stations (GMT at a depth of 200 m and GMS at 800 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, and six subsamples representing different depths were analyzed

Liyou Wu; Laurie Kellogg; Allan H. Devol; James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou

2008-01-01

54

National Marine Sanctuaries: Fish Communities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data tip from Bridge, the Ocean Sciences Education Teacher Resource Center archive, discusses marine sanctuaries off the coasts of Georgia, Florida, and Texas/Louisiana in the Southeastern United States. The data activity uses the REEF database to examine how habitat influences the presence or absence of certain species of fish.

2000-09-01

55

Mercury methylation dynamics in estuarine and coastal marine environments — A critical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable recent research has focused on methylmercury (MeHg) cycling within estuarine and coastal marine environments. Because MeHg represents a potent neurotoxin that may magnify in marine foodwebs, it is important to understand the mechanisms and environmental variables that drive or constrain methylation dynamics in these environments. This critical review article explores the mechanisms hypothesized to influence aqueous phase and sediment solid phase MeHg concentrations and depth-specific inorganic Hg (II) (Hg i) methylation rates (MMR) within estuarine and coastal marine environments, and discusses issues of terminology or methodology that complicate mechanism-oriented interpretation of field and laboratory data. Mechanisms discussed in this review article include: 1) the metabolic activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), the microbial group thought to dominate mercury methylation in these environments; 2) the role that Hg i concentration and/or speciation play in defining depth-specific Hg i methylation rates; and 3) the depth-dependent balance between MeHg production and consumption within the sedimentary environment. As discussed in this critical review article, the hypothesis of SRB community control on the Hg i methylation rate in estuarine and coastal marine environments is broadly supported by the literature. Although Hg i speciation, as a function of porewater inorganic sulfide and/or dissolved organic matter concentration and/or pH, may also play a role in observed variations in MMR, the nature and function of the controlling ligand(s) has not yet been adequately defined. Furthermore, although it is generally recognized that the processes responsible for MeHg production and consumption overlap spatially and/or kinetically in the sedimentary environment, and likely dictate the extent to which MeHg accumulates in the aqueous and/or sediment solid phase, this conceptual interpretation requires refinement, and would benefit greatly from the application of kinetic modeling.

Merritt, Karen A.; Amirbahman, Aria

2009-09-01

56

Trophic regulation of Vibrio cholerae in coastal marine waters.  

PubMed

Cholera disease, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, afflicts hundreds of thousands worldwide each year. Endemic to aquatic environments, V. cholerae's proliferation and dynamics in marine systems are not well understood. Here, we show that under a variety of coastal seawater conditions V. cholerae remained primarily in a free-living state as opposed to attaching to particles. Growth rates of free-living V. cholerae (micro: 0.6-2.9 day(-1)) were high (similar to reported values for the bacterial assemblages; 0.3-2.5 day(-1)) particularly in phytoplankton bloom waters. However, these populations were subject to heavy grazing-mortality by protozoan predators. Thus, grazing-mortality counterbalanced growth, keeping V. cholerae populations in check. Net population gains were observed under particularly intense bloom conditions when V. cholerae proliferated, overcoming grazing pressure terms in part via rapid growth (> 4 doublings day(-1)). Our results show V. cholerae is subject to protozoan control and capable of utilizing multiple proliferation pathways in the marine environment. These findings suggest food web effects play a significant role controlling this pathogen's proliferation in coastal waters and should be considered in predictive models of disease risk. PMID:16343318

Worden, Alexandra Z; Seidel, Michael; Smriga, Steven; Wick, Arne; Malfatti, Francesca; Bartlett, Douglas; Azam, Farooq

2006-01-01

57

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation\\u000a and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities\\u000a are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In

A. Diedrich

2007-01-01

58

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

59

Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

2012-01-01

60

Ecotoxicological characterization of marine sediment in Kostrena coastal area.  

PubMed

Samples of marine sediment were taken on 4 selected sites close to the shipyard industry in Kostrena coastal area. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe) were analyzed from chemical-analytical and toxicological aspect. For toxicity detection, the bacterial bioluminescence test (Vibrio fisheri) was used. Concentration of total PAHs varied in the range from 697 to 7807 microg/kg dry weight in marine sediments. The concentration of PCBs in sediment was 1.1 mg/kg dry weight. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found at the station within the shipyard. PAH toxicity was not correlated with the toxic potential of sediments. The obtained results indicate a high degree of environmental risk, especially at stations within the shipyard, with the 54% possibility of toxic effects. Chemical determination of the concentration of conventional pollutants is not sufficient for assessing the quality of the marine environment and it is necessary to use other approaches in order to evaluate the biological impact. PMID:23390841

Linsak, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?; Glad, Marin; Cenov, Arijana; Coklo, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Manestar, Dubravko; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir

2012-12-01

61

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era.  

PubMed

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment's complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment's reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying "omics" approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

62

Marine coastal sediments microbial hydrocarbon degradation processes: contribution of experimental ecology in the omics'era  

PubMed Central

Coastal marine sediments, where important biological processes take place, supply essential ecosystem services. By their location, such ecosystems are particularly exposed to human activities as evidenced by the recent Deepwater Horizon disaster. This catastrophe revealed the importance to better understand the microbial processes involved on hydrocarbon degradation in marine sediments raising strong interests of the scientific community. During the last decade, several studies have shown the key role played by microorganisms in determining the fate of hydrocarbons in oil-polluted sediments but only few have taken into consideration the whole sediment’s complexity. Marine coastal sediment ecosystems are characterized by remarkable heterogeneity, owning high biodiversity and are subjected to fluctuations in environmental conditions, especially to important oxygen oscillations due to tides. Thus, for understanding the fate of hydrocarbons in such environments, it is crucial to study microbial activities, taking into account sediment characteristics, physical-chemical factors (electron acceptors, temperature), nutrients, co-metabolites availability as well as sediment’s reworking due to bioturbation activities. Key information could be collected from in situ studies, which provide an overview of microbial processes, but it is difficult to integrate all parameters involved. Microcosm experiments allow to dissect in-depth some mechanisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation but exclude environmental complexity. To overcome these lacks, strategies have been developed, by creating experiments as close as possible to environmental conditions, for studying natural microbial communities subjected to oil pollution. We present here a review of these approaches, their results and limitation, as well as the promising future of applying “omics” approaches to characterize in-depth microbial communities and metabolic networks involved in hydrocarbon degradation. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. PMID:24575083

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

2014-01-01

63

Top-Down Regulation, Climate and Multi-Decadal Changes in Coastal Zoobenthos Communities in Two Baltic Sea Areas  

PubMed Central

The structure of many marine ecosystems has changed substantially during recent decades, as a result of overexploitation, climate change and eutrophication. Despite of the apparent ecological and economical importance of coastal areas and communities, this aspect has received relatively little attention in coastal systems. Here we assess the temporal development of zoobenthos communities in two areas on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast during 30 years, and relate their development to changes in climate, eutrophication and top-down regulation from fish. Both communities show substantial structural changes, with a decrease in marine polychaetes and species sensitive to increased water temperatures. Concurrently, opportunistic species tolerant to environmental perturbation have increased in abundance. Species composition show a similar temporal development in both communities and significant changes in species composition occurred in both data sets in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The change in species composition was associated with large scale changes in climate (salinity and water temperature) and to the structure of the local fish community, whereas we found no effects of nutrient loading or ambient nutrient concentrations. Our results suggest that these coastal zoobenthos communities have gone through substantial structural changes over the last 30 years, resulting in communities of different species composition with potentially different ecological functions. We hence suggest that the temporal development of coastal zoobenthos communities should be assessed in light of prevailing climatic conditions considering the potential for top-down effects exerted by local fish communities. PMID:23737998

Olsson, Jens; Bergstrom, Lena; Gardmark, Anna

2013-01-01

64

Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk  

PubMed Central

Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

65

Marine invertebrates: communities at risk.  

PubMed

Our definition of the word 'animal' centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them. PMID:24832811

Mather, Jennifer

2013-01-01

66

A coastal and marine digital library at USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

Lightsom, Fran

2003-01-01

67

The Economic Value of Resilient Coastal Communities  

E-print Network

counties were considered an individual country, they would rank number three in GDP globally, behind the U.S percent of the U.S. land area (excluding Alaska). From 1970 to 2010, U.S. population in these Coastal persons per square mile, this coastal area is currently more than four times more densely populated than U.S

68

Numerical dominance of a group of marine bacteria in the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria in coastal seawater.  

PubMed Central

A cluster of marine bacteria within the alpha-3 subclass of the class Proteobacteria accounted for up to 28% of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in seawater samples from the coast of the southeastern United States. Two independent oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rDNA of this "marine alpha" cluster indicate that the group dominates bacterioplankton communities in estuarine and nearshore regions of the southeastern U.S. coast. Marine alpha bacteria decline predictably in abundance with decreasing salinity along estuarine transsects and are not detectable in low-salinity (5%) or freshwater samples. Sequences of 16S rDNA obtained from seawater by PCR with one group-specific oligonucleotide as a primer confirm that the oligonucleotide targets only members of this phylogenetic cluster. Likewise, sequences of 16S rDNA obtained from seawater by PCR with several different pairs of nonspecific primers show an unusually high abundance of marine alpha sequences (52 to 84%) among the clones, which possibly indicates a PCR bias toward the group. Members of the marine alpha group were readily cultured from coastal seawater, accounting for 40% of the colonies isolated on low-nutrient marine agar, based on hybridizations with the group-specific 16S rDNA probe and on sequence analysis. This is the first description of a numerically dominant cluster of coastal bacteria, identified by molecular techniques, that can be readily cultured and studied in the laboratory. PMID:9361410

Gonzalez, J M; Moran, M A

1997-01-01

69

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

70

Community Education in Eastern Chinese Coastal Cities: Issues and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first reviews the development of community education in Shanghai, one of China's eastern coastal cities. Then the development of community education in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, especially its management system and operational mechanisms, school operating systems and networks, curriculum systems, and team building are presented.…

Lu, Suju

2009-01-01

71

Fine-Scale Temporal Variation in Marine Extracellular Enzymes of Coastal Southern California  

PubMed Central

Extracellular enzymes are functional components of marine microbial communities that contribute to nutrient remineralization by catalyzing the degradation of organic substrates. Particularly in coastal environments, the magnitude of variation in enzyme activities across timescales is not well characterized. Therefore, we established the MICRO time series at Newport Pier, California, to assess enzyme activities and other ocean parameters at high temporal resolution in a coastal environment. We hypothesized that enzyme activities would vary most on daily to weekly timescales, but would also show repeatable seasonal patterns. In addition, we expected that activities would correlate with nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and that most enzyme activity would be bound to particles. We found that 34–48% of the variation in enzyme activity occurred at timescales <30?days. About 28–56% of the variance in seawater nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations, and ocean currents also occurred on this timescale. Only the enzyme ?-glucosidase showed evidence of a repeatable seasonal pattern, with elevated activities in the spring months that correlated with spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern California Bight. Most enzyme activities were weakly but positively correlated with nutrient concentrations (r?=?0.24–0.31) and upwelling (r?=?0.29–0.35). For the enzymes ?-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase, most activity was bound to particles. However, 81.2% of alkaline phosphatase and 42.8% of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was freely dissolved. These results suggest that enzyme-producing bacterial communities and nutrient dynamics in coastal environments vary substantially on short timescales (<30?days). Furthermore, the enzymes that degrade carbohydrates and proteins likely depend on microbial communities attached to particles, whereas phosphorus release may occur throughout the water column. PMID:22912628

Allison, Steven D.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Hatosy, Stephen; Martiny, Adam C.

2012-01-01

72

Demographic change and shifting views about marine resources and the coastal environment in Downeast Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Connections to the sea often define the character of coastal towns. However, as migrants arrive and economic diversification\\u000a occurs, views about the use of marine resources and the ocean environment can change. Using survey data from Maine, we examined\\u000a whether shifting demographics affect public perceptions of marine resource uses and coastal environmental concerns. We tested\\u000a resource use and environmental items

Thomas G. SaffordLawrence; Lawrence C. Hamilton

73

A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited

Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang

2010-01-01

74

St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

2012-01-01

75

High tolerance of microzooplankton to ocean acidification in an Arctic coastal plankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine biota have been observed in a wide range of marine systems. We used a mesocosm approach to study the response of a high Arctic coastal microzooplankton community during the post-bloom period in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) to direct and indirect effects of high pCO2/low pH. We found almost no direct effects of OA on microzooplankton composition and diversity. Both the relative shares of ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates as well as the taxonomic composition of microzooplankton remained unaffected by changes in pCO2/pH. Although the different pCO2 treatments affected food availability and phytoplankton composition, no indirect effects (e.g. on the total carrying capacity and phenology of microzooplankton) could be observed. Our data point to a high tolerance of this Arctic microzooplankton community to changes in pCO2/pH. Future studies on the impact of OA on plankton communities should include microzooplankton in order to test whether the observed low sensitivity to OA is typical for coastal communities where changes in seawater pH occur frequently.

Aberle, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Malzahn, A. M.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2013-03-01

76

High tolerance of protozooplankton to ocean acidification in an Arctic coastal plankton community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine biota have been observed in a wide range of marine systems. We used a mesocosm approach to study the response of a high Arctic coastal protozooplankton (PZP in the following) community during the post-bloom period in the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) to direct and indirect effects of high pCO2/low pH. We found almost no direct effects of OA on PZP composition and diversity. Both, the relative shares of ciliates and heterotrophic dinoflagellates as well as the taxonomic composition of protozoans remained unaffected by changes in pCO2/pH. The different pCO2 treatments did not have any effect on food availability and phytoplankton composition and thus no indirect effects e.g. on the total carrying capacity and phenology of PZP could be observed. Our data points at a high tolerance of this Arctic PZP community to changes in pCO2/pH. Future studies on the impact of OA on plankton communities should include PZP in order to test whether the observed low sensitivity of protozoans to OA is typical for coastal communities where changes in seawater pH occur frequently.

Aberle, N.; Schulz, K. G.; Stuhr, A.; Ludwig, A.; Riebesell, U.

2012-09-01

77

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent

Joe Roman; James J. McCarthy

2010-01-01

78

Photochemical Control of Organic Carbon Availability to Coastal Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs solar radiation. In terrestrially influenced locations high concentrations of CDOM help to shield the biological community from harmful UV radiation. Although CDOM is largely biologically refractory in nature, photochemistry has the potential to transform biologically refractory carbon into more biolabile forms. Studies suggest that in marine systems, the effect of UVR on carbon availability and subsequent bacterial production varies widely, ranging from a +200% increase to a -75% decrease (Mopper and Kieber, 2002). Evidence suggests that the largely negative or “no-effect” samples are from oligotrophic waters and that terrestrially influenced samples experience a more positive effect on the biolability of carbon after irradiation. To quantify the effects of photochemistry on the biolability of DOC in a terrestrially influenced system, a quarterly sampling effort was undertaken at three estuarine locations off the coast of Georgia, USA for a total of 14 apparent quantum yield (AQY) determinations. Large expanses of salt marsh on the coast of Georgia, create a large non-point source of DOC to the coastal ocean. Sapelo Sound, the northernmost sampling site, is dominated by offshore waters and receives little to no freshwater input throughout the year. Altamaha Sound, the southernmost sampling site, is strongly influenced by the Altamaha River, which drains the largest watershed in the state of Georgia. Doboy Sound, situated between these two sites, is largely marine dominated but is influenced by fresh water during periods of high river flow. Each sample was 0.2um filter-sterilized before irradiation in a Suntest Solar Simulator; using optical filters to create 7 distinct radiance spectra in 15 samples for determination of AQY spectra for release of biolabile DOC. Irradiated samples were consequently inoculated with the natural microbial community concentrated using a three-stage filtration process to remove larger detritus and biological particles before collecting the bacterial population on a 0.2um filter, for re-suspension in a small volume of filter-sterilized seawater. To ensure eventual carbon limitation in microbial incubations, the samples were spiked with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Oxygen measurements were made as a proxy for community carbon uptake with an Ocean Optics FOXY-R fluorescence probe. Post irradiation, 15 samples were immediately sacrificed to take t=0 oxygen measurements, and the remainder were incubated in the dark for 10-12 days. Seasonal biolabile carbon photoproduction values ranged from -1.8E-2 to 9.2E-2 mol C produced/mol photons absorbed. To compare seasonal and spatial variations over this large data set, irradiations were set at a photon dose of 3.2 mol photons/m^2. Progressive photon dose experiments shows that irradiation length strongly influences the total biolabile product as assayed with microbial measurements. A conceptual model is presented to explain this dependence on photon dose. This varying dependence on photon dose is different from other photochemical products such as CO, and further complicates attempts to quantify the effect of photochemistry on the bioavailability of carbon in marine environments.

Miller, W. L.; Reader, H. E.; Powers, L. C.

2010-12-01

79

California Coastal Commission Public Education Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This education program presents materials and information designed to increase public knowledge of California's coastal and marine resources and to engage the public in coastal protection and restoration activities. Visitors may access information on programs and contests, cleanup activities, "green" boating, and grants for public marine education programs. For educators, there is a selection of classroom and community activities that addresses issues such as endangered species, marine debris, and coastal geology, as well as a curriculum of hands-on activities to help students understand the effects of marine debris on coastal wildlife and habitats. An extensive directory of links to other marine, coastal, and watershed resources is also included.

2004-12-10

80

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial viability (culturability) of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable (culturable) microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2011-09-01

81

Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection between water quality and air quality at coastal sites.

Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

2012-02-01

82

Workshop discusses community models for coastal sediment transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models of coastal sediment transport are increasingly used to address problems ranging from remediation of contaminated sediments, to siting of sewage outfalls and disposal sites, to evaluating impacts of coastal development. They are also used as a test bed for sediment-transport algorithms, to provide realistic settings for biological and geochemical models, and for a variety of other research, both fundamental and applied. However, there are few full-featured, publicly available coastal sediment-transport models, and fewer still that are well tested and have been widely applied.This was the motivation for a workshop in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on June 22-23, 2000, that explored the establishment of community models for coastal sediment-transport processes.

Sherwood, Christopher R.; Signell, Richard P.; Harris, Courtney K.; Butman, Bradford

83

Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

2013-06-15

84

Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana  

EPA Science Inventory

Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

85

Disturbance drives phylogenetic community structure in coastal dune vegetation  

E-print Network

values. We calculated phylogenetic signal for Grime's C, S and R values using Blomberg's K3 and Abouheif and evolutionary time- scales. The study region was the coastal dune area along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark the relationship between Grime's CSR values and phylogenetic community structure we correlated NRI with C, S and R

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

86

Doing tangible, applied, community based marine restoration in the U.S.: the TNC\\/CRP experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nature Conservancy's work in coastal and ocean restoration utilizes tangible, science-oriented practical conservation accomplished to a significant extent through local field sites. Recently, a Community-based Restoration Program (CRP, a partnership with NOAA) is producing innovative environmental action and results. CRP is also part of the new marine initiative at TNC which is elevating coasts and oceans to one of

R. J. Wilder

2003-01-01

87

A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a 1.5 m surface penetrating mast which currently limits the operational depth, although the core vehicle can be deployed to depths in excess of 10 m. Propulsion is accomplished with two DC brushless motors driving six wide heavy tread pneumatic wheels, three on each side. Power is provided by NiMH batteries. An onboard computer controls propulsion, navigation and communications. Guidance and navigation utilize inertial sensors, an electronic compass and a GPS unit mounted on the mast. A scientist onshore can monitor data from the scientific payload as well as command the robot through a mast-mounted radio Ethernet bridge. Standard, off the shelf oceanographic sensors such as sondes and ADCPs can easily be integrated onto the robot making it a versatile sensing platform. We have successfully deployed the vehicle off a sandy beach in Lake Michigan where it has performed lawn-mower surveys in the surf zone. LMAR's design and field test results will be presented along with a discussion of how to further harden the vehicle for deployment in storms.

Consi, T. R.

2012-12-01

88

Factors influencing prokaryotic community structure composition in sub-surface coastal sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the major influence of the marine sub-surface area in carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry, there is little known of prokaryotic distribution and community structure information of the marine sub-surface and the factors that influence sub-surface prokaryotic assemblages. We provide quantitative estimations of active Bacteria and Archaea down vertical profiles of sub-surface coastal sediments from the southern Adriatic Sea (Manfredonia Gulf). Prokaryotic biomass, carbon incorporation and the metabolically active fraction were compared with environmental, trophic, and predatory variables down 100-cm sediment cores sectioned into 21 layers. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables that can explain the variance of community compositions down vertical profiles. CARD-FISH analysis showed Bacteria dominance for the first 11 cm below sediment surface. The community then changed significantly at increasing depth, towards Archaea dominance. The models tested show that prokaryotic abundance in superficial marine sediments is controlled by organic trophic resources, while in sub-surface sediments, active prokaryotic abundance is driven by environmental factors and predatory pressure, suggesting that the shift in prokaryotic community structure could be coupled to a change in life-style of microbial assemblages.

Molari, Massimiliano; Giovannelli, Donato; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Manini, Elena

2012-01-01

89

Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics  

PubMed Central

The structure of ecological communities reflects a tension among forces that alter populations. Marine ecologists previously emphasized control by locally operating forces (predation, competition, and disturbance), but newer studies suggest that inputs from large-scale oceanographically modulated subsidies (nutrients, particulates, and propagules) can strongly influence community structure and dynamics. On New Zealand rocky shores, the magnitude of such subsidies differs profoundly between contrasting oceanographic regimes. Community structure, and particularly the pace of community dynamics, differ dramatically between intermittent upwelling regimes compared with relatively persistent down-welling regimes. We suggest that subsidy rates are a key determinant of the intensity of species interactions, and thus of structure in marine systems, and perhaps also nonmarine communities. PMID:14512513

Menge, B. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Bracken, M. E. S.; Chan, F.; Foley, M. M.; Freidenburg, T. L.; Gaines, S. D.; Hudson, G.; Krenz, C.; Leslie, H.; Menge, D. N. L.; Russell, R.; Webster, M. S.

2003-01-01

90

Marine debris ingestion by coastal dolphins: what drives differences between sympatric species?  

PubMed

This study compared marine debris ingestion of the coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis in a sympatric area in Atlantic Ocean. Among the 89 stomach contents samples of P. blainvillei, 14 (15.7%) contained marine debris. For S. guianensis, 77 stomach contents samples were analyzed and only one of which (1.30%) contained marine debris. The debris recovered was plastic material: nylon yarns and flexible plastics. Differences in feeding habits between the coastal dolphins were found to drive their differences regarding marine debris ingestion. The feeding activity of P. blainvillei is mainly near the sea bottom, which increases its chances of ingesting debris deposited on the seabed. In contrast, S. guianensis has a near-surface feeding habit. In the study area, the seabed is the main zone of accumulation of debris, and species with some degree of association with the sea bottom may be local bioindicators of marine debris pollution. PMID:24746357

Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda

2014-06-15

91

Phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial communities in marine sediments.  

PubMed

For the phylogenetic analysis of microbial communities present in environmental samples microbial DNA can be extracted from the sample, 16S rDNA can be amplified with suitable primers and the PCR, and clonal libraries can be constructed. We report a protocol that can be used for efficient cell lysis and recovery of DNA from marine sediments. Key steps in this procedure include the use of a bead mill homogenizer for matrix disruption and uniform cell lysis and then purification of the released DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. For sediments collected from two sites in Puget Sound, over 96% of the cells present were lysed. Our method yields high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable for molecular studies, including amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The DNA yield was 47 micrograms per g (dry weight) for sediments collected from creosote-contaminated Eagle Harbor, Wash. Primers were selected for the PCR amplification of (eu)bacterial 16S rDNA that contained linkers with unique 8-base restriction sites for directional cloning. Examination of 22 16S rDNA clones showed that the surficial sediments in Eagle Harbor contained a phylogenetically diverse population of organisms from the Bacteria domain (G. J. Olsen, C. R. Woese, and R. Overbeek, J. Bacteriol. 176:1-6, 1994) with members of six major lineages represented: alpha, delta, and gamma Proteobacteria; the gram-positive high G+C content subdivision; clostridia and related organisms; and planctomyces and related organisms. None of the clones were identical to any representatives in the Ribosomal Database Project small subunit RNA database. The analysis of clonal representives in the first report using molecular techniques to determine the phylogenetic composition of the (eu)bacterial community present in coastal marine sediments. PMID:8899989

Gray, J P; Herwig, R P

1996-11-01

92

MARINE KELP: ENERGY RESOURCE IN THE COASTAL ZONE  

E-print Network

the marine biomass system will be done with ships of Kelcomarine biomass system include terminals for the harvesting ships,marine farm designed by Wilcox (1975), the standing crop is har- vested by special ships

Ritschard, Ronald L.

2014-01-01

93

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their

Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

2010-01-01

94

A Guidebook to Help Coastal Sumatran Communities Prepare for Tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One way to save lives in future tsunamis in coastal Sumatran communities - where more than one million people live and where tsunamis can strike less than one half hour after the triggering earthquake - is to help these communities prepare themselves. To this end, GeoHazards International (GHI) has developed, with a team of advisors from the fields of earth science, civil engineering, emergency response management and social science, a tsunami preparedness guidebook that summarizes state-of-the-art research and worldwide experience in community tsunami preparedness. This guidebook (available at no cost on www.geohaz.org) introduces essential information about tsunamis, tsunami risk mapping, evacuation planning, community education, tsunami warning systems, and the reduction of damage that tsunamis can cause. It describes how to plan and conduct effective tsunami safety programs. Particular emphasis is placed on methods to evacuate quickly and safely all areas that could be flooded. Each section of the guidebook points to sources that provide supplementary, detailed information that may be important to particular communities. The guidebook is aimed at any person - a concerned citizen, government official, business leader, or member of a community organization - who is willing to become an advocate for local tsunami safety. Scientific expertise is not needed. GHI now seeks assistance in distributing this guidebook and in working with grassroots and international organizations to help Sumatran coastal communities use it to prepare for the next tsunami.

Samant, L.; Tobin, L. T.; Tucker, B. E.

2007-12-01

95

Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

2010-12-01

96

The role of infectious disease in marine communities: chapter 5  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine ecologists recognize that infectious diseases play and important role in ocean ecosystems. This role may have increased in some host taxa over time (Ward and Lafferty 2004). We begin this chapter by introducing infectious agents and their relationships with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents with their hosts in marine systems. We then put infectious disease agents in the perspective of marine biodiversity and discuss the various factors that affect parasites. Specifically, we introduce some basin epidemiological concepts, including the effects of stress and free-living diversity on parasites. Following this, we give brief consideration to communities of parasites within their hosts, particularly as these can lead to general insights into community ecology. We also give examples of how infectious diseases affect host populations, scaling up to marine communities. Finally, we present examples of marine infectious disease that impair conservation and fisheries.

Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

97

North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Three: Coastal Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two dozen activities on the ecology of coastal areas, with special emphasis on North Carolina's coastline, comprise this manual for junior high school science teachers. Provided are a table correlating these lessons with state curriculum guidelines, and a summary of the unit's goals and behavioral objectives. Among the topics included are coastal…

Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

98

NOAA HABITAT BLUEPRINT Healthy habitats that sustain resilient and thriving marine  

E-print Network

· Recovered threatened and endangered species · Protected coastal and marine areas and habitats at risk and coastal resources, communities, and economies. OUTCOMES · Sustainable and abundant fish populations · Resilient coastal communities · Increased coastal/marine tourism, access, and recreation PURPOSE The Habitat

99

Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

1989-10-01

100

[The marine coastal water monitoring program of the Italian Ministry of the Environment].  

PubMed

The Ministry of the Environment carries out marine and coastal monitoring programs with the collaboration of the coastal Regions. The program in progress (2001-2003), on the basis of results of the previous one, has identified 73 particulary significant areas (57 critical areas and 16 control areas). The program investigates several parameters on water, plancton, sediments, mollusks and benthos with analyses fortnightly, six-monthly and annual. The main aim of these three year monitoring programs is to assess the quality of national marine ecosystem. PMID:12820576

Di Girolamo, Irene

2003-01-01

101

Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in kenyan coral reef fishing communities.  

PubMed

Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management. PMID:25422888

Darling, Emily S

2014-01-01

102

Estuarine and coastal marine fisheries in New York State  

E-print Network

nasa.gov nasa.gov The estuarine and marine aquatic resources: - the tidal Hudson River Estuary - Long Wikipedia syzygy (three celestial bodies aligned) Moon is in 1st or 3rd quarter The Hudson River Estuary/recent introductions 85Marine strays 217Total fish in Hudson River... American shad Haul-seining · stake nets (main

Limburg, Karin E.

103

Terrestrial Sediment Delivery to Coastal and Marine Environments: US Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding terrestrial sediment dynamics in high-relief, tropical island settings, such as St. Thomas and St. John, USVI, has become a critical issue, as sediments are a potential threat to the health of down-slope environments. The primary depositional sinks of terrestrial sediments are 1) coastal buffer zones such as salt ponds, which trap sediments and keep them from being input into the marine environment, and 2) near-shore marine environments (coral reefs, seagrasses, algal flats etc.), many of which are adversely affected by terrestrial sedimentation. Land use change by anthropogenic activities has been shown to alter terrestrial sediment dynamics and greatly increase sediment delivery and accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Sediment cores collected in salt ponds and the near-shore marine environment were used to determine the sedimentology (texture and composition) and geochronology (using 14C, and 210Pb) prior to anthropogenic activities to define the "natural signal", or "baseline", as well as recent deviations from the "natural signal", which may be attributed to anthropogenic activities. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds without anthropogenic activities exhibit no deviations from the "natural signal" in sedimentology or accumulation rate. Salt pond and marine sediments in watersheds with anthropogenic activities contain a deviation from the "natural signal" manifested as an increase in accumulation rate within the last 100 yrs (most likely within the last 25-50 yrs) ranging from 3 -10 times greater than the "natural" accumulation rate. Sedimentologically, salt ponds reflect no recent change, where as marine sediments do show a recent deviation in sedimentology. This marine deviation is represented by an increase in organic content, a decrease in grain size, and a decrease in carbonate content (marine-derived) compared to the "natural signal". This change reflects an increase in terrestrial (non- carbonate, finer-grained) sediment input to the marine environment. Anthropogenic activities result in major impacts on sediment dynamics and sediment delivery to coastal and marine environments. Increased terrestrial sediment input may cause premature infilling of coastal buffer zones such as salt ponds (see companion poster, Wallace et al). Once buffer zones are completely filled, terrestrial sediments are input directly to the near-shore marine environment, increasing the threat to sensitive environments such as coral reefs and seagrasses.

Larson, R. A.; Brooks, G. R.; Devine, B.; Wallace, L. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Schwing, P. T.

2007-05-01

104

A comparison of oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate respiration in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic respiration with oxygen and anaerobic respiration with nitrate (denitrification) and sulfate (sulfate reduction) were measured during winter and summer in two coastal marine sediments (Denmark). Both aerobic respiration and denitrification took place in the oxidized surface layer, whereas sulfate reduction was most significant in the deeper, reduced sediment. The low availability of nitrate apparently limited the activity of denitrification

Jan Sørensen; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Niels Peter Revsbech

1979-01-01

105

Restoration of the Marine Ecological Environment Along the Charting Coastal Area: Chemical Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Charting coastal area is an important mariculture and fishery ground in Taiwan. Due to copper and organic pollution, mariculture has been prohibited by the Taiwan Government since the first case of green oysters appeared in this area in 1986. Growing algae in the polluted environment may improve water quality and re-establish the marine ecosystem. Since September, 1993, various algal

Tsu-Chang Hung; Pei-Jie Meng; Shu-Jen Wu; Aileen Chuang

1996-01-01

106

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

107

The Development of the Relationship between Coastal Fisheries and Marine Conservation in the Oder Estuary Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the conflicts and common interests of the coastal fishing industry and marine conservation in the Oder estuary region are analysed. The background is the author's diploma thesis about this topic in the year 2005 and a small, recently conducted survey. The 2005 survey showed that there exist many points of contact between the areas of fishery and

Lars Michaelsen

108

Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral radiometry: The Marine Optical System ROV  

E-print Network

Perot Systems Corporation, Washington, DC 4 NOAA/NESDIS/STAR, Camp Springs, Maryland 5 Marine Optical is the potential impact for life [1]. In particular, coastal waters are identified as a top priority question in the Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Focus Area, where it is necessary to understand whether these regions

McPhee-Shaw, Erika

109

Prey Selection by Marine-coastal River Otters (Lontra canadensis) in Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that diets of river otters (Lontra canadensis) vary in response to seasonal shifts in prey availability, and that they select slowly moving fish of moderate size. To test these assumptions for marine-coastal river otters in Newfoundland, Canada, we reconstructed diets and estimated body length of important fish prey through analysis of otoliths and other hard parts

D. Cote; H. M. J. STEWART; R. S. Gregory; J. Gosse; J. J. Reynolds; G. B. Stenson; E. H. Miller

2008-01-01

110

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q  

E-print Network

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals q Nathan D, Lighthouse Field Station, Cromarty, Ross-shire IV11 8YL, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Ship noise energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-develop- ment baseline, and to develop ship noise

Aberdeen, University of

111

Kinetics of manganese adsorption, desorption, and oxidation in coastal marine sediments  

E-print Network

Kinetics of manganese adsorption, desorption, and oxidation in coastal marine sediments Dominique´bec a` Rimouski, Que´bec, Canada Abstract Ejection of excavated manganese (Mn)-laden particles from disturbances triggers desorption and oxidation of reduced manganese species. These competing reactions

Beaudoin, Georges

112

Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem. PMID:17334056

Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

2006-12-01

113

The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

Diedrich, A.

2007-12-01

114

A comparison of non-hydrolytic methods for extracting amino acids and proteins from coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in analytical techniques now allow for the potential analysis of intact peptides and proteins isolated from marine sediments. However, there is no established technique for the extraction of macromolecular materials from marine sediments. Six different methods for extracting the amino acid component from coastal marine sediments were compared to the standard hot acid hydrolysis technique for their percent recovery

Brook L. Nunn; Richard G. Keil

2006-01-01

115

The effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications to a semi-enclosed  

E-print Network

rights reserved. Keywords: Marine eutrophication; Nutrient enrichment; Non-point pollution; MediterraneanThe effects of episodic rainfall events to the dynamics of coastal marine ecosystems: applications of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, Sapfous 5, 81100 Mytilene, Greece Received 11 January 2001

Arhonditsis, George B.

116

Ecological and biogeochemical aspects of microbial degradation of phenolic materials in the California coastal marine environment  

SciTech Connect

Phenolic materials are found in numerous environments, particularly in coastal environments due to anthropogenic pollution, in situ production by marine organisms, and from riverine humic materials flowing into estuaries. They are used as model compounds for the study of microbially mediated organic carbon dynamics in coastal systems. To determine the rates and utilization dynamics of phenolic materials by coastal marine bacteria, a sequential approach was used in which marine bacteria were first assayed to determine their ability to utilize phenolics, various sites in the California coastal zone were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for phenolic materials, a method was developed to determine microbial utilization rates of phenolic materials and finally, utilization rates of p-cresol were determined at ambient concentrations. Phenol, cresol isomers (o-, m-, and p-), catechols, and methoxyphenols were the predominant phenolic materials identified. Concentrations ranged from about 2.5 to 370 ng[center dot]1[sup [minus]1]. Biodegradation rates of p-cresol were measured in five coastal areas. Rates of microbial utilization were high, up to 35.5 ng[center dot]1[sup [minus]1][center dot]hr[sup [minus]1] in San Francisco Bay. Turnover times were calculated using the measured ambient concentration of p-cresol and ranged from 1.72 hours (San Francisco Bay) to 37 hours (at Spanish Landing in San Diego Bay). Utilization kinetics indicated microbial degradation of more complex, humic type material containing phenolic moieties. It is concluded biodegradation of phenolic compounds plays a major role in the biogeochemistry of organic materials in coastal marine environments. Rates for the breakdown of the phenolic component of humic materials in estuarine environments indicate that microbially mediated turnover times are considerably faster than for other means suggested, such as photodegradation or sedimentation.

Boyd, T.J.

1993-01-01

117

Nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off northeastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off Northeastern Taiwan. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the analyzed elements in copepods are discussed. Owing to the upwelling intrusion of Kuroshio Water, the study area presented an enriched copepod community and the copepod abundance ranged within 106-4890 ind. m-3. The trace elements content in the analyzed copepods varied substantially, ranging from 0.01 to 780 mg kg-1. and the average concentration followed the sequence: Sr>Fe>Zn>Cr>Li>Ni>Mn>Ba>Cu>Se>As>V>Pb>Rb>Cd>Co>Ga>Ag>Cs. The trace elements can be divided into five groups according to the concentration quantity in copepods: (1) Sr; (2) Fe, Zn, Cr, Li and Ni; (3) Mn, Cu, Ba, Se, As, V, Pb and Rb; (4) Cd, Co and Ga; (5) Ag and Cs. The concentration difference in each group is nearly one order of magnitude. The trace element concentrations in copepods seem to be in proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater. The trace element log BCF values ranged within 1.32-5.66. Transition metals generally have a higher BCF value than the associated minor elements, such as Ba, Sr, Li and Rb. The trace element BCF value in copepods is in inverse proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater.

Fang, Tien-Hsi; Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Nan, Fan-Hua

2014-12-01

118

Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

2013-02-01

119

Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation. PMID:23045668

Ghiglione, Jean-Francois; Galand, Pierre E.; Pommier, Thomas; Pedros-Alio, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W.; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchman, David L.; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L.; Murray, Alison E.

2012-01-01

120

Coastal Habitats as Surrogates for Taxonomic, Functional and Trophic Structures of Benthic Faunal Communities  

PubMed Central

Due to human impact, there is extensive degradation and loss of marine habitats, which calls for measures that incorporate taxonomic as well as functional and trophic aspects of biodiversity. Since such data is less easily quantifiable in nature, the use of habitats as surrogates or proxies for biodiversity is on the rise in marine conservation and management. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge of whether pre-defined habitat units adequately represent the functional and trophic structure of communities. We also lack comparisons of different measures of community structure in terms of both between- (?) and within-habitat (?) variability when accounting for species densities. Thus, we evaluated a priori defined coastal habitats as surrogates for traditional taxonomic, functional and trophic zoobenthic community structure. We focused on four habitats (bare sand, canopy-forming algae, seagrass above- and belowground), all easily delineated in nature and defined through classification systems. We analyzed uni- and multivariate data on species and trait diversity as well as stable isotope ratios of benthic macrofauna. A good fit between habitat types and taxonomic and functional structure was found, although habitats were more similar functionally. This was attributed to within-habitat heterogeneity so when habitat divisions matched the taxonomic structure, only bare sand was functionally distinct. The pre-defined habitats did not meet the variability of trophic structure, which also proved to differentiate on a smaller spatial scale. The quantification of trophic structure using species density only identified an epi- and an infaunal unit. To summarize the results we present a conceptual model illustrating the match between pre-defined habitat types and the taxonomic, functional and trophic community structure. Our results show the importance of including functional and trophic aspects more comprehensively in marine management and spatial planning. PMID:24167635

Tornroos, Anna; Nordstrom, Marie C.; Bonsdorff, Erik

2013-01-01

121

Atmospheric Deposition and Nitrogen Pollution in Coastal Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first appreciation of the widespread occurrence of acid rain in North America (Likens and Bormann 1974), most public attention has focused on the acid component rather than effects from the associated elements in atmospheric\\u000a deposition. The emphasis has been on freshwater ecosystems and forests in sensitive regions with relatively low buffering\\u000a capacity. Effects of acid deposition on coastal

Robert W. Howarth

122

Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand marine phenology.

Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R. B.

2014-01-01

123

Lipids as indicators of eutrophication in marine coastal sediments.  

PubMed

Total organic carbon (TOC) and sedimentary lipid contents were investigated in the Bunnefjord, the most inner part of the Oslofjord (Norway). The Bunnefjord is an intermittent anoxic basin and has undergone major eutrophication since the early 1800s. A core from this fjord was collected at 100 m depths under anoxic remnant waters. The first 15 cm corresponding to deposits from 1500 to present were considered for analysis. Lipid classes were quantified by TLC-FID and the molecular composition of selected lipid classes was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Lipids were dominated by two main classes, phospholipids and hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons represented up to 7.4% of total lipids in the sediment layers covering the period when the most extensive cultural eutrophication took place (1900 to 1970). The higher fluxes of organic carbon produced during this period may have controlled hydrocarbon inputs into the sediments, due to the hydrophobic character of these pollutants. The hydrocarbon concentration reversed toward pre-industrial levels in the more recent layers, which suggests an improvement of the water quality, possibly in response to improved treatment of the sewage in the cities around Bunnefjord. The second most abundant pool of lipids consists in phospholipids, mostly contributed by bacteria. Even though the concentration decreased with depth, their relative proportions to total lipids remained high, mainly in the deepest layers (>80% of total lipids). A rapid decrease of the polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from the phospholipid fraction in the upper 4 cm suggests a rapid biodegradation of planktonic inputs and meiofauna. Odd branched fatty acids were more probably contributed by bacteria linked to the high sedimentary hydrocarbon content. The down core distribution of 16:1omega7, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega5 esterified to phospholipids suggests a vertical zonation of the microbial community in relation to redox conditions and available organic matter. In addition to bacterial sulphur biomass, the presence of hopanoic acids in the phospholipids fraction suggests the contribution of bacteria growing on methane. According to the sterol composition, dominated by 4alpha(H)-methylsterols, dinoflagellates represent the major contributors to the organic matter produced in the water column, particularly during the period of extensive eutrophication. Long-chain diols (1,13-C(26), 1,15-C(30) and 1,15-C(32)) and long-chain keto-ols (1,15-C(30) and 1,15-C(32)) are reported for the first time at high latitudes. Their relative distributions (diol and keto-ol indexes of Versteegh et al. [Org. Geochem. 27 (1997)]) have allowed depicting a particular event during the eutrophication period, a freshwater intrusion with inputs of land-derived organic matter. This is in accordance with the downcore distribution of freshwater/terrestrial markers as sitosterol, dehydroabietic acid and iso- and anteiso-pimaric acids. The diol and keto-ol indexes have also underlined the general transition trend from marine to more brackish waters in the Bunnefjord. These last observations provide confidence into the use of these compounds in paleoenvironmental reconstruction. PMID:11777572

Pinturier-Geiss, L; Méjanelle, L; Dale, B; Karlsen, D A

2002-02-01

124

J. Zool., Lond. (1996) 238, 703 712 Millipede communities in rehabilitating coastal dune forests  

E-print Network

J. Zool., Lond. (1996) 238, 703 712 Millipede communities in rehabilitating coastal dune forests figure in the text) The rehabilitation. aftcr mining. or coastal sand dunes north or Richards Bay hyI' a known-aged series of stands representative or coastal dune ["orest suceesslun. A survey of the millipede

Pretoria, University of

125

Curriculum Vitae Christien Laber Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

) ­ Mote Marine Laboratory Research: 2011-present: The influence of viral infection on the optical University. May-August 2010: Influence of pigment packaging on phytoplankton light scattering, Laboratory ­ The Scientific Research Society 2010: Induction into Beta Beta Beta ­ National Biological Honor Society 2009

126

Linda V. Godfrey Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

E-print Network

1993): Carbon and nitrogen cycling through marine ecosystems contained within mesocosms under different. RESEARCH INTERESTS Evolution of the nitrogen cycle over geological time; light stable and radiogenic University (July 2003 to present). I have been investigating changes in the nitrogen cycle using isotopes

Falkowski, Paul G.

127

SYNTHESES The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven directly by temperature. However, recent work has revealed that both abiotic changes and biological

Christopher D. G. Harley; A. Randall Hughes; Kristin M. Hultgren; Benjamin G. Miner; Cascade J. B. Sorte; Carol S. Thornber; Laura F. Rodriguez; Lars Tomanek; Susan L. Williams

2006-01-01

128

Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?  

PubMed

Bulk modulus of elasticity (?), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ? and comparatively low osmotic potential (??) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in ??, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ? to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ?, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ? and ?? in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ? values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ? values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower ??, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (?sym), we did observe higher ?sym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low ?sym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ? and lower ??, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

2014-01-01

129

The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin  

PubMed Central

It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

2010-01-01

130

Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. PMID:24279956

Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

2014-01-15

131

Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.  

PubMed

This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan. PMID:18800202

Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

2008-12-01

132

Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

2008-12-01

133

Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

2012-08-01

134

Marine subsidies have multiple effects on coastal food webs.  

PubMed

The effect of resource subsidies on recipient food webs has received much recent attention. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of significant seasonal seaweed deposition events, caused by hurricanes and other storms, on species inhabiting subtropical islands. The seaweed represents a pulsed resource subsidy that is consumed by amphipods and flies, which are eaten by lizards and predatory arthropods, which in turn consume terrestrial herbivores. Additionally, seaweed decomposes directly into the soil under plants. We added seaweed to six shoreline plots and removed seaweed from six other plots for three months; all plots were repeatedly monitored for 12 months after the initial manipulation. Lizard density (Anolis sagrei) responded rapidly, and the overall average was 63% higher in subsidized than in removal plots. Stable-isotope analysis revealed a shift in lizard diet composition toward more marine-based prey in subsidized plots. Leaf damage was 70% higher in subsidized than in removal plots after eight months, but subsequent damage was about the same in the two treatments. Foliage growth rate was 70% higher in subsidized plots after 12 months. Results of a complementary study on the relationship between natural variation in marine subsidies and island food web components were consistent with the experimental results. We suggest two causal pathways for the effects of marine subsidies on terrestrial plants: (1) the "fertilization effect" in which seaweed adds nutrients to plants, increasing their growth rate, and (2) the "predator diet shift effect" in which lizards shift from eating local prey (including terrestrial herbivores) to eating mostly marine detritivores. PMID:20503874

Spiller, David A; Piovia-Scorr, Jonah; Wright, Amber N; Yang, Louie H; Takimoto, Gaku; Schoener, Thomas W; Iwata, Tomoya

2010-05-01

135

Understanding and mitigating tsunami risk for coastal structures and communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis have attracted the world's attention over the last decade due to their destructive power and the vast areas they can affect. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, killed more than 200,000 people, and the 2011 Great Tohoku Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, resulted in 15,000 deaths and an estimated US $300B in damage, are recent examples. An improved understanding of tsunamis and their interactive effects on the built environment will significantly reduce loss of life in tsunamis. In addition, it is important to consider both the effect of the earthquake ground motion and the tsunami it creates for certain coastal regions. A numerical model to predict structural behavior of buildings subjected to successive earthquakes and the tsunamis was developed. Collapse fragilities for structures were obtained by subjecting a structure to a suite of earthquake ground motions. After each motion the numerically damaged structural model was subjected to tsunami wave loading as defined by FEMA P646. This approach was then extended to the community level; a methodology to determine the probability of fatalities for a community as a function of the number of vertical evacuation shelters was computed. Such an approach also considered the location and number of vertical evacuation sites as an optimization problem. Both the single structure cases and the community analyses were presented in terms of fragilities as a function of the earthquake intensity level and evacuation time available. It is envisioned that the approach may be extended to any type of structure as they are typically modeled nonlinearly with strength and stiffness degradation. A logical fragility-based, or performance-based, procedure for vertical evacuation for coastal buildings and for whole communities was developed. A mechanism to obtain a reduction in the collapse risk of structure and more critically maximize the survival rate for a community was a major outcome of this dissertation. The proposed tsunami vertical evacuation methodology was intended to provide key information to better understand and mitigate risk caused by earthquakes and tsunamis, thus it is possible to mitigate hazard for a community with only several large vertical evacuation shelters. It is able to provide a framework for a vertical evacuation plan and for the mitigation of collapse risk and fatalities of structures and a community based on a limited amount of information.

Park, Sangki

136

Coastal Ecosystem Effects of Climate Change (CEECC) Coastal and marine ecosystems are intimately  

E-print Network

Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and the Coral Reef Conservation Act, NOAA is mandated to protect warming events, with implications for coral reef bleaching; Changes in precipitation that alter freshwater reefs. Completion of the North Carolina project is projected in 2008, and we are currently planning

137

Coastal Community Adaptation to Future Potential Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research project aims to determine the physical and economic resilience of coastal communities. This translates into identifying how such communities can adapt to potential future climate change in the most efficient cost effective way. Fleetwood in Lancashire has been chosen as a case study site, with recently refurbished sea defences. This research is interested in the best way to maintain resilience of the defences over long time horizons and against low probability high impact events as the coastal defences deteriorate. We assess coastal flood risk using a flood inundation model called LISFLOOD-FP, this is a 2D hydrodynamic model designed to simulate flood inundation over complex topography. LISFLOOD-FP predicts water depths in each grid cell at each time step, simulating the dynamic propagation of flood waves over fluvial, coastal and estuarine floodplains. The model is forced at the boundary with an extreme water level that has a defined probability of occurring, e.g. 1 in 100 years. This is combined with a scaled surge curve for the area, a high spring tidal curve and the addition of a sea level rise parameter, which is dependent on the defined time horizon and future carbon emissions scenarios. LISFLOOD-FP has been extended to simulate wave over-topping of sea defences, this is achieved by using a Shallow Water And Boussinesq (SWAB) 1D model which models wave over-topping of sea defences. The outputs from this model can be added into LISFLOOD as a flow of water that originates from the top of the sea defences and simulates the over topping. The simulation has also been extended further by adding a river component. The flow within the river channel has been added into the model as a 1D vector with bed elevation and width, the river flow vector consists of a hydro-graph of a high flow event. Return period analysis will be applied to the river peaks over threshold data and the example hydro-graph can then be tailored to the peak return period flow rate. Combining all these inputs; storm surges, rivers and waves will give the best simulation of what inundation could occur at varying levels of sea level rise, extreme water return period, wave return period and river flow rate. Preliminary results show that river flow rates do not have a big impact on coastal flood inundation area. Waves increase the impact of sea level rise due to over-topping occurring sooner, for longer, and more frequently. They will also increase the rate of deterioration of sea defences due to increased erosion rates; this will have an effect on maintaining resilience. The flood risk maps that are produced will later be used in to perform a real options multi-objective optimisation study. This approach will find the optimal adaptive strategy for maintaining the resilience of the coastal community.

Prime, Thomas

2014-05-01

138

Coastal Marsh Sediments from Bodega Harbor: Archives of Environmental Changes at the Terrestrial-Marine Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal marsh sediments provide an important archive of environmental changes at the terrestrial-marine interface. Over the last century, humans have significantly altered the coastal environment near Bodega Bay, California, through changes in hydrology, sediment sources, and the dominant ecosystem. Previous investigations of recent coastal marsh sediments (< 50 years) suggest that physical barriers, such as roads, which limit the connection between Bodega Bay and the marshes, alters biogeochemical cycling (including carbon storage) in the coastal environment. The present study extends the record of changes in biogeochemical cycling in the coastal marshes back more than 100 years (approximately 90 cm) through the use of grain size analysis, C and N isotopes, and age dating. Sediments were analyzed for grain size distribution, the amount of carbon and nitrogen, and the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in 1 cm intervals throughout the core. In addition, a subset of eight samples was analyzed for sediment age using a combination of Pb-210 and Cs-137 techniques. Sediments from >40 cm and <55 cm depth have a higher percentage of fine-grained sediment (>2%). In addition, these sediments also contain higher levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen, higher C:N ratios, we well as heavier carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. The sediments likely correspond to a pre-1900 depositional environment based on Pb-210 dates, when development in the region was increasing. These results suggest a stronger influence of the marine environment during that time. Interestingly, smaller transitions in sediment properties toward what appears to reflect a more marine environment also occur near the top of the core (<10 cm depth) and near the bottom of the core (>75 cm depth). Although these transitions are less pronounced, the significant shift in sediment properties suggests a less stable environment with greater communication between the terrestrial and marine environments. Results from this investigation suggest that the Bodega Bay coastal marshes are continually evolving in response to environmental changes, and insights from this research will lead to greater understanding of the impacts of increasing population, construction, and changing vegetation and hydrology on the coastal environment.

Rademacher, L. K.; Rong, Y.; Hill, T. M.; Hiromoto, C.; Fisher, A.

2010-12-01

139

Report of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Modeling Workshop, Pacific Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA, March 22-23, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Modeling Workshop was held to discuss the general topic of coastal modeling, defined broadly to include circulation, waves, sediment transport, water quality, ecology, sediment diagenesis, morphology change, and coastal evolution, on scales ranging from seconds and a few centimeters (individual ripples) to centuries (coastal evolution) and thousands of kilometers (tsunami propagation). The workshop was convened at the suggestion of CMG Program Management to improve communication among modelers and model users, assess modeling-related activities being conducted at the three centers (Florida Integrated Science Center, FISC; Pacific Marine Science Center; PMSC; and Woods Hole Science Center; WHSC), and develop goals, strategies, and plans for future modeling activities. The workshop represents a step toward developing a five-year strategic plan, and was timed to provide input for the FY06 prospectus. The workshop was held at the USGS Pacific Marine Science Center in Santa Cruz on March 22-23, 2005.

Sherwood, Christopher R.

2006-01-01

140

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception,  

E-print Network

Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms, and Adaptation Committee #12;2 #12;Coastal Communities and Climate Change: A Dynamic Model of Risk Perception, Storms assessments, which will inform policymakers as they craft climate policies. In particular, I present more

de Weck, Olivier L.

141

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste  

E-print Network

Title: Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Options for Coastal Communities in Timor-Leste Summary Climate change is a major global challenge, particularly for world's coastal communities in low 2008, Kelman & West 2009, Veitayaki 2010). Within these regions, climate change impacts are already

142

Nonlinear dynamics of the coastal zone with applications to marine hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear dynamics of the coastal zone is studied theoretically and experimentally and applied to different types of marine hazards, such as tsunami, rogue waves, ship-induced waves and storm surges. Theoretically, the coast is represented by gentle beach or by a sea wall, and the process of runup of different wave types (characteristic single waves, random wave field, wave trains) is studied for these two cases. The data of field and laboratory experiments are used to validate the results.

Didenkulova, Ira

2014-05-01

143

Climate change impacts on U.S. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global\\u000a air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001)\\u000a was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector\\u000a review of

Donald Scavia; John C. Field; Donald F. Boesch; Robert W. Buddemeier; Virginia Burkett; Daniel R. Cayan; Michael Fogarty; Mark A. Harwell; Robert W. Howarth; Curt Mason; Denise J. Reed; Thomas C. Royer; Asbury H. Sallenger; James G. Titus

2002-01-01

144

Eutrophication and the rate of denitrification and NâO production in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large (13 m³, 5 m deep) microcosms with coupled pelagic and benthic components were used to measure the effect of nutrient loading and eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems on the rates of benthic denitrification (Nâ) and NâO production. After 3 months or daily nutrient addition, average denitrification rates ranged from about 300 ..mu..mol N m⁻² h⁻¹ in the sediments of

SYBIL P. SEITZINGER; SCOTT W. NIXON

1985-01-01

145

Understanding the role of organic aerosol in the coastal and remote Pacific marine boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected over three field experiments in the remote and coastal marine boundary layer of the eastern Pacific Ocean from aircraft, ship, and stationary platforms and were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy with Near-Edge Absorption Fine Structure (STXM-NEXAFS) for organic functional groups and organic mass fragments.

Lelia Nahid Hawkins

2010-01-01

146

A bio-physical coastal ecosystem model for assessing environmental effects of marine bivalve aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple lower trophic level, bio-physical marine ecosystem model is developed for the purpose of assessing the environmental effects of bivalve aquaculture in coastal embayments. The ecosystem box model includes pelagic and benthic components and describes the cycling of a most-limiting nutrient. The pelagic compartment is comprised of phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients and detritus. These populations interact following predator–prey dynamics and

Michael Dowd

2005-01-01

147

A multicomponent reactive transport model of early diagenesis: Application to redox cycling in coastal marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

STEADYSED is a multicomponent reactive transport code for steady-state early diagenesis which fully incorporates the reaction couplings among the elements, C, O, N, S, Fe, and Mn. The model is tested against extensive datasets collected by Canfield et al. (1993a,b) at three coastal marine sites that exhibit high rates of combined iron and manganese (hydr)oxide reduction. It is shown that

Yifeng Wang; Philippe Van Cappellen

1996-01-01

148

Screening for marine nanoplanktic microalgae from Greek coastal lagoons (Ionian Sea) for use in mariculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediterranean mariculture uses imported strains of marine phytoplankton, raising questions of ecological risk and ability\\u000a to adapt to local conditions for mass culture outdoors. In this context, we report here on the mass-culture potential and\\u000a chemical composition of six strains of Prasinophyceae (five strains of Tetraselmis sp. and one Pyramimonas sp.) isolated from a Greek coastal lagoon. Proximate composition had

I. Tzovenis; E. Fountoulaki; N. Dolapsakis; I. Kotzamanis; I. Nengas; I. Bitis; Y. Cladas; A. Economou-Amilli

2009-01-01

149

Body size–abundance distributions of nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds in coastal marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on body size–abundance distributions of nano- and micro-phytoplankton guilds in coastal marine areas of the Southern Adriatic–Ionian region. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of common patterns of body size–abundance distributions in relation to physical, chemical and biological environmental forcing factors and to taxonomic composition of phytoplankton guilds. This paper is based on

Letizia Sabetta; Annita Fiocca; Lucia Margheriti; Fabio Vignes; Alberto Basset; Olga Mangoni; Gian Carlo Carrada; Nicoletta Ruggieri; Carmela Ianni

2005-01-01

150

Influence of deglaciation on microbial communities in marine sediments off the coast of Svalbard, Arctic Circle.  

PubMed

Increases in global temperatures have been shown to enhance glacier melting in the Arctic region. Here, we have evaluated the effects of meltwater runoff on the microbial communities of coastal marine sediment located along a transect of Temelfjorden, in Svalbard. As close to the glacier front, the sediment properties were clearly influenced by deglaciation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that the sediment microbial communities of the stations of glacier front (stations 188-178) were distinguishable from that of outer fjord region (station 176). Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that total carbon and calcium carbonate in sediment and chlorophyll a in bottom water were key factors driving the change of microbial communities. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries suggested that microbial diversity was higher within the glacier-proximal zone (station 188) directly affected by the runoffs than in the outer fjord region. While the crenarchaeotal group I.1a dominated at station 176 (62%), Marine Benthic Group-B and other Crenarchaeota groups were proportionally abundant. With regard to the bacterial community, alpha-Proteobacteria and Flavobacteria lineages prevailed (60%) at station 188, whereas delta-Proteobacteria (largely sulfate-reducers) predominated (32%) at station 176. Considering no clone sequences related to sulfate-reducers, station 188 may be more oxic compared to station 176. The distance-wise compositional variation in the microbial communities is attributable to their adaptations to the sediment environments which are differentially affected by melting glaciers. PMID:21556884

Park, Soo-Je; Park, Byoung-Joon; Jung, Man-Young; Kim, So-Jeong; Chae, Jong-Chan; Roh, Yul; Forwick, Matthias; Yoon, Ho-Il; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2011-10-01

151

U.S. Geological Survey: Coastal and Marine Geology Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologists, meteorologists, disaster specialists and others will find much to engage their attention on this website. Created by the United States Geological Survey, this site provides succinct overviews of a range of topics from the National Coastal Program Plan to El Nino, erosion, and sea-level change. Teachers should click on the drop down Content Type menu to access the Educational Materials area. Here they will find over 100 resources that highlight ocean mapping projects, core geology work, and ocean acidification. Visitors may also browse through these resources looking for movies, maps, data sets, photographs, and more. Additionally, visitors can learn about the program's field centers, located in St. Petersburg, Woods Hole, and Menlo Park.

2012-02-28

152

Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System: images portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System promotes quantitative Earth Science education with models through its images portal, which has collections of images of terrestrial, coastal, and marine environments.

System, Community S.

153

Introduction 1 I. Conservation and Use of Living Marine Resources 2  

E-print Network

aquaculture and fisheries, build more resilient coastal communities and probe the effects of ocean and Seabirds 2 Pacific Salmon 3 Fisheries Management 4 Marine Aquaculture and Shellfish Harvests 5 Geoduck Aquaculture 7 II. Sustainable and Resilient Coastal Communities 8 Marine Business Support 8 Coastal

Hochberg, Michael

154

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China  

E-print Network

Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas reclamation. Abstract The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

155

MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

2010-12-01

156

Marine Metadata Interoperability: A Community Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of independent metadata projects throughout the ocean science community, each developing some combination of standards, tools, and ontologies. Some are project-specific, and others address entire disciplines. Few of these efforts have engaged the wider ocean science community, or provided a coordinated set of resources that can guide the development of distributed, integrated and interoperable ocean-data systems.

J. B. Graybeal; S. Watson; P. S. Bogden

2004-01-01

157

Pathogenic marine vibrio species in selected Nova Scotian recreational coastal waters.  

PubMed

Seven heavily frequented coastal recreation sites serving Metropolitan Halifax and Dartmouth were investigated to determine the numbers and species of pathogenic marine vibrios (PMV) present. Seawater, mussels and sea gull feces were cultured using quantitative methods and the effects of temperature and fecal pollution noted. Emergency rooms serving the sites under surveillance were monitored for PMV-related infections. All 11 recognized species of pathogenic marine vibrios were recovered from the 7 sites. Estuarine sites yielded a greater variety of species and greater numbers of PMV than non-estuarine sites. Culture of hand washings after immersion in seawater did not demonstrate contamination of skin by PMV. We did not demonstrate any cases of PMV infection associated with the 7 surveillance sites. PMV contamination of marine recreational waters does not frequently result in superficial infections. PMID:2207947

Badley, A; Phillips, B; Haldane, D J; Dalton, M T

1990-01-01

158

Multielement compositions of marine phytoplankton samples from coastal areas of Japan by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton samples were collected during spring bloom of diatoms from three coastal areas of Japan using a NORPAC P-25 net (25-micron opening) with a NGG52 prenet (335-micron opening), and 25 major and trace elements have been analyzed by INAA. Concentration ranges of analyzed phytoplankton samples are much wider than the concentration ranges compiled by Bowen (1979) except for As, and data of marine phytoplankton samples for Br, Sb, Hf, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, and Eu were not included in the compilation. The 25 analyzed elements have been categorized into three groups: elements showing positive correlation with Br, positive correlation with Al, and no positive correlation with Br or Al. The marine phytoplankton samples have been plotted on a Masuzawa-Koyama-Terazaki (MKT) plot and it proved that the MKT plot is applicable to marine phytoplankton samples. PMID:10676508

Masuzawa, T; Suzuki, T; Seki, K; Kosugi, T; Hibi, Y; Yamamoto, M; Takada, J; Matsushita, R; Yanada, M

1999-01-01

159

The sociological perspective in coastal management and geoengineering approach: effects of hydraulic structures on the resilience of fishing communities (NW Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coast plays an important role in global transportation and is the most popular tourist destination around the world. During the years coastal scientists "walking on the shore", have tried to understand the shoreline in relation to the processes that shape it, and its interrelationships with the contiguous superficial marine and terrestrial hinterland environments. Those factors encourage the need for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), because of its possible use in identifying coastal management issues to take into account in policy strategies, measures and planning. Therefore this research presents an integrated strategy and a holistic approach to researching and studying coastal areas involving a wide number of sciences including sociology. Because of the numerous types of hazards in coastal areas the only possible response involves a holistic, integrated and long term approach. Combining marine sociological research, resilience and flexibility of a particular coastal community with other scientific fields will help to understand and manage marine social problems. This study also shows an integrative and "eclectic" methodology and adapts it to coastal management. Hence a new integrated coastal geoengineering approach for maritime environments was proposed, which is the core foundation of this approach. Also it was important to incorporate in a broader sense coastal geosciences and geoengineering GIS mapping to this final equation resulting in conceptual models. In Portugal there are several areas buffeted by sea invasions, coastal erosion and severe storms. The Portuguese coastal zone is one of Europe's most vulnerable regarding coastal erosion. The case study presented herein is an example of one of the most vulnerable sites in Portugal in terms of coastal erosion and sea invasions and how the meeting of local fishing community and coastal projects are extremely important. The coastal stretch between Figueira da Foz and Espinho (Centre and NW Portugal) case shows the link between governance - stakeholders - contractors - researchers - local community as a necessary management strategy and more, such as the holistic synergy. It defined a "social mesh" embracing a platform or a project which comprises different vectors and combines social aspects, economic factors, culture and heritage with activities, upgrading the traditions in fishing communities, to somehow forget and accept the sea invasions and the hard solutions like coastal protection structures (e.g. groynes, seawalls) as well as the reinforcement and requalification of the urban areas and the improvement in the seashore area. In the course of this project and during this period, the community worked as a live laboratory and as an experimental field. The study takes advantage of GIS tools to contribute to the understanding of the geomorphological dynamics of Espinho (NW Portugal) presented here as one of the examples (already addressed by the authors in several publications and works). This type of framework can be adapted and applied in other geographical settings and other coastal environments to develop innovative sustainability paths and help to solve coastal issues.

Rocha, Fernando; Pires, Ana; Chamine, Helder

2014-05-01

160

The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal radar network represent a challenge to the nowadays definition of OGC web services: the network will suggest and test solutions.

Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

2014-05-01

161

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.  

PubMed

Nine species of marine fish, including teleost fishes, sharks, and stingrays, and two species of marine mammals (dolphins) collected from Florida coastal waters were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate biomagnification factors (BMF) of these contaminants in a coastal foodweb. In addition, bottlenose dolphins and bull sharks collected from the Florida coast during the 1990s and the 2000s were analyzed for evaluation of temporal trends in PBDE and PCB levels in coastal ecosystems. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle tissues of teleost fishes ranged from 8.0 ng/g, lipid wt (in silver perch), to 88 ng/g, lipid wt (in hardhead catfish), with an overall mean concentration of 43 +/- 30 ng/g, lipid wt. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle of sharks ranged from 37.8 ng/g, lipid wt, in spiny dogfish to 1630 ng/g, lipid wt, in bull sharks. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins and striped dolphins were 1190 +/- 1580 and 660 ng/g, lipid wt, respectively. Tetra-BDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-) was the major congener detected in teleost fishes and dolphin samples, followed by BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-100, and BDE-154. In contrast, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in sharks. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in dolphins and sharks were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those in lower trophic-level fish species, indicating biomagnification of both of these contaminants in the marine foodweb. Based on the analysis of sharks and dolphins collected over a 10-year period, an exponential increase in the concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs has occurred in these marine predators. The doubling time of PBDE and PCB concentrations was estimated to be 2-3 years for bull sharks and 3-4 years for bottlenose dolphin. PMID:16294860

Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Addink, Rudolf; Adams, Douglas H

2005-11-01

162

Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes. PMID:22834535

2012-01-01

163

Do anthropogenic, continental or coastal aerosol sources impact on a marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head north-east (NE) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station compared to that of aerosol over the pristine open-ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to potentially enhanced coastal sources, possibly leading to artificially high values of aerosol concentrations, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic or continental aerosol and its potential dominance over, or perturbation of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here, we review the results of previous experimental studies on marine aerosols over the NE Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of a pristine open-ocean aerosol, i.e. with negligible anthropogenic/continental influence. Particular focus is given to submicron organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) in marine air conforming to clean-air sampling criteria, either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations, up to observed peak values of 3.8 ?g m-3, are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing techniques corroborate the conclusion that there is a predominant natural source of OM, with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean-air conditions, rising to ∼98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak OM mass concentrations > 3 ?g m-3 are observed. Similarly, a maximum contribution of 20% OM mass coming from non-marine sources was established by dual carbon isotope analysis. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the secondary or primary aerosol mass residing in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head marine-air criteria ensure anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a predominant, and sometimes overwhelming, natural marine aerosol contribution to the total aerosol population when the criteria are adhered to.

O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Vaishya, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2014-10-01

164

Abiotic and biotic influences on the composition of nearshore marine communities of The Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multi-year study examined the nature of relationships between various abiotic and biotic components of Bahamian nearshore marine communities. This project suggests that composition of nearshore marine communities of The Bahamas is determined by a highly complex system of interactions between various abiotic and biotic components. Accurate predictions about a site's nearshore marine community composition can likely be made if

Vanessa Lynn Nero

2005-01-01

165

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox): Implications for N 2 production in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The respiratory reduction of nitrate (denitrification) is acknowledged as the most important process that converts biologically available nitrogen to gaseous dinitrogen (N 2) in marine ecosystems. Recent findings, however, indicate that anaerobic ammonium oxidation by nitrite (anammox) may be an important pathway for N 2 formation and N removal in coastal marine sediments and in anoxic water columns of the oceans. In the present study, we explored this novel mechanism during N mineralization by 15N amendments (single and coupled additions of 15NH 4+, 14NO 3- and 15NO 3-) to surface sediments with a wide range of characteristics and overall reactivity. Patterns of 29/30N 2 production in the pore water during closed sediment incubations demonstrated anammox at all 7 of the investigated sites. Stoichiometric calculations revealed that 4% to 79% of total N 2 production was due to this novel route. The relative importance of anammox for N 2 release was inversely correlated with remineralized solute production, benthic O 2 consumption, and surface sediment Chl a. The observed correlations indicate competition between reductants for pore water nitrite during early diagenesis and that additional factors (e.g. availability of Mn-oxides), superimposed on overall patterns of diagenetic activity, are important for determining absolute and relative rates of anammox in coastal marine sediments.

Engström, Pia; Dalsgaard, Tage; Hulth, Stefan; Aller, Robert C.

2005-04-01

166

Alpha thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In a routine community health survey conducted in adult Adivasis of the costal Maharashtra, microcytosis and hyprochromia were observed in more than 80 per cent of both males and females having normal haemoglobin levels suggesting the possibility of ?-thalassaemia in these communities. We conducted a study in Adivasi students in the same region to find out the magnitude of ?-thalessaemia. Methods: The participants (28 girls and 23 boys) were 14-17 yr old studying in a tribal school. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were subjected to complete blood count (CBC), Hb-HPLC and DNA analysis using gap-PCR for deletion of – ?3.7 and – ?4.2, the two most common molecular lesions observed in ?-thalassaemia in India. Results: Microcytic hypochromic anaemia was observed 50 and 35 per cent girls and boys, respectively. Iron supplementation improved Hb levels but did not correct microcytois and hypochromia. More than 80 per cent non-anaemic students of both sexes showed microcytois and hypochromia. DNA analysis confirmed that the haematological alterations were due to ?-thalassaemia trait characterized by deletion of – ?3.7. Majority (> 60%) of the affected students had two deletions (-?3.7/-?3.7) genotype ?+ thalassaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: This is perhaps the first report on the occurrence of ?-thalassaemia in tribal communities of coastal Maharashtra. Very high (78.4%) haplotype frequency of -?3.7 suggests that the condition is almost genetically fixed. These preliminary observations should stimulate well planned large scale epidemiological studies on ?-thalassaemia in the region. PMID:25297356

Deo, Madhav G.; Pawar, Prakash V.

2014-01-01

167

Two Decades of Community Researchon Gas in Shallow Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments; Listvyanka, Russia, 6-12 September 2010 ; The Tenth International Conference on Gas in Marine Sediments was held near Irkutsk, Russia, and was attended by 120 participants from 19 countries. The GIMS conference series has provided biannual discussions that have knit disparate researchers into a scientific community. The setting was important because the adjacent Lake Baikal contains the only documented freshwater hydrate methane seepage (methane hydrate is a metastable ice at high pressures and low temperatures) due to its great depth (1637 meters). The conference included 72 oral and 47 poster presentations and a day cruise during which gas hydrates were retrieved.

Leifer, Ira; Hovland, Martin; Zemskaya, Tamara

2011-04-01

168

Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa.  

PubMed

The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal cells shaped North Sea bacterial community composition and enhanced bacterial substrate assimilation. Infected algal cultures of Phaeocystis globosa grown in coastal North Sea water contained gamma- and alphaproteobacterial phylotypes that were distinct from those in the non-infected control cultures 5?h after infection. The gammaproteobacterial population at this time mainly consisted of Alteromonas sp. cells that were attached to the infected but still intact host cells. Nano-scale secondary-ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) showed ?20% transfer of organic matter derived from the infected (13)C- and (15)N-labelled P. globosa cells to Alteromonas sp. cells. Subsequent, viral lysis of P. globosa resulted in the formation of aggregates that were densely colonised by bacteria. Aggregate dissolution was observed after 2 days, which we attribute to bacteriophage-induced lysis of the attached bacteria. Isotope mass spectrometry analysis showed that 40% of the particulate (13)C-organic carbon from the infected P. globosa culture was remineralized to dissolved inorganic carbon after 7 days. These findings reveal a novel role of viruses in the leakage or excretion of algal biomass upon infection, which provides an additional ecological niche for specific bacterial populations and potentially redirects carbon availability. PMID:23949664

Sheik, Abdul R; Brussaard, Corina P D; Lavik, Gaute; Lam, Phyllis; Musat, Niculina; Krupke, Andreas; Littmann, Sten; Strous, Marc; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2014-01-01

169

Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming  

PubMed Central

Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence competitive success of key phytoplankton groups such as diatoms, but how long-term responses to global change will affect community structure is unknown. We incubated a mixed natural diatom community from coastal New Zealand waters in a short-term (two-week) incubation experiment using a factorial matrix of warming and/or elevated pCO2 and measured effects on community structure. We then isolated the dominant diatoms in clonal cultures and conditioned them for 1 year under the same temperature and pCO2 conditions from which they were isolated, in order to allow for extended selection or acclimation by these abiotic environmental change factors in the absence of interspecific interactions. These conditioned isolates were then recombined into ‘artificial’ communities modelled after the original natural assemblage and allowed to compete under conditions identical to those in the short-term natural community experiment. In general, the resulting structure of both the unconditioned natural community and conditioned ‘artificial’ community experiments was similar, despite differences such as the loss of two species in the latter. pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on community structure, but temperature was more influential, as warming significantly reduced species richness. In this case, our short-term manipulative experiment with a mixed natural assemblage spanning weeks served as a reasonable proxy to predict the effects of global change forcing on diatom community structure after the component species were conditioned in isolation over an extended timescale. Future studies will be required to assess whether or not this is also the case for other types of algal communities from other marine regimes. PMID:23980240

Tatters, Avery O.; Roleda, Michael Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fu, Feixue; Hurd, Catriona L.; Boyd, Philip W.; Caron, David A.; Lie, Alle A. Y.; Hoffmann, Linn J.; Hutchins, David A.

2013-01-01

170

Community-Based Coastal Resources Management in Indonesia: Examples and Initial Lessons from North Sulawesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proyek Pesisir (Coastal Resources Management Project - Indonesia), a cooperative initiative of the government of Indonesia and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has been working for 18 months in the province of North Sulawesi to establish effective models of participatory and community-based coastal resources management. Many of the issues in the province, and models being es- tablished through

Brian R. Crawford; I. M. Dutton; C. Rotinsulu; L. Z. Hale

171

Managed retreat of coastal communities: understanding responses to projected sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed retreat – the relocation of homes and infrastructure under threat from coastal flooding – is one of the few policy options available for coastal communities facing long-term risks from accelerated sea level rise. At present, little is known about how the Australian public perceives policy options to mitigate sea level rise risks. This paper explores a range of different

Kim S. Alexander; Anthony Ryan; Thomas G. Measham

2011-01-01

172

Law of the sea: Effects of varying coastal state controls on marine research  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is apparent that marine scientific research will be a prominent issue in the forthcoming Law of the Sea Conference. In view of the strongly contrasting positions of developing countries and maritime nations in the expected negotiation of this issue, a survey of the U.S. ocean science community was conducted to obtain information for use in evaluating how various postulated

Conrad H. Cheek

1973-01-01

173

Fish communities and river alteration in the Seine Basin and nearby coastal streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variation of quality of fish communities in the whole Seine basin and nearby coastal streams were examined by the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). The relationship between quality of fish communities and river alteration was also studied. A trend of fish community degradation was found from the periphery to the centre of the basin and from upstream to downstream.

Jérôme Belliard; Romuald Berrebi dit Thomas; David Monnier

1999-01-01

174

An Examination: Using Participatory Action Research in a Marginalized Coastal Community at Risk to Natural Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This extended case study examines the appropriateness of using Participatory Action Research (PAR) in a small, marginalized coastal community at risk to natural hazards. PAR is a method of conducting high-quality research to support the social change goals of diverse cultural and ethnic communities, especially as they relate to community involvement, democracy, emancipation, and liberation (Lindsey and McGuinness (1998). PAR

Joselin Simoneaux Landry

2008-01-01

175

Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. PMID:21889171

Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

2011-12-01

176

Toward a community coastal sediment transport modeling system: The second workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models for transport and the long-term fate of particles in coastal waters are essential for a variety of applications related to commerce, defense, public health, and the quality of the marine environment. Examples include: analysis of waste disposal and transport and the fate of contaminated materials; evaluation of burial rates for naval mines or archaeological artifacts; prediction of water-column optical properties; analysis of transport and the fate of biological particles; prediction of coastal flooding and coastal erosion; evaluation of impacts of sea-level or wave-climate changes and coastal development; planning for construction and maintenance of navigable waterways; evaluation of habitat for commercial fisheries; evaluation of impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes in coastal conditions on recreational activities; and design of intakes and outfalls for sewage treatment, cooling systems, and desalination plants.

Sherwood, Christopher R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Rockwell Geyer, W.; Butman, Bradford

177

Toward a community coastal sediment transport modeling system: the second workshop  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Models for transport and the long-term fate of particles in coastal waters are essential for a variety of applications related to commerce, defense, public health, and the quality of the marine environment. Examples include: analysis of waste disposal and transport and the fate of contaminated materials; evaluation of burial rates for naval mines or archaeological artifacts; prediction of water-column optical properties; analysis of transport and the fate of biological particles; prediction of coastal flooding and coastal erosion; evaluation of impacts of sea-level or wave-climate changes and coastal development; planning for construction and maintenance of navigable waterways; evaluation of habitat for commercial fisheries; evaluation of impacts of natural or anthropogenic changes in coastal conditions on recreational activities; and design of intakes and outfalls for sewage treatment, cooling systems, and desalination plants.

Sherwood, Christopher R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Butman, Bradford

2002-01-01

178

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY ALTERED MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN COASTAL WATERS. (R825243)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human-based (anthropogenic) nutrient and other pollutant enrichment of the world's coastal waters is causing unprecedented changes in microbial community structure and function. Symptoms of these changes include accelerating eutrophication, the proliferation of harmful microal...

179

Do anthropogenic or coastal aerosol sources impact on a clean marine aerosol signature at Mace Head?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric aerosols have been sampled and characterised at the Mace Head North East (N.E.) Atlantic atmospheric research station since 1958, with many interesting phenomena being discovered. However, with the range of new discoveries and scientific advances, there has been a range of concomitant criticisms challenging the representativeness of aerosol sampled at the station to that of aerosol over the open ocean. Two recurring criticisms relate to the lack of representativeness due to enhanced coastal sources, thereby leading to artificially high values to aerosol parameters, and to the influence of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol and its potential dominance over, or drowning-out of, a natural marine aerosol signal. Here we review the results of previous experimental studies into marine aerosols over the N.E. Atlantic and at Mace Head with the aim of evaluating their representativeness relative to that of an open ocean aerosol with negligible anthropogenic influence. Particular focus is given to organic matter (OM) aerosol. In summary, no correlation was found between OM and black carbon (BC) either at BC levels of 0-15 or 15-50 ng m-3, suggesting that OM concentrations up to peak values of 3.8 ?g m-3 are predominantly natural in origin. Sophisticated carbon isotope analysis and aerosol mass spectral finger printing corroborate the natural source of OM with 80% biogenic source apportionment being observed for general clean air conditions, rising to 98% during specific primary marine organic plumes when peak concentrations >3 ?g m-3 are observed. A range of other experiments are discussed which corroborate the dominance of a marine signal under Mace Head clean air criteria along. Further, analysis of a series of experiments conducted at Mace Head conclude that negligible coastal, surf zone, or tidal effects are discernible in the submicron size range for sampling heights of 7 m and above. The Mace Head clean air criteria ensures anthropogenic and coastal effects are sufficiently minimised so as to guarantee a dominant, if not at times, an overwhelming natural marine aerosol signal.

O'Dowd, C.; Ceburnis, D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Rinaldi, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2013-03-01

180

USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center--Research activities in the U.S. Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in Florida investigates earth-science processes related to coastal and marine environments as well as to societal implications of natural hazards, resource sustainability, and environmental change. The Center is conducting ongoing research in and around the U.S. Virgin Islands that is providing baseline information for resource management and for assessing the health of and environmental changes to vital ecosystems such as coral reefs. In particular, projects are improving the understanding of coral health, advancing the ability to forecast future changes in coral reef ecosystems, and acquiring topographic data for use in inventorying, monitoring, and conserving coastal and marine environments.

Cimitile, Matthew

2011-01-01

181

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

182

Spring bloom community change modifies carbon pathways and C : N : P : Chl a stoichiometry of coastal material fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms and dinoflagellates are major bloom-forming phytoplankton groups competing for resources in the oceans and coastal seas. Recent evidence suggests that their competition is significantly affected by climatic factors under ongoing change, modifying especially the conditions for cold-water, spring bloom communities in temperate and arctic regions. We investigated the effects of phytoplankton community composition on spring bloom carbon flows and nutrient stoichiometry in multi-year mesocosm experiments. Comparison of differing communities showed that community structure significantly affected C accumulation parameters, with highest particulate organic carbon (POC) build-up and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release in diatom-dominated communities. In terms of inorganic nutrient drawdown and bloom accumulation phase, the dominating groups behaved as functional surrogates. Dominance patterns, however, significantly affected C : N : P : Chl a ratios over the whole bloom event: when diatoms were dominant, these ratios increased compared to dinoflagellate dominance or mixed communities. Diatom-dominated communities sequestered carbon up to 3.6-fold higher than the expectation based on the Redfield ratio, and 2-fold higher compared to dinoflagellate dominance. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental report of consequences of climatically driven shifts in phytoplankton dominance patterns for carbon sequestration and related biogeochemical cycles in coastal seas. Our results also highlight the need for remote sensing technologies with taxonomical resolution, as the C : Chl a ratio was strongly dependent on community composition and bloom stage. Climate-driven changes in phytoplankton dominance patterns will have far-reaching consequences for major biogeochemical cycles and need to be considered in climate change scenarios for marine systems.

Spilling, K.; Kremp, A.; Klais, R.; Olli, K.; Tamminen, T.

2014-08-01

183

Overview of the Coastal Marine Discovery Service: data discovery, visualization, and understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many resources available for coastal ocean research and management remain underutilized. Typically, the emphasis in the past has been on increasing access and usability of remote sensing satellite products from NASA data centers. Significant progress has been made in this regard although access and discovery mechanisms still remain disjointed. Less attention has been paid to discovery and usability to ocean in situ records and circulation model products, because typically these are organized and maintained on a smaller regional level such as a university or smaller division of a larger national agency. The NASA Coastal Marine Discovery Service, a NASA ACCESS funded activity, focuses on improving discovery of these regional coastal ocean web services and data portals, including databases for satellite imagery, in situ and field measurements, ocean circulation models, and GIS coverages as a few examples. Beyond resource discovery, the CMDS integrated system (http://cmds.jpl.nasa.gov) leverages open source technology for unifying coastal ocean data within the framework on a GIS web client, the Easy GIS Net Viewer. In sum, CMDS consists of an online catalog of coastal resources that allows users to quickly discover the availability of data for their region of interest, physical parameter of interest or specific regional project of interest, or any combination of these. After discovery, data can be transparently linked to Netviewer client to view, overlay and interrogate products, and make GIS-like queries on the data layers to investigate statistical relationships. In this presentation, we will review the CMDS system, it architecture and resource harvesting approach, and more importantly demonstrate real world use of cases of data exploration, visualization and ultimately understanding.

Armstrong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cinquini, L.; O'Brien, F. J.; Resneck, G.; Siegrist, Z.

2012-12-01

184

Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction, invasive species, land and resource use, extreme natural events), which may lead to more significant consequences.

Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

2002-01-01

185

Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from the July/August pages of BioScience is about the need for a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. The conservation and sustainable use of marine resources is a highlighted goal on a growing number of national and international policy agendas. Unfortunately, efforts to assess progress, as well as to strategically plan and prioritize new marine conservation measures, have been hampered by the lack of a detailed, comprehensive biogeographic system to classify the oceans. Here we report on a new global system for coastal and shelf areas: the Marine Ecoregions of the World, or MEOW, a nested system of 12 realms, 62 provinces, and 232 ecoregions. This system provides considerably better spatial resolution than earlier global systems, yet it preserves many common elements and can be cross-referenced to many regional biogeographic classifications. The designation of terrestrial ecoregions has revolutionized priority setting and planning for terrestrial conservation; we anticipate similar benefits from the use of a coherent and credible marine system.

MARK D. SPALDING, HELEN E. FOX, GERALD R. ALLEN, NICK DAVIDSON, ZACH A. FERDAÃÂA, MAX FINLAYSON, BENJAMIN S. HALPERN, MIGUEL A. JORGE, AL LOMBANA, SARA A. LOURIE, KIRSTEN D. MARTIN, EDMUND MCMANUS, JENNIFER MOLNAR, CHERI A. RECCHIA, JAMES ROBERTSON (;)

2007-07-01

186

Victims or vectors: a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic.  

PubMed

Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1-4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5-13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health. PMID:18828560

Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Ellis, Julie C; Dennett, Mark; Pugliares, Katie R; Lentell, Betty J; Moore, Michael J

2008-08-19

187

Water quality of some coastal canal communities in the Galveston County area  

E-print Network

MATER OUALITY OF SOME COASTAL CANAL COMMUNITIES IN THE GALVESTON COUNTY AREA A Thesis by Ernest Robert Hall Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... '&-r -: y i&7 i ' -~:-m Member Auqust 1976 ABSTRACT '~'ater C/ua'lity of Some Coastal Canal Communities in the Galveston County Area. IAuoust 197E) Frnest R. Hall, B. S. , Texas ARM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Pr. Tom Reynolds...

Hall, Ernest Robert

2012-06-07

188

Advective flow as an early diagenetic agent in coastal marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore intertidal sand and mud flats are subject to tidally forced ground water flow leading to circulation and subsequent discharge of ground waters to the coastal ocean. These waters have passed organic-rich, relatively young sediments that harbor active microbial communities. A number of biogeochemical processes alter the chemical composition of the circulating sea water of which the most prominent one is microbial sulphate reduction. As a result of these processes discharging ground waters are strongly enriched in certain trace metals (Mn, Ba, V), nutrients (Ammonia, Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Phosphate, Silicate) and depleted in others (such as Mo, U). Advective flow therefore drives a biogeochemical alteration of sea water. So far, pore water chemistry indicates that tidal creek margins, where advective flow is most significant, show stronger chemical gradients compared to sites from the central tidal flat, where diffusion appears to dominate. To investigate the role of advection we mapped the geochemistry down to 2.5 meters sediment depth along a transect from the creek to the central tidal flat using push-point samplers that allow almost artifact-free in-situ sampling of pore waters. Additionally a recently developed hydrogeological simulation of the creek margin was applied to calculate ages of the sampled pore waters. The simulation was calibrated by comparison of measured in-situ pressure heads with simulated ones. Sample ages obtained were used to quantify averaged production or depletion rates for trace metals, nutrients and sulphate. Our results demonstrate that sites dominated by advection generally show higher rates of turnover for almost all species investigated. Averaged production rates for Ba, Mn, ammonia or DIC appear to be 10 to more than 30 times higher when advection dominated the subsurface flow regime. Based on these findings we speculate whether advective ground water flow in marine sediments may be regarded as a geological agent, a view traditionally held for terrestrial aquifers. Reasons may be that (1) the distribution of reagents such as hydrogen sulfide produced from microbial reduction of sulphate in the sediments is enhanced by flow and dispersion; (2) microbial activity may be stimulated because flow maintains a steady resupply of electron donors and acceptors in the subsurface.

Riedel, Thomas; Lettmann, Karsten; Beck, Melanie; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2010-05-01

189

Hydrologic signals and patterns in coastal mangrove communities using space-borne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal mangrove ecotone, along the southern edge of the Florida Everglades, is the transition zone between the marine waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Bay, and the freshwater from the "River of Grass". Hydrologically-dependent ecosystems, like the Florida Everglades, have been experiencing greater threats in the past decade from climate change, increased fresh water demand, and urban growth and development. Identifying changes to water chemistry and evapotranspiration (ET) over the coastal landscape is important to understanding the ecosystem response and adaptation with respect to environmental restoration projects, water management practices and sea-level rise. Space-borne remote sensing can be a cost-effective tool to remotely measure water chemistry and ET changes in remote areas of the coastal Everglades on a regional scale. The objectives of this research were to; 1) to measure surface and subsurface water chemistry by building relationships between satellite-based mangrove reflectance data and the ionic and nutrient concentrations in the surface water and groundwater across the coastal mangrove ecotone; and 2) to estimate ET across the coastal everglades. Water chemistry and Landsat 5TM satellite data were used to develop a linear model to quantitatively predict water chemistry on the landscape scale within the coastal mangrove communities of south Florida on seasonal and annual timescales. A satellite-based energy balance approach was used to determine regional scale ET estimates. Using this satellite-energy balance approach, we were able to account for the spatial variability in surface temperature, changes in albedo, and vegetation reflectance. Water samples were collected from the surface water and groundwater from five Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites that spanned a variety of mangrove communities and biomass production. Surface water samples were collected from 2008-2012 and groundwater samples were collected from 2009-2012. All water samples analyzed for major ion (e.g., Cl-, SO42-, Na2+, Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+) and nutrient (e.g., TOC, TN and TP) concentrations. Satellite spectra were extracted from the five LTER and used to calculate a number of biophysical indices. Seasonal patterns in both Cl- concentrations and ET were identified using the satellite reflectance data which correspond to the wet and dry seasons in south Florida. Chloride concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the dry season as compared to the end of the wet season. In addition, the ion concentrations in the water tended to increase down river. However, there were some exceptions when higher ion concentrations were exhibited upstream and may be a result increased flushing times and salt exclusion by the mangroves. Evapotranspiration estimates coincided well with previous site-specific and other satellite methods. Changes in the evapotranspiration varied seasonally with respect to mangrove phenology and net radiation and ranged between 6-7 mm day-1 in the dry season to 3-5 mm day-1 in the wet season. Ultimately, this research could provide a method to remotely monitor and detect water chemistry and water budget changes to the environment with respect to natural or man-made modifications.

Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

2013-05-01

190

Sea Level Rise: Vulnerability of California's Coastal Communities and Adaptation Strategies for Reducing Future Impacts Gary Griggs Director Institute of Marine Sciences University of California Santa Cruz Nicole L. Russell Ph.D. Student Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences University of California Santa Cruz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California’s coastal communities are vulnerable to the effects of rising sea levels, which may be 11 to 18 inches higher by 2050 and 23 to 55 inches higher by 2100 than in 2000. Local governments will need to plan for progressive inundation of low-lying areas, as well as increased erosion and storm damage. Although there is extensive research on climate change and sea level rise, local government staff is typically removed from this information and often lack the time or resources necessary for keeping up with the most recent information. Specifically, there is a disconnect between the latest science and the practice of coastal planners in dealing with sea level rise issues. Improving the transfer of relevant information and resources from scientists to decision-makers should encourage and assist local governments in their responses to this developing issue. Designing and implementing adaptation plans and developing policies for sea level rise are challenging. Each coastal community is unique in its geographic setting and demographics and therefore faces vulnerabilities that differ from those of other communities. Uplift and subsidence, for example, cause regional variations in the rate of sea level rise. Planning staff needs to understand the local impacts of sea level rise in order to take appropriate actions. Even when the potential threats are reasonably well understood, the gradual nature of sea level rise can make it hard to formulate, approve and implement policies that may not affect communities for decades to come. Fortunately, there are tools and resources available to assist planners. Several communities in California have recently completed climate change adaptation plans or are in the process of preparing such plans. However, these documents are not focused solely upon the specific issues associated with sea level rise. A study is underway to fill that void, which includes the development of an informative guide for local government agencies to use in the preparation of sea level rise vulnerability studies and in formulating adaptation plans. This project will identify: 1) the range of sea level rise hazards and issues facing California’s coastal cities and counties in the decades ahead; 2) the types of information or data needed for making vulnerability assessments; 3) the range of adaptation strategies available based upon the severity of the hazards and potential future impacts; and 4) appropriate response recommendations. Two communities have been selected for specific sea level rise vulnerability assessment studies, which involves working with agency staff from the selected communities to identify the current issues, concerns and problem areas. The experience and information gained from working with local government agencies will inform the guidebook’s development. The final products of this research include sea level rise adaptation plans for two local coastal communities as well as a guide to be made available to all of California’s coastal cities and counties.

Griggs, G. B.; Russell, N.

2010-12-01

191

Reversal of the net dinitrogen gas flux in coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

The flux of nitrogen from land and atmosphere to estuaries and the coastal ocean has increased substantially in recent decades. The observed increase in nitrogen loading is caused by population growth, urbanization, expanding water and sewer infrastructure, fossil fuel combustion and synthetic fertilizer consumption. Most of the nitrogen is removed by denitrification in the sediments of estuaries and the continental shelf, leading to a reduction in both cultural eutrophication and nitrogen pollution of the open ocean. Nitrogen fixation, however, is thought to be a negligible process in sub-tidal heterotrophic marine systems. Here we report sediment core data from Narragansett Bay, USA, which demonstrate that heterotrophic marine sediments can switch from being a net sink to being a net source of nitrogen. Mesocosm and core incubation experiments, together with a historic data set of mean annual chlorophyll production, support the idea that a climate-induced decrease in primary production has led to a decrease in organic matter deposition to the benthos and the observed reversal of the net sediment nitrogen flux. Our results suggest that some estuaries may no longer remove nitrogen from the water column. Instead, nitrogen could be exported to the continental shelf and the open ocean and could shift the effect of anthropogenic nitrogen loading beyond the immediate coastal zone. PMID:17625562

Fulweiler, R W; Nixon, S W; Buckley, B A; Granger, S L

2007-07-12

192

Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.  

PubMed

Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 ?g/l for Hg, 1.39 ?g/l for Cu, 3.83 ?g/l for Cd, 25.3 ?g/l for Pb and 8.24 ?g/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors. PMID:23831790

Durán, I; Beiras, R

2013-10-01

193

Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on the groundwater model, scenarios will be evaluated considering various target figures (i.e. agricultural water demand, drinking water supply, "beautification", tourism, industry etc.). Within these scenarios, marine saltwater encroachment should be minimized or saline groundwater should even be pushed back into the coastal direction, thus stabilizing the natural equilibrium between continental freshwater flux and seawater intrusion and ensuring a long-term, stable usage of the agricultural areas. Literature KOLDITZ O., DELFS J.-O., BÜRGER C.-M., BEINHORN M., PARK C.-H. (2008): Numerical analysis of coupled hydrosystems based on an object-oriented compartment approach. J. Hydroinformatics, 10(3): 227-244, DOI: 10.2166/hydro.2008.003.

Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

2010-05-01

194

A multivariate approach to the determination of an indicator species pool for community-based bioassessment of marine water quality.  

PubMed

Previous studies in Chinese coastal waters of the Yellow Sea have shown that periphytic ciliates are reliable indicators of marine water quality. However, traditional community-based bioassessments are time-consuming because they rely on the identification and enumeration of all species within the community. In order to improve bioassessment efficiency, step-best-matching analysis was used to identify which are the most reliable indicator species among periphytic marine ciliate communities. Based on indices of species richness, diversity and evenness, a subset of 48 species (out of a total of 141) was found to retain sufficient information for accurately predicting water quality, and was more strongly related to changes of environmental variables than the full species set. These results demonstrate that the step-best-matching analysis is a powerful approach for identifying an indicator species pool from a full species dataset of a community, and allows the development of time-efficient sampling protocols for community-based marine bioassessment. PMID:25146425

Xu, Guangjian; Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yangfan; Warren, Alan; Xu, Henglong

2014-10-15

195

Phylogeny and distribution of nitrate-storing Beggiatoa spp. in coastal marine sediments.  

PubMed

Filamentous sulphide-oxidizing Beggiatoa spp. often occur in large numbers in the coastal seabed without forming visible mats on the sediment surface. We studied the diversity, population structure and the nitrate-storing capability of such bacteria in the Danish Limfjorden and the German Wadden Sea. Their distribution was compared to the vertical gradients of O2, NO3- and H2S as measured by microsensors. The main Beggiatoa spp. populations occurred in a 0.5-3 cm thick intermediate zone, below the depth of oxygen and nitrate penetration but above the zone of free sulphide. The Beggiatoa spp. filaments were found to store nitrate, presumably in liquid vacuoles up to a concentration of 370 mM NO3-, similar to the related large marine sulphur bacteria, Thioploca and Thiomargarita. The observations indicate that marine Beggiatoa spp. can live anaerobically and conserve energy by coupling sulphide oxidation with the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen and/or ammonia. Calculations of the diffusive nitrate flux and the potential sulphide oxidation by Beggiatoa spp. show that the bacteria may play a critical role for the sulphur cycling and the nitrogen balance in these coastal environments. 16S rDNA sequence analysis shows a large diversity of these uncultured, nitrate-storing Beggiatoa spp. Smaller (9-17 micro m wide) and larger (33-40 micro m wide) Beggiatoa spp. represent novel phylogenetic clusters distinct from previously sequenced, large marine Beggiatoa spp. and Thioploca spp. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the natural Beggiatoa spp. populations showed that filament width is a conservative character of each phylogenetic species but a given filament width may represent multiple phylogenetic species in a mixed population. PMID:12755720

Mussmann, Marc; Schulz, Heide N; Strotmann, Bettina; Kjaer, Thomas; Nielsen, Lars P; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon A; Amann, Rudolf I; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

2003-06-01

196

Prenatal exposure to manganese in South African coastal communities.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental sources and altered physiological processes of manganese uptake during pregnancy and its possible effect on prenatal and postnatal development are of concern. This study investigates manganese blood levels at the time of delivery across four cohorts of pregnant women residing in coastal communities of South Africa and examines birth outcomes and environmental factors that could influence manganese levels in the study population. The geometric mean (GM) manganese blood levels (MnB) for all women at delivery was 15.2 ?g L(-1). Collectively, rural women reported higher MnB concentrations (GM, 16.1 ?g L(-1)) than urban women (GM, 13.5 ?g L(-1), p < 0.001). Of the 302 cord blood samples drawn from the study participants (rural women only), GM MnB levels reported for three rural sites were 25.8 ?g L(-1) (Rural 1), 33.4 ?g L(-1) (Rural 2) and 43.0 ?g L(-1) (Rural 3) and were twice as high as their respective maternal levels. However, no significant correlations were found between maternal and cord MnB levels across the 3 study areas. Factors associated with elevated maternal MnB levels, after adjusting for gestational age were: women living in a rural area (Rural 2) (p = 0.021); women drinking potable water from an outdoor/communal tap sourced from municipality (p = 0.021); drinking water from river/stream (p = 0.036); younger maternal age (p = 0.026); consuming leafy vegetables once a week (p = 0.034); and elevated maternal blood lead concentrations (PbB) (p = 0.002). The results indicate that MnB concentration in rural women during pregnancy is higher compared to urban women and increases with manganese intake from food and water. PMID:24912024

Röllin, Halina B; Kootbodien, Tahira; Theodorou, Penny; Odland, Jon Ø

2014-08-01

197

University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

Alexander, V.

1998-12-18

198

Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

199

Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (?200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (?30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ?30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

2012-01-01

200

Temporal and spatial changes in the composition and structure of helminth component communities in European eels Anguilla anguilla in an Adriatic coastal lagoon and some freshwaters in Italy.  

PubMed

The composition and diversity of the helminth component communities in eels Anguilla anguilla were determined in three separate localities in Italy: an Adriatic coastal lagoon, Comacchio and two freshwater localities, the River Po and the Lake Piediluco. Data from Comacchio lagoon were analysed over 15 years to determine whether community composition and diversity changed significantly overtime. The community was species rich (nine species, all marine except Proteocephalus macrocephalus) and was dominated by a suite of digeneans: Deropristis inflata, Helicometra fasciata, Lecithochirium musculus and Bucephalus anguillae. The community showed little change in composition over the period, but the relative abundance and dominance of the species did alter. By contrast, the component communities in the freshwater localities were species poor and the dominant species were freshwater acanthocephalans, Pomphorhyncus laevis in River Po and Acanthocephalus rhinensis in Lake Piediluco. The helminth community of Lake Piediluco with five species was richer than that of the River Po with only three species, but was poorer than that of Comacchio lagoons. Similarity indices between samples from Comacchio were high; between the lagoon and the freshwater localities and between the two freshwater localities, similarity indices were very low. Helminth component community structure in coastal lagoons was comparable across Europe. The helminth community in the River Po was similar to those in the River Tiber and other European rivers whilst that in Lake Piediluco was similar to that in other European lakes. Levels of the pathogenic Anguillicoloides crassus in swim bladders were consistently lower in prevalence and abundance in the coastal lagoons than in freshwater localities. This suggests that this parasite may have little impact on migrating eels if they are indeed primarily of marine origin and so it may be of little importance in the recent decline of eel populations throughout Europe. PMID:24135871

Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf; Giari, Luisa; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Lanzoni, Mattia; Rossi, Remigio; Lorenzoni, Massimo; Kennedy, Clive Russell

2014-01-01

201

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

202

Changes in bacterial community dynamics associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as a potentially significant pathway of groundwater and dissolved chemical species in it to the coastal zone. Groundwater has different chemical and biological characteristics compared to seawater; therefore, mixing of the discharged groundwater with seawater can affect the microbial community in near-shore environments. Temporal variability of SGD rates in response to sea level fluctuations (tide, waves) can control the transport of terrestrial materials, periodically altering water quality and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of the submarine groundwater discharge on the microbial community structure in the coastal water body adjacent to the southern shore of Jeju Island, Korea. Near-shore water samples were collected as a function of tidal stage and subjected to DNA pyrosequencing and statistical community analyses. Phlyogenetic classification showed that ?-Proteobacteria was predominant in the seawater samples taken at a high tide or away from the coast while relative abundance of ?-, and ?- Proteobacteria significantly increased in the samples mixed with groundwater at a flood and ebb tide. The genus level analysis showed that the dominant phylotypes in the seawater samples were Roseovarius (40.5%; mean abundance ratio of the samples), DQ009083g (17.1%), and Glaciecola (3.7%). Distributions of the bacterial sequences in the mixed water samples showed a remarkable difference between the flood tide and ebb tide. The abundant phylotypes in the flood tide sample were Candidatus Pelagibacter (11.0%), EU801223 (8.4%) and ABVV (6.2%) whereas Shewanella (34.8%) and Candidatus Pelagibacter (5.1%) were in the ebb tide sample. Several phylototypes were detected only in the mixed water samples, including Sphingopyxis (0.6%), Rheinheimera (1.0%), Hydrogenophaga (1.8%), Colwelliaceae_uc (0.9%), Kinneretia (0.5%), and Collimonas (1.2%). These were hypothesized to be originating from the fresh groundwater discharge. Heat map and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the mixed water samples were separated from seawater samples, which resulted from significant increase in Shewanella sp. (ebb tide sample) and marine bacteria such as SAR11 and SAR116 clade belonging to ?-Proteobacteria (flood tide sample). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first two principal components explained about 84% of the variance in the sequence data. The microbial community in the seawater samples formed a distinct cluster. The microbial diversity in the mixed water samples changed depending on the seawater stage, showing similar trends in the phylogenetic classification. Our study results demonstrate that the microbial environment in the coastal zone subject to SGD and sea level fluctuation may change dynamically over short time period (< 1day). * This study was supported by the Basic Research Projects (14-3211-2) of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

Lee, Eunhee; Shin, Doyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Ha, Kyoochul

2014-05-01

203

Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf  

EPA Science Inventory

Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

204

Coastal Freshwater Wetland Plant Community Response to Seasonal Drought and Flooding in Northwestern Costa Rica  

EPA Science Inventory

In tropical wet-dry climates, seasonal hydrologic cycles drive wetland plant community change and produce distinct seasonal plant assemblages. In this study, we examined the plant community response to seasonal flooding and drought in a large coastal freshwater wetland in northwe...

205

Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) Project Reports FY13 Page 1 of 219  

E-print Network

Hazard Resilient Coastal Communities (HRCC) Project Reports FY13 Page 1 of 219 Program AK Project Title Sea Grant Climate Adaptation 2011: Shaktoolik Alaska � Climate Change Adaptation for an at-risk of the project activities and deliverables are designed to directly benefit the Alaska community at risk from

206

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

207

Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens , and Plesiomonas shigelloides in Marine and Freshwater Invertebrates from Coastal California Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal ecosystems of California are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land–sea interface is not well understood. This study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central California. A variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured

W. A. Miller; M. A. Miller; I. A. Gardner; E. R. Atwill; B. A. Byrne; S. Jang; M. Harris; J. Ames; D. Jessup; D. Paradies; K. Worcester; A. Melli; P. A. Conrad

2006-01-01

208

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of some marine fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five species of marine fishes, including two of the main maricultured fishes from coastal regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, were examined for ectoparasitic trichodinids. A total of five species of trichodinids belonging to three genera, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830, Paratrichodina Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella rámek-Huek, 1953 were reinvestigated following dry silver impregnation. These were: Trichodina rectuncinata Raabe, 1958,

Kuidong Xu; Weibo Song; Alan Warren; Joong Ki Choi

2001-01-01

209

A Marine Biotic Index to Establish the Ecological Quality of Soft-Bottom Benthos Within European Estuarine and Coastal Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a marine Biotic Index (BI) for soft-bottom benthos of European estuarine and coastal environments is proposed. This is derived from the proportions of individual abundance in five ecological groups, which are related to the degree of sensitivity\\/tolerance to an environmental stress gradient. The main difference with previously published indices is the use of a simple formula that

A Borja; J Franco; V Pérez

2000-01-01

210

Limitation of N2 fixation in coastal marine waters: Relative importance of molybdenum, iron, phosphorus, and organic matter availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth in many coastal and pelagic marine waters is chronically limited by nitrogen availability. Such conditions potentially favor the establishment of N,-fixing microor- ganisms (eubacteria and cyanobacteria). However, planktonic and benthic N, fixation is often either absent or present at ecologically insignificant rates. It has been proposed that deficiencies in in- organic nutrient (specifically molybdenum) availability could help explain

HANS W. PAERL; KENNETH M. CROCKER; LESLIE E. PRUFERT

1987-01-01

211

Diversity of Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia Ciliates in Coastal Marine Sediments and in Overlying Plankton?  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the relationship between ciliate communities in the benthos and the plankton is critical to understanding ciliate diversity in marine systems. Although data for many lineages are sparse, at least some members of the dominant marine ciliate clades Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia can be found in both plankton and benthos, in the latter either as cysts or active forms. In this study, we developed a molecular approach to address the relationship between the diversity of ciliates in the plankton and those of the underlying benthos in the same locations. Samples from plankton and sediments were compared across three sites along the New England coast, and additional subsamples were analyzed to assess reproducibility of methods. We found that sediment and plankton subsamples differed in their robustness to repeated subsampling. Sediment subsamples (i.e., 1-g aliquots from a single ?20-g sample) gave variable estimates of diversity, while plankton subsamples produced consistent results. These results indicate the need for additional study to determine the spatial scale over which diversity varies in marine sediments. Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them. PMID:20435761

Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Vriezen, Jan A. C.; McManus, George B.; Katz, Laura A.

2010-01-01

212

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

213

Strong Seasonality and Interannual Recurrence in Marine Myovirus Communities  

PubMed Central

The temporal community dynamics and persistence of different viral types in the marine environment are still mostly obscure. Polymorphism of the major capsid protein gene, g23, was used to investigate the community composition dynamics of T4-like myoviruses in a North Atlantic fjord for a period of 2 years. A total of 160 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the gene g23. Three major community profiles were identified (winter-spring, summer, and autumn), which resulted in a clear seasonal succession pattern. These seasonal transitions were recurrent over the 2 years and significantly correlated with progression of seawater temperature, Synechococcus abundance, and turbidity. The appearance of the autumn viral communities was concomitant with the occurrence of prominent Synechococcus blooms. As a whole, we found a highly dynamic T4-like viral community with strong seasonality and recurrence patterns. These communities were unexpectedly dominated by a group of persistently abundant viruses. PMID:23913432

Chow, C.-E. T.; Johannessen, T.; Fuhrman, J. A.; Thingstad, T. F.; Sandaa, R. A.

2013-01-01

214

Strong seasonality and interannual recurrence in marine myovirus communities.  

PubMed

The temporal community dynamics and persistence of different viral types in the marine environment are still mostly obscure. Polymorphism of the major capsid protein gene, g23, was used to investigate the community composition dynamics of T4-like myoviruses in a North Atlantic fjord for a period of 2 years. A total of 160 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of the gene g23. Three major community profiles were identified (winter-spring, summer, and autumn), which resulted in a clear seasonal succession pattern. These seasonal transitions were recurrent over the 2 years and significantly correlated with progression of seawater temperature, Synechococcus abundance, and turbidity. The appearance of the autumn viral communities was concomitant with the occurrence of prominent Synechococcus blooms. As a whole, we found a highly dynamic T4-like viral community with strong seasonality and recurrence patterns. These communities were unexpectedly dominated by a group of persistently abundant viruses. PMID:23913432

Pagarete, A; Chow, C-E T; Johannessen, T; Fuhrman, J A; Thingstad, T F; Sandaa, R A

2013-10-01

215

Climate Dynamics Diagnosis of the Marine Low Cloud Simulation in the NCAR Community Earth System  

E-print Network

-of-the-art coupled atmosphere-ocean models: the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global of the Marine Low Cloud Simulation in the NCAR1 Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the NCEP Global2Climate Dynamics Diagnosis of the Marine Low Cloud Simulation in the NCAR Community Earth System

Bretherton, Chris

216

Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine organisms have occupied hard substrates since the Archaean. Shells, rocks, wood and sedimentary hardgrounds offer relatively stable habitats compared to unconsolidated sediments, but the plants and animals which inhabit them must develop means to gain and defend this premium attachment space. Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit. While mobile grazers, organically attached and even soft-bodied organisms may leave evidence of their former presence in ancient hard substrate communities, a superior fossil record is left by sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons and by borers which leave trace fossils. Furthermore, encrusters and borers are preserved in situ, retaining their spatial relationships to one another and to the substrate. Spatial competition, ecological succession, oriented growth, and differential utilisation of exposed vs. hidden substrate surfaces can all be observed or inferred. Hard substrate communities are thus excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years. Here we review the research on modern and ancient hard substrate communities, and point to some changes that have affected them over geological time scales. Such changes include a general increase in bioerosion of hard substrates, particularly carbonate surfaces, through the Phanerozoic. This is, at least in part, analogous to the infaunalisation trends seen in soft substrate communities. Encrusting forms show an increase in skeletalisation from the Palaeozoic into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, which may be a response to increasing levels of predation. Hard substrate communities, considering borers and encrusters together, show a rough increase in tiering through the Phanerozoic which again parallels trends seen in soft substrate communities. This extensive review of the literature on living and fossil hard substrate organisms shows that many opportunities remain for large-scale studies of trends through time at the community and clade levels. Palaeontologists will especially benefit by closer integration of their work with that of neontologists, particularly in aspects of ecology such as larval recruitment, competition and succession.

Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A.

2003-07-01

217

The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm) at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer results suggest that the secondary organic compounds may, in addition to being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to cloud condensation nuclei and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the marine/coastal particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to marine/coastal particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

2006-10-01

218

Anthropogenic and natural disturbances to marine benthic communities in Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Sampling and field experiments were conducted from 1975 to 1990 to test how the structure of marine benthic communities around McMurdo Station, Antarctica varied with levels of anthropogenic contaminants in marine sediments. The structure of communities (e.g., infauna density, species composition, and life history characteristics) in contaminated and uncontaminated areas were compared with the structure of communities influenced by two large-scale natural disturbances, anchor ice formation and uplift or iceberg scour. Benthic communities changed radically along a steep spatial gradient of anthropogenic hydrocarbon, metal, and PCB contamination around McMurdo Station. The heavily contaminated end of the gradient, Winter Quarters Bay, was low in infaunal and epifaunal abundance and was dominated by a few opportunistic species of polychaete worms. The edge of the heavily contaminated bay, the transition area, contained several motile polychaete species with less opportunistic life histories. Uncontaminated sedimentary habitats harbored dense tube mats of infaunal animals numerically dominated by populations of polychaete worms, crustaceans, and a large suspension feeding bivalve. These species are generally large and relatively sessile, except for several crustacean species living among the tubes. Although the community patterns around anthropogenic and natural disturbances were similar, particularly motile and opportunistic species at heavily disturbed and marginal areas, the natural disturbances cover much greater areas of the sea floor about the entire Antarctic continent. On the other hand, recovery from chemical contamination is likely to take many more decades than recovery from natural disturbances as contaminant degradation is a slow process. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Lenihan, H.; Oliver, J.S. [Moss Landing Marine Labs., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

219

Rutgers University: Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences -Deep Sea Microbiology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, Dr. Costantino Vetriani's Deep Sea Microbiology Lab focuses on "the physiology, ecology and evolutionary relationships of deep-sea prokaryotes, with an emphasis on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps"." The Microbiology Lab website includes a Publications section which lists book chapters and a number of downloadable, refereed journal articles that have been authored, or co-authored, by Dr. Vetriani. The site also contains a short summary of a current research project, and a listing of oceanographic expeditions dating back to 1995. The site's Deep-Sea Video Clips include some brief, yet interesting coverage of tube worms, zoarcid fish, Pompeii worms, crabs, and more. The site also contains a few intriguing DSML underwater images of microorganisms from hydrothermal vents.

220

Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

Berkman, P.A.

1992-03-01

221

Sound Waves: Coastal and Marine Research News from Across the USGS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open your eyes and your interest in coastal and marine research by exploring this most informative publication. Created by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), this monthly newsletter was started in 1999 to provide the public and other parties with access to timely research findings and updates from the various units of the USGS. The newsletter contains sections such as Fieldwork, Research, Meetings, and Awards. A good place to start is the Recent Highlights from Past Issues area. Some of the gems here include scientific explorations of Hurricane Sandy's long-term effects and the juvenile surf smelt and sand lance populations in Puget Sound. Units contributing news pieces to Sound Waves include the Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana.

2013-08-01

222

Community-Scale Wind-Powered Desalination for Selected Coastal Mekong Provinces in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global climate destabilization is exacerbating water problems in Vietnam, most acutely in the South and Central regions where\\u000a the majority of the inhabited area lies in the low elevation coastal zone. Off-grid community-scale reverse osmosis desalination\\u000a powered by small wind turbines offers a solution to this problem for the coastal fringe of Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Using a\\u000a geographical information system

Ha T. Nguyen; Joshua M. Pearce

223

Alternative Safe Water for Communities in the Mekong Delta and Coastal Zone: Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water quality in the Mekong Delta and coastal zones of Vietnam was suffering from pollution caused by wastewater, solid waste\\u000a and pesticides discharged without treatment or management. This situation was worsened by the poor commuter Disinfection),\\u000a introduced to some communities in the Mekong Delta (Long An, Dong Thap, Tay Ninh provinces) and in the Coastal zone (Ninh\\u000a Thuan province), contributed

Tran Thi Trieu; Nguyen Lam Giang

224

Territorial user rights for fisheries as ancillary instruments for marine coastal conservation in Chile.  

PubMed

Territorial user rights for fisheries have been advocated as a way to achieve sustainable resource management. However, few researchers have empirically assessed their potential as ancillary marine conservation instruments by comparing them to no-take marine protected areas. In kelp (Lessonia trabeculata) forests of central Chile, we compared species richness, density, and biomass of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes among territorial-user-right areas with low-level and high-level enforcement, no-take marine protected areas, and open-access areas in 42 100-m subtidal transects. We also assessed structural complexity of the kelp forest and substratum composition. Multivariate randomized permutation tests indicated macroinvertebrate and reef fish communities associated with the different access regimes differed significantly. Substratum composition and structural complexity of kelp forest did not differ among access regimes. Univariate analyses showed species richness, biomass, and density of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes were greater in highly enforced territorial-user-right areas and no-take marine protected areas than in open-access areas. Densities of macroinvertebrates and reef fishes of economic importance were not significantly different between highly enforced territorial-user-right and no-take marine protected areas. Densities of economically important macroinvertebrates in areas with low-level enforcement were significantly lower than those in areas with high-level enforcement and no-take marine protected areas but were significantly higher than in areas with open access. Territorial-user-right areas could be important ancillary conservation instruments if they are well enforced. PMID:22971114

Gelcich, Stefan; Fernández, Miriam; Godoy, Natalio; Canepa, Antonio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

2012-12-01

225

Larval dispersion of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in coastal marine waters of the Southwest Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estuarine brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata export their larvae from the parental intertidal population of the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, and probably other populations, to marine waters. The degree of larval dispersion or self-recruitment of populations is unknown. We evaluated the presence of all larval stages of N. granulata in coastal waters of Argentina between 37.9° and 35.8° S, at two different spatial scales: a broad scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers from the Río de la Plata estuary in the north, to Mar Chiquita lagoon in the south, and a small scale of hundreds of meters to some kilometers around the mouth of Mar Chiquita, during spring and summer. Additionally, we registered the larval composition and density at San Clemente creek population, in Samborombon Bay (Río de la Plata estuary), every 3 h along a 30-hour period. Evidence indicates that larval release of N. granulata is temporally synchronized with nocturnal ebb tides and all development from Zoea I to Zoea IV occur in areas close to the parental population, even with very different oceanographic characteristics. A possible mechanism based on salinity selection and wind-driven transport is proposed for such behavior, and some considerations related to the connectivity of present populations are made.

Bas, Claudia; Luppi, Tomás; Spivak, Eduardo; Schejter, Laura

2009-08-01

226

NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE NORTHEAST REGIONAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

functions, including abundant living marine resources, human uses, and resilient coastal communities ecological and anthropogenic, affect living aquatic resources and their habitats, and our habitat program. These include: Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA); Fish and Wildlife Coordination

227

Temporal dynamics in the free-living bacterial community composition in the coastal North Sea  

PubMed Central

The coastal North Sea is characterized by strong seasonal dynamics in abiotic and biotic variables. Hence, pronounced temporal changes in the bacterioplankton community composition can be expected. Catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed a seasonal succession, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating before the spring phytoplankton bloom, Bacteroidetes increasing during the bloom (up to 60% of the prokaryotic community) and being replaced by Gammaproteobacteria during the postbloom period (on average 30% of prokaryotic cells). Daily changes in similarity of the bacterioplankton community assessed by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism averaged 0.08 day?1 (Whittaker similarity index) for the free-living bacterial community, resulting in a decreasing similarity between samples with increasing time up to approximately 150 days. After about 150 days, the community composition became increasingly similar to the initial composition. Changes in the bacterial community showed periods of fairly stable composition, interrupted by periods of rapid changes. Taken together, our results support the notion of a recurring bacterioplankton community in the coastal North Sea and indicate a tight coupling between the resources, the bacterial community metabolism, physiological structure and community composition throughout the seasonal cycle in the coastal North Sea. PMID:22938648

Sintes, Eva; Witte, Harry; Stodderegger, Karen; Steiner, Paul; Herndl, Gerhard J

2013-01-01

228

Activities of bioprotection systems of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea  

SciTech Connect

With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of sea pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection systems (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection systems as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given system and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.

Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. (Faculte de Medecine, Nice (France))

1988-09-01

229

The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

2013-01-01

230

Assessment of vulnerability to future marine processes of urbanized coastal environments by a GIS-based approach: expected scenario in the metropolitan area of Bari (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literature concerning the risk assessment procedures after extreme meteorological events is generally focused on the establishing of relationship between actual severe weather conditions and impact detected over the involved zones. Such an events are classified on the basis of measurements and observation able to assess the magnitude of phenomena or on the basis of related effects on the affected area, the latter being deeply connected with the overall physical vulnerability. However such assessment almost never do consider scenario about expected extreme event and possible pattern of urbanization at the time of impact and nor the spatial and temporal uncertainty of phenomena are taken into account. The drawn of future scenario about coastal vulnerability to marine processes is therefore difficult. This work focuses the study case of the Metropoli Terra di Bari (metropolitan area of Bari, Apulia, Italy) where a coastal vulnerability analysis due to climate changes expected on the basis of expert opinions coming from the scientific community was carried out. Several possible impacts on the coastal environments were considered, in particular sea level rise inundation, flooding due to storm surge and coastal erosion. For such a purpose the methodology base on SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenario) produced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) was adopted after a regionalization procedure as carried out by Verburgh and others (2006) at the European scale. The open source software SLEUTH, base on the cellular automate principle, was used and the reliability of obtained scenario verified through the Monte Carlo method. Once these scenario were produced, a GIS-based multicriteria methodology was implemented to evaluate the vulnerability of the urbanized coastal area of interest. Several vulnerability maps related are therefore available for different scenario able to consider the degree of hazards and potential development of the typology and extent of urban settlements. The vulnerability assessments under different scenario could represent a suitable tool in the designing of risk mitigation strategies under uncertain scenario of hazard.

Mancini, F.; Ceppi, C.; Christopulos, V.

2013-12-01

231

Novel aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes from coastal marine sediments of Patagonia  

PubMed Central

Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread pollutants in the marine environment, can produce adverse effects in marine organisms and can be transferred to humans through seafood. Our knowledge of PAH-degrading bacterial populations in the marine environment is still very limited, and mainly originates from studies of cultured bacteria. In this work, genes coding catabolic enzymes from PAH-biodegradation pathways were characterized in coastal sediments of Patagonia with different levels of PAH contamination. Results Genes encoding for the catalytic alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs) were amplified from intertidal sediment samples using two different primer sets. Products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Clones representing each restriction pattern were selected in each library for sequencing. A total of 500 clones were screened in 9 gene libraries, and 193 clones were sequenced. Libraries contained one to five different ARHD gene types, and this number was correlated with the number of PAHs found in the samples above the quantification limit (r = 0.834, p < 0.05). Overall, eight different ARHD gene types were detected in the sediments. In five of them, their deduced amino acid sequences formed deeply rooted branches with previously described ARHD peptide sequences, exhibiting less than 70% identity to them. They contain consensus sequences of the Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster binding site, suggesting that these gene fragments encode for ARHDs. On the other hand, three gene types were closely related to previously described ARHDs: archetypical nahAc-like genes, phnAc-like genes as identified in Alcaligenes faecalis AFK2, and phnA1-like genes from marine PAH-degraders from the genus Cycloclasticus. Conclusion These results show the presence of hitherto unidentified ARHD genes in this sub-Antarctic marine environment exposed to anthropogenic contamination. This information can be used to study the geographical distribution and ecological significance of bacterial populations carrying these genes, and to design molecular assays to monitor the progress and effectiveness of remediation technologies. PMID:18366740

Lozada, Mariana; Riva Mercadal, Juan P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Di Marzio, Walter D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Dionisi, Hebe M

2008-01-01

232

The Economic Value of Resilient Coastal Communities LAST REVISED  

E-print Network

. land area (excluding Alaska). From 1970 to 2010, U.S. population in these coastal watershed counties of the United States and territories, including the Great Lakes, an area that accounts for only 17 percent of U.S on these ecologically sensitive and economically important areas. Source: NOAA's State of the Coast Web site, U.S

233

The Transport of Chemicals and Biota into Coastal Rivers and Marine Ecosystems  

E-print Network

from the ocean or coastal erosion. In situ degradation ofand sediments from coastal erosion) and degradation of theerosion has left the current estuary shallow with a greatly decreased tidal prism, consisting mainly of sand bars and coastal

Ng, Charlene Marie

2012-01-01

234

Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon provides an important link between terrestrial and marine archives of Holocene environmental change in South Georgia.

Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

235

Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line  

PubMed Central

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, ?ivind; Modahl, Ingebj?rg; Olesen, Niels J?rgen; Johansen, Renate

2014-01-01

236

Short-term variability of the phytoplankton community in coastal ecosystem in response to physical and chemical conditions' changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term dynamics (time scale of a few days) of phytoplankton communities in coastal ecosystems, particularly those of toxic species, are often neglected. Such phenomena can be important, especially since these very species can endanger the sustainability of shellfish farming. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in phytoplankton community structure (species succession) in two coastal zones in parallel

Alexandrine Pannard; Pascal Claquin; Cécile Klein; Bertrand Le Roy; Benoît Véron

2008-01-01

237

Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

2010-01-01

238

Phylogenetic Analysis of Particle-Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in the Columbia River, Its Estuary, and the Adjacent Coastal Ocean  

PubMed Central

The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the ?, ?, or ? subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (?-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and ?-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean. PMID:10388721

Crump, Byron C.; Armbrust, E. Virginia; Baross, John A.

1999-01-01

239

Effects of Artisanal Fishing on Marine Communities in the Galápagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galápagos Islands harbor some of the least impacted marine ecosystems in the tropics, but there are indications that local artisanal fishing is affecting exploited marine communities. To quantify these effects, I sampled communities of fishes and sea urchins at a number of heavily fished and lightly fished sites throughout the central islands of the archipelago. Sites were selected based

Benjamin I. Ruttenberg

2001-01-01

240

IMPACT OF ROUNDUP ON THE MARINE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AS SHOWN BY AN IN SITU MICROCOSM EXPERIMENT  

E-print Network

1 IMPACT OF ROUNDUP ON THE MARINE MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AS SHOWN BY AN IN SITU MICROCOSM EXPERIMENT The effects of the herbicide Roundup® (glyphosate) on natural marine microbial communities were assessed fingerprints for Roundup at 1 µg L-1 (ANOSIM, p = 0.055; R=0.53), and 10 µg L-1 (ANOSIM, p = 0.086; R=0

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

241

A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.  

PubMed

Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences. PMID:23500022

Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

2013-04-15

242

Design and testing of 'genome-proxy' microarrays to profile marine microbial communities.  

PubMed

Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a 'genome-proxy' microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to 13 of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual open reading frame, and distributed along each approximately 40-160 kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having community, corresponding to approximately 10(3) cells ml(-1) in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R(2) of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition, the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R(2) = 0.9999 and a limit of detection of approximately 1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array's multiple-probe, 'genome-proxy' approach and consequent ability to track both target genotypes and their close relatives is important for the array's environmental application given the recent discoveries of considerable intrapopulation diversity within marine microbial communities. PMID:18028413

Rich, Virginia I; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; DeLong, Edward F

2008-02-01

243

Community composition has greater impact on the functioning of marine phytoplankton communities than ocean acidification.  

PubMed

Ecosystem functioning is simultaneously affected by changes in community composition and environmental change such as increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent ocean acidification. However, it largely remains uncertain how the effects of these factors compare to each other. Addressing this question, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that initial community composition and elevated CO2 are equally important to the regulation of phytoplankton biomass. We full-factorially exposed three compositionally different marine phytoplankton communities to two different CO2 levels and examined the effects and relative importance (?(2) ) of the two factors and their interaction on phytoplankton biomass at bloom peak. The results showed that initial community composition had a significantly greater impact than elevated CO2 on phytoplankton biomass, which varied largely among communities. We suggest that the different initial ratios between cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates might be the key for the varying competitive and thus functional outcome among communities. Furthermore, the results showed that depending on initial community composition elevated CO2 selected for larger sized diatoms, which led to increased total phytoplankton biomass. This study highlights the relevance of initial community composition, which strongly drives the functional outcome, when assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functioning. In particular, the increase in phytoplankton biomass driven by the gain of larger sized diatoms in response to elevated CO2 potentially has strong implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export in future oceans. PMID:24115206

Eggers, Sarah L; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M; Barcelos E Ramos, Joana; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Gallo, Francesca; Matthiessen, Birte

2014-03-01

244

Temporal and Spatial Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Coastal Waters of the South China Sea  

PubMed Central

Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns. PMID:23785512

Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

2013-01-01

245

The Gut Bacterial Community of Mammals from Marine and Terrestrial Habitats  

PubMed Central

After birth, mammals acquire a community of bacteria in their gastro-intestinal tract, which harvests energy and provides nutrients for the host. Comparative studies of numerous terrestrial mammal hosts have identified host phylogeny, diet and gut morphology as primary drivers of the gut bacterial community composition. To date, marine mammals have been excluded from these comparative studies, yet they represent distinct examples of evolutionary history, diet and lifestyle traits. To provide an updated understanding of the gut bacterial community of mammals, we compared bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data generated from faecal material of 151 marine and terrestrial mammal hosts. This included 42 hosts from a marine habitat. When compared to terrestrial mammals, marine mammals clustered separately and displayed a significantly greater average relative abundance of the phylum Fusobacteria. The marine carnivores (Antarctic and Arctic seals) and the marine herbivore (dugong) possessed significantly richer gut bacterial community than terrestrial carnivores and terrestrial herbivores, respectively. This suggests that evolutionary history and dietary items specific to the marine environment may have resulted in a gut bacterial community distinct to that identified in terrestrial mammals. Finally we hypothesize that reduced marine trophic webs, whereby marine carnivores (and herbivores) feed directly on lower trophic levels, may expose this group to high levels of secondary metabolites and influence gut microbial community richness. PMID:24386245

Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Rogers, Tracey L.; Brown, Mark V.

2013-01-01

246

Pelagic food webs and eutrophication of coastal waters: Impact of grazers on algal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review considers theoretical and empirical aspects of the role of grazers in the pelagic food web. We discuss how grazers may affect eutrophication development in coastal waters both through the direct effects of differential prey selectivity on the composition of the algal community, and through the indirect effects of nutrient sequestration and regeneration on the pelagic nutrient regime. We

Gismervik Ingrid; Tom Andersen; Olav Vadstein

1996-01-01

247

Rural Education and Out-Migration: The Case of a Coastal Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I report on findings from a case study examining the relationship between formal education and out-migration in a Canadian coastal community from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. Although high rates of village-level out-migration were chronic, most migration trajectories were short-range. Contrary to large-scale quantitative…

Corbett, Michael

2005-01-01

248

The relationship between Holocene cultural site distribution and marine terrace uplift on the coast fringing Coastal Range, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the collision of Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate, a series of left-lateral active faults with reverse sense exists in the Longitudinal Valley of east Taiwan. The Holocene marine terraces along the east coast of the Coastal Range in Taiwan are well known for their very rapid uplift and record tectonic history of this active collision boundary. The Holocene marine terrace sequence resulting from successive sea level change and tectonic activation is subdivided into several steps where the highest and oldest terrace, back to ca 13,000yr BP, reaches up to ca 80 m above sea level, and the lower terraces are mostly erosional ones, overlain by less than 1m thick coral beds in situ. The uplift of the coast is very high, ranging from 5 to 10 m/ka. According to the fabrics of potsherds and geochronological data, the prehistoric cultures in eastern Taiwan could be classified into three stages: Fushan (ca 5000-3500yr BP), Peinan/Chilin (ca3500-2000yr BP), Kweishan (ca2000-1000 yr BP) and Jinpu (ca 1000-400yr BP) cultural assemblages respectively. A great difference exists between the various cultural stage, not only the pottery making techniques, but also the distributions of archaeological sites. Combined with the dynamic geomorphic evolution of marine terraces and the distribution of prehistoric culture sites on the east coast of the Coastal Range, a coastal migration trend could be established.

Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan

2013-04-01

249

Inter-annual variations of macrobenthic communities over three decades in a land-locked coastal lagoon (Santo André, SW Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santo André is an enclosed brackish water coastal lagoon with temporary connections to the sea by a man-made channel. The exchange and mixture of saltwater and freshwater is irregular and the lagoon may show daily and seasonal fluctuations, but also long-term variation. Different benthic communities may be present along the annual cycle according to the magnitude of episodic freshwater and sea water inputs. In the last 30 years the communication with the sea has followed different regimes from year to year and, as a consequence, macrobenthic communities, assessed several times during the period before the opening to the sea, shifted from freshwater to marine affinities. Major differences were found between 1979 and 2010, with a preponderance of species with marine affinity, and the 1980s in which the organisms with freshwater affinity prevailed. Benthic communities are frequently used to assess aquatic environmental condition. Metrics used in the indices currently under discussion to assess ecological status of aquatic ecosystems within the scope of European Water Framework Directive were applied to Santo André data and the applicability of these metrics to assess quality in this coastal land-locked lagoon was discussed.

Correia, M. J.; Costa, J. L.; Chainho, P.; Félix, P. M.; Chaves, M. L.; Medeiros, J. P.; Silva, G.; Azeda, C.; Tavares, P.; Costa, A.; Costa, A. M.; Bernardo, J.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.; Cancela da Fonseca, L.

2012-09-01

250

Tsunami Inundation Mapping and Hazard Risk Assessment for Alaska Coastal Communities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami waves are a real threat for many Alaska coastal locations, and community preparedness plays an important role in saving lives and property. The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys collaborated with the Alaska Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management in forming the Alaska Tsunami Mapping Team (ATMT). This group of researches participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential tsunami inundation of selected coastal communities in Alaska. The communities are chosen on the basis of location, infrastructure, availability of bathymetric and topographic data, and willingness for a community to use results for hazard mitigation. ATMT develops hypothetical tsunami scenarios that are based on the parameters of potential underwater earthquakes and landslides for a specified coastal community. Then, we perform model simulations for each of the source scenarios. Numerical results and historical observations are combined in order to develop a worst case scenario. ATMT delivers the modeling results to the community for local tsunami hazard planning and construction of evacuation maps. Inundation maps are completed for three communities on Kodiak Island, and two communities in Kachemak Bay. The work is under way for Seward and Sitka. Seward, a community in the Prince William Sound area, suffered an extensive damage and 12 fatalities during the 1964 tsunami. The 1964 Good Friday earthquake induced submarine landsliding in deltaic sediments underlying Seward. Sitka, a community in South-Eastern Alaska, is vulnerable to far-field tsunamis from the Gulf of Alaska, as well as to locally landslide-generated tsunamis. We address the problem of predicting runup of tsunami waves by solving nonlinear shallow-water equations with a finite-difference method. Embedded grids of different resolution are employed to increase spatial resolution in the shelf area. Numerical simulations yield runup heights, extent of maximum inundation for chosen tsunami scenarios, depths of inundation on dry land, and maximum velocity current distribution in inundation zones.

Suleimani, E.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.

2005-12-01

251

Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: A case study in Greece.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178mgL(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9mmolL(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48mmolL(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, Mu; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

2014-11-01

252

Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there today). Potiki-roa and his wife escaped the disaster because their home was further inland and on higher ground. This purakau contains many elements of value to help us understand the societal and ecological significance of this event. Coastal resources (and probably canoes) are lost, buildings further inland and on higher ground survive the inundation while those at the coast and on lower ground are destroyed. This is a representative example of what can be recognised through the archaeological record as an almost nationwide abandonment of coastal settlements, the movement of people from the coast to inland and uphill areas, coastal resource depletion and increased warfare. Not all of this happened immediately after inundation but rather reflects the longer term human and environmental response to tsunami inundation and associated geological processes.

Goff, J. R.

2011-12-01

253

Quantification of Diatom and Dinoflagellate Biomasses in Coastal Marine Seawater Samples by Real-Time PCR?  

PubMed Central

Two real-time PCR assays targeting the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were designed to assess the proportional biomass of diatoms and dinoflagellates in marine coastal water. The reverse primer for the diatom assay was designed to be class specific, and the dinoflagellate-specific reverse primer was obtained from the literature. For both targets, we used universal eukaryotic SSU rDNA forward primers. Specificity was confirmed by using a BLAST search and by amplification of cultures of various phytoplankton taxa. Reaction conditions were optimized for each primer set with linearized plasmids from cloned SSU rDNA fragments. The number of SSU rDNA copies per cell was estimated for six species of diatoms and nine species of dinoflagellates; these were significantly correlated to the biovolumes of the cells. Nineteen field samples were collected along the Swedish west coast and subjected to the two real-time PCR assays. The linear regression of the proportion of SSU rDNA copies of dinoflagellate and diatom origin versus the proportion of dinoflagellate and diatom biovolumes or biomass per liter was significant. For diatoms, linear regression of the number of SSU rDNA copies versus biovolume or biomass per liter was significant, but no such significant correlation was detected in the field samples for dinoflagellates. The method described will be useful for estimating the proportion of dinoflagellate versus diatom biovolume or biomass and the absolute diatom biovolume or biomass in various aquatic disciplines. PMID:18849462

Godhe, Anna; Asplund, Maria E.; Harnstrom, Karolina; Saravanan, V.; Tyagi, Anuj; Karunasagar, Indrani

2008-01-01

254

Observations of the atmospheric boundary layer height under marine upstream flow conditions at a coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractWe investigate several lidar-type instruments and methodologies for boundary layer height (BLH) estimation during 2 days at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> site for winds that experience <span class="hlt">marine</span> upstream flow conditions. Wavelet and profile fitting procedures on the aerosol backscatter signals from a ceilometer and an aerosol lidar reveal similar BLHs, but their agreement depends on the presence of clouds and the instrument signal, among others. BLHs derived by a threshold on the carrier-to-noise profiles of a wind lidar agree well with those derived by using a threshold on the backscatter profile of the ceilometer and are used as reference for a 10 day BLH intercomparison. Furthermore, the BLHs from the aerosol analysis are comparable to those derived from wind speed and direction profiles from combined mast/wind lidar measurements. The BLH derived from simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model shows similar behavior compared to the lidar observations. The seasonal diurnal variation of the BLH for 2010, derived from the wind lidar and ceilometer thresholds, shows similar BLHs but generally higher values compared to that from WRF. No clear BLH diurnal variation is observed neither from the observations nor from the WRF model outputs, except in summer for the latter. Both observations and WRF model simulations reveal higher BLHs during autumn compared to spring time. These BLHs are used to evaluate the intra-annual variation and show high peaks in September, November, and February.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PeñA, A.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=233214"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decision-making in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over half of the US population lives in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> watersheds, creating a regional pressure for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy <span class="hlt">communities</span> and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marin</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ceres.ca.gov/ceres/calweb/coastal.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">California's <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site offers access to pages on the Geography of California <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Systems and on California <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecology. Much of the material is drawn from the California <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Commission's California <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Guide. The California coast is a region of unsurpassed beauty and natural splendor, blessed with an abundance of rich and varied resources. The coast supports a diversity of plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> and tens of thousands of species of insects and other invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, and mammals, including numerous rare and endangered species. From the lush redwood forests of the north to the wide, sandy beaches of the south, California's expansive coastline contains many distinct habitats. These habitats are the result of many different natural forces. The habitats/environments are: <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Mountains, Streams and Rivers, <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Terraces, Bluffs and Headlands, <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Sand Dunes, Beaches, Wetlands, Rocky Intertidal Zones, Islands and Offshore Rocks, and Nearshore Waters and Open Ocean. Users of this site may also access the California Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environmental Access Network (Cal OCEAN), a web-based virtual library for the discovery of and access to ocean and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> data and information from a wide variety of sources and in a range of types and formats. The goal of Cal OCEAN is to provide the information and tools to support ocean and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resource management, planning, research, and education via the Internet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Commission, California C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genomic island genes in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strain confer enhanced tolerance to copper and oxidative stress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highly variable regions called genomic islands are found in the genomes of <span class="hlt">marine</span> picocyanobacteria, and have been predicted to be involved in niche adaptation and the ecological success of these microbes. These picocyanobacteria are typically highly sensitive to copper stress and thus, increased copper tolerance could confer a selective advantage under some conditions seen in the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment. Through targeted gene inactivation of genomic island genes that were known to be upregulated in response to copper stress in Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, we found two genes (sync_1495 and sync_1217) conferred tolerance to both methyl viologen and copper stress in culture. The prevalence of one gene, sync_1495, was then investigated in natural samples, and had a predictable temporal variability in abundance at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring site with higher abundance in winter months. Together, this shows that genomic island genes can confer an adaptive advantage to specific stresses in <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus, and may help structure their population diversity. PMID:23344240</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart, Rhona K; Brahamsha, Bianca; Busby, Kayla; Palenik, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23344240"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genomic island genes in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strain confer enhanced tolerance to copper and oxidative stress.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highly variable regions called genomic islands are found in the genomes of <span class="hlt">marine</span> picocyanobacteria, and have been predicted to be involved in niche adaptation and the ecological success of these microbes. These picocyanobacteria are typically highly sensitive to copper stress and thus, increased copper tolerance could confer a selective advantage under some conditions seen in the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment. Through targeted gene inactivation of genomic island genes that were known to be upregulated in response to copper stress in Synechococcus sp. strain CC9311, we found two genes (sync_1495 and sync_1217) conferred tolerance to both methyl viologen and copper stress in culture. The prevalence of one gene, sync_1495, was then investigated in natural samples, and had a predictable temporal variability in abundance at a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> monitoring site with higher abundance in winter months. Together, this shows that genomic island genes can confer an adaptive advantage to specific stresses in <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus, and may help structure their population diversity. PMID:23344240</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart, Rhona K; Brahamsha, Bianca; Busby, Kayla; Palenik, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED360818.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Sociolinguistic Complexity of Quasi-Isolated Southern <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A sociolinguistic study of Ocracoke, an island <span class="hlt">community</span> in North Carolina's Outer Banks, investigated the social dynamics of language change and variation. Data were gathered in interviews with 43 island residents aged 12-82, most of whose families have been on the island for several generations. Several major sociolinguistic issues were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wolfram, Walt; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10130175"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chile is one of the world's leading countries in landings (catch) of <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources. The pioneer studies of human impacts on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> provided the scientific basis on which to establish novel resource management strategies for exploited wild populations but were not used to develop a com- prehensive <span class="hlt">marine</span> conservation plan that would also include no-take areas. We reviewed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ; JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1388740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium with Enhanced Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Phytoplankton <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An indigenous <span class="hlt">marine</span> Achromobacter sp. was isolated from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Georgia seawater and modified in the laboratory by introduction of a plasmid with a phoA hybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase. The effects of this "indigenous" genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) on phosphorus cycling were determined in seawater microcosms following the addition of a model dissolved organic phosphorus compound, glycerol 3-phosphate, at a concentration of 1 or 10 (mu)M. Within 48 h, a 2- to 10-fold increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphate occurred in microcosms containing the GEM (added at an initial density equivalent to 8% of the total bacterial population) relative to controls containing only natural microbial populations, natural populations with the unmodified Achromobacter sp., or natural populations with the Achromobacter sp. containing the plasmid but not the phoA gene. Secondary effects of the GEM on the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> were observed after several days, evident as sustained increases in phytoplankton biomass (up to 14-fold) over that in controls. Even in the absence of added glycerol 3-phosphate, a numerically stable GEM population (averaging 3 to 5% of culturable bacteria) was established within 2 to 3 weeks of introduction into seawater. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity in microcosms with the GEM was substantially higher than that in controls for up to 25 days, and microcosms containing the GEM maintained the potential for net phosphate accumulation above control levels for longer than 1 month. PMID:16535222</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sobecky, P. A.; Schell, M. A.; Moran, M. A.; Hodson, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42342594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> scientific research by the European <span class="hlt">community</span> and its member states</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The competence of the European <span class="hlt">Community</span> (EC) in the area of <span class="hlt">marine</span> scientific research, since 1987 based expressly on European Economic <span class="hlt">Community</span> (EEC) Treaty provisions, is limited to the promotion and coordination of such research in the EC member states; it may also itself conduct research. In addition, the <span class="hlt">Community</span> is becoming increasingly active in international cooperation, thus exercising external</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alfred H. A. Soons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geosc.psu.edu/~jmacalad/eprints/Moore2010Chronosequence.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shifting microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure across a <span class="hlt">marine</span> terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shifting microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure across a <span class="hlt">marine</span> terrace grassland chronosequence, Santa Cruz Microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure Microbial biomass Decline phase Grassland a b s t r a c t Changes plant productivity, and soil microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> across a grassland chro- nosequence (65</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Macalady, Jenn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A21A0010F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composition of California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol particles measured during CalNex 2010 and E-PEACE 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> aerosol particles play an important role in the earth's radiative balance, yet the sources and composition of the organic fraction remain largely unconstrained. Recent measurements have been made in order to characterize the sources, composition, and concentration of particles in the California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> boundary layer. Ambient and generated <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol particles were measured on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 campaign in May and June 2010. Particles were collected on filters and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the functional group composition and total organic mass. Particles from two primary <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol generators showed similar organic compositions, both with larger fractions of hydroxyl functional groups. Similar ambient measurements were made on board the R/V Point Sur during July 2011. Ambient <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol particles were collected on filters and analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. Samples were collected 100 miles off the coast of Monterey, CA when winds were mainly from the west and had little anthropogenic influence. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> aerosol particles were also analyzed using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Particles were sampled under different ambient conditions including a range of seawater chlorophyll concentrations and a range of wind speeds and directions. Changes in the ambient conditions may influence changes in the organic functional group composition of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> particles. Simultaneously, seawater was collected and atomized onto filters to determine the functional group composition of the total organic matter in the seawater. This organic composition will be compared to the organic composition of the ambient <span class="hlt">marine</span> particles to determine the changes upon emission and aging in the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frossard, A. A.; Modini, R.; Russell, L. M.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Kieber, D. J.; Maben, J. R.; Keene, W. C.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....60...38R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure revealed distinct <span class="hlt">community</span> groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of <span class="hlt">marine</span> biofilm <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses were utilized to determine the composition and function of complex air-water interface biofilms sampled from the hulls of two US Navy destroyers. Prokaryotic <span class="hlt">community</span> analyses using PhyloChip-based 16S rDNA profiling revealed two significantly different and taxonomically rich biofilm <span class="hlt">communities</span> (6,942 taxa) in which the majority of unique taxa were ascribed to members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Clostridia. Although metagenomic sequencing indicated that both biofilms were dominated by prokaryotic sequence reads (> 91%) with the majority of the bacterial reads belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, the Ship-1 metagenome harbored greater organismal and functional diversity and was comparatively enriched for sequences from Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and macroscopic eukaryotes, whereas the Ship-2 metagenome was enriched for sequences from Proteobacteria and microscopic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metaproteome analyses identified 678 unique proteins, revealed little overlap in species and protein composition between the ships and contrasted with the metagenomic data in that ~80% of classified and annotated proteins were of eukaryotic origin and dominated by members of the Bacillariophyta, Cnidaria, Chordata and Arthropoda (data deposited to the ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD000961). Within the shared metaproteome, quantitative (18)O and iTRAQ analyses demonstrated a significantly greater abundance of structural proteins from macroscopic eukaryotes on Ship-1 and diatom photosynthesis proteins on Ship-2. Photosynthetic pigment composition and elemental analyses confirmed that both biofilms were dominated by phototrophic processes. These data begin to provide a better understanding of the complex organismal and biomolecular composition of <span class="hlt">marine</span> biofilms while highlighting caveats in the interpretation of stand-alone environmental '-omics' datasets. PMID:25407927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leary, Dagmar H; Li, Robert W; Hamdan, Leila J; Hervey, W Judson; Lebedev, Nikolai; Wang, Zheng; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Kusterbeck, Anne W; Vora, Gary J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625232"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Pre-Existing Disturbances in the Effect of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Reserves on <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Ecosystems: A Modelling Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have used an end-to-end ecosystem model to explore responses over 30 years to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> no-take reserves covering up to 6% of the fifty thousand square kilometres of continental shelf and slope off the coast of New South Wales (Australia). The model is based on the Atlantis framework, which includes a deterministic, spatially resolved three-dimensional biophysical model that tracks nutrient flows through key biological groups, as well as extraction by a range of fisheries. The model results support previous empirical studies in finding clear benefits of reserves to top predators such as sharks and rays throughout the region, while also showing how many of their major prey groups (including commercial species) experienced significant declines. It was found that the net impact of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves was dependent on the pre-existing levels of disturbance (i.e. fishing pressure), and to a lesser extent on the size of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves. The high fishing scenario resulted in a strongly perturbed system, where the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves had clear and mostly direct effects on biomass and functional biodiversity. However, under the lower fishing pressure scenario, the introduction of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves caused both direct positive effects, mainly on shark groups, and indirect negative effects through trophic cascades. Our study illustrates the need to carefully align the design and implementation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves with policy and management objectives. Trade-offs may exist not only between fisheries and conservation objectives, but also among conservation objectives. PMID:23593432</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Savina, Marie; Condie, Scott A.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40779596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fingernails and diet: Stable isotope signatures of a <span class="hlt">marine</span> hunting <span class="hlt">community</span> from modern Uummannaq, North Greenland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">C, N ad S stable isotope compositions of fossil human bones are frequently used in palaeodiet studies, but results from strictly <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> are scarce. Modern hunting and fishing Inuit Greenlanders in the Uummannaq District in North Greenland are known to live from a diet high in local <span class="hlt">marine</span> food (seal, whale, halibut) combined with basic foods (bread, cereals, dairy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjørn Buchardt; Vibeke Bunch; Pekka Helin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mlpa/pdfs/comments/jg_082806.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seeking Consensus on Designing <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protected Areas: Keeping the Fishing <span class="hlt">Community</span> Engaged</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">community</span> group was formed to consider establishing <span class="hlt">marine</span> reserves within the Channel Islands National <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Sanctuary in southern California. Membership included representatives from resource agencies, environmental organizations, commercial and recreational fishing interests, and the general public. While the group agreed on several areas for fishing closures, members could not reach consensus on a specific network design. Several factors interfered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MARK HELVEY</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48483654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nekton <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetlands: The Distribution and Abundance of Introduced Fish Species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nekton <span class="hlt">communities</span> were sampled from 38 Hawaiian <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands from 2007 to 2009 using lift nets, seines, and throw nets\\u000a in an attempt to increase our understanding of the nekton assemblages that utilize these poorly studied ecosystems. Nekton\\u000a were dominated by exotic species, primarily poeciliids (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia spp.) and tilapia. These fish were present in 50–85% of wetlands sampled;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Ames MacKenzie; Gregory L. Bruland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47826678"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Ecological Importance of Horseshoe Crabs in Estuarine and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span>: A Review and Speculative Summary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Beyond their commercial importance for LAL and bait, and their status as a living fossil, it is often asserted that horseshoe\\u000a crabs play a vital role in the ecology of estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>. How would the various ecological relationships\\u000a involving horseshoe crabs be affected if these animals were no longer abundant? Attempts to understand and generalize the\\u000a ecological importance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark L. Botton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48441736"> <span id="translatedtitle">Social vulnerability index for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> at risk to hurricane hazard and a changing climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the development of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Community</span> Social Vulnerability Index (CCSVI) in order to quantify the social\\u000a vulnerability of hurricane-prone areas under various scenarios of climate change. The 2004–2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons\\u000a is estimated to have caused $150 billion dollars in damages, and in recent years, the annual hurricane damage in the United\\u000a States is estimated at around</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sigridur Bjarnadottir; Yue Li; Mark G. Stewart</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JAfES..28..757M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The C and N stable isotope compositions of some flora of East Africa from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Tanzania and Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are used to assess if they can be used as a terrestrial end member during the estimation of terrestrial fraction in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments. The results of C isotope composition of various tree leaves, which average -29.3 ± 1.4%, indicate that these tropical higher land plant species follow a Calvin-Benson or non-Kranz (C 3) type of metabolism. The results for grass species, which average -13.2 ± 2.4%, indicate that most of them follow a Hatch-Slack or Kranz (C 4) type of metabolism. However, some of the succulent plants from the Amboseli National Park have ?13C values that average -14.7%, an indication that they follow a CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) type of metabolism. The N isotope values are relatively higher than expected for the terrestrial organic material. The average ?15N values for both tree and grass samples are higher than 5% and fall within the range normally considered to be <span class="hlt">marine</span>. The high enrichment in 15N may be related to the environmental conditions in which plants thrive. Plants growing in sandy, dry and overgrazed environments are expected to be enriched in 15N owing to full utilisation of all available N species, regardless of their isotopic compositions. Other processes which may cause an enrichment in 15N include adsorption by various types of clay minerals, supply of 15N-enriched nitrate through sea-spray, and local denitrification, especially in swampy and lake margins where the input of organic matter may be higher than the rate of decomposition. The stable isotopic composition of organic C and N for surficial organic matter for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments averages -17.0 ± 0.9% and 5.4 ± 1.1%, respectively. These values indicate a substantial contribution of C 4 plants and sea grasses. However, contribution of C 4 relative to that of sea grasses can not be evaluated owing to the fact that there is no significant difference in the isotopic compositions between the two groups. In the savannah environment, where a contribution from the C 4 types of plants might be substantial, the ?13C value for a terrestrial end member needs to be established prior to evaluation of the terrestrially derived organic matter in the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment. Owing to a significant contribution of sea grasses to the total organic matter preserved in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, the stable isotopes of organic C seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in the East African <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. Furthermore, the results indicate that N stable isotopes seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of East Africa. However, more work needs to be conducted to determine the terrestrial and sea grass end member values for the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muzuka, Alfred N. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..119...44T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and function to experimental rainwater additions in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> eutrophic embayment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although recognized as a potentially important source of both inorganic and organic nutrients, the impact of rainwater on microbial populations from <span class="hlt">marine</span> planktonic systems has been poorly assessed. The effect of rainwater additions on bacterioplankton metabolism and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition was evaluated in microcosm experiments enclosing natural <span class="hlt">marine</span> plankton populations from the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain). The experiments were conducted during three different seasons (spring, autumn and winter) using rainwater collected at three different locations: <span class="hlt">marine</span>, urban and rural sites. Bacterial abundance and production significantly increased up to 1.3 and 1.8-fold, respectively, after urban rainwater additions in spring, when ambient nutrient concentration was very low. Overall, the increments in bacterial production were higher than those in bacterial respiration, which implies that a higher proportion of carbon consumed by bacteria would be available to higher trophic levels. The response of the different bacterial groups to distinct rainwater types differed between seasons. The most responsive bacterial groups were Betaproteobacteria which significantly increased their abundance after urban (in spring and winter) and <span class="hlt">marine</span> (in spring) rainwater additions, and Bacteroidetes which positively responded to all rainwater treatments in spring and to urban rainwater in autumn. Gammaproteobacteria and Roseobacter responded only to urban (in spring) and <span class="hlt">marine</span> (in winter) rainwater treatment, respectively. The responses to rainwater additions were moderate and transient, and the resulting bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure was not importantly altered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teira, Eva; Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Martínez-García, Sandra; Figueiras, Francisco G.; Arbones, Belén; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24356981"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Community</span> structure and PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes of a <span class="hlt">marine</span> pyrene-degrading microbial consortium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Marine</span> microbial consortium UBF, enriched from a beach polluted by the Prestige oil spill and highly efficient in degrading this heavy fuel, was subcultured in pyrene minimal medium. The pyrene-degrading subpopulation (UBF-Py) mineralized 31 % of pyrene without accumulation of partially oxidized intermediates indicating the cooperation of different microbial components in substrate mineralization. The microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> composition was characterized by culture dependent and PCR based methods (PCR-DGGE and clone libraries). Molecular analyses showed a highly stable <span class="hlt">community</span> composed by Alphaproteobacteria (84 %, Breoghania, Thalassospira, Paracoccus, and Martelella) and Actinobacteria (16 %, Gordonia). The members of Thalasosspira and Gordonia were not recovered as pure cultures, but five additional strains, not detected in the molecular analysis, that classified within the genera Novosphingobium, Sphingopyxis, Aurantimonas (Alphaproteobacteria), Alcanivorax (Gammaproteobacteria) and Micrococcus (Actinobacteria), were isolated. None of the isolates degraded pyrene or other PAHs in pure culture. PCR amplification of Gram-positive and Gram-negative dioxygenase genes did not produce results with any of the cultured strains. However, sequences related to the NidA3 pyrene dioxygenase present in mycobacterial strains were detected in UBF-Py consortium, suggesting the representative of Gordonia as the key pyrene degrader, which is consistent with a preeminent role of actinobacteria in pyrene removal in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments affected by <span class="hlt">marine</span> oil spills. PMID:24356981</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Tauler, Margalida; Nieto, José María; Breugelmans, Philip; Springael, Dirk; Grifoll, Magdalena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2725496"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Strains of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Synechococcus Species Exhibit Increased Tolerance to Copper Shock and a Distinctive Transcriptional Response Relative to Those of Open-Ocean Strains? †</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Copper appears to be influencing the distribution and abundance of phytoplankton in <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments, and cyanobacteria are thought to be the most sensitive of the phytoplankton groups to copper toxicity. By using growth assays of phylogenetically divergent clades, we found that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strains of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus species were more tolerant to copper shock than open-ocean strains. The global transcriptional response to two levels of copper shock were determined for both a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain and an open-ocean strain of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus species using whole-genome expression microarrays. Both strains showed an osmoregulatory-like response, perhaps as a result of increasing membrane permeability. This could have implications for <span class="hlt">marine</span> carbon cycling if copper shock leads to dissolved organic carbon leakage in Synechococcus species. The two strains additionally showed a common reduction in levels of photosynthesis-related gene transcripts. Contrastingly, the open-ocean strain showed a general stress response, whereas the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain exhibited a more specifically oxidative or heavy-metal acclimation response that may be conferring tolerance. In addition, the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain activated more regulatory elements and transporters, many of which are not conserved in other <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strains and may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Thus, tolerance to copper shock in some <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strains may in part be a result of a generally increased ability to sense and respond in a more stress-specific manner. PMID:19502430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart, Rhona K.; Dupont, Chris L.; Johnson, D. Aaron; Paulsen, Ian T.; Palenik, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19502430"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> strains of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus species exhibit increased tolerance to copper shock and a distinctive transcriptional response relative to those of open-ocean strains.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Copper appears to be influencing the distribution and abundance of phytoplankton in <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments, and cyanobacteria are thought to be the most sensitive of the phytoplankton groups to copper toxicity. By using growth assays of phylogenetically divergent clades, we found that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strains of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus species were more tolerant to copper shock than open-ocean strains. The global transcriptional response to two levels of copper shock were determined for both a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain and an open-ocean strain of <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus species using whole-genome expression microarrays. Both strains showed an osmoregulatory-like response, perhaps as a result of increasing membrane permeability. This could have implications for <span class="hlt">marine</span> carbon cycling if copper shock leads to dissolved organic carbon leakage in Synechococcus species. The two strains additionally showed a common reduction in levels of photosynthesis-related gene transcripts. Contrastingly, the open-ocean strain showed a general stress response, whereas the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain exhibited a more specifically oxidative or heavy-metal acclimation response that may be conferring tolerance. In addition, the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> strain activated more regulatory elements and transporters, many of which are not conserved in other <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strains and may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Thus, tolerance to copper shock in some <span class="hlt">marine</span> Synechococcus strains may in part be a result of a generally increased ability to sense and respond in a more stress-specific manner. PMID:19502430</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stuart, Rhona K; Dupont, Chris L; Johnson, D Aaron; Paulsen, Ian T; Palenik, Brian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24176698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> to determine environmental quality status of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan <span class="hlt">communities</span> have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the <span class="hlt">community</span> structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate <span class="hlt">communities</span> might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters. PMID:24176698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11642224"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trichodinid ectoparasites (ciliphora: Peritrichida) of some <span class="hlt">marine</span> fishes from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five species of <span class="hlt">marine</span> fishes, including two of the main maricultured fishes from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, were examined for ectoparasitic trichodinids. A total of five species of trichodinids belonging to three genera, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830, Paratrichodina Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella Srámek-Husek, 1953 were reinvestigated following dry silver impregnation. These were: Trichodina rectuncinata Raabe, 1958, T. jadranica (Raabe, 1958) Haider, 1964, Paratrichodina globonuclea Lom, 1963, P. obliqua Lom, 1963 and Trichodinella lomi Xu, Song & Warren, 1999. Morphometric data and comparative descriptions of these trichodinids are provided along with details of their prevalence and intensity of infestation. PMID:11642224</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, K; Song, W; Warren, A; Choi, J K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6685464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecology of Pacific Northwest <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sand dunes: a <span class="hlt">community</span> profile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wiedemann, A.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50953126"> <span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for mapping <span class="hlt">marine</span> biodiversity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and shelf waters: Implications for <span class="hlt">marine</span> management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have only recently become available as a tool to investigate the biological and physical composition of the seabed utilizing a suite of image capture and high-resolution geophysical tools. In this study we trialled the application of an AUV, integrating AUV image capture with ship-based high resolution multibeam bathymetry, to map benthic habitats and biodiversity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neville Barrett; Jan Seiler; Tara Anderson; Stefan Williams; Scott Nichol; S. N. Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Political Ecology and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Conservation: A Case Study of Menai Bay Conservation Area, Tanzania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many of Africa's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas are experiencing alarming levels of degradation. In response, <span class="hlt">marine</span> conservation efforts there are on the rise, many of which claim <span class="hlt">community</span> empowerment as an essential goal. Researchers have begun to use theories...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shinn, Jamie Elizabeth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-23/pdf/2010-20851.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Ecological Classification Standard</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...made available to the public on the FGDC Web site. DATES: Comments on the draft <span class="hlt">Coastal</span>...from the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> tidal splash zone to the deep ocean, including all substrate and water column features of the oceans as well as the deep waters of the Great Lakes. CMECS...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691639"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diversity and population structure of a near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span>-sediment viral <span class="hlt">community</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viruses, most of which are phage, are extremely abundant in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, yet almost nothing is known about their identity or diversity. We present the metagenomic analysis of an uncultured near-shore <span class="hlt">marine</span>-sediment viral <span class="hlt">community</span>. Three-quarters of the sequences in the sample were not related to anything previously reported. Among the sequences that could be identified, the majority belonged to double-stranded DNA phage. Temperate phage were more common than lytic phage, suggesting that lysogeny may be an important lifestyle for sediment viruses. Comparisons between the sediment sample and previously sequenced seawater viral <span class="hlt">communities</span> showed that certain phage phylogenetic groups were abundant in all <span class="hlt">marine</span> viral <span class="hlt">communities</span>, while other phage groups were under-represented or absent. This '<span class="hlt">marineness</span>' suggests that <span class="hlt">marine</span> phage are derived from a common set of ancestors. Several independent mathematical models, based on the distribution of overlapping shotgun sequence fragments from the library, were used to show that the diversity of the viral <span class="hlt">community</span> was extremely high, with at least 10(4) viral genotypes per kilogram of sediment and a Shannon index greater than 9 nats. Based on these observations we propose that <span class="hlt">marine</span>-sediment viral <span class="hlt">communities</span> are one of the largest unexplored reservoirs of sequence space on the planet. PMID:15156913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breitbart, Mya; Felts, Ben; Kelley, Scott; Mahaffy, Joseph M.; Nulton, James; Salamon, Peter; Rohwer, Forest</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3993158"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic Differences in Attached and Free-Living Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in a Temperate <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lagoon during Summer, Revealed via High-Throughput 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most of what is known about <span class="hlt">coastal</span> free-living and attached bacterial diversity is based on open coasts, with high particulate and nutrient riverine supply, terrestrial runoffs, and anthropogenic activities. The Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) are dominated by shallow lagoons with small, relatively pristine catchments and no freshwater input apart from rain. Such conditions provided an opportunity to investigate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> free-living and attached <span class="hlt">marine</span> bacterial diversity in the absence of confounding effects of steep freshwater gradients. We found significant differences between the two <span class="hlt">communities</span> and marked temporal patterns in both. Taxonomic richness and diversity were greater in the attached than in the free-living <span class="hlt">community</span>, increasing over summer, especially within the least abundant bacterial phyla. The highest number of reads fell within the SAR 11 clade (Pelagibacter, Alphaproteobacteria), which dominated free-living <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The attached <span class="hlt">communities</span> had deeper phylum-level diversity than the free-living fraction. Distance-based redundancy analysis indicated that the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration was the main variable separating early and late summer samples with salinity and temperature changes also significantly correlated to bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. Our approach using high-throughput sequencing detected differences in free-living versus attached bacteria in the absence of riverine input, in keeping with the concept that <span class="hlt">marine</span> attached <span class="hlt">communities</span> are distinct from cooccurring free-living taxa. This diversity likely reflects the diverse microhabitats of available particles, implying that the total bacterial diversity in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> systems is linked to particle supply and variability, with implications for understanding microbial biodiversity in <span class="hlt">marine</span> systems. PMID:24463966</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohit, Vani; Archambault, Philippe; Toupoint, Nicolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1326043L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and sources of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx campaign</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp ≤ 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific ocean during the VOCALS-REx experiment between 16~October and 15 November 2008 using the US DOE G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and how they interacted with the <span class="hlt">marine</span> stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the <span class="hlt">marine</span> boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO42-, followed by Na+, Cl-, Org, NH4+, and NO3-, in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO3-1 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection of ~0.05 and ~0.15 ?g m-3 for anions and cations, respectively. The aerosols were strongly acidic as the NH4+ to SO42- equivalence ratio was typically < 0.3; this inferred acidity is corroborated by the conductivity of aqueous samples collected by the PILS. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, showed Cl- deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, and were externally mixed with SO42- particles as the AMS detected no NO3- whilst uptake of HNO3 occurred only on SSA particles. The SSA loading as a function of wind speed agreed with that calculated from published relationships, and contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number. Vertical distribution of MBL SSA particles (Dp ≤ ~1.5 ?m) was uniform, suggesting a very limited dilution from entrainment of free tropospheric (FT) air. It was inferred that because all of the aerosol species (except SSA) exhibited a strong land-to-sea gradient, they were of continental origin. Comparison of relative changes in median values using LOWESS fits as proxies suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, and (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) FT contributions to MBL gas and aerosols were negligible. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra obtained with the AMS showed an HOA on 28 October 2008 but not on 6 November 2008 that we attribute to a more extensive cloud processing on the later date. A highly oxidized OOA factor resembling fulvic acid was found associated with anthropogenic and biogenic sources as well as long range transported biomass burn plumes in the FT air. A sulfur-containing OOA factor identified as MSA was strongly correlated with SO42-, hence anthropogenic. The very low levels of CH3SO3- observed suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO42- aerosols production during VOCALS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, J.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Senum, G.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..149..213R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant <span class="hlt">communities</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of <span class="hlt">community</span> zonation in these Mediterranean <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24090881"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and <span class="hlt">community</span> shifts along the SW Atlantic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed <span class="hlt">communities</span> remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that <span class="hlt">coastal</span> urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. PMID:24090881</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475127"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span> on lactic acid bacteria <span class="hlt">communities</span> in raw broiler fillet strips</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Marination</span> with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span>, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The <span class="hlt">communities</span> were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the <span class="hlt">marinated</span> fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that <span class="hlt">marination</span> changed the <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. <span class="hlt">Marination</span> increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO2 production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO2 in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in <span class="hlt">marinated</span> meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with <span class="hlt">marinated</span> and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nieminen, T. T.; Valitalo, H.; Sade, E.; Paloranta, A.; Koskinen, K.; Bjorkroth, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23087685"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span> on lactic acid bacteria <span class="hlt">communities</span> in raw broiler fillet strips.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Marination</span> with marinade containing salt, sugar, and acetic acid is commonly used in Finland to enhance the value of raw broiler meat. In this study, we investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">marination</span>, marinade components and storage time on composition of bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) broiler fillet strips. The <span class="hlt">communities</span> were characterized using two culture-independent methods: 16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. In unmarinated broiler fillet strips, Lactococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. predominated at the early storage phase but were partially replaced by Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. when the chilled storage time was extended. In the <span class="hlt">marinated</span> fillet strips, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. predominated independent from the storage time. By mixing the different marinade components with broiler meat, we showed that <span class="hlt">marination</span> changed the <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and favored Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. by the combined effect of carbohydrates and acetic acid in marinade. <span class="hlt">Marination</span> increased the maximum level of lactic acid bacteria in broiler meat and enhanced CO(2) production and acidification of meat during the chilled storage. Accumulation of CO(2) in package head-space due to the enhanced growth of Leuconostoc spp. in <span class="hlt">marinated</span> meat may lead to bulging of packages, which is a spoilage defect frequently associated with <span class="hlt">marinated</span> and MAP raw broiler preparations in Finland. PMID:23087685</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nieminen, T T; Välitalo, H; Säde, E; Paloranta, A; Koskinen, K; Björkroth, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45208930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ontogenetic Shifts in Diets of Juvenile and Subadult Coho and Chinook Salmon in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Waters: Important for <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Survival?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successfully shifting to a more piscivorous diet may be an important factor in the growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha during their first summer in the northern California Current. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis of diets by size showed several distinct groupings as the salmon grew during their first <span class="hlt">marine</span> summer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elizabeth A. Daly; Richard D. Brodeur; Laurie A. Weitkamp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.srs.fs.fed.us/pubs/ja/ja_conners015.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BIRD <span class="hlt">COMMUNITIES</span> AND FOREST AGE, STRUCTURE, SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FRAGMENTATION IN THE WEST GULF <span class="hlt">COASTAL</span> PLAIN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> of the West Gulf <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some species with others and cause changes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://press.uchicago.edu/dms/ucp/journals/adrates/MRE_2014Rate.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ABOUT THE JOURNAL <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Resource Economics publishes creative and scholarly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">biodiversity, <span class="hlt">marine</span> and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> recreation, <span class="hlt">marine</span> pollution, offshore oil and gas, seabed mining, renewable pollution, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> recreation, ocean energy resources, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> climate adaptation, ecosystemABOUT THE JOURNAL <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Resource Economics publishes creative and scholarly economic analyses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mateo, Jill M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/rehderEtalGBC2002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">marine</span> CH4 emissions to the atmosphere off Oregon caused by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, such as shallow seeps, gas hydrates, and intermediate nepheloid layers, suggests that the enhancement of CH4­300 m) turbidity layers is transported to the surface by <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling, which causes an enhanced net</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurapov, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://marine.rutgers.edu/biogeo_paleo/rosentha/rosenthal_files/Rosnethal_CV2005_short.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">YAIR ROSENTHAL-Curriculum Vita Institute of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Science,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, coring in the North Atlantic (4 days) 2000 02 Eight 1-day cruise on the Hudson River 1998 R/V Moana Wave cycle; Metal pollution in estuarine and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments Shipboard experience 2004 R/V KNORR. Co</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6529717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate and effects of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) on a <span class="hlt">marine</span> plankton <span class="hlt">community</span> in experimental enclosures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate and effects of a single dose of 0.3 and 1.0 mg of 5-nitrofuroic acid-2 (NFA) per litre on a <span class="hlt">marine</span> plankton <span class="hlt">community</span> enclosed in large plastic bags (contents 1.5 m/sup 3/) were studied. The plankton <span class="hlt">community</span> was derived from North Sea <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, and the model ecosystems were anchored in the harbor of Den Helder, the Netherlands, where they were exposed to a natural light and temperature regimen. Two experimental units were polluted with NFA; a third served as a control. During four weeks the development of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and bacteria was followed, as were a set of physicochemical parameters including nutrients, light, and temperature. The nitro group was removed from the NFA within about one day of the addition of the compound to the model ecosystems, probably as a result of the exposure to light. The intact NFA inhibited the phytoplankton slightly; the remaining molecule produced no detectable effects in the system. The development of the enclosed <span class="hlt">community</span> was very similar in the different bags.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuiper, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6169309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecology of tundra ponds of the Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain: a <span class="hlt">community</span> profile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Arctic <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain is a flat or gently rolling area of tundra which covers the entire <span class="hlt">coastal</span> region of northern Alaska. This profile synthesizes data on the ecology of the thousands of small shallow ponds that form an important wetland <span class="hlt">community</span> on the tundra. These polygonal ponds are formed by the freezing, thawing, and cracking of the perma-frost. Nutrient concentrations and rates of supply to the water column are controlled by interactions with the iron-rich peat sediments. Iron concentrations control phosphorus concentrations and these in turn control the growth of algae. Two fringing emergent vascular plants, Carex and Arctophila, are often the most important primary producers in the ponds. Most algae and higher plant biomass is decomposed by microbes in a detrital food web concentrated in the pond sediments. Chironomid larvae, oligochaete worms and other insects are the dominant benthic animals. Because the ponds freeze to the bottom each winter they contain no fish; however, the <span class="hlt">community</span> is important for many species of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds that use the ponds for feeding and breeding. Activities associated with oil production, including spills, roads, and off-road vehicles, are the major issues facing managers of this wetland <span class="hlt">community</span>. 63 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hobbie, J.E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3054070"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eutrophication of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Waters: Effects on Benthic Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the last century organic pollution in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of the sea has become a serious world problem. One of the major stresses comes from the input of excessive macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) resulting in a change of the trophic status of a given body of water, which leads to eutrophication. Although the effects of eutrophication are well-known, the mechanisms governing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lutz-Arend Meyer-Reil; Marion Köster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EnGeo..55..653A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal concentrations in <span class="hlt">marine</span> green, brown, and red seaweeds from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three <span class="hlt">marine</span> algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different <span class="hlt">marine</span> algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that <span class="hlt">marine</span> alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GeCoA..60.2993W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multicomponent reactive transport model of early diagenesis: Application to redox cycling in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STEADYSED1 is a multicomponent reactive transport code for steady-state early diagenesis which fully incorporates the reaction couplings among the elements, C, O, N, S, Fe, and Mn. The model is tested against extensive datasets collected by Canfield et al. (1993a,b) at three <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sites that exhibit high rates of combined iron and manganese (hydr)oxide reduction. It is shown that the model provides a consistent explanation of the entire body of multicomponent multisite observations. The measured concentration profiles of twenty-eight individual porewater and solid sediment species are satisfactorily reproduced. Furthermore, the model predicts the observed distributions of sulfate reduction rates, as well as diagnostic features of the porewater pH profiles. The coupled nature of the reactive species imposes stringent constraints when fitting model-calculated distributions to the data, because a single set of reaction and transport parameters must account for the profiles of all the species at each site. The parameters are further separated into site-specific (e.g., deposition fluxes, bottom water composition) and reaction-specific parameters (e.g., rate coefficients, apparent equilibrium constants, limiting substrate concentrations). By minimizing the variations of the reaction-specific parameters from one site to another, the fitting strategy emphasizes the retrieval from field data of reaction parameters that are mechanistically meaningful. The model reproduces the significant vertical overlap between organic carbon oxidation pathways observed in the sediments. The overlap is explained by the combination of high rates of organic carbon oxidation plus intense bioturbation and irrigation at the sites studied. The model-derived contributions of the various respiratory processes compare favorably with the incubation results of Canfield et al. (1993a,b). Aerobic respiration accounts for less than 32% of total organic carbon oxidation at the three sites. From 22 to 46% of the O 2 uptake by the sediments is directly coupled to organic carbon oxidation, while the remainder is used for the oxidation of secondary reduced species, in particular dissolved, adsorbed and solid Fe(II) and Mn(II) species. According to the model, the oxidation of Fe 2+ by Mn (hydr)oxides is responsible for the observed spatial separation of the porewater build-up of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+. At two of the sites, 75 and 97% of the total rate of Mn oxide reduction is due to chemical reaction with dissolved Fe 2+. In contrast, at the same sites, iron (hydr)oxides are mostly utilized by bacteria for the oxidation of organic matter (dissimilatory iron reduction). As shown also by Canfield et al. (1993a,b), dissimilatory reduction is the principal dissolution pathway for manganese oxides at the third site. A sensitivity analysis suggests that, for given deposition fluxes of reactive Fe and Mn, the competition between dissimilatory and nondissimilatory metal reduction pathways depends primarily on the total carbon oxidation rate and the intensity of porewater irrigation. The simulations also highlight the importance of adsorption-desorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in the redox cycling of the metals, as well as their impact on porewater alkalinity and pH. Based on the calculated rate distributions, detailed budgets of Fe, Mn, and O 2 in the sediments are presented. The model-calculated benthic exchange fluxes of solutes are dominated by irrigation. For nitrate, molecular diffusion and irrigation cause fluxes in opposite directions. As a result, there is a net transfer of nitrate from the water column to the sediments, although the interfacial porewater gradients predict diffusional fluxes out of the sediments. A significant fraction of the benthic Fe and Mn fluxes to the bottom waters may be due to desorption at the water-sediment interface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yifeng; Van Cappellen, Philippe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS33C..05T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Forecasting and Monitoring Products for Scientific <span class="hlt">Community</span>: the Mercator Ocean portfolio of Services and the future European <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Core Service</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercator Ocean is a French public consortium formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by the six major players in the French oceanography <span class="hlt">community</span>: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of <span class="hlt">marine</span> research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). The services offered by Mercator-Ocean consist in a real-time general description of the physical state of the ocean (3D currents, salinity, temperature...) in order to provide the users' <span class="hlt">community</span> with a wide range of ocean products. Many downstream activities are served in that framework covering applications like scientific research, off-shore, ship routing, environment and security (within the GMES European program). Within the future European <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Core Service, Mercator Ocean as project leader and its partners will propose an extended portfolio of products and services covering a large part of the scientists' needs (<span class="hlt">coastal</span> modelling, biology, climate...). In this talk, a review of the systems operated by Mercator Ocean will be proposed. In addition, a description of the products and services made available by both Mercator Ocean and the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Core Service will be given with a special focus on the part dedicated to the scientific <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toumazou, V.; Vinay, G.; Baudel, S.; Palin, D.; Kempa, D.; Bahurel, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740025730&hterms=arsenic+soil&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Darsenic%2Bsoil"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental application of remote sensing methods to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dlcvm.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00004012/01/_Rivera_229201.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Governance Model for the Sustainable Use of the <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> And <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environment: Lessons Learned from the Central Pacific Coast of Costa Rica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments of the Pacific Coast in Central America present a cultural and historical use of their rich natural resources. The original human populations living in these areas continue being environmentally, socially, culturally and economically vulnerable. The biological and cultural richness of these areas has deteriorated at a very accelerated rate for many reasons. The causes include</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V Solis Rivera; P Madrigal Cordero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/HIGEAR/papers/SEAS_1_2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS): A Context for <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Aerosol Measurements Influenced by a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment and Long-Range Transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shoreline Environment Aerosol Study (SEAS) was carried out in Hawaii on the southeast coast of Oahu in an area exposed to relatively steady onshore flow. This location provided favorable opportunities to test and evaluate new instrumentation designed to improve measurements of <span class="hlt">marine</span> aerosol and its physical, chemical, and optical properties, including the remote sensing (lidar) of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> aerosol fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antony D. Clarke; Vladimir N. Kapustin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/marinedebris/marine_contents.cfm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turning the Tide on Trash: A Learning Guide on <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Debris</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Learning Guide on <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Debris contains three online units with objectives, background, and hands-on interactive activities. Covers definitions, characteristics and sources of <span class="hlt">marine</span> debris; its effects on wildlife, the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> and human health; and how to develop solutions, get involved and educate others about <span class="hlt">marine</span> pollution prevention.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&pg=7&id=EJ907345"> <span id="translatedtitle">MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Environment--Primary Science Focus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and <span class="hlt">communities</span> during a number…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Preston, Christine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24635985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> power plant thermal discharge on phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in Zhanjiang Bay, China.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of a thermal discharge from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> power plant on phytoplankton were determined in Zhanjiang Bay. Monthly cruises were undertaken at four tide times during April-October 2011. There were significant differences for dominant species among seven sampling months and four sampling tides. Species diversity (H') and Evenness showed a distinct increasing gradient from the heated water source to the control zone and fluctuated during four tides with no visible patterns. Species richness, cell count and Chl a at mixed and control zones were significantly higher than heated zones, and showed tidal changes with no obvious patterns. The threshold temperature of phytoplankton species can be regarded as that of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> at ebb slack. The average threshold temperature over phytoplankton species, cell count and Chl a, and the threshold temperature of cell count can be regarded as that of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> at flood slack during spring and neap respectively. PMID:24635985</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Bin; Sun, Xing-Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035407"> <span id="translatedtitle">A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Maine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In eastern <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-<span class="hlt">marine</span> delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local <span class="hlt">marine</span> highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during <span class="hlt">marine</span> regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2890573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Urban Watershed Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> Leads to Alternative <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Indicators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and ?-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC?A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. Conclusions/Significance This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed <span class="hlt">community</span> composition resulted in alternative <span class="hlt">community</span>-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health. PMID:20585654</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Cindy H.; Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Wong, Jakk; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Holden, Patricia A.; Andersen, Gary L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22042409"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery in California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub lands?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant <span class="hlt">community</span> recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sage scrub recovery on the study area. PMID:22042409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">marinated</span> and unmarinated broiler meat by metagenomics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most raw poultry sold in Finland at the retail level is mixed with marinades containing oil, sugar, spices and acetic acid and packaged under modified atmosphere. Premature spoilage of <span class="hlt">marinated</span> poultry preparations has been observed and associated with high levels of Leuconostoc spp. in meat. In this study we investigated whether <span class="hlt">marination</span> of broiler fillet strips increased the proportion of Leuconostoc spp. in the microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. To obtain a comprehensive view of the microbiota, we sequenced total DNA and 16S rRNA gene amplicons from the microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The lactic acid bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> were characterized also by identification of colonies. The results showed that marinade increased the proportions of the spoilage-associated Leuconostoc gasicomitatum in the <span class="hlt">communities</span> as well as the proportions of Leuconostoc gelidum and Lactobacillus spp. The proportions of Carnobacterium, Vagococcus, Brochothrix thrermosphacta, Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrio were diminished in <span class="hlt">marinated</span> meat. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons resulted in 312 and 284 operational taxonomical units (dissimilarity 0.03) in unmarinated and <span class="hlt">marinated</span> meat, respectively, indicating that the meat <span class="hlt">communities</span> were more diverse than hitherto shown. Metagenomic analysis revealed a number of bacterial taxa that have not been associated with late shelf-life meat before, including Vagococcus and Vibrio that belonged to the predominating part of the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> in unmarinated meat. According to the functional analysis of the metagenomes, the <span class="hlt">communities</span> in both <span class="hlt">marinated</span> and unmarinated poultry were characterized by high proportions (15.6% or 17.9%) of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22626965</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nieminen, T T; Koskinen, K; Laine, P; Hultman, J; Säde, E; Paulin, L; Paloranta, A; Johansson, P; Björkroth, J; Auvinen, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2268820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Introduced rats indirectly change <span class="hlt">marine</span> rocky intertidal <span class="hlt">communities</span> from algae- to invertebrate-dominated</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is widely recognized that trophic interactions structure ecological <span class="hlt">communities</span>, but their effects are usually only demonstrated on a small scale. As a result, landscape-level documentations of trophic cascades that alter entire <span class="hlt">communities</span> are scarce. Islands invaded by animals provide natural experiment opportunities both to measure general trophic effects across large spatial scales and to determine the trophic roles of invasive species within native ecosystems. Studies addressing the trophic interactions of invasive species most often focus on their direct effects. To investigate both the presence of a landscape-level trophic cascade and the direct and indirect effects of an invasive species, we examined the impacts of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) introduced to the Aleutian Islands on <span class="hlt">marine</span> bird densities and <span class="hlt">marine</span> rocky intertidal <span class="hlt">community</span> structures through surveys conducted on invaded and rat-free islands throughout the entire 1,900-km archipelago. Densities of birds that forage in the intertidal were higher on islands without rats. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> intertidal invertebrates were more abundant on islands with rats, whereas fleshy algal cover was reduced. Our results demonstrate that invasive rats directly reduce bird densities through predation and significantly affect invertebrate and <span class="hlt">marine</span> algal abundance in the rocky intertidal indirectly via a cross-<span class="hlt">community</span> trophic cascade, unexpectedly changing the intertidal <span class="hlt">community</span> structure from an algae- to an invertebrate-dominated system. PMID:18308929</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kurle, Carolyn M.; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20965523"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in <span class="hlt">marine</span> biota and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive <span class="hlt">marine</span> contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Operation+AND+success+AND+program&pg=4&id=ED541577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Those advocating for effective management of the use of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robadue, Donald D., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/78/90/75/PDF/journal.pone.0029464.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Marine</span>,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black- Chinned Tilapia Females from Various <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal, 5 Laboratoire de Biologie cellulaire et mole´culaire, Reproduction et Ge and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive parameters, environmental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42343064"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Pollution Study of Northeast <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Water Off Taiwan Island</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water of northeast Taiwan island, called ‘Yin-Yang Hai’ for its distinct yellow colour compared with blue offshore water, was investigated from 1989 to 1990 by the authors. Biological study showed the dominant species of plankton to be Copepoda, Cladocera, planktonic eggs and Diatoma. Dominant species of benthos were young crabs, Amphipoda and Annelida, with Amphipoda usually occurring in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin Chu; Tzu-Ming Pan; Rong-Jeng Tseng; Liang-Hsien Chen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24555761"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature and the sulfur cycle control monomethylmercury cycling in high arctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments from allen bay, nunavut, Canada.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monomethylmercury (MMHg) is a neurotoxin of concern in the Canadian Arctic due to its tendency to bioaccumulate and the importance of fish and wildlife in the Inuit diet. In lakes and wetlands, microbial sediment <span class="hlt">communities</span> are integral to the cycling of MMHg; however, the role of Arctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments is poorly understood. With projected warming, the effect of temperature on the production and degradation of MMHg in Arctic environments also remains unclear. We examined MMHg dynamics across a temperature gradient (4, 12, 24 °C) in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments collected in Allen Bay, Nunavut. Slurries were spiked with stable mercury isotopes and amended with specific microbial stimulants and inhibitors, and subsampled over 12 days. Maximal methylation and demethylation potentials were low, ranging from below detection to 1.13 pmol g(-1) h(-1) and 0.02 pmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively, suggesting that sediments are likely not an important source of MMHg to overlying water. Our results suggest that warming may result in an increase in Hg methylation - controlled by temperature-dependent sulfate reduction, without a compensatory increase in demethylation. This study highlights the need for further research into the role of high Arctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments and climate on the Arctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> MMHg budget. PMID:24555761</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">St Pierre, K A; Chétélat, J; Yumvihoze, E; Poulain, A J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414123"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of sulfate-reducing bacteria to an artificial oil-spill in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In situ mesocosm experiments using a calcareous sand flat from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> area of the island of Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea were performed in order to study the response of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to controlled crude oil contamination, or heavy contamination with naphthalene. Changes in the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> caused by the contamination were monitored by a combination of comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cultivation approaches and metabolic activity rates. Our results showed that crude oil and naphthalene negatively influenced the total microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> as the natural increase in cell numbers due to the seasonal dynamics was attenuated. However, both contaminants enhanced the sulfate reduction rates, as well as the culturability of SRB. Our results suggested the presence of autochthonous deltaproteobacterial SRBs that were able to degrade crude oil or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene in anaerobic sediment layers. PMID:21414123</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suárez-Suárez, Ana; López-López, Arantxa; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Yarza, Pablo; Orfila, Alejandro; Terrados, Jorge; Arnds, Julia; Marqués, Silvia; Niemann, Helge; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Amann, Rudolf; Rosselló-Móra, Ramón</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparisons of the fungal and protistan <span class="hlt">communities</span> among different <span class="hlt">marine</span> sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic <span class="hlt">community</span> structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the <span class="hlt">communities</span> of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in <span class="hlt">marine</span> habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan <span class="hlt">communities</span> according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with different <span class="hlt">marine</span> sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity. PMID:24577740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CSR....31..433M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Onshore-offshore gradient in reductive early diagenesis in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments of the Ria de Vigo, Northwest Iberian Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early diagenetic modification of magnetic properties is an important process in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, but temporal and spatial variability of diagenetic processes have rarely been reported for recent <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments. The magnetic properties of sediments from the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain) define a marked three-part zonation with depth. The uppermost zone is magnetically dominated by (titano-)magnetite. In the intermediate zone, rapid down-core dissolution of (titano-)magnetite increases the relative influence of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, which react more slowly during reductive dissolution than (titano-)magnetite. This zone is characterized by the ubiquitous occurrence of framboidal iron sulphides. Pyrite is the dominant iron sulphide, but framboidal ferrimagnetic greigite is also frequently observed in association with pyrite. The lowermost zone is characterized by an almost complete depletion of magnetic minerals associated with progressive reduction of detrital iron oxides with depth. This zonation is controlled by organic matter diagenesis, which varies with water depth and wave-induced sediment resuspension and organic matter reoxidation in the water column. This leads to a shallowing and thinning of each zone with more intense reductive diagenesis toward the interior of the ria. Such a zonation seems to be a common feature in shallow water <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments. If preserved, the described zonation and its spatial variability provide a potential tool for detecting estuarine-like environments in the geological record. Magnetic detection of current or past reductive conditions also has important implications for assessing paleoenvironmental proxies that are sensitive to diagenetic redox state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed, K. J.; Rey, D.; Rubio, B.; Dekkers, M. J.; Roberts, A. P.; Vilas, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4155873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonality and depth distribution of the abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments (North Sea)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microbial processes such as nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are important for nitrogen cycling in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments. Seasonal variations of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and anammox bacteria, as well as the environmental factors affecting these groups, are not well studied. We have examined the seasonal and depth distribution of the abundance and potential activity of these microbial groups in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments of the southern North Sea. This was achieved by quantifying specific intact polar lipids as well as the abundance and gene expression of their 16S rRNA gene, the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene of AOA and AOB, and the hydrazine synthase (hzsA) gene of anammox bacteria. AOA, AOB, and anammox bacteria were detected and transcriptionally active down to 12 cm sediment depth. In all seasons, the abundance of AOA was higher compared to the AOB abundance suggesting that AOA play a more dominant role in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these sediments. Anammox bacteria were abundant and active even in oxygenated and bioturbated parts of the sediment. The abundance of AOA and AOB was relatively stable with depth and over the seasonal cycle, while anammox bacteria abundance and transcriptional activity were highest in August. North Sea sediments thus seem to provide a common, stable, ecological niche for AOA, AOB, and anammox bacteria.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lipsewers, Yvonne A.; Bale, Nicole J.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Villanueva, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2599230"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new method for detecting pollution effects on <span class="hlt">marine</span> macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method is described by which the pollution status of a <span class="hlt">marine</span> macrobenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> may be assessed without reference to a temporal or spatial series of control samples. Theoretical considerations suggest that the distribution of numbers of individuals among species should behave differently from the distribution of biomass among species when influenced by pollution-induced disturbance. Combined k-dominance plots for species</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. M. Warwick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeoRL..3623606X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and oligotrophic <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/524684"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coastal</span> oceanographic characteristics and their impact on <span class="hlt">marine</span> effluent biotoxicity studies during the SEFLOE II project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment II (SEFLOE II) study was conducted at four ocean outfalls to determine the dispersion characteristics and biotoxicity of their effluent in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ocean. The effluent from these facilities is secondary treated municipal wastewater. This paper deals with the impact of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> oceanographic characteristics upon the biotoxicity aspect of the SEFLOE II study on data collected at the Broward County outfall. During the study, whole effluent toxicity (WET) bioassays were compared to bioassays analyzed on samples taken from the outfall dispersion plumes. The ocean bioassays results were then evaluated along with contemporaneous current direction and speed data to determine initial and farfield dilutions and calculate Eularian and Lagrangian exposure impacts. The bioassay comparison appears to indicate that standard WET methodology does not adequately take into consideration the substantial differences in dilution ratios and exposure times used in laboratory analyses with those experienced in actual environmental field conditions especially for ocean outfalls.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Commons, D.N. [Sarasota County Government, FL (United States). Utilities Dept.; Proni, J.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL (United States). Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab.; Fergen, R.E. [Hazen and Sawyer, Raleigh, NC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25234377"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mammalian mesopredators on islands directly impact both terrestrial and <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Medium-sized mammalian predators (i.e. mesopredators) on islands are known to have devastating effects on the abundance and diversity of terrestrial vertebrates. Mesopredators are often highly omnivorous, and on islands, may have access not only to terrestrial prey, but to <span class="hlt">marine</span> prey as well, though impacts of mammalian mesopredators on <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> have rarely been considered. Large apex predators are likely to be extirpated or absent on islands, implying a lack of top-down control of mesopredators that, in combination with high food availability from terrestrial and <span class="hlt">marine</span> sources, likely exacerbates their impacts on island prey. We exploited a natural experiment-the presence or absence of raccoons (Procyon lotor) on islands in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada-to investigate the impacts that this key mesopredator has on both terrestrial and <span class="hlt">marine</span> prey in an island system from which all native apex predators have been extirpated. Long-term monitoring of song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) nests showed raccoons to be the predominant nest predator in the Gulf Islands. To identify their <span class="hlt">community</span>-level impacts, we surveyed the distribution of raccoons across 44 Gulf Islands, and then compared terrestrial and <span class="hlt">marine</span> prey abundances on six raccoon-present and six raccoon-absent islands. Our results demonstrate significant negative effects of raccoons on terrestrial, intertidal, and shallow subtidal prey abundance, and point to additional <span class="hlt">community</span>-level effects through indirect interactions. Our findings show that mammalian mesopredators not only affect terrestrial prey, but that, on islands, their direct impacts extend to the surrounding <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:25234377</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suraci, Justin P; Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana Y; Currie, Christopher M A; Dill, Lawrence M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g82223rqn7473pk5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury and Nitrogen Isotope in a <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Species from a Tropical <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Food Web</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study raised the hypothesis that the trophic status in a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> food web from southeastern Brazil can\\u000a be measured by the relation between total mercury (THg) and nitrogen isotope (?15N) in their components. The analysed species were grouped into six trophic positions: primary producer (phytoplankton), primary\\u000a consumer (zooplankton), consumer 1 (omnivore shrimp), consumer 2 (pelagic carnivores represented</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto; Vanessa Trindade Bittar; Plínio Barbosa Camargo; Carlos Eduardo Rezende; Helena Amaral Kehrig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40844260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thorium isotopes as analogues for ``particle-reactive'' pollutants in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments using radioactive tracers in microcosms of 150 l and 13 m3 volumes, which are designed to mimic Narragansett Bay, indicate that Th isotopes are good analogues for studying the removal behavior of ``particle-reactive'' pollutants such as Am, Pb, Po, Hg and Cr(III) in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environments. The removal of Th isotopes and Fe has been found to be closely linked</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter H. Santschi; Dennis Adler; Michael Amdurer; Yuan-Hui Li; Joy J. Bell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720004605&hterms=social+media&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dsocial%2Bmedia"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental application of remote sensing methods to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goodell, H. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23091470"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vitamin b(1) and b(12) uptake and cycling by plankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While vitamin B(12) has recently been shown to co-limit the growth of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> phytoplankton assemblages, the cycling of B-vitamins in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems is poorly understood as planktonic uptake rates of vitamins B(1) and B(12) have never been quantified in tandem in any aquatic ecosystem. The goal of this study was to establish the relationships between plankton <span class="hlt">community</span> composition, carbon fixation, and B-vitamin assimilation in two contrasting estuarine systems. We show that, although B-vitamin concentrations were low (pM), vitamin concentrations and uptake rates were higher within a more eutrophic estuary and that vitamin B(12) uptake rates were significantly correlated with rates of primary production. Eutrophic sites hosted larger bacterial and picoplankton abundances with larger carbon normalized vitamin uptake rates. Although the >2??m phytoplankton biomass was often dominated by groups with a high incidence of vitamin auxotrophy (dinoflagellates and diatoms), picoplankton (<2??m) were always responsible for the majority of B(12)-vitamin uptake. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary users of vitamins among the picoplankton during this study. Nutrient/vitamin amendment experiments demonstrated that, in the Summer and Fall, vitamin B(12) occasionally limited or co-limited the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass together with nitrogen. Combined with prior studies, these findings suggest that picoplankton are the primary producers and users of B-vitamins in some <span class="hlt">coastal</span> ecosystems and that rapid uptake of B-vitamins by heterotrophic bacteria may sometimes deprive larger phytoplankton of these micronutrients and thus influence phytoplankton species succession. PMID:23091470</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, Florian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Goleski, Jennifer A; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio; Fisher, Nicholas S; Gobler, Christopher J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610022H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek <span class="hlt">marine</span> areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant in Larymna bay (PAHs concentrations up to 7500 ng/g). The examination of PAH molecular indices revealed that in Antikyra and Larymna bays more than 80% of the PAHs have pyrolytic origin coming from various combustion sources. On the contrary, in Aliveri bay about 60% of the PAHs are related to petrogenic/petroleum inputs. With respect to ecotoxicological effects, m-ERM values higher than 1.5 were calculated in Antikyra bay indicating that the sediments in this area have a high probability (76%) of being toxic. In Aliveri and Larymna bays the m-ERM values were between 0.11 and 0.5 bay suggesting a lower probability (21%) of toxicity. Overall, the results of our study reveal that high quantities of PAHs produced from land point sources can enter into small <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> areas supporting activities such as aquaculture and fishing. Thus, desirable and permitted uses must be well defined and regulatory frameworks must be established.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatzianestis, Ioannis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22476581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of environmental gradient in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation on <span class="hlt">communities</span> of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Ixeris repens (Asteraceae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associated with Ixeris repens was studied in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation near the Tottori sand dunes in Japan. I. repens produces roots from a subterranean stem growing near the soil surface which provides an opportunity to examine the effects of an environmental gradient related to distance from the sea on AM fungal <span class="hlt">communities</span> at a regular soil depth. Based on partial sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, AM fungi in root samples were divided into 17 phylotypes. Among these, five AM fungal phylotypes in Glomus and Diversispora were dominant near the seaward forefront of the vegetation. Redundancy analysis of the AM fungal <span class="hlt">community</span> showed significant relationships between the distribution of phylotypes and environmental variables such as distance from the sea, water-soluble sodium in soil, and some coexisting plant species. These results suggest that environmental gradients in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> vegetation can be determinants of the AM fungal <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:22476581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Yoshimura, Yuko; Iwase, Koji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40665770"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> pollution in European <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of <span class="hlt">marine</span> pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Gade; Werner Alpers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cseg.ca/publications/journal/1965_12/1965_Kearns_R_marine_seismic.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of a <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Seismic Exploration on Fish Populations in British Columbia <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Shell Oil Company of Canada conducted a <span class="hlt">marine</span> seismic survey off the west coast of British Columbia during the summer months of 1963. Because of the potential damage to local fish populations through exposure to high velocity explosives, the Department of Fisheries of Canada conducted a pro- gram of supervision and control on the Company's field operations. The Com-</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roger K. Kearns; Forbes C. Boyd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41401176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exotic <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Macroalga ( Enteromorpha flexuosa) Reaches Bloom Proportions in a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Lake of Lake Michigan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The exotic <span class="hlt">marine</span> algae Enteromorpha flexuosa subsp. flexuosa and subsp. paradoxa were first observed in Muskegon Lake during autumn 2003. In September 2003, the littoral zone had between 10 and 80% cover of macroalgae, which grew largely on submerged macrophytes, and was composed almost entirely of Enteromorpha. Enteromorpha formed dense mats, fouled the boat motor and was found washed up</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vanessa L. Lougheed; R. Jan Stevenson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://accstr.ufl.edu/accstr-resources/publications/Hart_et_al_2012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Common <span class="hlt">coastal</span> foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for <span class="hlt">marine</span> conservation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of Mexico Kernel density estimation Foraging a b s t r a c t Designing conservation strategies that protect to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled <span class="hlt">marine</span> turtles, in both USA and international waters conservation Kristen M. Hart a, , Margaret M. Lamont b , Ikuko Fujisaki c , Anton D. Tucker d , Raymond R</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Florida, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42440514"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased Capacity for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mineralization in Bioirrigated <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bioirrigation of <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments by benthic infauna has the potential to increase both the rate and depth of bacterial mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by recirculating oxygenated bottom water into sediment burrows. Rates of heterotrophic bacterial production and mineralization of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene) were measured in sections of sediment cores sampled from stations in San Diego Bay.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael T. Montgomery; Christopher L. Osburn; Yoko Furukawa; Joris M. Gieskes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989492"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid <span class="hlt">community</span> in southeastern <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain pine stands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew <span class="hlt">communities</span> in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.seaturtle.org/PDF/HartKM_2012_BiolConserv.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Common <span class="hlt">coastal</span> foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for <span class="hlt">marine</span> conservation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging <span class="hlt">marine</span> species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled <span class="hlt">marine</span> species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for <span class="hlt">marine</span> conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled <span class="hlt">marine</span> turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">marine</span> turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25358300"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the Scale of <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Protection in Hawai'i: From <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial <span class="hlt">marine</span> management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among <span class="hlt">communities</span> and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea <span class="hlt">Marine</span> National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial <span class="hlt">marine</span> management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a <span class="hlt">marine</span> spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing <span class="hlt">marine</span> managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and <span class="hlt">communities</span>. PMID:25358300</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+dependency&id=EJ689624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Agency, Isolation, and the Coming of New Technologies: Exploring "Dependency" in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span> of Newfoundland Through Participatory Research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How does one effectively and ethically conduct research with <span class="hlt">community</span> members who are steeped in histories of economic and social dependency, so that the people themselves take charge of their futures? This question is explored in a Canadian context as the authors study the potential of new technologies to bring hope to traditional <span class="hlt">coastal</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clover, Darlene; Harris, Carol E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41922631"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-Term Changes of a <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Bird Breeding <span class="hlt">Community</span> on a Small Island – Does Natural Succession Compromise Conservation Values?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Limited spatial resources available for conservation lead to controversy about whether to apply single-species management or ecosystemary approaches in order to maintain biodiversity. In this study I analyse changes in a <span class="hlt">community</span> of breeding <span class="hlt">coastal</span> birds over a 90-year period, in order to examine whether natural processes on an unmanaged island are in accordance with requirements to save endangered species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steffen Oppel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40559543"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Community</span>-based <span class="hlt">coastal</span> resource management in the Philippines: A review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984–1994</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Between 1984 and 1994, a total of 43 <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management (CBCRM) programs and projects were implemented throughout the Philippines. This paper presents a review and evaluation of these programs and projects, which provide a wealth of experience and “lessons learned” to guide the design and implementation of CBCRM policy and local-level initiatives. A range of institutions and processes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert S Pomeroy; Melvin B Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23431791"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Characteristics of soil nematode <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands with different vegetation types].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An investigation was conducted on the characteristics of soil nematode <span class="hlt">communities</span> in different vegetation belts (Spartina alterniflora belt, Sa; Suaeda glauca belt, Sg; bare land, B1; Phragmites australis belt, Pa; and wheat land, Wl) of Yancheng Wetland Reserve, Jiangsu Province of East China. A total of 39 genera and 20 families of soil nematodes were identified, and the individuals of dominant genera and common genera occupied more than 90% of the total. The total number of the nematodes differed remarkably with vegetation belts, ranged from 79 to 449 individuals per 100 grams of dry soil. Wheat land had the highest number of soil nematodes, while bare land had the lowest one. The nematode ecological indices responded differently to the vegetation belts. The Shannon index (H) and evenness index (J) decreased in the order of Pa > Sg > Wl > Sa > Bl, and the dominance index (lambda) was in the order of Bl > Sa > Wl > Sg > Pa, suggesting that the diversity and stability of the nematode <span class="hlt">community</span> in bare land were lower than those in the other vegetation belts, and the nematode <span class="hlt">community</span> in the bare land tended to be simplified. The maturity index (MI) was higher in uncultivated vegetation belts than in wheat land, suggesting that the wheat land was disturbed obviously. The nematode <span class="hlt">community</span> structure differed significantly with vegetation belts, and the main contributing species in different vegetation belts also differed. There existed significant correlations between the soil physical and chemical characteristics and the nematode numbers, trophic groups, and ecological indices. Our results demonstrated that the changes of soil nematode <span class="hlt">community</span> structure could be used as an indicator well reflecting the diversity of vegetation belt habitat, and an important bio-indicator of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland ecosystem. PMID:23431791</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Bei-Bei; Ye, Cheng-Long; Yu, Li; Jiao, Jia-Guo; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691641"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional climatic warming drives long-term <span class="hlt">community</span> changes of British <span class="hlt">marine</span> fish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatic change has been implicated as the cause of abundance fluctuations in <span class="hlt">marine</span> fish populations worldwide, but the effects on whole <span class="hlt">communities</span> are poorly understood. We examined the effects of regional climatic change on two fish assemblages using independent datasets from inshore <span class="hlt">marine</span> (English Channel, 1913-2002) and estuarine environments (Bristol Channel, 1981-2001). Our results show that climatic change has had dramatic effects on <span class="hlt">community</span> composition. Each assemblage contained a subset of dominant species whose abundances were strongly linked to annual mean sea-surface temperature. Species' latitudinal ranges were not good predictors of species-level responses, however, and the same species did not show congruent trends between sites. This suggests that within a region, populations of the same species may respond differently to climatic change, possibly owing to additional local environmental determinants, interspecific ecological interactions and dispersal capacity. This will make species-level responses difficult to predict within geographically differentiated <span class="hlt">communities</span>. PMID:15156925</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Genner, Martin J.; Sims, David W.; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Southall, Emily J.; Southward, Alan J.; Henderson, Peter A.; Hawkins, Stephen J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GGG....15.1629S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Community</span> infrastructure and repository for <span class="hlt">marine</span> magnetic identifications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">anomaly identifications underpin plate tectonic reconstructions and form the primary data set from which the age of the oceanic lithosphere and seafloor spreading regimes in the ocean basins can be determined. Although these identifications are an invaluable resource, their usefulness to the wider scientific <span class="hlt">community</span> has been limited due to the lack of a central <span class="hlt">community</span> infrastructure to organize, host, and update these interpretations. We have developed an open-source, <span class="hlt">community</span>-driven online infrastructure as a repository for quality-checked magnetic anomaly identifications from all ocean basins. We provide a global sample data set that comprises 96,733 individually picked magnetic anomaly identifications organized by ocean basin and publication reference, and provide accompanying Hellinger-format files, where available. Our infrastructure is designed to facilitate research in plate tectonic reconstructions or research that relies on an assessment of plate reconstructions, for both experts and nonexperts alike. To further enhance the existing repository and strengthen its value, we encourage others in the <span class="hlt">community</span> to contribute to this effort.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seton, Maria; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Wessel, Paul; Müller, R. Dietmar; DeMets, Charles; Merkouriev, Sergey; Cande, Steve; Gaina, Carmen; Eagles, Graeme; Granot, Roi; Stock, Joann; Wright, Nicky; Williams, Simon E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic changes in the structure of microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Baltic Sea <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seawater microcosms modified by crude oil, shale oil or diesel fuel.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters of the Baltic Sea are constantly threatened by oil spills, due to the extensive transportation of oil products across the sea. To characterise the hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> of this <span class="hlt">marine</span> area, microcosm experiments on diesel fuel, crude oil and shale oil were performed. Analysis of these microcosms, using alkane monooxygenase (alkB) and 16S rRNA marker genes in PCR-DGGE experiments, demonstrated that substrate type and concentration strongly influence species composition and the occurrence of alkB genes in respective oil degrading bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Gammaproteobacteria (particularly the genus Pseudomonas) and Alphaproteobacteria were dominant in all microcosms treated with oils. All alkB genes carried by bacterial isolates (40 strains), and 8 of the 11 major DGGE bands from the microcosms, had more than 95% sequence identity with the alkB genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, the closest relatives of the majority of sequences (54 sequences from 79) of the alkB gene library from initially collected seawater DNA were Actinobacteria. alkB gene expression, induced by hexadecane, was recorded in isolated bacterial strains. Thus, complementary culture dependent and independent methods provided a more accurate picture about the complex seawater microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23510642</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viggor, Signe; Juhanson, Jaanis; Jõesaar, Merike; Mitt, Mario; Truu, Jaak; Vedler, Eve; Heinaru, Ain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1988-THESIS-M147"> <span id="translatedtitle">The regulation of genetically engineered <span class="hlt">marine</span> organisms released into the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> environment: an exploratory analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">pharmaceuticals made from <span class="hlt">marine</span> organisms. There is no comprehensive federal statutory provision or regulatory policy specifically for biotechnology activities. Throughout the literature there is debate concerning the adequacy of existing regulations... not addressed by the current policies. The present regulations are built on experience with agriculture, pharmaceuticals and other commercial products developed by the "old" techniques. However, unlike the inanimate chemical substances or the classical...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacGregor, Carol Lea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=309994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> Associated with Geological Horizons in <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Subseafloor Sediments from the Sea of Okhotsk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from a subseafloor sediment core from the southwestern Sea of Okhotsk were evaluated by performing both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent (molecular) analyses. The core, which extended 58.1 m below the seafloor, was composed of pelagic clays with several volcanic ash layers containing fine pumice grains. Direct cell counting and quantitative PCR analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that the bacterial populations in the ash layers were approximately 2 to 10 times larger than those in the clays. Partial sequences of 1,210 rRNA gene clones revealed that there were qualitative differences in the microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> from the two different types of layers. Two phylogenetically distinct archaeal assemblages in the Crenarchaeota, the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group and the deep-sea archaeal group, were the most predominant archaeal 16S rRNA gene components in the ash layers and the pelagic clays, respectively. Clones of 16S rRNA gene sequences from members of the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria dominated the ash layers, whereas sequences from members of the candidate division OP9 and the green nonsulfur bacteria dominated the pelagic clay environments. Molecular (16S rRNA gene sequence) analysis of 181 isolated colonies revealed that there was regional proliferation of viable heterotrophic mesophiles in the volcanic ash layers, along with some gram-positive bacteria and actinobacteria. The porous ash layers, which ranged in age from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of thousands of years, thus appear to be discrete microbial habitats within the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> subseafloor clay sediment, which are capable of harboring microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> that are very distinct from the <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the more abundant pelagic clays. PMID:14660370</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Inagaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Masae; Takai, Ken; Oida, Hanako; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Aoki, Kaori; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Horikoshi, Koki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PrOce.109...18R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short-term meso-scale variability of mesozooplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> in a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling system (NW Spain)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The short-term, meso-scale variability of the mesozooplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> present in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain) has been analysed. Three well-defined <span class="hlt">communities</span> were identified: <span class="hlt">coastal</span>, frontal and oceanic, according to their holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, richness, and total abundance. These <span class="hlt">communities</span> changed from summer to autumn due to a shift from downwelling to upwelling-favourable conditions coupled with taxa dependent changes in life strategies. Relationships between the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton and the resemblance matrices of meteorologic, hydrographic and <span class="hlt">community</span>-derived biotic variables were determined with distance-based linear models (DistLM, 18 variables), showing an increasing amount of explained variability of 6%, 16.1% and 54.5%, respectively. A simplified model revealed that the variability found in the resemblance matrix of mesozooplankton was mainly described by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, the total abundance, the influence of lunar cycles, the upwelling index and the richness; altogether accounting for 64% of the total variability. The largest variability of the mesozooplankton resemblance matrix (39.6%) is accounted by the holoplankton-meroplankton ratio, a simple index that describes appropriately the <span class="hlt">coastal</span>-ocean gradient. The <span class="hlt">communities</span> described herein kept their integrity in the studied upwelling and downwelling episodes in spite of the highly advective environment off the Ría de Vigo, presumably due to behavioural changes in the vertical position of the zooplankton.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roura, Álvaro; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé A.; González, Ángel F.; Gregori, María; Rosón, Gabriel; Guerra, Ángel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flow, recruitment limitation, and the maintenance of diversity in <span class="hlt">marine</span> benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many terrestrial and <span class="hlt">marine</span> systems are open to immigration. As such, the delivery of reproductive propagules should play a substantial role in determining local diversity in many systems. Here we present the results of a two-year experimental manipulation of subtidal flow regimes and show that flow has a strong positive effect on the assembly and maintenance of epifaunal invertebrate diversity by reducing recruitment limitation in two biogeographic regions. At two sites each in Alaska and Maine, USA, we experimentally manipulated flow speeds and measured the diversity of <span class="hlt">communities</span> assembling through time and on recruitment panels scraped clean regularly. At all sites, the species richness of established <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and the richness of recruitment into established <span class="hlt">communities</span> and onto empty plates was >25% higher in enhanced flow than in control flow treatments. These effects were consistent for two years, and <span class="hlt">community</span> diversity remained higher despite 30% higher species loss in enhanced flow treatments. Because <span class="hlt">communities</span> remained open to immigration throughout the experiment, the data suggest that the diversity of epifaunal <span class="hlt">communities</span> is strongly limited by recruitment and that supply-side effects on diversity in natural <span class="hlt">communities</span> are strong. The positive effect of flow on diversity through a decrease in recruitment limitation was robust across scale, biogeographic region, and flow velocities and was consistent in magnitude in <span class="hlt">communities</span> and on recruitment plates. Consequently, the data strongly suggest that the positive effects of flow on epifaunal diversity are persistent, can operate without diversity-enhancing positive feedback mechanisms, and are driven by increases in propagule delivery. Thus flow plays a large role in establishing and maintaining epifaunal diversity by mediating the delivery of propagules necessary to colonize a patch or to replace species within <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Although our data do not preclude effects of interspecific interactions, they strongly suggest that flow plays a large and essentially untested role in determining the diversity of benthic <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and they imply that flow is a key mechanism driving recruitment limitation in diverse aquatic systems. PMID:24669723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palardy, James E; Witman, Jon D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740025729&hterms=MRI+applications&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DMRI%2Bapplications"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental application of remote sensing methods to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zone land use investigations and <span class="hlt">marine</span> resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB52F..04K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">Community</span> Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Wetland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing Gene Expression from <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Microbial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> using Environmental Transcriptomics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analogous to metagenomics, environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) retrieves and sequences environmental mRNAs from a microbial assemblage without prior knowledge of what genes the <span class="hlt">community</span> might be expressing. Thus it provides the most unbiased perspective on <span class="hlt">community</span> gene expression in situ. Environmental transcriptomics protocols are technically difficult since prokaryotic mRNAs generally lack the poly(A) tails that make isolation of eukaryotic messages relatively straightforward 1 and because of the relatively short half lives of mRNAs 2. In addition, mRNAs are much less abundant than rRNAs in total RNA extracts, thus an rRNA background often overwhelms mRNA signals. However, techniques for overcoming some of these difficulties have recently been developed. A procedure for analyzing environmental transcriptomes by creating clone libraries using random primers to reverse-transcribe and amplify environmental mRNAs was recently described was successful in two different natural environments, but results were biased by selection of the random primers used to initiate cDNA synthesis 3. Advances in linear amplification of mRNA obviate the need for random primers in the amplification step and make it possible to use less starting material decreasing the collection and processing time of samples and thereby minimizing RNA degradation 4. In vitro transcription methods for amplifying mRNA involve polyadenylating the mRNA and incorporating a T7 promoter onto the 3 end of the transcript. Amplified RNA (aRNA) can then be converted to double stranded cDNA using random hexamers and directly sequenced by pyrosequencing 5. A first use of this method at Station ALOHA demonstrated its utility for characterizing microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> gene expression 6. PMID:19229184</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poretsky, Rachel S.; Gifford, Scott; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna; Vila-Costa, Maria; Moran, Mary Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury and nitrogen isotope in a <span class="hlt">marine</span> species from a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> food web.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study raised the hypothesis that the trophic status in a tropical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> food web from southeastern Brazil can be measured by the relation between total mercury (THg) and nitrogen isotope (?(15)N) in their components. The analysed species were grouped into six trophic positions: primary producer (phytoplankton), primary consumer (zooplankton), consumer 1 (omnivore shrimp), consumer 2 (pelagic carnivores represented by squid and fish species), consumer 3 (demersal carnivores represented by fish species) and consumer 4 (pelagic-demersal top carnivore represented by the fish Trichiurus lepturus). The values of THg, ?(15)N, and trophic level (TLv) increased significantly from primary producer toward top carnivore. Our data regarding trophic magnification (6.84) and biomagnification powers (0.25 for ?(15)N and 0.83 for TLv) indicated that Hg biomagnification throughout trophic positions is high in this tropical food web, which could be primarily related to the quality of the local water. PMID:21858737</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Bittar, Vanessa Trindade; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Kehrig, Helena Amaral</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2944838"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-Temporal Migration Patterns of Pacific Salmon Smolts in Rivers and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. Methodology/Principal Findings Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations) were tagged between 2004–2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong effects on travel speeds included species, wild or hatchery-rearing history, watershed size and, in smaller rivers, body length. During the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> migration, travel speeds were only strongly affected by species differences. PMID:20886121</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; Walters, Carl J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11724486"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters for spore-forming bacteria of faecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have established recreational water quality standards limiting the concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci) to ensure that these waters are safe for swimming. In the application of these hygienic water quality standards, it is assumed that there are no significant environmental sources of these faecal indicator bacteria which are unrelated to direct faecal contamination. However, we previously reported that these faecal indicator bacteria are able to grow in the soil environment of humid tropical island environments such as Hawaii and Guam and are transported at high concentrations into streams and storm drains by rain. Thus, streams and storm drains in Hawaii contain consistently high concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria which routinely exceed the EPA and WHO recreational water quality standards. Since, streams and storm drains eventually flow out to <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters, we hypothesize that all the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> beaches which receive run-off from streams and storm drains will contain elevated concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters at four beaches known to receive water from stream or storm drains for salinity, turbidity, and used the two faecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) to establish recreational water quality standards. To determine if these <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters are contaminated with non-point source pollution (streams) or with point source pollution (sewage effluent), these same water samples were also assayed for spore-forming bacteria of faecal origin (Cl. perfringens) and of soil origin (Bacillus species). Using this monitoring strategy it was possible to determine when <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters were contaminated with non-point source pollution and when <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters were contaminated with point source pollution. The results of this study are most likely applicable to all countries in the warm and humid region of the world. PMID:11724486</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujioka, R S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590679"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal changes in the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Antarctic zooplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> to diesel fuel: a comparison between single- and multi-species toxicity tests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole <span class="hlt">community</span>) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic <span class="hlt">coastal</span> zooplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">community</span> also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:24590679</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18156319"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> of the <span class="hlt">marine</span> sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer into aquaculture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The changes in bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with the <span class="hlt">marine</span> sponge Mycale laxissima on transfer to aquaculture were studied using culture-based and molecular techniques. M. laxissima was maintained alive in flowthrough and closed recirculating aquaculture systems for 2 years and 1 year, respectively. The bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with wild and aquacultured sponges, as well as the surrounding water, were assessed using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial richness and diversity were measured using DOTUR computer software, and clone libraries were compared using S-LIBSHUFF. DGGE analysis revealed that the diversity of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> of M. laxissima increased when sponges were maintained in aquaculture and that bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with wild and aquacultured M. laxissima were markedly different than those of the corresponding surrounding water. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA from sponges confirmed that the bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> changed during aquaculture. These <span class="hlt">communities</span> were significantly different than those of seawater and aquarium water. The diversity of bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with M. laxissima increased significantly in aquaculture. Our work shows that it is important to monitor changes in bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> when examining the feasibility of growing sponges in aquaculture systems because these <span class="hlt">communities</span> may change. This could have implications for the health of sponges or for the production of bioactive compounds by sponges in cases where these compounds are produced by symbiotic bacteria rather than by the sponges themselves. PMID:18156319</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed, Naglaa M; Enticknap, Julie J; Lohr, Jayme E; McIntosh, Scott M; Hill, Russell T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5418332"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eutrophication and the rate of denitrification and N/sub 2/O production in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large (13 m/sup 3/, 5 m deep) microcosms with coupled pelagic and benthic components were used to measure the effect of nutrient loading and eutrophication in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems on the rates of benthic denitrification (N/sub 2/) and N/sub 2/O production. After 3 months or daily nutrient addition, average denitrification rates ranged from about 300 ..mu..mol N m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ in the sediments of the control microcosm to 880 in the most enriched microcosm, which received 65 times the nutrient input of the control. Increases in the production of N/sub 2/O were more dramatic and increased by a factor of about 100, from 0.56 ..mu..mol N m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ in the control to 51 in the most enriched microcosm. Although there was a clear increase in the denitrification rate in the more eutrophic systems, the amount of fixed nitrogen removed was a constant or progressively smaller fraction of the nitrogen input. Even in the most enriched microcosm, at least 16% of the N input was removed by denitrification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seitzinger, S.P.; Nixon, S.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/462548"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparative ecological risk assessment of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The conduct of comparative ecological risk assessments (CERA) resulting from the release of anthropogenic stressors into <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments requires theoretical and methodological innovations to integrate contaminant exposure with populations at risk over time and space scales. Consequently, predicted risks must be scaled to allow comparisons of relative ecological impacts in three physical dimensions plus time. This study was designed to compare the risks from hypothetical spills of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 into the Tampa Bay ecosystem. The CERA framework used in this study integrates numerical hydrodynamic and transport-and-fate, toxicological, and biological models with extensive spatially explicit databases that describe the distributions of critical species and habitats. The presentation of the comparative ecological risks is facilitated by visualization and GIS techniques to allow realistic comparisons of toxicant exposures and their co-occurrence with key biological resources over time and across the seascape. A scaling methodology is presented that uses toxicological data as scalars for graphically representing the ecological effects associated with exposure levels for each scenario simulation. The CERA model serves as an interactive tool for assessing the relative ecological consequences of a range of potential exposure scenarios and for forecasting the longer-term productivity of critical biological resources and habitats that are key to ecosystem structure and function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harwell, M.; Ault, J.; Gentile, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Center for Marine and Environmental Analyses</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NW....101...47W"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fossil <span class="hlt">community</span> from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation <span class="hlt">community</span> is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern <span class="hlt">community</span> did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....4903M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Calcareous foraminiferal test as a proxy of cadmium in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropogenic pressures exerted on estuaries and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas necessitate to develop new tools for evaluation and assessment of those environments. Researches on foraminifers (Protozoan, Rhizopod) as bioindicator of anthropogenic impact increased considerably in the three last decades. Foraminiferal shell (calcite) is used as {C}d, Zn or Ba proxy in paleoceanographic studies in accordance with the hypothesis that dissolved metal concentration of seawater and foraminifer are linearly correlated. begin{center} ([{C}d]/[Ca])foram = D ([{C}d]/[Ca])SW More recently, articles reported water contamination records from the {C}d content of foraminiferal shell. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of foraminifer as proxy of cadmium contamination in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> areas. Two complementary experiments were carried out. On the one hand, controlled culture experiments of foraminifer Ammonia sp.) in laboratory with specific {C}d concentrations ( 2.7 nmol/l to 11.0 nmol/l ) at fixed temperature and salinity. Factor D{Cd} determination on adult and juvenile foraminifer will show D{Cd} sensitivity to salinity and temperature conditions. Preliminary results at S= 28 ^0 /00 and T= 18 o{C}, lack of any difference between adults and juveniles. Cultures were made at: begin{description} [{C}d]= 4.3 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.8 , SD=0.4 n=8 [{C}d]= 6.4 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.0 , SD=0.1 n=8 [{C}d]= 8.8 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 2.2 , n=1 [{C}d]= 11.0 nmol/l, D{Cd} = 1.4 , n=1 Those values can be compared with data published by Havach et al., 2001. They report an average D{Cd} forAmmonia sp. of 1.0 ± 0.5, forCibicidoides sp. of 4 ± 2, forBulimina sp. of 3 ± 1, and forUvigerina sp. 2 ± 1 with S= 35 ^0 /00 and T= 10 o{C}. On the other hand, field sampling are going to be carried out to Hamanako lake ({J}apan), a lagoon surrounded by an urban belt. Determination of physicochemical parameter and {C}d content from bottom water, sediment pore water and foraminifer will be performed. The results will be compared with the experimental data on D{Cd} and suppose to give insights and greater accuracy in assessing anthropogenic impacts in costal regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marechal-Abram, N.; Kitazato, H.; Debenay, J.-P.; Wada, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986GeCoA..50..157B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeochemistry of PCBs in interstitial waters of a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in interstitial waters and sediments at a site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, to study partitioning processes of hydrophobic organic compounds in <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments. Pore water concentrations of total PCBs, expressed as Aroclor 1254, increased with depth in the sediments with a maximum concentration of 17.1 ?g/L at 9-11 cm. Apparent distribution coefficients of individual chlorobiphenyls decreased with depth and were related to dissolved organic carbon levels. Results from this site suggest that most of the PCBs in interstitial waters are sorbed to organic colloids. A simple three-phase equilibrium sorption model can explain many features of the data. Changes in the composition of individual chlorobiphenyls in the sediments were also apparent. Microbial degradation appears to be responsible for large relative depletions of several chlorobiphenyls with depth in the core.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brownawell, Bruce J.; Farrington, John W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23817947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of exotic fish farms on bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> in lake and <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two <span class="hlt">marine</span> and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or <span class="hlt">marine</span> locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of birds in both lake and <span class="hlt">marine</span> habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird <span class="hlt">communities</span>, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants. PMID:23817947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiménez, Jaime E; Arriagada, Aldo M; Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Camus, Patricio A; Avila-Thieme, M Isidora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..779J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of exotic fish farms on bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> in lake and <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two <span class="hlt">marine</span> and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or <span class="hlt">marine</span> locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of birds in both lake and <span class="hlt">marine</span> habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird <span class="hlt">communities</span>, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........66E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Baja California Sur, Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Etcheverry, Jose R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1118121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Spatial Planning Activities In Support <span class="hlt">Marine</span> and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment: Task 2.1.7 Permitting and Planning Fiscal Year 2012 Year-End Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fiscal year 2012 year-end report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the MHK industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, NGOs, and industry. Objectives for 2.1.7 are the following: • To work with stakeholders to streamline the MHK regulatory permitting process. • To work with stakeholders to gather information on needs and priorities for environmental assessment of MHK development. • To communicate research findings and directions to the MHK industry and stakeholders. • To engage in spatial planning processes in order to further the development of the MHK industry. These objectives are met through three subtasks, each of which are described in this report: • 2.1.7.1—Regulatory Assistance • 2.1.7.2—Stakeholder Outreach • 2.1.7.3—<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Spatial Planning As the MHK industry works with the regulatory <span class="hlt">community</span> and stakeholders to plan, site, permit and license MHK technologies they have an interest in a predictable, efficient, and transparent process. Stakeholders and regulators have an interest in processes that result in sustainable use of ocean space with minimal effects to existing ocean users. Both stakeholders and regulators have an interest in avoiding legal challenges by meeting the intent of federal, state, and local laws that govern siting and operation of MHK technologies. The intention of work under 2.1.7 is to understand these varied interests, explore mechanisms to reduce conflict, identify efficiencies, and ultimately identify pathways to reduce the regulatory costs, time, and potential environmental impacts associated with developing, siting, permitting, and deploying MHK systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.; Judd, Chaeli R.; Blake, Kara M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED33B0753S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating Climate Change Effects into Next-Generation <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Inundation Decision Support Systems: An Integrated and <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">75% of the world population lives within 100 km from the coastline. <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> are subject to increasing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation risk due to the combined effects of hurricane-induced storm surge, tsunami, climate change, and sea level rise. This study is developing the next generation decision support systems (DSS) for storm surge and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation by incorporating the climate change impacts on hurricanes and sea level rise (SLR) along the Florida and North Carolina coast. Using a new methodology (instead of the "bath tub" approach) enhanced by the Institute for Sustainable <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Environment and Infrastructure (InSCEI) at University of Florida (UF), highly accurate and efficient <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation maps (Base Flood Elevations and Surge Atlas) are being produced for current climate conditions. Atmospheric and climate scientists at Florida State University (FSU) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) are using global (FSU/COAPS) and regional (WRF) atmospheric models to estimate the range in hurricane activities during 2020-2040 and 2080-2100, using projected SSTs from the IPCC CMIP5 climate scenarios as lower boundary conditions. SLR experts at NCSU and FSU are analyzing historical sea level data and conducting numerical modeling to estimate the SLR at the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> boundaries for the same IPCC scenarios. UF and NCSU are using the hurricane ensembles and the SLR scenarios provided by FSU and NCSU as input to storm surge and inundation models (CH3D-SSMS and CMAEPS, respectively) to produce high resolution inundation maps which include climate change effects. These future-climate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation maps will be much more accurate than the current ones and greatly improve the stakeholders' ability to mitigate <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation risk throughout the U.S. and the world. These inundation maps for current and future climates will be communicated to a wide spectrum of stakeholders for feedback and further improvement. A national workshop will be held in January 2013 to engage stakeholders, researchers, and managers (federal, state, and local) of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation to develop strategies to improve communications among the various entities and to gather inputs on the development of the next -generation <span class="hlt">coastal</span> inundation decision support system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheng, Y.; Davis, J. R.; Paramygin, V. A.; LaRow, T.; Chassignet, E.; Stefanova, L. B.; Lu, J.; Xie, L.; Montalvo, S.; Liu, J.; Liu, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..96...56T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary production of coral ecosystems in the Vietnamese <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and adjacent <span class="hlt">marine</span> waters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coral reef ecosystems in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters and islands of Vietnam have high primary production. Average gross primary production (GPP) in coral reef waters was 0.39 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of corals ranged from 3.12 to 4.37 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of benthic microalgae in coral reefs ranged from 2 to 10 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of macro-algae was 2.34 g C m-2 day-1. Therefore, the total of GPP of whole coral reef ecosystems could reach 7.85 to 17.10 g C m-2 day-1. Almost all values of the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in the water bodies are higher than 1, which means these regions are autotrophic systems. Wire variation of GPP in coral reefs was contributed by species abundance of coral and organisms, nutrient supports and environmental characteristics of coral ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important ecological role of biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in waters around the reefs. These results contribute valuable information for the protection, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in coral reef ecosystems in Vietnam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tac-An, Nguyen; Minh-Thu, Phan; Cherbadji, I. I.; Propp, M. V.; Odintsov, V. S.; Propp, L. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779835"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental confirmation of multiple <span class="hlt">community</span> states in a <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Small changes in environmental conditions can unexpectedly tip an ecosystem from one <span class="hlt">community</span> type to another, and these often irreversible shifts have been observed in semi-arid grasslands, freshwater lakes and ponds, coral reefs, and kelp forests. A commonly accepted explanation is that these ecosystems contain multiple stable points, but experimental tests confirming multiple stable states have proven elusive. Here we present a novel approach and show that mussel beds and rockweed stands are multiple stable states on intertidal shores in the Gulf of Maine, USA. Using broad-scale observational data and long-term data from experimental clearings, we show that the removal of rockweed by winter ice scour can tip persistent rockweed stands to mussel beds. The observational data were analyzed with Anderson's discriminant analysis of principal coordinates, which provided an objective function to separate mussel beds from rockweed stands. The function was then applied to 55 experimental plots, which had been established in rockweed stands in 1996. Based on 2005 data, all uncleared controls and all but one of the small clearings were classified as rockweed stands; 37% of the large clearings were classified as mussel beds. Our results address the establishment of mussels versus rockweeds and complement rather than refute the current paradigm that mussel beds and rockweed stands, once established, are maintained by site-specific differences in strong consumer control. PMID:19399520</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petraitis, Peter S.; Methratta, Elizabeth T.; Rhile, Erika C.; Vidargas, Nicholas A.; Dudgeon, Steve R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23050797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microfinance institutions and a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">community</span>'s disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively. PMID:23050797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/67/2/991.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chromatic Adaptation in <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Synechococcus Strains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cyanobacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> of the oceans is dominated by the small unicellular forms of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. Prochlorococcus cells are often numerically dominant in highly oligotrophic ocean waters, while Synecho- coccus cells dominate in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> waters, although the two are frequently found together (15). In some <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments, such as the Sargasso Sea, the relative importance of each</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">BRIAN PALENIK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7027213"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural oil seeps in the Alaskan <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment. Final report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report is a synthesis of information on the <span class="hlt">marine</span> and <span class="hlt">coastal</span> oil seeps in Alaska, and on the effects of chronic oil pollution on Arctic <span class="hlt">marine</span> biotic <span class="hlt">communities</span> and ecological processes. Of 29 oil seepage areas reported along the Alaskan coast, 14 have been confirmed as containing actual oil seeps. Large areas of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seepage have been identified in the central Gulf of Alaska and Arctic regions. When compared to known seepage rates on the California coast, the amount of oil entering the Alaska <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment from known <span class="hlt">coastal</span> seeps is probably rather small. Also, the organic enrichment of the benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> demonstrated at California seeps might not be as evident at Arctic seeps because of slower rate of oil degradation in the latter. Additional hypotheses on the effects of natural seeps on biological <span class="hlt">communities</span> and ecosystems are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, P.R.; Manen, C.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1094/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphic and ecological effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> Louisiana marsh <span class="hlt">communities</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in 2005, subjecting the <span class="hlt">coastal</span> marsh <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Louisiana to various degrees of exposure. We collected data after the storms at 30 sites within fresh (12), brackish/intermediate (12), and saline (6) marshes to document the effects of saltwater storm surge and sedimentation on marsh <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics. The 30 sites were comprised of 15 pairs. Most pairs contained one site where data collection occurred historically (that is, prestorms) and one Coastwide Reference Monitoring System site. Data were collected from spring 2006 to fall 2007 on vegetative species composition, percentage of vegetation cover, aboveground and belowground biomass, and canopy reflectance, along with discrete porewater salinity, hourly surface-water salinity, and water level. Where available, historical data acquired before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were used to compare conditions and changes in ecological trajectories before and after the hurricanes. Sites experiencing direct and indirect hurricane influences (referred to in this report as levels of influence) were also identified, and the effects of hurricane influence were tested on vegetation and porewater data. Within fresh marshes, porewater salinity was greater in directly impacted areas, and this heightened salinity was reflected in decreased aboveground and belowground biomass and increased cover of disturbance species in the directly impacted sites. At the brackish/intermediate marsh sites, vegetation variables and porewater salinity were similar in directly and indirectly impacted areas, but porewater salinity was higher than expected throughout the study. Interestingly, directly impacted saline marsh sites had lower porewater salinity than indirectly impacted sites, but aboveground biomass was greater at the directly impacted sites. Because of the variable and site-specific nature of hurricane influences, we present case studies to help define postdisturbance baseline conditions in fresh, brackish/ intermediate, and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, the mechanism of hurricane influence varied across the landscape. In the western region, saltwater storm surge inundated freshwater marshes and remained for weeks, effectively causing damage that reset the vegetation <span class="hlt">community</span>. This is in contrast to the direct physical disturbance of the storm surge in the eastern region, which flipped and relocated marsh mats, thereby stressing the vegetation <span class="hlt">communities</span> and providing an opportunity for disturbance species to colonize. In the brackish/intermediate marsh, disturbance species took advantage of the opportunity provided by shifting species composition caused by physical and saltwater-induced perturbations, although this shift is likely to be short lived. Saline marsh sites were not negatively impacted to a severe degree by the hurricanes. Species composition of vegetation in saline marshes was not affected, and sediment deposition appeared to increase vegetative productivity. The <span class="hlt">coastal</span> landscape of Louisiana is experiencing high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes and is experiencing subsidence rates greater than 10.0 millimeters per year (mm yr-1); therefore, it is important to understand how hurricanes influence sedimentation and soil properties. We document long-term vertical accretion rates and accumulation rates of organic matter, bulk density, carbon and nitrogen. Analyses using caesium-137 to calculate long-term vertical accretion rates suggest that accretion under impounded conditions is less than in nonimpounded conditions in the brackish marsh of the chenier plain. Our data also support previous studies indicating that accumulation rates of organic matter explain much of the variability associated with vertical accretion in brackish/intermediate and saline marshes. In fresh marshes, more of the variability associated with vertical accretion was explained by mineral accumulation than in the other mars</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piazza, Sarai C.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari F.; Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Holm, Guerry O.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Evers, D. Elaine; Meriwether, John R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2010109791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wind-Powered Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination for Pacific Islands and Remote <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> <span class="hlt">Communities</span>. Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 128.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The principal objective of this 1-year project was to develop a simple, costeffective desalination system for Pacific islands and other remote <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> where both freshwater and electricity are in short supply. Brackish water desalination drive...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. K. Liu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure to seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollution on <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Bhavnagar, India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure was analyzed from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water of Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard (ASSBY), world's largest ship breaking yard, near Bhavnagar, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (cultured dependent and culture independent). In clone libraries, total 2324 clones were retrieved from seven samples (<span class="hlt">coastal</span> water of ASSBY for three seasons along with one pristine <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water) which were grouped in 525 operational taxonomic units. Proteobacteria was found to be dominant in all samples. In pristine samples, Gammaproteobacteria was found to be dominant, whereas in polluted samples dominancy of Gammaproteobacteria has shifted to Betaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria. Richness and diversity indices also indicated that bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> in pristine sample was the most diverse followed by summer, monsoon and winter samples. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study describing bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure from <span class="hlt">coastal</span> water of ASSBY, and it suggests that seasonal fluctuation and anthropogenic pollutions alters the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. PMID:24727696</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patel, Vilas; Munot, Hitendra; Shouche, Yogesh S; Madamwar, Datta</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/pm47734886516237.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Species-area relationship and environmental predictors of fish <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> freshwater wetlands of southern Brazil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Neotropics where fragmentation is common, environmental factors structuring fish <span class="hlt">communities</span> are poorly known. In this\\u000a study two hypotheses were tested in 13 <span class="hlt">coastal</span> wetlands of southern Brazil: 1) physical features (such as wetland area, habitat\\u000a diversity, water depth and temperature, and water and sediment chemistry) are important determinants of richness, density\\u000a and composition of fish assemblages; and 2)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonardo Maltchik; Luis Esteban Krause Lanés; Cristina Stenert; Elvio S. F. Medeiros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17119624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and habitat partitioning in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of <span class="hlt">community</span> assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly <span class="hlt">community</span>. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the <span class="hlt">community</span> to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects. PMID:17119624</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holston, Kevin C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1615249"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and habitat partitioning in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of <span class="hlt">community</span> assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly <span class="hlt">community</span>. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the <span class="hlt">community</span> to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dunes. The results from this study provide a descriptive framework for studies testing habitat selection in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> dune stiletto fly species and inform conservation of threatened dune insects. PMID:17119624</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holston, Kevin C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18977581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implications of the ban on organotins for protection of global <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and <span class="hlt">marine</span> ecology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organotin-based antifouling paints are highly effective against most fouling organisms, and their application results in a large amount of savings for the shipping industry. On the other hand, TBT (tributyltin) in antifouling paints is described as the most toxic substance ever introduced into the <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment. Consequential environmental impacts of TBT led to its regulation in many countries, although concerns were raised regarding the complete prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints. Serious concerns were also raised regarding the complete banning of organotins. After long deliberations, the AFS Convention (convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships) was adopted on 5 October 2001. The Convention, which prohibits the use of harmful organotins in antifouling paints used on ships, will enter into force on 17 September 2008. In view of the concerns raised against the prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints, this paper focuses on a review of the AFS Convention, with a gap analysis on the difficulties in implementation of the Convention. It also offers some recommendations for improved policies. PMID:18977581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha; Hawaldar, Kavita</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..112...86A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial-temporal feeding dynamics of benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> in an estuary-<span class="hlt">marine</span> gradient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the fluctuations of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in benthic consumers and their potential food sources to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the utilization of available organic matter, indicating the origin and pathways of energy from Yura Estuary to Tango Sea, Japan. Field samplings were conducted from the upper estuary to offshore with sampling frequency of twice per season from April (spring) 2006 to February (winter) 2007. The ?13C signatures of the upper and lower estuary benthos showed depleted and in wide range (-28.9‰ to -13.5‰) compared to the enriched and within narrow range signatures of <span class="hlt">marine</span> benthos (-20.6‰ to -14.0‰) in all seasons. On the contrary, the ?15N signatures of benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> showed decreasing trend seaward and summer values were different from the other seasons. Using the dual isotope and multisource mixing models, we estimated the relative contributions of potential food sources to the benthos diet. River POM played an important source of energy for the estuarine benthos, especially in winter when river discharge was high. <span class="hlt">Marine</span> POM served as an important alternative food for the estuarine benthos from spring to autumn when seawater intruded the bottom estuary. Benthic microalgae were the major food source at the shallow coast throughout the year, while <span class="hlt">marine</span> POM fueled the deep coast and offshore benthic food webs. Spatial and temporal feeding variations in estuarine benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> were driven by the hydrology of the estuary, whereas primary production and transport of food source dictated diet variations of <span class="hlt">marine</span> benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The elucidation of the dynamic energy subsidy among aquatic systems highlights the importance of the land-sea transition zones that is crucial for benthic secondary productions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonio, Emily S.; Kasai, Akihide; Ueno, Masahiro; Ishihi, Yuka; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yoh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3167536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Divergent ecosystem responses within a benthic <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> to ocean acidification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocean acidification is predicted to impact all areas of the oceans and affect a diversity of <span class="hlt">marine</span> organisms. However, the diversity of responses among species prevents clear predictions about the impact of acidification at the ecosystem level. Here, we used shallow water CO2 vents in the Mediterranean Sea as a model system to examine emergent ecosystem responses to ocean acidification in rocky reef <span class="hlt">communities</span>. We assessed in situ benthic invertebrate <span class="hlt">communities</span> in three distinct pH zones (ambient, low, and extreme low), which differed in both the mean and variability of seawater pH along a continuous gradient. We found fewer taxa, reduced taxonomic evenness, and lower biomass in the extreme low pH zones. However, the number of individuals did not differ among pH zones, suggesting that there is density compensation through population blooms of small acidification-tolerant taxa. Furthermore, the trophic structure of the invertebrate <span class="hlt">community</span> shifted to fewer trophic groups and dominance by generalists in extreme low pH, suggesting that there may be a simplification of food webs with ocean acidification. Despite high variation in individual species’ responses, our findings indicate that ocean acidification decreases the diversity, biomass, and trophic complexity of benthic <span class="hlt">marine</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span>. These results suggest that a loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function is expected under extreme acidification scenarios. PMID:21844331</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kroeker, Kristy J.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Gambi, Maria Cristina; Martz, Todd R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086895"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemoautotrophic Carbon Fixation Rates and Active Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in Intertidal <span class="hlt">Marine</span> Sediments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, the Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m?2 d?1. Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)?1, which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on sediment biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. PMID:25003508</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W. C.; Moodley, Leon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25003508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemoautotrophic carbon fixation rates and active bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in intertidal <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)(-1), which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of <span class="hlt">coastal</span> sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on sediment biogeochemistry and microbial ecology. PMID:25003508</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boschker, Henricus T S; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W C; Moodley, Leon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/346831"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from a <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A basidiomycetous fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden (strain 312), isolated from decaying sea grass from a coral lagoon off the west coast of India, mineralized nearly 24% of {sup 14}C-labeled synthetic lignin to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 24 days. When grown in low-nitrogen medium this fungus produced three major classes of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs): manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP), lignin peroxidase (LIP), and laccase. Low MNP and laccase activities were seen in high-nitrogen medium, but no LIP activity was seen. In media containing lignocellulosic substrates such as pine, poplar, or sugarcane bagasse as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, relatively high MNP and moderate levels of laccases were seen, but LIP production either was not seen or was minimal. LME production was also seen in media prepared with artificial seawater. Fast protein liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing resolved LMEs into four isozymes each of MNP and LIP, while laccase isozymes were resolved into two groups, one group containing seven isozymes and the other group containing at least three isozymes. The molecular masses of the different isozymes were 43 to 99 kDa for MNP, 40 and 41.5 kDa for LIP, and 43 and 99 kDa for laccase. F. flavus showed effective degradation of various dye pollutants in media prepared with or without artificial seawater. This is the first report on the production of all three major classes of LMEs by F. flavus and points to the bioremediation potential of this organism in terrestrial as well as <span class="hlt">marine</span> environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raghukumar, C.; D`Souza, T.M.; Thorn, R.G.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23929385"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> fishes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in <span class="hlt">marine</span> fish. Target fish were collected from the Narragansett Bay (Rhode Island, USA) and included black sea bass Centropristis striata [n = 54, 14-55 cm total length (TL)], bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31-73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34-102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18-55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27-61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue [mean muscle Hg = 0.47-1.18 mg/kg dry weight (dw)] followed by fin clips (0.03-0.09 mg/kg dw) and scales (0.01-0.07 mg/kg dw). The coefficient of determination (R (2)) derived from power regressions of intraspecies muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35 and 0.78 (mean R (2) = 0.57) and 0.14-0.37 (mean R (2) = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R (2) = 0.63-0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R (2) = 0.33-0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R (2) values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool; however, this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes and likely depends on species-specific life-history characteristics. PMID:23929385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piraino, Maria N; Taylor, David L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3834091"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of nonlethal methods for predicting muscle tissue mercury concentrations in <span class="hlt">coastal</span> <span class="hlt">marine</span> fishes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Caudal fin clips and dorsolateral scales were analyzed in this study as a potential nonlethal approach for predicting muscle tissue mercury (Hg) concentrations in <span class="hlt">marine</span> fishes. Target fishes were collected from the Narragansett Bay (RI, USA), and included black sea bass Centropristis striata (n = 54, 14–55 cm total length, TL), bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (n = 113, 31–73 cm TL), striped bass Morone saxatilis (n = 40, 34–102 cm TL), summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus (n = 64, 18–55 cm TL), and tautog Tautoga onitis (n = 102, 27–61 cm TL). For all fish species, Hg concentrations were greatest in muscle tissue (mean muscle Hg = 0.47–1.18 mg/kg dry weight), followed by fin clips (0.03–0.09 mg/kg dry weight) and scales (0.01–0.07 mg/kg dry weight). The coefficient of determination (R2) derived from power regressions of intra-species muscle Hg against fin and scale Hg ranged between 0.35–0.78 (mean R2 = 0.57) and 0.14–0.37 (mean R2 = 0.30), respectively. The inclusion of fish body size interaction effects in the regression models improved the predictive ability of fins (R2 = 0.63–0.80; mean = 0.71) and scales (R2 = 0.33–0.71; mean = 0.53). According to the high level of uncertainty within the regression models (R2 values) and confidence interval widths, scale analysis was deemed an ineffective tool for estimating muscle tissue Hg concentrations in the target species. In contrast, the examination of fin clips as predictors of muscle Hg had value as a cursory screening tool, but this method should not be the foundation for developing human consumption advisories. It is also noteworthy that the efficacy of these nonlethal techniques was highly variable across fishes, and likely depends on species-specific life history characteristics. PMID:23929385</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piraino, Maria N.; Taylor, David L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://coastalmanagement.noaa.gov/"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOAA Office of Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In light of a number of recent events, there is increased concern about the management of America's <span class="hlt">coastal</span> and ocean resources. It is a pressing issue for economic reasons, along with the simple fact that over fifty percent of the U.S. population lives close to the coastlines of two oceans and the Great Lakes. Persons interested in these matters will appreciate the NOAA Office of Ocean and <span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Resource Management site, which features newsletters, information about their strategic plans, and copious amounts of material on their initiatives, which include dock management and <span class="hlt">community</span> development partnerships. A basic overview of the issues facing <span class="hlt">coastal</span> regions can be found in the "<span class="hlt">Coastal</span> Issues" section of the site which contains brief summaries on <span class="hlt">marine</span> debris, <span class="hlt">coastal</span> hazards, water quality, and aquaculture. The site is rounded out by a "My state" section. Here, visitors can utilize a clickable map of the U.S. to learn about <span class="hlt">coastal</span> management activities underway in their state.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov