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The welfare of the marine environment is threatened worldwide. In order to maintain ecosystem services management must shift from single sector to ecosystem approaches. To support this transition in marinemanagement, this article reviews collaborative ecosystem-basedmanagement in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), through an overview and comparison of three collaborations on the United States West Coast of
The abrupt decline in the sea's capacity to provide crucial ecosystem services requires a new ecosystem-based approach for maintaining and recovering biodiversity and integrity. Ecosystems are places, so marine spatial planners and managers must understand the heterogeneity of biological communities and their key components (especially apex predators and structure-forming species), and of key processes (e.g., population connectivity, interaction webs, biogeochemistry)
Ecosystem-BasedManagement (EBM) requires marine monitoring in real time with high temporal frequency and high spatial density. It also requires sensors that can provide direct measurements of biological processes and the means to track water movement and evaluate water quality. These requirements can not realistically be met using huge amalgamations of the independent instruments traditionally used for marine monitoring. To
Eric D. Thosteson; E. A. Widder; C. A. Cimaglia; J. W. Taylor; B. C. Burns; K. J. Paglen
This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines robustness and resilience as they apply to marine ecosystems. Marine ecosystems provide essential services to humans, yet these services have been diminished, and their future sustainability endangered, by human patterns of exploitation that threaten system robustness and resilience. Marine ecosystems are complex adaptive systems composed of individual agents that interact with one another to produce collective effects, integrating scales from individual behaviors to the dynamics of whole systems. In such systems, small changes can be magnified through nonlinear interactions, facilitating regime shifts and collapses. Protection of the services these ecosystems provide must therefore maintain the adaptive capacities of these systems by preserving a balance among heterogeneity, modularity, and redundancy, tightening feedback loops to provide incentives for sound stewardship. The challenge for management is to increase incentives to individuals, and tighten reward loops, in ways that will strengthen the robustness and resilience of these systems and preserve their ability to provide ecosystem services for generations to come.
SIMON A. LEVIN (Princeton University;); JANE LUBCHENCO (Oregon State University;)
This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience looks at the principles of ecosystem-basedmanagement and applies them to real world examples. Ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) in the ocean is a relatively new approach, and existing applications are evolving from more traditional management of portions of ecosystems. Because comprehensive examples of EBM in the marine environment do not yet exist, we first summarize EBM principles that emerge from the fisheries and marine social and ecological literature. We then apply those principles to four cases in which large parts of marine ecosystems are being managed, and ask how including additional components of an EBM approach might improve the prospects for those ecosystems. The case studies provide examples of how additional elements of EBM approaches, if applied, could improve ecosystem function. In particular, two promising next steps for applying EBM are to identify management objectives for the ecosystem, including natural and human goals, and to ensure that the governance structure matches with the scale over which ecosystem elements are measured and managed.
MARY RUCKELSHAUS (NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center;); Terrie Klinger (University of Washington;); Nancy Knowlton (Scripps Institution of Oceanography;); Douglas P. DeMaster (NOAA FisheriesÃÂAlaska Fisheries Science Center;)
The rapid increase in the science and implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) around the world in the past 15 years is now being followed by similar increases in the science and application of marineecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM). Despite important overlaps and some common goals, these two approaches have remained either separated in the literature and in conservation and management efforts or treated as if they are one and the same. In the cases when connections are acknowledged, there is often little assessment of if or how well MPAs can achieve specific EBM goals. Here we start by critically evaluating commonalities and differences between MPAs and EBM. Next, we use global analyses to show where and how much no-take marine reserves can be expected to contribute to EBM goals, specifically by reducing the cumulative impacts of stressors on ocean ecosystems. These analyses revealed large stretches of coastal oceans where reserves can play a major role in reducing cumulative impacts and thus improving overall ocean condition, at the same time highlighting the limitations of marine reserves as a single tool to achieve comprehensive EBM. Ultimately, better synergies between these two burgeoning approaches provide opportunities to greatly benefit ocean health.
Halpern, Benjamin S.; Lester, Sarah E.; McLeod, Karen L.
Coastal management institutions and recreational fishermen share concerns about the current state of marine fisheries. This article provides coastal managers with an outreach framework for recreational fishers that contextualizes social and ecosystem information toward the goals of ecosystem-basedmanagement. Based on a survey of anglers conducted at saltwater fishing expositions in the Northeast United States and on the literature, we
Background One of the greatest obstacles to moving ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) from concept to practice is the lack of a systematic approach to defining ecosystem-level decision criteria, or reference points that trigger management action. Methodology/Principal Findings To assist resource managers and policymakers in developing EBM decision criteria, we introduce a quantitative, transferable method for identifying utility thresholds. A utility threshold is the level of human-induced pressure (e.g., pollution) at which small changes produce substantial improvements toward the EBM goal of protecting an ecosystem's structural (e.g., diversity) and functional (e.g., resilience) attributes. The analytical approach is based on the detection of nonlinearities in relationships between ecosystem attributes and pressures. We illustrate the method with a hypothetical case study of (1) fishing and (2) nearshore habitat pressure using an empirically-validated marine ecosystem model for British Columbia, Canada, and derive numerical threshold values in terms of the density of two empirically-tractable indicator groups, sablefish and jellyfish. We also describe how to incorporate uncertainty into the estimation of utility thresholds and highlight their value in the context of understanding EBM trade-offs. Conclusions/Significance For any policy scenario, an understanding of utility thresholds provides insight into the amount and type of management intervention required to make significant progress toward improved ecosystem structure and function. The approach outlined in this paper can be applied in the context of single or multiple human-induced pressures, to any marine, freshwater, or terrestrial ecosystem, and should facilitate more effective management.
Samhouri, Jameal F.; Levin, Phillip S.; Ainsworth, Cameron H.
Multiple activities affect the marine environment in concert, yet current management primarily considers activities in isolation. A shift towards a more comprehensive management of these activities, as with recent emphasis on ecosystem-based approaches to management, requires a means for evaluating their interactive and cumulative impacts. Here we develop a framework for this evaluation, focusing on five core concepts: (1) activities
Benjamin S. Halpern; Karen L. McLeod; Andrew A. Rosenberg; Larry B. Crowder
Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM) requires taking account of indirect effects (such as habitat destruction, incidental mortality, and competition between the fishery and marine mammals or birds) and dealing with non-commensurate values (such as yield from the fishery and production of offspring by the birds or mammals competing for the same resource). The perspective of EBFM requires that the rate of
Area-based fishery management and ecosystem-basedmanagement strategies are considered beneficial marine resource management tools, but they require finite information about the structure and function of ecosystems to evaluate populations and describe the effects of fishing on ecosystems. The required information is not likely to be obtained from sporadic, fishery-dependent data collected from data-poor fisheries, and funding constraints preclude extensive fishery-independent
Richard M. Starr; Mark Carr; Dan Malone; Ashley Greenley; Selena McMillan
Modern fishing changes the ocean environment in many ways, including disturbing the sea floor, altering the food webs, and shifting many important ecosystem functions. Natural history, oceanographic, habitat, behavior, and ecological information must be integrated to implement meaningful ecosystem-basedmanagement. We discuss the urgent need to expand the concept of essential fish habitat to include important food-web relationships. The need for a broader perspective in terms of ecosystem function and the effects of interactive stressors is emphasized to maintain the vitality and resilience of valued ecosystems. Maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions is a key factor in the adaptive capacity of ecosystems to change. We argue that an ecological understanding of resilience embraces uncertainty and encourages multiple approaches to the management of humans such that ecosystem functions are maintained.
Modern fishing changes the ocean environment in many ways, including disturbing the sea floor, altering the food webs, and shifting many important ecosystem functions. Natural history, oceanographic, habitat, behavior, and ecological information must be integrated to implement meaningful ecosystem-basedmanagement. We discuss the urgent need to expand the concept of essential fish habitat to include important food-web relationships. The need for a broader perspective in terms of ecosystem function and the effects of interactive stressors is emphasized to maintain the vitality and resilience of valued ecosystems. Maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions is a key factor in the adaptive capacity of ecosystems to change. We argue that an ecological understanding of resilience embraces uncertainty and encourages multiple approaches to the management of humans such that ecosystem functions are maintained. PMID:21141671
NOAA's Strategic Plan, completed on March 31, 2003 after extensive input from over one thousand external and internal stakeholders from seven different regional locations across the Nation, created four overarching strategic goals for NOAA, including: (1) Protect, restore, and manage the use of coastal and ocean resources through ecosystem-basedmanagement; (2) Understand climate variability and change to enhance society's ability
Globally, many fish species are overexploited, and many stocks have collapsed. This crisis, along with increasing concerns over flow-on effects on ecosystems, has caused a reevaluation of traditional fisheries management practices, and a new ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) paradigm has emerged. As part of this approach, selective fishing is widely encouraged in the belief that nonselective fishing has many adverse impacts. In particular, incidental bycatch is seen as wasteful and a negative feature of fishing, and methods to reduce bycatch are implemented in many fisheries. However, recent advances in fishery science and ecology suggest that a selective approach may also result in undesirable impacts both to fisheries and marine ecosystems. Selective fishing applies one or more of the 6-S selections: species, stock, size, sex, season, and space. However, selective fishing alters biodiversity, which in turn changes ecosystem functioning and may affect fisheries production, hindering rather than helping achieve the goals of EBFM. We argue here that a balanced exploitation approach might alleviate many of the ecological effects of fishing by avoiding intensive removal of particular components of the ecosystem, while still supporting sustainable fisheries. This concept may require reducing exploitation rates on certain target species or groups to protect vulnerable components of the ecosystem. Benefits to society could be maintained or even increased because a greater proportion of the entire suite of harvested species is used.
Zhou, Shijie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Punt, Andre E.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Mark; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Pascoe, Sean; Bulman, Catherine; Bayliss, Peter; Sainsbury, Keith
Collaborative learning is an innovation in public participation theory and practice. It is designed to address the complexity and controversy inherent in public land management by combining elements of systems methods and mediation\\/dispute management. Collaborative learning activities put more emphasis on experiential learning theory, systemic improvement, and constructive discourse than do typical public participation programs. Collaborative learning was used in
SUMMARY We conducted a nation-wide survey to assess the state of ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) in Canada. Detailed interviews were completed with at least 10 individuals in each region of Canada, representing government, industry, non-government environmental, and municipal agencies. Some significant results include: 1) EBM lacks explicit definitions in most jurisdictions; 2) explicit adoption of EBM terminology in policy and legislation
The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim\\u000a of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory\\u000a measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not\\u000a been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation
Integrated Water Resources Management is an approach aimed at achieving sustainable development with a focus on water resources. This management concept is characterized by its catchment approach, inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary approach and multiple management objectives. There is an effort to widen the management scope to include multiple resources and environmental considerations in the river basin management schemes. In order to achieve river basin management objectives and multiple global environmental benefits, an ecosystem approach to river basin management is promoted. The Ecosystem-based River Basin Management aims to maximize and optimize the total value of the ecosystem functions relevant to classified ecosystems within a river basin by conserving and even enhancing these functions for the next generations. A procedure to incorporate such ecosystem functions into policy framework is presented in this paper. Based on this policy framework of the Ecosystem-based River Basin Management, a case study is introduced to apply the concept to the Yangtze River basin. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) assessment report, this basin suffers from frequent floods of large magnitudes, which are due to the degradation of ecosystem functions in the basin. In this case, the government of the People's Republic of China introduced Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to conserve ecosystem functions related to flood events and magnitude, such as soil conservation, agricultural practices and forestry, while producing economic benefits for the local population. Copyright
We present an integrated economic-ecological framework designed to help assess the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) in New England. We develop the framework by linking a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of a coastal economy to an end-to-end (E2E) model of a marine food web for Georges Bank. We focus on the New England region using coastal county economic data for a restricted set of industry sectors and marine ecological data for three top level trophic feeding guilds: planktivores, benthivores, and piscivores. We undertake numerical simulations to model the welfare effects of changes in alternative combinations of yields from feeding guilds and alternative manifestations of biological productivity. We estimate the economic and distributional effects of these alternative simulations across a range of consumer income levels. This framework could be used to extend existing methodologies for assessing the impacts on human communities of groundfish stock rebuilding strategies, such as those expected through the implementation of the sector management program in the US northeast fishery. We discuss other possible applications of and modifications and limitations to the framework.
Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Dalton, T. M.; Thunberg, E. M.
A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an "all or none" choice of either preserving coastal habitats or converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these relationships are rarely linear. By incorporating nonlinear wave attenuation in estimating coastal protection values of mangroves in Thailand, we show that the optimal land use option may instead be the integration of development and conservation consistent with ecosystem-basedmanagement goals. This result suggests that reconciling competing demands on coastal habitats should not always result in stark preservation-versus-conversion choices. PMID:18202288
Barbier, Edward B; Koch, Evamaria W; Silliman, Brian R; Hacker, Sally D; Wolanski, Eric; Primavera, Jurgenne; Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Aswani, Shankar; Cramer, Lori A; Stoms, David M; Kennedy, Chris J; Bael, David; Kappel, Carrie V; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Reed, Denise J
Previous literature has been critical of public participation practices, finding unimpressive application of public participation principles and low levels of public satisfaction. Ecosystem-basedmanagement generally involves mixed land ownerships, which adds considerable complexity to the planning process. This complexity increases both the importance of public participation and the difficulty of selecting appropriate public involvement mechanisms. To help solve the problem
There is a wave of interest in Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and Integrated Management (IM) as tools for addressing declines in marine environments through ecosystem-basedmanagement. Lessons learned from seven MPA and two IM initiatives in Canada show how engaging stakeholders results in: building and maintaining momentum through social capital; using the collective knowledge of stakeholders; consensus through formal and
In 1992, UNCED Agenda 21 highlighted the protection and preservation of highly diverse marine eco- systems and the problems that degraded ecosystems posed to marine fishing activities. The 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement referred to the need to maintain the integrity of ecosystems and to consider problems posed by fishing and degrading ecosystems. Further, the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct
A new federal administration, alongside initiatives proposed by the President's US Commission on Ocean Policy, provides a timely and critical opportunity for maritime archaeologists and cultural resource managers to re-consider management frameworks for maritime cultural heritage in the USA. Policy is urgently needed that defines governments roles and responsibilities in protecting and managing maritime cultural heritage in federal waters. Implementation
Community metrics describe aspects of community structure and are often calculated from species-size-abundance data collected during fish stock monitoring surveys. Several community metrics have been proposed as indicators to support ecosystem-based fishery management. These metrics should be sensitive to fishing impacts and respond rapidly to management action, so that managers can assess whether changes in the fish community are a
Sustainably managing ecosystems is challenging, especially for complex systems such as coral reefs. This study develops critical reference points for sustainable management by using a large empirical dataset on the coral reefs of the western Indian Ocean to investigate associations between levels of target fish biomass (as an indicator of fishing intensity) and eight metrics of ecosystem state. These eight ecological metrics each exhibited specific thresholds along a continuum of fishable biomass ranging from heavily fished sites to old fisheries closures. Three thresholds lay above and five below a hypothesized window of fishable biomass expected to produce a maximum multispecies sustainable yield (B(MMSY)). Evaluating three management systems in nine countries, we found that unregulated fisheries often operate below the B(MMSY), whereas fisheries closures and, less frequently, gear-restricted fisheries were within or above this window. These findings provide tangible management targets for multispecies coral reef fisheries and highlight key tradeoffs required to achieve different fisheries and conservation goals. PMID:21949381
McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Muthiga, Nyawira A; Cinner, Joshua E; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Wilson, Shaun K
The Central and North Coast and Haida Gwaii\\/Queen Charlotte Islands regions of British Columbia (B.C.) contain the world's largest remaining areas of intact coastal temperate rainforest. The region has been the focus of intense conflict among environmentalists, forestry companies, First Nations and other interests over the management of these high conservation value old growth forests. Recently completed land use planning
F. M. Moola; D. Martin; B. Wareham; J. Calof; C. Burda; P. Grames
Energy budget models for five marine ecosystems were compared to identify differences and similarities in trophic and community structure. We examined the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the combined Norwegian\\/Barents Seas in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Comparable energy budgets
Sarah Gaichas; Georg Skaret; Jannike Falk-Petersen; Jason S. Link; William Overholtz; Bernard A. Megrey; Harald Gjøsæter; William T. Stockhausen; Are Dommasnes; Kevin D. Friedland; Kerim Aydin
The Gulf of California system presents major challenges to the still developing frameworks for ecosystem-basedmanagement\\u000a (EBM). It is very much an open system and is intermittently subject to important influxes of migratory visitors, including large pelagic predatory fishes and small\\u000a pelagic forage fishes. These migrants include the more tropical species from the coastal ecosystems to the south and perhaps
Andrew Bakun; Elizabeth A. Babcock; Salvador E. Lluch-Cota; Christine Santora; Christian J. Salvadeo
The marine environment is heavily exploited, but unintentional consequences cause wide-ranging negative effects to its characteristics. Linkage frameworks (e.g., DPSIR [driver-pressure-state-impact-response]) are commonly used to describe an interaction between human activities and ecological characteristics of the ecosystem, but as each linkage is viewed independently, the diversity of pressures that affect those characteristics may not be identified or managed effectively. Here we demonstrate an approach for using linkages to build a simple network to capture the complex relationships arising from multiple sectors and their activities. Using data-analysis tools common to ecology, we show how linkages can be placed into mechanistically similar groups. Management measures can be combined into fewer and more simplified measures that target groups of pressures rather than individual pressures, which is likely to increase compliance and the success of the measure while reducing the cost of enforcement. Given that conservation objectives (regional priorities) can vary, we also demonstrate by way of a case study example from the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, how management priorities might change, and illustrate how the approach can be used to identify sectors for control that best support the conservation objectives. PMID:23865227
Knights, Antony M; Koss, Rebecca S; Robinson, Leonie A
Marine fish and shellfish constitute important natural resources. Provided they are wisely exploited, they are not liable to exhaustion but continue to renew themselves. Wise exploitation requires sound management, and for such management one should be well informed about the factors governing the fluctuations in the stocks and about the costs of exploitation. A century of scientific fisheries research provided a wealth of information on reproduction, migration and growth of commercially important species of fish and shellfish and about the losses the stocks suffer through natural causes such as predation, diseases and parasites, and through the fishery itself. Such information is available for areas which are intensively fished. In fertile waters, the approximate growth increase of fish stocks is some 15 % by weight year-1. If one were to harvest this 15 % only, to be considered as interest on this natural capital, and to leave the capital itself untouched, one could go on fishing for ever. There would be no overfishing or stock depletion. For sound management we need not only ecological data but also information on economic fishery aspects, e. g. on size and power of the fleet, type of fish-finding apparatus installed, costs of netting and wages, fuel required per fishing trip, and on the capital invested. Further we need statistical information on the landings and on the proceeds. Such information is available in countries which participate intensively in fishing. Therefore, one would assume that governments which are well informed by their fishery biologists about fluctuations in stocks of fish and shellfish and by their economists on various aspects of the exploitation would apply sound management to ensure that fishing may continue for many years to come without depletion. A number of examples related to the North East Atlantic area, where intensive fishing is carried out and from where a wealth of scientific information is available, makes clear that cases of sound management are hard to trace.
...South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 for the...Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...implementing the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 (CE-BA...Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries Service....
...South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the...Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...to implement Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the...Administrator for Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR...
The move to ecosystem-basedmanagement of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based
Marine data is collected by thousands of organisations around the world using a variety of different instruments and platforms. The high cost of its acquisition and the fact that the data itself is often unique and irreplaceable makes its re-use a priority for marine data managers. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine data is often the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc. which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of this data at a regional, national and international scale. This lack of a common approach to how the data is managed is also hindering the development of interoperability with other disciplines at a time when there is a need to adopt a more ecosystembased approach to marine research. Initiatives in a number of regions including Europe, USA and Australia are making significant progress in addressing these issues through the development of marine data management infrastructures. However the need for a more holistic approach to marine research necessitates a move towards a common marine data management infrastructure through the development of interoperability between these regional initiatives. To bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the EU, the National Science Foundation in the USA and the Australian government have recently funded the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project. ODIP is a collaborative project between 14 organisations in Europe, USA and Australia engaged in the acquisition and management of marine data. ODIP aims to develop interoperability between the regional marine data management infrastructures and to demonstrate this co-ordination through the development of several joint prototypes that illustrate effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and national boundaries. This will ultimately lead to the development of a common infrastructure for marine data management that can be extended to other organisations and global regions.
Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger
This article provides an overview of living marine resource governance in the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) and discusses how this relates to ecosystem-basedmanagement at the geographical scale of the LME. It also provides an overview of the approach to governance reform that will be taken by the Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem and Adjacent Areas Project. The geopolitical complexity
Stakeholder participation is advanced as a key element of marine spatial planning (MSP) by the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force. It provides little guidance, however, regarding stakeholder participation. We argue that much can be learned from existing ecosystem-basedmarinemanagement initiatives. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, which utilizes an advisory council to facilitate stakeholder participation, is evaluated in
Stakeholder participation is advanced as a key element of marine spatial planning (MSP) by the U.S. Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force. It provides little guidance, however, regarding stakeholder participation. We argue that much can be learned from existing ecosystem-basedmarinemanagement initiatives. The Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, which utilizes an advisory council to facilitate stakeholder participation, is evaluated in
Effective marineecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) requires understanding the key processes and relationships controlling the aspects of biodiversity, productivity, and resilience to perturbations. Unfortunately, the scales, complexity, and non-linear dynamics that characterize marine ecosystems often confound managing for these properties. Nevertheless, scientifically derived decision- support tools (DSTs) are needed to account for impacts resulting from a variety of simultaneous human activities.
Steven A. Murawski; John H. Steele; Phillip Taylor; Michael J. Fogarty; Michael P. Sissenwine; Michael Ford; Cynthia Suchman
An Ocean Pollution Data and Information Network (OPDIN), composed of a central office in Washington, D.C. and five regional offices in key coastal locations, has been proposed to ensure timely and useful availability of marine pollution data and information. The National Oceanographic Data Center recently convened the Workshop on Marine Pollution Information Management as a first step in defining system
Ecosystem management means different things to different people, but the underlying concept is similar to that of the long-standing ethic of conservation. Current interest in marine ecosystem management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries and the perceived need for broader perspectives in fisheries management. A central scientific question is whether the effects of harvesting (top down) or changes
A conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik from 1 to 4 October 2001. The challenge provided to the conference was to define the practical next steps to move from the present fisheries management framework to ecosystem-basedmanagement. A series of invited review papers were prepared by leading experts in their respective scientific fields. These
M Sinclair; R Arnason; J Csirke; Z Karnicki; J Sigurjonsson; H Rune Skjoldal; G Valdimarsson
This instructional guide is designed to provide instructors with lecture support on the topic of marine fisheries with an emphasis on those species that are commercially harvested in the United States. Proposed and implemented management activities that are designed to manage fisheries stocks in a sustainable manner are discussed with an emphasis on those that take an ecosystems approach to fisheries management.A general lecture outline and a more detailed PowerPoint presentation with instructor notes are provided. Print, video and web-based resources that cover the topic are summarized and cited. Instructors who wish to obtain greater detail on any of the topics discussed in this module are encouraged to seek out these additional resources or those cited in the Comprehensive Resources for NCSR Marine Fisheries Series.
Research on ecosystem-based fisheries management, marine biodiversity conservation, and other marine fields requires appropriate maps of the major natural regions of the oceans, and their ecosystems. A global ocean classification system proposed by T. Platt and S. Sathyendranath and implemented by A.R. Longhurst, defined largely by physical parameters that subdivide the oceans into four 'biomes' and 57 'biogeochemical provinces' (BGCPs),
Daniel Pauly; Villy Christensen; Rainer Froese; Alan Longhurst; Trevor Platt; Shubha Sathyendranath; Kenneth Sherman; John O'Reilly; Peter Celone
Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of habitat upon which they depend. The complexity of reef fisheries and lack of management resources in southern nations limit the
A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-basedmanagement.
Although customary marine tenure (CMT) systems for the management of local marine resources occur throughout the world, compared with other models of fisheries management they remain relatively little known. The Pacific Basin is especially rich in CMT systems, which play key roles in overall social, economic and cultural life of societies. Based on a Solomon Island example, we examine the
The GEF\\/UNDP\\/IMO Regional Programme on Marine Pollution Prevention and Management in the East Asian Seas (MPP-EAS) conducts annually a regional training course on the application of the integrated coastal management (ICM) system for addressing marine pollution problems. The training initiative is unique in that: (a) the training curriculum is tailored for strengthening environmental protection and management capacity in the developing
Policies are arising around the world, most recently in the United States, that mandate the implementation of marine spatial planning as a practical pathway towards ecosystem-basedmanagement. In the new United States ocean policy, and several other cases around the globe, ecosystem services are at the core of marine spatial planning, but there is little guidance on how ecosystem services
Heather Tallis; Sarah E. Lester; Mary Ruckelshaus; Mark Plummer; Karen McLeod; Anne Guerry; Sandy Andelman; Margaret R. Caldwell; Marc Conte; Stephen Copps; David Fox; Rod Fujita; Steven D. Gaines; Guy Gelfenbaum; Barry Gold; Peter Kareiva; Choong-ki Kim; Kai Lee; Michael Papenfus; Scott Redman; Brian Silliman; Lisa Wainger; Crow White
This Issue focuses on a research article by Barange (2003) that was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The article discusses long-term (inter-decadal and longer) patterns of change in marine species in the context of over-exploitation of marine fisheries. BarangeÃÂs emphasis is use of ecosystem-basedmanagement practice to move us towards sustainable fisheries. However, he questions whether we know enough about patterns and causes of long term change in marine ecosystems to develop such practices.
During the decade since the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, considerable movement has been made by international organizations engaged in ocean affairs to move nations toward adopting ecosystem-based assessment and management strategies. The 191 nations, including 82 heads of state, participating in the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg agreed to a plan of implementation
Surin Marine National Park lies northwest of Phuket. Before the 26 December 2004 tsunami, its reputation as the best shallow-water reef in Thailand attracted more than 30000 visitors per year to the 8km2 of fringing reef. Visitor management included fees, permits, specific activities management, a zoning plan and an information centre. Zoning plan exclusion areas included the area of highest
Suchai Worachananant; Marc Hockings; Pasinee Reopanichkul
This paper focuses on a control application of marine power management system (PMS) based on model free adaptive (MFA). The speed-frequency stability of power station is determined by the dynamic characteristic of the diesel engine fuel supply control. In order to obtain good and consistent power control performance, and restrain the load disturbance and improve the dynamic precision of diesel
Research on ecosystem-based fisheries management, marine biodiversity conservation, and other fields requires appropriate maps of the major natural regions of the oceans, and their ecosystems. It is proposed here that a classification system proposed by T. Platt and S. Sathyendranath and implemented by A.R. Longhurst, defined largely by physical parameters, and which subdivides the oceans into four 'biomes' and 57
Daniel Pauly; Villy Christensen; Rainer Froeseb; Trevor Platte
|Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managingmarine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish
Much of the marine related traditional knowledge held by fishers in Vanuatu relates to increasing catches while managing resources of cultural, social and subsistence value. Traditional beliefs and practices asso- ciated with fisheries and their management follow natural cycles of resource abundance, accessibility, and respect for customary rules enshrined in oral traditions. Many management related rules that control fish- ers'
Climate change has consistently been identified as a top threat to sensitive marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. However, such assessments are made largely by reference to coarse-scale global climate models and limited empirical research from single disciplines. This paper describes a NOAA-wide effort to bring together climatologists, ecologists, oceanographers, and ecosystem managers to identify critical climate-ecosystem connections, and to develop a suite of integrated information products that will improve an ecosystem manager's ability to identify potential climate impacts and variability at scales relevant to the ecosystems they manage. This Integrated Marine Protected Area Climate Tools (IMPACT) project references historical climatologies against ecological impacts to provide more relevant, quantified information to ecosystem stewards seeking to understand and plan for future environmental stresses.
Shein, K. A.; Marzin, C.; Hendee, J.; Pirhalla, D.; Causey, B.; Brandon, T. B.
Enhancing species resilience to changing environmental conditions is often suggested as a climate change adaptation strategy. To effectively achieve this, it is necessary first to understand the factors that determine species resilience, and their relative importance in shaping the ability of species to adjust to the complexities of environmental change. This is an extremely challenging task because it requires comprehensive information on species traits. We explored the resilience of 58 marine turtle regional management units (RMUs) to climate change, encompassing all seven species of marine turtles worldwide. We used expert opinion from the IUCN-SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group (n = 33 respondents) to develop a Resilience Index, which considered qualitative characteristics of each RMU (relative population size, rookery vulnerability, and genetic diversity) and non climate-related threats (fisheries, take, coastal development, and pollution/pathogens). Our expert panel perceived rookery vulnerability (the likelihood of functional rookeries becoming extirpated) and non climate-related threats as having the greatest influence on resilience of RMUs to climate change. We identified the world's 13 least resilient marine turtle RMUs to climate change, which are distributed within all three major ocean basins and include six of the world's seven species of marine turtle. Our study provides the first look at inter- and intra-species variation in resilience to climate change and highlights the need to devise metrics that measure resilience directly. We suggest that this approach can be widely used to help prioritize future actions that increase species resilience to climate change. PMID:23505145
Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Pike, David A; Dimatteo, Andrew; Wallace, Bryan P
Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified.
Mora, Camilo; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J.; Sumaila, Rashid U.; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J.; Worm, Boris
Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743
Mora, Camilo; Myers, Ransom A; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J; Sumaila, Rashid U; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J; Worm, Boris
A system for riser management has been developed and used, consisting of: 1) a variable buoyancy system, 2) hardware to hangoff a disconnected marine riser near the keel of a drillship, 3) a heave acceleration prediction capability, 4) instrumentation for monitoring heave acceleration and riser buoyancy, tension, pressure, vibrations, and inclination, and 5) a technique for making hang-off and disconnect decisions based on forecasts and real time vessel motion measurements.
Best-practice environmental policy often suggests co-management of marine resources as a means of achieving sustainable development.\\u000a Here we consider the impacts of superimposing co-management policy, in the form of territorial user rights for fishers over\\u000a an existing traditional community-based natural-resource management system in Chile. We consider a broad definition of co-management\\u000a that includes a spectrum of arrangements between governments and
Stefan Gelcich; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Michel J. Kaiser; Juan C. Castilla
Six years ago, an Academy Panel evaluated the field management of National Marine Sanctuaries. The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) embraced several of the recommendations contained in the Panel's final report. These recommendations included incre...
...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...
Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of EcosystemBased Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We
Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey
Inshore marine areas host key habitats for the biological cycle of many marine populations, but are subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Uses of inshore areas are multiple and often give rise to conflicting interests. In this context, marine protected areas (MPAs) and artificial reefs (ARs) are increasingly regarded as interesting management measures, in that they contribute to ecosystem conservation, fisheries
Satellite remote sensing has been an important method of marine monitoring. In this paper, according to the requirements of marine monitoring and marinemanagement, the authors produced figures to show the coastline changes, distributions of suspended sediment and chlorophyll-a based on the data from Landsat-5 and synchronous monitoring data of Yellow River's mouth and Laizhou Bay in different periods. Analyses
The genetics of marine populations is a subject that has made little progress compared with the effort spent on the terrestrial environment. This is so despite applied aspects such as stock management, marine aquaculture, creation of reserves, conservation of the coastal zones, taxonomy, and protection of species. The crowded and dispersive marine environment, with its steep physical gradients, favours the
The Farasan Islands in the southern Red Sea of Saudi Arabia have nationally and internationally significant conservation values, and are important for a range of marine-based resource uses. In preparation for the establishment of a marine protected area around the Farasan Islands and its management, surveys were undertaken to assess the state of the coastal and marine resources, and the
Pictures of the seafloor capture important information about the sediments, exposed geologic features, submerged aquatic vegetation, and animals found in a given habitat. With the emergence of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a favored tactic for preserving coral reef resources, knowledge of essential habitat components is paramount to designing effective management strategies. Surprisingly, detailed information on seafloor habitat components is not available in many areas that are being considered for MPA designation or that are already designated as MPAs. A task of the U.S. Geological Survey Coral Reef Ecosystem STudies (USGS CREST) project is addressing this issue.
This study analyzed examples of sustainable ecosystem-based agriculture where management methods supported livelihoods of smallholders while at the same time local ecosystem services were enhanced in Ethiopia, Brazil, and the Philippines. Participation by farmers and collective actions were found to be a crucial driving force, as local specific knowledge and learning by doing were main components of the development. Social
Johanna Björklund; Hailu Araya; Sue Edwards; André Goncalves; Karin Höök; Jakob Lundberg; Charito Medina
Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) that exclude fishing have been shown repeatedly to enhance the abundance, size, and diversity of species. These benefits, however, mean little to most marine species, because individual protected areas typically are small. To meet the larger-scale conservation challenges facing ocean ecosystems, several nations are expanding the benefits of individual protected areas by building networks of protected areas. Doing so successfully requires a detailed understanding of the ecological and physical characteristics of ocean ecosystems and the responses of humans to spatial closures. There has been enormous scientific interest in these topics, and frameworks for the design of MPA networks for meeting conservation and fishery management goals are emerging. Persistent in the literature is the perception of an inherent tradeoff between achieving conservation and fishery goals. Through a synthetic analysis across these conservation and bioeconomic studies, we construct guidelines for MPA network design that reduce or eliminate this tradeoff. We present size, spacing, location, and configuration guidelines for designing networks that simultaneously can enhance biological conservation and reduce fishery costs or even increase fishery yields and profits. Indeed, in some settings, a well-designed MPA network is critical to the optimal harvest strategy. When reserves benefit fisheries, the optimal area in reserves is moderately large (mode ?30%). Assessing network design principals is limited currently by the absence of empirical data from large-scale networks. Emerging networks will soon rectify this constraint.
Gaines, Steven D.; White, Crow; Carr, Mark H.; Palumbi, Stephen R.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604
Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H
Solid waste in the world's waters and solid waste that accumulates on the shorelines of waterways is known as marine debris. Marine debris has been recognized as a form of pollution for nearly 50 years and is a concern for the general public for aesthetic reasons and may also pose a human health and safety hazard. Marine debris can affect
Jenna Jambeck; Timothy G. Townsend; Charles G. Barr
Coral reefs and the ecological, social, and economic benefits that they provide are seriously endangered by a colossal number of threats. This study was conducted in marine protected area (MPA) in the Mexican Caribbean. The purpose of this study was to provide results that can be directly applied by MPA managers to improve coral reef conservation and management. Characterization of
Fletcher, W. J. 2005. The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1576e1587. Implementing more holistic forms of fisheries management (e.g. Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management) usually increases the number and scope of impacts requiring assessment. This study examined the effectiveness of a qualitative risk assessment
Interest in the management of the environment and its resources on an ecosystem basis has been increasing in both terrestrial and marine contexts. The emergence of the concept of large marine ecosystems (LMEs) is one important example of this development. LMEs have been examined through five linked modules: (1) productiv- ity of the ecosystem; (2) fish and fisheries; (3) pollution
firstname.lastname@example.org om later developed to quality control charts, as an important means to control production process. Performance monitoring and failure prediction of marine diesel during operation has similar effect compared with the quality management in producing process using statistical process control (SPC). Therefore, in this paper, SPC was introduced into marine diesel's fault prediction technology, and projection pursuit (PP) method
The management audit is described for possible application as an extension of the mission of the Office of Manpower Utilization (OMU) of the U.S. Marine Corps. The present mission of OMU is viewed as a manpower research program to conduct task analysis of Marine Corps occupational fields. Purpose of the analyses is to improve the functional areas
The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.
Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.
The Fisheries Department of Vanuatu catalyzed a striking upsurge in tradition-based marine resource management in fishing villages in the early 1990s. Of 26 villages surveyed, only one had not introduced new village-based marine resource management measures between 1990 and late 1993. Although government assistance and advice in this connection covered only one species, trochus, the success of conservation measures for
This study examines the development of safeguards against marine oil pollution in Alaska since the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster, in which oil spilled from the tanker Exxon Valdez polluted more than 2,000 kilometers of Alaskan coastline. Since 1989, a series of enduring institutional reforms have contributed to major enhancements in the safeguards against the continuing hazard of marine oil pollution
As more no-take marine reserves are established, the importance of evaluating effectiveness retrospectively is growing. This paper adapts methods from program evaluation to quantify the effects of establishing a marine reserve on fisheries using fishery-dependent data. The approach analyzes the effects of a policy at the individual vessel level and accommodates the coarse spatial resolution of fishing logbooks. It illuminates
Introduced marine species (IMS) can have significant impacts on economic, ecological, social and cultural aspects of coastal marine environments. There is, therefore, a need to minimise these impacts through the implementation of comprehensive and consistent management strategies and monitoring processes that work towards preventing introductions, detecting introductions if they were to occur and managing incursions should they be detected. There is also the need to ensure that approaches taken are comparable to provide consistency of IMS management effort, particularly across areas that are multi-jurisdictional (e.g. spanning State or Territory borders). A number of studies have examined IMS, their vectors and management arrangements for the Torres Strait region, a multi-jurisdictional area between Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea. This paper presents information from a baseline survey conducted in the Torres Strait for marine pests in conjunction with a synthesis of information from other studies on IMS risks, their vectors and management strategies of relevance to the Torres Strait region. A number of strengths, but also gaps, between the various jurisdictions have been identified and discussed. Processes such as the establishment of Biosecurity Queensland as a specialist group and the development of the National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions are occurring. However, the Torres Strait region is at current risk of marine pest inoculation, particularly for species such as Perna viridis, and management strategies to minimise this risk are lacking. The information presented here will assist management groups in their ability to work towards mitigating the risk of an IMS being translocated to and negatively impacting the unique and diverse ecology of the marine systems, and the industries, people and customs that rely on the coastal marine environment for food, recreation and commerce in the Torres Strait.
Neil, Kerry M.; Hilliard, Robert; Russell, Barry; Clark, Paul
Continued over-fishing in the face of scientific warnings, fishing down food webs, destruction of habitat, and accelerated pollution loadingespecially nitrogen exporthave resulted in significant degradation to coastal and marine ecosystems of both rich and poor nations. Fragmentation among institutions, international agencies, and disciplines, lack of cooperation among nations sharing marine ecosystems, and weak national policies, legislation, and enforcement all contribute
|Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through
Marine fishery management has traditionally been based on the biology and population dynamics of individual target species. Management controls are generally exercised through limits on individual fish sizes, seasons of harvest, catch limits, and re- strictions on gear efficiency designed to protect re- productive stocks. Distance from port and depth provided de facto refugia from harvest during the first century
The Kuna are a strong and independent culture, however outside influences are imposing growing pressure on their people. Overpopulation and large-scale overfishing are among the most severe threats. The Kuna have developed their own management strategies to address these pressing issues. This study presents local perceptions and attitudes towards marine resource management of six indigenous fishing communities in Kuna Yala,
If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areasin particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areasof species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapesshould be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and
Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758
The whale shark is the largest fish in the ocean. A tourism industry based on interacting with whale sharks has developed recently in Ningaloo Marine Park, off the coast of Western Australia. This is the only known, accessible place in the world where whale sharks congregate in significant numbers. Results from surveys of participants in the whale shark experience are
Alastair Birtles; Peter Valentine; Michael Cuthill
A substantial shift toward use of marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation and fisheries management is currently underway.\\u000a This shift to explicit spatial management presents new challenges and uncertainties for ecologists and resource managers.\\u000a In particular, the potential for MPAs to change population sustainability, fishery yield, and ecosystem properties depends\\u000a on the poorly understood consequences of three critical forms of
Louis W. Botsford; Daniel R. Brumbaugh; Churchill Grimes; Julie B. Kellner; John Largier; Michael R. OFarrell; Stephen Ralston; Elaine Soulanille; Vidar Wespestad
Good management models and good models for understanding biology differ in basic philosophy. Management models must facilitate management decisions despite large amounts of uncertainty about the managed populations. Such models must be based on parameters that can be estimated readily, must explic- itly account for uncertainty, and should be simple to understand and implement. In contrast, biological mod- els are
Barbara L. Taylor; Paul R. Wade; Douglas P. De Master; Jay Barlow
There is a growing focus around the world on marine spatial planning, including spatial fisheries management. Some spatial management approaches are quite blunt, as when marine protected areas (MPAs) are established to restrict fishing in specific locations. Other management tools, such as zoning or spatial user rights, will affect the distribution of fishing effort in a more nuanced manner. Considerable research has focused on the ability of MPAs to increase fishery returns, but the potential for the broader class of spatial management approaches to outperform MPAs has received far less attention. We use bioeconomic models of seven nearshore fisheries in Southern California to explore the value of optimized spatial management in which the distribution of fishing is chosen to maximize profits. We show that fully optimized spatial management can substantially increase fishery profits relative to optimal nonspatial management but that the magnitude of this increase depends on characteristics of the fishing fleet and target species. Strategically placed MPAs can also increase profits substantially compared with nonspatial management, particularly if fishing costs are low, although profit increases available through optimal MPA-based management are roughly half those from fully optimized spatial management. However, if the same total area is protected by randomly placing MPAs, starkly contrasting results emerge: most random MPA designs reduce expected profits. The high value of spatial management estimated here supports continued interest in spatially explicit fisheries regulations but emphasizes that predicted increases in profits can only be achieved if the fishery is well understood and the regulations are strategically designed. PMID:22753469
Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Siegel, David A
To explore the effects of poaching within marine reserve boundaries under three different management policies this analysis uses a simple age-structured reserve model based on yield maximization or reproductive thresholds of Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Departures from the traditional assumptions of full compliance to reserve boundaries alter the conclusions of prior modeling work that demonstrate yield equivalence to no-reserve effort
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine a model for conceptualizing the impacts of environmental management strategies on travel and recreation choice making behavior that considers tolerance thresholds in visitor responses to destination change. Design\\/methodology\\/approach A survey involving a sample of 347 regular campers and fishers in the Ningaloo Marine Park, Australia, is analyzed to discern
In 1993 a study of coastal villages in Vanuatu revealed that within the previous three years there had been a rapid increase in marine resource management (MRM) activities. The initial impetus for these events was the Vanuatu Fisheries Department's promotion of a voluntary, village-based trochus man- agement programme. Initially the programme involved only a few fishing villages out of a
The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view
This document is the revised management plan for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS), resulting from a recent five-year review of the Sanctuary since the implementation of its final regulations in 1997. This plan has be...
Summary 1. The impacts of trawls and dredges on marine benthic habitats and communities have been studied extensively, but mostly at small scales and over short time periods. To investigate the large-scale chronic impacts of towed fishing gears, zoned commercial fishery management systems allow comparison of habitats and communities between areas of seabed subjected to varying levels of towed-gear use.
ROBERT E. BLYTH; MICHEL J. KAISER; GARETH EDWARDS-JONES; PAUL J. B. HART
Community-based marine resource management (CBMRM) is more widespread in Oceania than in other tropical region. In this article, I examine the relationship between community leadership and CBMRM, based on a Fijian example. During 2004, sociological community surveys were conducted in five commu- nities on two remote islands, to investigate the status of local traditional authority, with strong leadership being deemed
Potential benefits and constraints of a Coastal and Marine National Park (CMNP) for the entire Scottish coastline have yet to be fully debated. This paper recommends using Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as a process to develop a CMNP. Converting the principles of ICZM into practice could be strengthened using the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000. This Act provides the
The purpose of this symposium was to share cross-cutting research and management approaches for understanding biological connectivity in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and to provide a forum for resource managers and the academic community to addres...
New Zealand's approach to marine biosecurity has been to integrate the pre?border, border, and post?border management actions so as to appropriately and effectively utilise resources. Prevention is clearly better than cure, consequently pre?border and border management is paramount. There is, however, recognition that quarantine style controls result in leaky borders. Early detection of new invaders, coupled with appropriate incursion response
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS/NOAA) and the Cook Inlet Marine Mammal Council (CIMMC) have entered into an agreement to permit a subsistence harvest of beluga whales on Cook Inlet. The Cook Inlet beluga population (stock) is currently "depleted," and the subsistence harvest is limited to one whale for the year 2000. This document (.pdf format) offers the Environmental Assessment of the Co-Management Agreement.
The publication contains supply management data to assist requistioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Desi...
The publication contains supply management data to assist requisitioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Des...
The publication contains supply management data to assist requisitioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Des...
The publication contains supply management data to assist requisitioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Des...
The publication contains supply management data to assist requisitioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Des...
The publication contains supply management data to assist requistioners in acquiring and accounting for items of supply. The ML is a cumulative listing of National Stock Numbers (NSNs) displayed in National Item Identification Number (NIIN) sequence. Desi...
This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor; and habitat enhancement or creation. A conceptual framework for restoration and recovery of marine marginal and semi-enclosed areas is presented after exploring and refining the plethora of terms used in restoration science and management. Examples of management action are given including managed realignment and the restoration of docks, biogenic reefs, saltmarsh, seagrass, beaches and upper estuarine water quality. We emphasise that although recovery techniques are worthwhile if they can be carried out, they rarely (if ever) fully replace lost habitat. Moreover, while they may have some success in marginal or semi-enclosed areas such as coastal bays, estuaries and fringing habitats, they are less relevant to open coastal and marine habitats. Therefore the best option available in the latter can only be to remove the stressor, as the cause of any change, to prevent other stressors from operating and to allow the conditions suitable for natural recovery. This review emphasises that whereas some ecological concepts related to restoration are well understood, for example, the nature of ecosystem structure and functioning, others such as carrying capacity, resilience and ecosystem goods and services are still poorly quantified for the marine and estuarine environments. The linking between these ecological concepts and the management framework is also relatively recent but is required to give a holistic approach to understanding, managing and manipulating these environments.
Elliott, Michael; Burdon, Daryl; Hemingway, Krystal L.; Apitz, Sabine E.
In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory BirdsThe Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.
The marine realm is a dynamic and unpredictable environment with temporal and spatial variability in the supply of, and competition for, limited resources. Resource management is further complicated by the multiple levels of authorities responsible for governing and allocating natural marine resources. In this sense, the U.S. coastal and marine resource management system is not unlike its global counterparts, which
The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (20002010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity.
We aim to identify the important steps in the evolution of the ecosystem approach to management under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The first section provides the background to CCAMLR, including the formulation of the convention and its objectives, its operation, and the historical trends in fisheries. Later sections describe (i) the reasons why
In Italy, with more than 7000 km of densely populated coasts, the continental shelf is always affected by a lot of fundamental anthropic activities. The coastal zone is besides characterised by the simultaneous presence of physical and ecological conditions favourables to the multiple use of natural resources. In addition to the impacts risen from the local uses, it is necessary to add those which are produced by remote uses of other natural resources: in particular, the coastal sea is subject to local and remote trouble, both from the open sea and from the land use. For all these reasons it is necessary to face coastal system problems looking to minimize reciprocal impacts of the uses which are in conflict. This situation generates a conflict between the different use interests and so the most brittle resources and uses suffer and can also be deleted (Marcelli M., 2003 in progress). The necessity of an interdisciplinary approach founds one's statements on these concepts. Oceanography, ecology, geology, biology, meteorology have to be components (Brondi et al, 2008) of an integrated knowledge able to support the decision through GIS and scenario's simulation. The aim of this work is to minimize the conflict between different uses, creating a work instrument able to support the decision, in order to select the best use for a determinate marine area. Present work represents a pilot project for integrated management of coastal and marine zone where all informations, concerning a specific stretch of coast, are gathered inside of a system of management and data improvement. This system integrates environment data, collected by monitoring, socio-economic data, coming from coastal zone uses, simulations of mathematical models and geographic informative platform. It includes some informations which are fundamental for the planning of some activities connected to coastal zone. This work is the design of a Sea-Use Map of an Italian sea area for characterized by different values and uses of marine resources, useful to explore further marine uses, such as suitable sites for energy production, marine culture, etc. For these reasons the creation of an integrated GIS database, in which all the information are conveyed in a Geo-referenced system, is a fundamental tool. The Sea-Use Map (SUM) of Italy is a key database, in which coastal uses are integrated with environmental data (bathymetry, waves, currents, fauna, flora, etc). A further integration between data and numerical model simulations is allowing to define the most promising and environmentally acceptable areas for such resource exploitation. Preliminary results demonstrate that such a Sea-Use Map could make us able to an a sustainable coastal marine resources management.
The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. PMID:23711845
'Back-to-the-Future (BTF) attempts to solve the fisheries crisis by using past ecosystems as policy goals for the future.\\u000a BTF provides an integrative approach to the strategic management of marine ecosystems with policies based on restoration ecology,\\u000a and an understanding of marine ecosystem processes in the light of findings from terrestrial ecology. BTF employs recent developments\\u000a in whole ecosystem simulation modelling
Tony J. Pitcher; Cameron H. Ainsworth; Eny A. Buchary; Wai lung Cheung; Robyn Forrest; Nigel Haggan; Hector Lozano; Telmo Morato; Lyne Morissette
SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine
G. Maudire; C. Maillard; M. Fichaut; G. Manzella; D. M. A. Schaap
The purpose of this report is to determine what steps might be taken to ensure that fishery management plans (FMPs) developed under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) are ecologically sound and fully consistent with the FCMA and with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The relevant provisions of the three Acts were
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in payments for environmental services (PES) for ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA). So far, however, experiences and theoretical analyses of PES specifically for adaptation have not been well documented. This paper addresses this gap by analysing the opportunities and constraints of PES as an instrument for EBA. Specifically, we examine the potential for
Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff; Bruno Locatelli; Sven Wunder; Maria Brockhaus
Three large scale projects Cluster of Excellence - 'The Future Ocean', SFB574 - 'Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones', SFB754 - 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' and the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences IFM-GEOMAR seek for a joined data management infrastructure for Kiel marine sciences with approximately 1000 researchers from various scientific disciplines. The Kiel Data Management Infrastructure (KDMI) emerges from this large interdisciplinary community, but its concept focusses on the individual scientist and its work. This individual data management approach instead of the classic project based practice avoids redundancy in data management efforts and facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration. The web-based KDMI portal is a starting point of a virtual research platform as an efficient access for all users of the centralized data management. It integrates customized personal and project communities and provides web 2.0 enabled technologies like calendars, wikis and forums supporting daily project activities. Incorporation of essential project infrastructure with a data management system emphasizes data management as part of daily scientific routines instead of different downstream operations per project. Extracting the similarities in observational sciences leads to a process oriented data management approach. Treating the emergence of data even of completely different disciplines like field observations and experimental sciences as a process allows us to store the data in a single consistent data model. The quality of data and meta data is crucial to reusability in future projects. Accordingly the KDMI approach includes peer revision as a quality assurance step within a scientific workflow definition. Utilizing a community working platform for daily scientific work results in increasing efforts put into quality assurance of data and metadata (e.g. CARINA project). Recording the data creation process itself instead of literature references is a novelty in the field of scientific documentation and a possibility to provide complete information for a future quality reassessment. This process fosters the reuse of KDMI datasets. The infrastructure of World Data Centers (WDC) and their cooperation with the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) is the aspired final publication platform for the KDMI data. An essential issue of the KDMI concept is the publication of data in a WDC either as supplement of peer reviewed journal articles or as dataset publication on their own warranting access to the data for the global scientific community.
Schirnick, C.; Fleischer, D.; Mehrtens, H.; Springer, P.
The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers
Effective population size (N(e)) determines the strength of genetic drift in a population and has long been recognized as an important parameter for evaluating conservation status and threats to genetic health of populations. Specifically, an estimate of N(e) is crucial to management because it integrates genetic effects with the life history of the species, allowing for predictions of a population's current and future viability. Nevertheless, compared with ecological and demographic parameters, N(e) has had limited influence on species management, beyond its application in very small populations. Recent developments have substantially improved N(e) estimation; however, some obstacles remain for the practical application of N(e) estimates. For example, the need to define the spatial and temporal scale of measurement makes the concept complex and sometimes difficult to interpret. We reviewed approaches to estimation of N(e) over both long-term and contemporary time frames, clarifying their interpretations with respect to local populations and the global metapopulation. We describe multiple experimental factors affecting robustness of contemporary N(e) estimates and suggest that different sampling designs can be combined to compare largely independent measures of N(e) for improved confidence in the result. Large populations with moderate gene flow pose the greatest challenges to robust estimation of contemporary N(e) and require careful consideration of sampling and analysis to minimize estimator bias. We emphasize the practical utility of estimating N(e) by highlighting its relevance to the adaptive potential of a population and describing applications in management of marine populations, where the focus is not always on critically endangered populations. Two cases discussed include the mechanisms generating N(e) estimates many orders of magnitude lower than census N in harvested marine fishes and the predicted reduction in N(e) from hatchery-based population supplementation. PMID:21284731
Hare, Matthew P; Nunney, Leonard; Schwartz, Michael K; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Burford, Martha; Waples, Robin S; Ruegg, Kristen; Palstra, Friso
A historical perspective on MPA identification and governance in South Africa reflects the continued influence of a top-down and natural science-based paradigm, that has hardly changed over the past half century, despite the wealth of literature, and a growing consensus, that advocates the need to adopt a more integrated and human-centered approach. Based on extensive research in two coastal fishing communities, the paper highlights impacts and conflicts arising from this conventional approach to MPA identification, planning and management. It argues that failure to understand the particular fishery system in all its complexity, in particular the human dimensions, and involve resource users in planning and decision-making processes, undermines efforts to achieve conservation and fisheries management objectives. The customary rights of local resource users, and their food and livelihood needs in relation to marine resources, need to be acknowledged, prioritized and integrated into planning and decision-making processes. Convincing ecologists, fisheries scientists and managers, that MPA success depends on addressing the root causes of resource decline and incorporating social factors into MPA identification, planning and management, remains a huge challenge in South Africa.
Sowman, Merle; Hauck, Maria; van Sittert, Lance; Sunde, Jackie
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely adopted as the leading tool for coral-reef conservation, but resource users seldom accept them , and many have failed to produce tangible conservation benefits . Few studies have objectively and simultaneously examined the types of MPAs that are most effective in conserving reef resources and the socioeconomic factors responsible for effective conservation [4-6]. We simultaneously explored measures of reef and socioeconomic conservation success at four national parks, four comanaged reserves, and three traditionally managed areas in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Underwater visual censuses of key ecological indicators [7, 8] revealed that the average size and biomass of fishes were higher in all areas under traditional management and at one comanaged reserve when compared to nearby unmanaged areas. Socioeconomic assessments [6, 9, 10] revealed that this "effective conservation" was positively related to compliance, visibility of the reserve, and length of time the management had been in place but negatively related to market integration, wealth, and village population size. We suggest that in cases where the resources for enforcement are lacking, management regimes that are designed to meet community goals can achieve greater compliance and subsequent conservation success than regimes designed primarily for biodiversity conservation. PMID:16860739
McClanahan, Timothy R; Marnane, Michael J; Cinner, Joshua E; Kiene, William E
This report, the Report on the Status of Marine Protected Areas in Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States Volume 1: Marine Protected Areas Managed by U.S. States, Territories, and Commonwealths, was developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad...
...meetings regarding Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 3 and Amendment...Zone (EEZ) off the coast of Florida to help protect threatened...gear groups. Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 3 (CE-BA...of Snapper Ledge within the Florida Keys National Marine...
Many research projects in departments throughout MIT investigate topics interesting to the National Sea Grant Program, although only 12% of these projects are sponsored by Sea Grant. In keeping with Sea Grant's role as a focal point for the Institute's marine-related research, each year, Sea Grant issues this directory. This report lists current research projects by broad subject areas and
The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys
R. Scott Butner; Lesley J. Snowden-Swan; Peter C. Ellis
One of the major barriers to addressing complex socialecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area
In order to maintain the biotic integrity and performance of coastal marine ecosystems affected by human population growth and economic development an ecosystem approach to management is required. This is par- ticularly challenging when, as is the case for many coastal ecosystems, development activities on land, often far removed from the coast, have a major impact on the coastal environment.
Antigua and Barbuda is rapidly developing a tourism industry built around a marketed perception of a healthy marine and coastal environment. Yet economic indicators suggest that Antigua and Barbuda is overexploiting its marine resources, particularly its fish and coral reef communities. Although its marine resources remain relatively healthy, Antigua and Barbuda will jeopardise the ecological basis of its economic growth
Policymakers and managers have a very different philosophy and approach to achieving healthy coastal and marine ecosystems than scientists. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the assessment of the chemical status in the aquatic environment and the growing rift between the political intention (precautionary principle) and scientific developments (adaptive and evidence-based management) in the context of the pitfalls and practicalities confronting the current Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The conclusion is that policymakers and water managers should move with the times and take on board new techniques that scientists are using to assess chemical status and apply new scientific developments in assessment studies of the chemical status. These new techniques, such as bioassays, are cheaper than the classic approach of checking whether concentrations of certain individual priority compounds comply with permissible thresholds. Additionally, they give more insight into the real impacts of chemical compounds.
Laane, R. W. P. M.; Slijkerman, D.; Vethaak, A. D.; Schobben, J. H. M.
The Gulf of Guinea is situated in the narrow protrusion of eastern Equatorial Atlantic between latitudes 2 degrees S and 5 degrees N and longitudes 8 degrees W to 12 degrees E, spanning a coastline length of approximately 130 nautical miles. The dominant feature of this shallow ocean off the coast of countries in Western Africa is the Guinea Current. The distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophodynamics of this shallow ocean qualify it as a large marine ecosystem (LME) and is indeed recognized as the number 28 of the 64 delineated LMEs globally. This area is one of the world's productive marine areas that is rich in fishery resources, oil and gas reserves, precious minerals and an important global reservoir of marine biological diversity. Unfortunately, pollution from residential and industrial sources has affected the waters of the Gulf of Guinea resulting in habitat degradation, loss of biological diversity and productivity, and degenerating human health. In reversing this trend of marine environmental degradation, the countries of the region adopted an integrated and holistic approach using the LME concept to sustainably manage the environmental and living resources of the region. The concept is predicated on the fact that marine environmental pollution and living resources respect no political or geographical boundaries and so require a holistic and regional approach for its management. The Gulf of Guinea countries through the Global Environment facility funded regional/communal project on water pollution control and biodiversity conservation achieved a paradigm shift in living resources and environmental management in the region using the LME concept. PMID:12787623
To delineate mesoscale variability in marine ecosystems of the subarctic North Pacific and identify "hotspots" of biological activity, we conducted contemporaneous surveys of plankton and avifaunal communites in 2000-2003. Plankton samples were collected with a continuous plankton recorder (CPR) towed by a commercial vessel while a trained observer recorded marine bird distributions using strip-transect techniques. Near- and sub-surface physical oceanographic properties and productivity patterns were measured using a temperature data logger and satellite-derived chlorophyll a concentrations. We identified 10 distinct biological communities across the North Pacific, which we refer to as 'meso-marine ecosystems' (MME). We examined the characteristics of MME over multiple years to assess temporal persistence. MME were associated with different bathymetric domains and current systems. MME differed in the overall abundance and species composition of their fauna and, therefore, almost certainly in productivity. Regular monitoring of the spatial and temporal variability of MME will enhance our ability to detect and understand coupled climate-ecosystem responses, and, in turn, help guide ecosystem-based fisheries and wildlife management.
Batten, Sonia D.; David Hyrenbach, K.; Sydeman, William J.; Morgan, Ken H.; Henry, Michael F.; Yen, Peggy P. Y.; Welch, David W.
The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed marine system surrounded by eight countries, many of which are experiencing substantial\\u000a development. It is also a major center for the oil industry. The increasing array of anthropogenic disturbances may have substantial\\u000a negative impacts on marine ecosystems, but this has received little attention until recently. We review the available literature\\u000a on the Gulfs marine
Peter F. Sale; David A. Feary; John A. Burt; Andrew G. Bauman; Geórgenes H. Cavalcante; Kenneth G. Drouillard; Björn Kjerfve; Elise Marquis; Charles G. Trick; Paolo Usseglio; Hanneke Van Lavieren
Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSF) represent 3.5%-8% of stress fractures in military recruits; potentially resulting in medical discharge and/or complications. The incidence of displaced FNSF in the British Army has been reported as 1.8 in 10,000 recruits. We aimed to review the incidence and outcome of displaced FNSF in Royal Marine recruits. Retrospective review identified 6 recruits who sustained a displaced FNSF from 2001 to 2011 representing an incidence of 9.3 in 10,000 recruits. All were treated urgently by internal fixation. There were no cases of avascular necrosis, no surgical complications and no further procedures required. All united with a mean time to union of 11 months. 50% had a union time greater than 1 year. These fractures are slow to unite but with urgent surgical intervention and stable fixation 100% union was achieved. Awareness of this guides the management and rehabilitation whilst avoiding the risks of unnecessary secondary surgical interventions. PMID:22970637
Evans, J T; Guyver, P M; Kassam, A M; Hubble, M J W
Marine mollusks are among the most importantinvertebrate fisheries in the world. The mainclasses of mollusk fished are Cephalopoda,Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Marine gastropodsrepresent approximately 2% of the mollusksfished in the world. Several species ofgastropods, such as Haliotis spp., Strombus spp., Busycon spp. and Concholepas concholepas, have high economicvalue in international markets and playimportant social roles in small-scale artisanalfisheries. In the past
In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef.
McCook, Laurence J.; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J. Howard; Evans, Richard D.; De Freitas, Debora M.; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Pressey, Robert L.; Russ, Garry R.; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R.; Williamson, David H.
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:20176947
McCook, Laurence J; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J Howard; Evans, Richard D; De Freitas, Debora M; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J; Pitcher, C Roland; Pressey, Robert L; Russ, Garry R; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R; Williamson, David H
In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification. In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades, though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930's. The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1) an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers, collection methods and export volumes, and (2) the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators. The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators, and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits, the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order. To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy, regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1) characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports, (2) describe populations and biology of commercial species, and (3) propose appropriate fisheries management approaches. This paper describes only the first phase of this program. PMID:17465153
Summary An important principle of environmental science is that changes in single components of systems are likely to have consequences elsewhere in the same systems. In the sea, food web data are one of the few foundations for predicting such indirect effects, whether of fishery exploitation or following recovery in marine protected areas (MPAs). We review the available literature on
J. K. PINNEGAR; N. V. C. POLUNIN; P. FRANCOUR; F. BADALAMENTI; R. CHEMELLO; M.-L. HARMELIN-VIVIEN; B. HEREU; M. MILAZZO; M. ZABALA; G. D'ANNA; C. PIPITONE
The transport and transformation processes which influence th way in which waste materials are dispersed and incorporated into the marine environment are reviewed and summarized as a preface for appreciation of the technical papers which follow in this volume. n a similar vein th...
Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were
Antonia Casas; Maria Jesus Garcia; Andrei Nikouline
This paper summarizes the results of a women's community-based marine protected area that has been successful in sustaining invertebrate biological resources and in promoting strong community support. We outline the project and the associated biological results, describe the processes involved in attaining a committed level of community participation, and review the lessons learned during the project's implementation. We attribute the
Commercial fisheries have a long history of nonsustainable harvestsnot through deliberate mismanagement but through an inability to simultaneously account for the complexity of relevant factors, including the ecological and coevolutionary interactions within ecosystems. We argue that these factors (e.g., natural selection and coevolution) are among the structuring processes behind the patterns of predation exhibited by species such as marine mammals.
This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor;
Michael Elliott; Daryl Burdon; Krystal L. Hemingway; Sabine E. Apitz
The National Fishing Enhancement Act of 1984 (33 U.S.CA. 2103, et seq.) was enacted to provide guidance to coastal states in the preparation of state artificial reef plans. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) was given the responsibility for impl...
oral reefs are the most diverse of all marine ecosystems, and they are rivaled in biodiversity by few ter- restrial ecosystems. They support peo- ple directly and indirectly by building islands and atolls. They protect shore- lines from coastal erosion, support fish- eries of economic and cultural value, provide diving-related tourism and serve as habitats for organisms that produce natural
Eric Wolanski; Robert Richmond; Laurence McCook; Hugh Sweatman
A person's socio-economic status, cultural ties, and past experiences influence how people perceive environmental quality. In the case of tourism, people using protected areas can differ in many ways, including their personal characteristics and perception about the recreation environment. This research addresses the general problem of tourist perception in a marine protected area (MPA), focusing on tourists awareness of being
I. Petrosillo; G. Zurlini; M. E. Corlianò; N. Zaccarelli; M. Dadamo
SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use
Institutional interplay, or the ability of one institution to affect another, is a key feature of multi-level environmental governance that can influence the performance of institutions, such as marine protected areas (MPAs). In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), MPA networks are being created to meet top-down, internationally defined MPA targets, while simultaneously there is a strong regional focus on bottom-up,
Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.
The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (18°45?S,178°32?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 198992
1. Perspective on coastal management in the Philippines Coastal management has been practiced in the Philippines over the last two decades to try to stem the increasing tide of destruction to coastal habitats and the decline of fisheries. Unfortunately, after 20 years of practice, coastal resources continue to decline and deteriorate at alarming rates. While numerous experiments in coastal management
Alan T. White; Albert Salamanca; Catherine A. Courtney
An initiative to strengthen the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and endangered species conservation is presented, exploring concepts and parameters that lead to the integration between MPA management and conservation measures for large cetaceans through the establishment of a regional network in South America. Along their history, protected areas (PAs) have evolved through different conservation objectives, a process which is
Spatial closures like marine protected areas (MPAs) are prominent tools for ecosystem-basedmanagement in fisheries. However, the adaptive behavior of fishermen, the apex predator in the ecosystem, to MPAs may upset the balance of fishing impacts across species. While ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM) emphasizes the protection of all species in the environment, the weakest stock often dominates management attention. We use data before and after the implementation of large spatial closures in a North Pacific trawl fishery to show how closures designed for red king crab protection spurred dramatic increases in Pacific halibut bycatch due to both direct displacement effects and indirect effects from adaptations in fishermen's targeting behavior. We identify aspects of the ecological and economic context of the fishery that contributed to these surprising behaviors, noting that many multispecies fisheries are likely to share these features. Our results highlight the need either to anticipate the behavioral adaptations of fishermen across multiple species in reserve design, a form of implementation error, or to design management systems that are robust to these adaptations. Failure to do so may yield patterns of fishing effort and mortality that undermine the broader objectives of multispecies management and potentially alter ecosystems in profound ways. PMID:22645809
This paper explores principles of international law for managing nonsovereign marine minerals under conditions of severe chronic global shortage - which herein is defined as existing whenever exploitation consistently exceeds natural rates of renewal restoration. The main data source lies in how man has managed shortage in the past, where the most fertile ground is found in the ways of the natural societies of pre-Neolithic man and contemporary hunter-gatherer bands. The result has a broader compass than the original goal namely the means (a) to restore ecological balance to man's relationship to his resource environment, and (b) to achieve universal fairness of individual access to the global patrimony. These goals may be realized without sudden disruption of the international community of sovereign States or its economic system of laissez-faire capitalism. The means to these ends posit the readoption of aboriginal Ethics to order the adaptive relationship of man to man and of man to Nature, including the revitalization of the original social compact of reciprocal rights and obligations among all individuals. The turn to aboriginal Ethics suggests a series of proposals for managing global shortage implemented by economic incentives and penalties which are compatible with the ways of contemporary international society.
Land-based primary industries depend on the health of ecosystems that provide ecosystem services (ES) such as fresh water, pollination, and natural hazard protection among others. Degradation of ES can pose a number of risks to businesses and the well-being of rural populations. At the same time these ecosystem-based risks create new business opportunities. In this work, three land-based organizations were
Maritime management encompasses the employment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources that relate to the sea, maritime navigation, shipping, port development and coastal protection. It contributes to the economic growth, price stability, transportation of cargoes and passengers, and business activities of shipping organizations. The efficient management of resources, operations and activities relies on a
The National Marine Sanctuary Program identifies, designates and manages areas of the marine environment of special national significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, research, educational, or aesthetic qualities. Access information and pictures of marine sanctuaries all over the U.S. and its territories. Discover ways to get involved with the sanctuary program, no matter where you live. Scientific publications are available for download.
Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.
Contents: Marine aquaculture and the promotion of coastal fisheries; The present state of marine aquaculture; Techniques in shallow sea cultivation; Environmental factors in marine aquaculture; Ecological factors in the propagation of marine organisms; Ar...
International conservation efforts and cooperation are increasingly necessary, particularly at an ecoregion level, for the achievement of international targets for protecting biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems. Whereas more than 11 percent of land is protected, less than 1 percent of marine space is similarly protected. Transboundary networks of marine protected areas and transboundary marine protected areas (TBMPAs) are an essential
José Guerreiro; Aldo Chircop; Catarina Grilo; Ana Viras; Raquel Ribeiro; Rudy van der Elst
|On one Marine Corps base, a minimum of 5% of adult enlisted Marines per year lack certain competencies and seek admittance into a high school competency remediation program. The lack of these competencies impedes qualification for many military occupational specialties, the ability to convert from an enlisted Marine to a Warrant Officer, or
...OSHA-2011-0066] Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the...contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29 CFR part...contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts for Marine Terminals (29 CFR part...
...Measures for 2011-2012 Groundfish Fisheries J. Pacific Halibut Management 1. Incidental 2010 Catch Regulations in the Salmon Troll Fishery K. Administrative Matters 1. Legislative Matters 2. Membership Appointments and Council Operating Procedures...
Contrasting developments in two water management cases - one in the Southeast, the other in the Northwest - suggest that consultation and shared sacrifice may be the best stratagems for reaching acceptable outcomes in the thorny disputes. (author)
This study, conducted from November 1995 to February 1996, describes the evolution and impact of fisheries co-management arrangements in a coral reef fishing village at Malalison Island, central Philippines. The island is the site of a community-based fishery resources management project of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Aquaculture Department, funded by the International Development Research Centre of Canada.Using a
We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited
Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang
SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania
Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.
Marine aquaria claim that they help to elevate the current low profile of marine conservation through public education. The effectiveness of aquaria as centres for marine conservation education was assessed using social survey techniques, at three large commercial aquaria in the south-west of England. The aquaria managers did not believe that most visitors were interested in receiving educational information, in
Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to
|Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to
The Hawaiian Islands comprise a large and isolated archipelago that includes the largest reef area in the United States. Managing nearshore fisheries in this archipelago is a major challenge compounded by the difficulty of coordinating multiple agencies to provide governance across a broad series of islands with substantial social and political differences. There has been interest in, and progress toward,
...protects the wreck of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best known for its battle with the Confederate ironclad, CSS Virginia in Hampton Roads, VA, on March 9, 1862. NOAA began to review the management plan for MNMS in December 2008...
Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.
Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173
Most research in the area of common property (common-pool) resources in the last 2-3 decades sought the simplicity of community-based resource management cases to develop theory. This was mainly because of the relative ease of observing processes of self-governance in simple cases. However, this creates a problem. Whether the findings of small- scale, community-based commons can be scaled up to
Progress in ecosystem management requires the characterisation of the dynamics of a species's ecosystem and the influences of climatic oscillations on those dynamics. Within the North Pacific, ecosystem dynamics have been described on decadal-scales (regimes) and have been shown to shift abruptly (regime shifts). The year class success of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) exhibit decadal-scale patterns that relate to decadal-scale patterns
Jacquelynne R. King; Gordon A. McFarlane; Richard J. Beamish
Coral reefs provide a range of important functions and services, yet often conflicts exist over coral reef use among multiple users. This paper outlines the trade-off analysis approach to coral reef management where multiple and conflicting objectives for coral reef resources can be identified, assessed and reconciled within a decision-support framework. The paper applies trade-off analysis to the case of
E. Tompkins; K. Brown; W. N. Adger; P. Bacon; K. Young; D. Shim
The broadening of fisheries management to include ecosystem-related objectives raises a potentially confusing range of possible issues for consideration in management decisions, in reporting and in assess- ing management performance. However, there are methods available and approaches to addressing the issues that are practical, accessible to stakeholder participation and scientifically assessable. Three broad and interrelated elements are described that allow
Since the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, considerable movement has been made by international organizations engaged in ocean affairs towards adopting ecosystem-based assessment and management practices. A decade later, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), another significant milestone was reached with the support, by over 100 countries, for a Plan of Implementation that agreed on
A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding, Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed. PMID:9159892
Becker, P R; Wise, S A; Thorsteinson, L; Koster, B J; Rowles, T
The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris') problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement
The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-basedmanagement strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified. PMID:20066158
The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-basedmanagement strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.
There is an increasing emphasis on the employment of ecosystem-basedmanagement towards the stewardship of living marine resources. This inherently includes a requirement for the accessibility of timely descriptions of the aspects of marine environment that are relevant to a given ecosystem. In the past decade there has been a proliferation of publicly available oceanographic data sets derived from a variety of platforms and sensors. National, Provincial, and Municipal researchers and managers who are not necessarily expert in the production and distribution of oceanographic satellite data often face a bewildering, and seemingly contradictory, array of options when choosing data for use in their applications. The standards, data products, and data access tools stemming from the international components of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) serve to increase the accessibility of such products while also both quantifying and improving the quality of the data delivered to the end user. The continual improvement of data sets that integrate information from multiple sensors has elevated the roll of satellite-derived environmental products such as sea surface temperature in dynamic management processes. We offer examples of applications, including several client-side tools designed to extract environmental data within in the spatial-temporal locus of a given animal track, and to then import this data directly into the working environment with which a given researcher is comfortable. Additionally, we present sample applications employed along the North American Pacific Coast in the support of management of both fisheries and protected species that utilize highly-derived products, integrating remotely sensed and in situ data.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771
The change in biomass of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) indicates a 30- or 40-year periodicity in the North Pacific Ocean coinciding with long-term climate conditions. I estimated the carrying capacity (K) of sockeye (O. nerka), chum (O. keta), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) in the North Pacific Ocean using the replacement level of the Ricker's recruitment curve, and defined residual
SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets Viewing services = Mapping of metadata Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products Product services = Generic and standard products Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.
...assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes (e.g., Marine Mammal Protection Act List of Fisheries...assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes. Dated: January 17, 2012. James H. Lecky,...
Cutaneous injuries by marine animals have a myriad of clinical presentations. Most require only symptomatic treatment, but some may be limb-threatening or even fatal. This is a report of three cases of marine animal injuries by a stingray, a sea anemone and a jellyfish, respectively, illustrating the potential severity of such injuries. The importance of early diagnosis is emphasised, with a discussion on the management of injuries from these three types of marine animals. PMID:17245501
Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527
This paper reports the findings of a preliminary analysis of 15 case studies of inshore marine protected areas in the UK. It draws on the common-pool resource (CPR) literature and is premised on the thesis that building partnership capacity amongst relevant authorities and resource users provides a critical basis for overcoming collective action problems (CAPs), through the development of incentive
As climate change has driven dramatic changes in Northern sea ice regimes, marine mammals have gained iconic status around the world reflecting the perils of global warming. There is a tension between policies that have international support like a ban on seal hunting or whaling, and the adoption of adaptive, flexible rules that are likely to work in Northern places.
Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Riku Varjopuro; Martha Dowsley; Aaron T. Dale
\\u000a Biotechnology based upon genes from the marine environment (sometimes referred to as blue-biotechnology) has a considerable,\\u000a if hitherto relatively unused, potential because of the enormous phylogenetic diversity of marine organisms and the potential\\u000a for novel undiscovered biological mechanisms, including biochemical pathways. The increasing knowledge of marine genomics\\u000a has started to have a major impact on the field of marine biotechnology.
Joel Querellou; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Michael J. Allen; Jonas Collén
This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.
Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))
Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-basedmanagement context. PMID:23818413
Niiranen, Susa; Yletyinen, Johanna; Tomczak, Maciej T; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Mackenzie, Brian R; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Meier, H E Markus
Marine molluscs are sold all over the world as curios and souvenirs. This market encompasses about 5,000 species of molluscs\\u000a (bivalves and gastropods) worldwide, but the mollusc species involved in this trade are undocumented in all but a very small\\u000a number of countries. The present study provides a baseline assessment of the mollusc species used in the manufacture of crafts,
Thelma L. P. Dias; Nivaldo A. Leo Neto; Rômulo R. N. Alves
This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.
|Topics and activities related to ocean management are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into four sections (labeled A through D). The first three sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or
Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in
Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stüwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian
In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.
About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.
Visitors to this resource will find information about U.S. marine sanctuaries - their history and current management, their scientific and educational programs, and their continuing efforts to conserve our nation's ocean and coastal treasures. A national calendar provides information on the many exciting events that take place in the sanctuaries throughout the year. Within the 13 sections of the site, users will discover a vast range of marine creatures, habitats, historical artifacts, and flourishing maritime cultures. These include the breeding and calving grounds of giant humpback whales around Hawaii, the remains of an 18th century shipwreck (the Monitor), and thriving coral reef colonies and kelp forests.
We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding
This document introduces you to the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary and describes the site's activities and continuing management plan review process. The National Marine Sanctuary Program, a network of 13 marine protected areas,...
...the Nation's first marine sanctuary, the Monitor National Marine Sanctuary is managed...Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. It is...wreck of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor...Recreational Diving, the US Navy, Virginia...
A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)
This video explains the concept of marine reserves, protected areas where fish and other species are allowed to live longer and grow larger. Other topics include sustainable fishing practices, and a case study about a marine reserve established by fishermen off the Canary Islands.
Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. Stingray City Sandbar in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical management actions for their wildlife attraction.
Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.
Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors
...represent the viewpoint of merchant marine deck officers, two of whom shall be...management perspective; (2) three engineering officers who represent the viewpoint of merchant marine engineering officers, two of whom shall be...
Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.
\\u000a Enforcement is an essential component in the management of marine protected areas (MPAs) but the level of enforcement required\\u000a can vary significantly from site to site and from programme to programme. Enforcement policies, authorities and philosophies\\u000a differ between agencies and programmes within nations (e.g. the National Park Service and National Marine Sanctuaries programme\\u000a in the United States) and, to an
Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as 'high'. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study. PMID:24146867
Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Chérif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc'h, François
Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as high. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study.
Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Cherif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc'h, Francois
Improved management approaches are needed to reduce the rate at which humans are depleting exploited marine populations and degrading marine ecosystems. Networks of no-take marine reserves are promising management tools because of their potential to (1) protect coastal ecosys- tem structure and functioning, (2) benefit exploited populations and fisheries, (3) improve scientif- ic understanding of marine ecosystems, and (4) provide
Steven N. Murray; Richard F. Ambrose; James A. Bohnsack; Louis W. Botsford; Mark H. Carr; Gary E. Davis; Paul K. Dayton; Dan Gotshall; Don R. Gunderson; Mark A. Hixon; Jane Lubchenco; Marc Mangel; Alec MacCall; Deborah A. McArdle; John C. Ogden; Joan Roughgarden; Richard M. Starr; Mia J. Tegner; Mary M. Yoklavich
Increasing efforts to implement marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of managingmarine ecosystems have created a need for evaluating potential spatial management plans. Almost all marine populations are metapopulations, connected reproductively by the dispersal of pelagic larvae. Models of marine population dynamics must account for larval connectivity, but despite recent advances connectivity patterns are still poorly understood. To
Douglas T. Fischer; J. Wilson White; Louis W. Botsford; John Largier; David M. Kaplan
... by marine toxins? General guidelines for safe seafood consumption: Although any person eating fish or shellfish containing ... same food safety regulations as seafood for human consumption. Back to Top What is the government doing ...
The purpose of this module is to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.
his module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.
The Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 was the first produced in response to a newly legislated requirement for five-yearly reports on the status of and outlook for the Great Barrier Reef. It adopted an ecosystem approach, assessing all habitats and species, ecosystem processes and major uses. By then considering the factors affecting the ecosystem, coupled with an assessment of
Kirstin Dobbs; Jon Day; Hilary Skeat; John Baldwin; Fergus Molloy; Laurence McCook; Margaret Johnson; Bruce Elliot; Andrew Skeat; Karen Vohland; David Wachenfeld; Richard Kenchington
SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea
As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marinemanagement.
Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airame, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.
Networks of marine reserves are increasingly a major component of many ecosystem-basedmanagement plans designed to conserve biodiversity, protect the structure and function of ecosystems, and rebuild and sustain fisheries. There is a growing need for scientific guidance in the design of network-wide monitoring programs to evaluate the efficacy of reserves at meeting their conservation and management goals. Here, we present an evaluation of the Channel Islands reserve network, which was established in 2003 off the coast of southern California. This reserve network spans a major environmental and biogeographic gradient, making it a challenge to assess network-wide responses of many species. Using fish community structure data from a long-term, large-scale monitoring program, we first identified persistent geographic patterns of community structure and the scale at which sites should be grouped for analysis. Fish communities differed most among islands with densities of individual species varying from 3- to 250-fold. Habitat structure differed among islands but not based on reserve status. Across the network, we found that, after 5 years, species targeted by fishing had higher densities (1.5×) and biomass (1.8×) inside reserves, whereas nontargeted species showed no significant differences. Examining trophic groups, piscivore and carnivore biomass was significantly greater inside reserves (1.8× and 1.3× more, respectively), whereas the biomass of planktivores and herbivores was similar inside and out. A framework for incorporating biogeographic variation into reserve network assessments is critical as we move from the evaluation of single reserves to networks of reserves.
Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Malone, Dan P.; Carr, Mark H.
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are promoted as an important marine ecosystem management tool. However, they are complex systems\\u000a that, from a governance perspective, raise serious challenges with regard to their effectiveness. In this paper, drawing on\\u000a recent contributions to the so-called interactive governance theory, we argue that marine and coastal governance is basically\\u000a a relationship between two systems, a governing
Forest management in Central and Eastern Europe, under direct or indirect Soviet influence, for a long time followed different management objectives and strategies as compared to the forest management in countries with market economies in Western Europe located in the same biogeographic zones. In the light of the appearing paradigms of natural disturbance regimes and ecosystem-based forest management we evaluate
The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary was designated by the Hawaiian Islands National Marine Sanctuary Act (HINMSA or Act), Title II, subtitle C of the Oceans Act of 1992, Public Law 102-587. The Act requires the Secretary of Comme...
The implementation of various types of marine protected areas is one of several management tools available for conserving representative examples of the biological diversity within marine ecosystems in general and National Marine Sanctuaries in particular...
Ecosystem-basedmanagement (EBM), despite the best efforts of managers, researchers, and policy makers, often falls short of its intended purpose resulting in inadequate protection of resources. Coastal habitats are particularly vulnerable to poor management due to high use and potential for user conflict. EBM can be improved when it is informed by ecological science and considers the socio-economic needs of
Carrie Byron; David Bengtson; Barry Costa-Pierce; John Calanni
The complexity of stakeholder interests, governing structures, and biophysical processes often present challenges in adopting multiple-use approaches in the management of large marine areas. Marine zoning plans provide a mechanism for ensuring the realization of conservation objectives under spatially varying levels of resource use. The need for a systematic and transparent approach to zone planning highlights the role of Geographical
An ongoing case study in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, is used to demonstrate the design and application of the latest marine monitoring techniques and approaches coupled to a marine ecological risk assessment and management framework. This study is in response to provisions un...
This website features Ghent University's Marine Biology Section. The Section's homepage links to information on research, publications, section staff, and more. Involved in marine ecosystem research since the 1970s, some of the Marine Biology Section's current interests include: Atlantic Ocean Deep-sea Areas, Biology of the Antartic Meiobenthos, Ecology of Tropical Estuaries and Lagoons, Ecophysiology of Meiobenthos, and more. The site links to basic information about recent research projects as well as information on environmental management research for coastal zones, sampling and analyses equipment, and one available database focusing on marine Nematoda and Mysida. The site provides research interests and contact information for faculty, and a list of publications and Ph.D. Theses from 1969-2003 (with PDF files for publication abstracts from 1994 on). The site also offers a list of relevant links.
Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, is managed under the GBR Marine Park Act (1975) and is seen as a shining example of marine resource management. The principle tool of management is zoning for multiple use. We examined surveillance and illegal fishing around two inshore islands (Magnetic and Orpheus) of the GBR Marine Park in 2000\\/2001. Both islands are near
K. L. F. DAVIS; G. R. RUSS; D. H. WILLIAMSON; R. D. EVANS
This summary and update of information on the marine birds of the southeastern Beaufort Sea is intended to support discussions on how to improve management of marine resources in the Canadian Beaufort Sea region. Perhaps the most outstanding use of the Beaufort Sea by marine birds is the staging during spring migration by hundreds of thousands of eiders and long-tailed
A requisite for rational Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) resource management is the continued integration of marine science and policy. Policymakers will increasingly need reliable scientific information as national borders expand seaward and as technology affords greater access to more marine resources. Developments in marine science should open new concepts of ocean and resource use, and these in turn will pose
...personnel in the U.S. merchant marine, including but not limited...expertise: Two positions for marine educators representing the...management; one position for an engineering officer who is licensed as...represents the viewpoint of merchant marine pilots; and one position...
Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through
Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.
This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science
|This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science
Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....
The uncertainties and sources of variation in projected impacts of climate change on agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a depend not only on the emission scenarios and climate models used for projecting future climates, but also on the impact models\\u000a used, and the local soil and climatic conditions of the managed or unmanaged ecosystems under study. We addressed these uncertainties\\u000a by applying
J. E. Olesen; T. R. Carter; C. H. Díaz-Ambrona; S. Fronzek; T. Heidmann; T. Hickler; T. Holt; M. I. Minguez; P. Morales; J. P. Palutikof; M. Quemada; M. Ruiz-Ramos; G. H. Rubæk; F. Sau; B. Smith; M. T. Sykes
Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources. PMID:24162104
Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P
This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and
|This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and
Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.
Cyanobacteria are a taxonomically diverse, productive and biogeochemically important component of oceanic, coastaland estuarine\\u000a phytoplankton communities. Recent molecular and analytical characterization of these communities, together with a growing\\u000a number of cruise-based and remote-sensing surveys of the worlds ocean surface waters, indicate that cyanobacteria play a\\u000a highly significant role in marine carbon and nitrogen cycling. Vast segments of the world?s ocean
No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they canât see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerâ¦the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.
This patent describes an improvement in a marine riser adapted to be suspended from a vessel and releasable connected at its lower end to a subsea terminal. It comprises: a body thereabout having passageway means therethrough opening to each end of the body for disrupting smooth flow along the length of the riser and thereby damping the vertical oscillation of the riser when released from the subsea terminal.
In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.
This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.
Multiple competing uses of continental-shelf environments have led to a proliferation of marine spatial planning initiatives, together with expert guidance on marine spatial planning. This study provides an empirical review of marine spatial plans, their attributes, and the extent to which the expert guidance is actually being followed. We performed a structured review of 16 existing marine spatial plans and created an idealized marine spatial plan from the steps included in recent expert papers. A cluster analysis of the yes/no answers to 28 questions was used to ordinate the 16 marine spatial plans and to compare them with the idealized plan. All the plans that have been implemented have a high-level government mandate and the authority to implement spatial planning vested in existing institutions. Almost all the plans used data with clear criteria for data inclusion. Stakeholders were included in almost all the plans; they did not participate in all stages of the planning process but their roles were generally clearly defined. Decision-support tools were applied inconsistently across plans and were seldom used dynamically over time. Most spatial planning processes did not select specific outcomes, such as preferred use scenarios. Success is defined inconsistently across plans; in half the cases there are no metrics of success with reference benchmarks. Although monitoring is included in the majority of plans, only in some cases do monitoring results feed back into management decisions. The process of marine spatial planning had advanced in that some of the more recent plans were developed more quickly and contain more desirable attributes than earlier plans. Even so, existing marine spatial plans are heterogeneousthere are essential ingredients, but no single recipe for success.
Collie, Jeremy S.; (Vic) Adamowicz, W. L.; Beck, Michael W.; Craig, Bethany; Essington, Timothy E.; Fluharty, David; Rice, Jake; Sanchirico, James N.
The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their
China has adopted nuclear power generation as one of the strategic energy sources to resolve the dilemma between its ever-growing energy demand and the associated environmental issues. To achieve the latter, a systematic assessment of the state of the ecosystem near nuclear power plants and its restoration via ongoing recovery actions would be highly desirable and much needed. Current assessment methods are mostly based on the individual components of the ecosystem and the methods are therefore not integrated. In this paper, we report a set of system-based assessment indices to study the restoration of Daya Bay in Guangdong, China where a nuclear power plant has been in operation for 15 years. The results show that decades of intensive exploitation by the various coastal activities have pushed Daya Bay's ecosystem away from its baseline and its structure and functions are impaired; ecosystem restoration does not make up for the weakening of the ecological carrying capacity due to anthropogenic sea-use, nonetheless, the potential for recovery still exists. The case study suggests that the system-based indices can provide integrated information for ecosystem restoration assessment and management. PMID:20806960
MarineBio.org is an evolving online tribute to all ocean life, marine biology, and marine conservation. Find out about fascinating marine species, get involved in ocean conservation, explore dynamic research and daily marine life news. This comprehensive site contains a wealth of information including species profiles, links to research journals, ocean fact sheets, information on marine science education and careers, forums, and so much more.
...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures Â§ 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...
...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures Â§ 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...
Sustainability has become the focus and organizing principle for the reconciliation of economics and the environment. The concept has led to the emergence of holistic or ecosystem-basedmanagement approaches where maintenance of the environment and associated ecosystems in acceptable condition indefinitely is the goal. Application in management contexts, however, remains an immense challenge. Globally, environments continue to degrade, especially in
Marine biologists have shown virtually unqualified support for managing fisheries with marine reserves, signifying a new resource management paradigm that recognizes the importance of spatial processes in exploited systems. Most modeling of reserves employs simplifying assumptions about the behavior of fishermen in response to spatial closures. We show that a realistic depiction of fishermen behavior dramatically alters the conclusions about
This report describes cases relating to the management of national marine sanctuaries in which certain scientific information was required so managers could make decisions that effectively protected trust resources. The cases presented represent only a fr...
The establishment of multibeam echosounders (MBES) as a mainstream tool in ocean mapping has facilitated integrative approaches toward nautical charting, benthic habitat mapping, and seafloor geotechnical surveys. The inherent bathymetric and backscatter information generated by MBES enables marine scientists to present highly accurate bathymetric data with a spatial resolution closely matching that of terrestrial mapping. Furthermore, developments in data collection and processing of MBES backscatter, combined with the quality of the co-registered depth information, have resulted in the increasing preferential use of multibeam technology over conventional sidescan sonar for the production of benthic habitat maps. A range of post-processing approaches can generate customized map products to meet multiple ocean management needs, thus extracting maximum value from a single survey data set. Based on recent studies over German Bank off SW Nova Scotia, Canada, we show how primary MBES bathymetric and backscatter data, along with supplementary data (i.e. in situ video and stills), were processed using a variety of methods to generate a series of maps. Methods conventionally used for classification of multi-spectral data were tested for classification of the MBES data set to produce a map summarizing broad bio-physical characteristics of the seafloor (i.e. a benthoscape map), which is of value for use in many aspects of marine spatial planning. A species-specific habitat map for the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus was also generated from the MBES data by applying a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) method to spatially predict habitat suitability, which offers tremendous promise for use in fisheries management. In addition, we explore the challenges of incorporating benthic community data into maps based on species information derived from a large number of seafloor photographs. Through the process of applying multiple methods to generate multiple maps for management applications, we demonstrate the efficient use of survey data sets to maximize the benefit to a wide number of potential end users, and to facilitate the move toward an ecosystem-based approach to management.
Brown, Craig J.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Smith, Stephen J.
Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.
Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and managemarine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.
SUMMARY The paper examines the community based monitoring establishment process undertaken by the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve Foundation and partners. Interested citizens, government agencies, industry, academia, community groups, and local institutions brought complimentary skills, roles and resources to the table in an effort to initiate the development of a comprehensive monitoring program to monitor, track, and respond effectively to
Brian Craig; Graham Whitelaw; Jeff Robinson; Paula Jongerden
A survey of coastal recreational boat fishing was conducted in summer 2006 in the marine reserve of Cap de Creus (NW Mediterranean) to assess the biological and socioeconomic implications of this leisure activity. Recreational boat fishers employ four different fishing techniques: bottom fishing rod, fluixa, trolling and surface fishing rod. Although the targeted species depend on the fishing method used,
Josep Lloret; Núria Zaragoza; David Caballero; Victòria Riera
Arctic coastal populations share a close relationship with their environment consisting of linkages among communities, landscapes and seascapes, and the social institutions developed to sustain the system. This culturalbiogeophysical dynamic is termed throughout the section as a socialecological system (SES). Marine mammals constitute a large portion of the subsistence diet for these communities, and as such represent key ecological services
Listed in this directory are individuals concerned currently with marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The categories for the listings include educational institutions, state and county agencies, and federal agencies. The
The FishNet 4C program is a county-based, regional salmonid protection and restoration program, created under a Memorandum of Agreement between the six Central California Coastal Counties of Mendocino, Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz and Monterey. A ...
The Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) helps the fishermen and resource agencies of our five compacting states address the management of our Pacific ocean living marine resources. In 1999, PSMFC remained active as custodian and coordinator...
Whether one has a love of great seabirds or just an interest in the lives of these magnificent creatures, the website of the journal Marine Ornithology is well worth a visit. Started in 1976 by John Cooper, the journal is operated by an editorial board, under the direction of the Pacific Seabird Group, along with other related organizations. Visitors who may wish to contribute a piece to this peer-reviewed journal may want to take a look at their submission requirements and then proceed to the contents of the most recent issue. Some of the more recent articles in the latest issue deal with such topics as parasites and diseases of the auks and aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo penguin. For those looking for back issues, the full-text of every past issue dating back to 1988 is also available on the site.
This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the
|This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the
There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313
To the deficiency of marine refrigeration system simulation, marine refrigeration dynamic simulation system was developed based on real-time operation and management. Dynamic mathematical sub-models of marine refrigeration equipment was established by using the MATLAB. Then each sub-model was integrated as a dynamic composite model. In addition, the fault diagnosis, real-time operation and auto-evaluation was developed . The result shows that:
Marine debris (marine litter) is one of the most pervasive and solvable pollution problems plaguing the worlds oceans and waterways. Nets, food wrappers, cigarette filters, bottles, resin pellets,\\u000a and other debris items can have serious impacts on wildlife, habitat, and human safety. Successful management of the problem\\u000a requires a comprehensive understanding of both marine debris and human behavior. Knowledge is
Broad-scale mapping of marine benthos is required for marine resource management and conservation. This study combines textural derivatives based on bathymetry from multibeam hydroacoustics with underwater video observations to model and map sessile biota between 10- and 60-m water depth over 35km2 in Point Addis Marine National Park (MNP), Vic., Australia. Classification tree models and maps were developed for macroalgae
K. W. Holmes; K. P. Van Niel; B. Radford; G. A. Kendrick; S. L. Grove
Formerly entitled Marine Insurance Guide, the revised publication offers a check list of insurable hazards common to boat builders, boat dealers, boat service agencies, boat and yacht owners, boat yards, dry dock and boat repair services, marinas, marine ...
Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, ...
On 913 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas.
This document is the 25th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The purpose of this report is to provide timely information on management-related issues and events to Congress, federal an...
Resource managers and scientists from disparate dis- ciplines are rising to the challenge of understanding and moderating human impacts on marine ecosystems. Traditional barriers to communication between marine ecologists, fisheries biologists, social scientists and economists are beginning to break down, and the distinction between applied and basic research is fading. These ongoing trends arise, in part, from an increasing awareness
Terence P. Hughes; David R. Bellwood; Carl Folke; Robert S. Steneck; James Wilson
This paper describes an early-stage investigation into approaches and tools to collect, manage, and deliver institutional metrics to the senior command of the United States Marine Corps. The paper describes how contemporary approaches to institutional metrics and supporting tools from more traditional organizations were adapted to Marine Corps priorities. The study explores current institutional metrics strategies with a particular emphasis
The Australian Government recently ratified the Oceans Policy which provides a policy framework to effectively manage the resources and uses of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone. The Oceans Policy is to be implemented through Regional Marine Plans that are based on the notion of large marine ecosystems and have the objective to integrate sectoral commercial interests and conservation objectives. This
The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is
Benjamin S. Halpern; Shaun Walbridge; Kimberly A. Selkoe; Carrie V. Kappel; Fiorenza Micheli; Caterina D'Agrosa; John F. Bruno; Kenneth S. Casey; Colin Ebert; Helen E. Fox; Rod Fujita; Dennis Heinemann; Hunter S. Lenihan; Elizabeth M. P. Madin; Matthew T. Perry; Elizabeth R. Selig; Mark Spalding; Robert Steneck; Reg Watson
This paper discusses the architecture of a novel marine sensor network system which handles static, pseudo-static and other types of sensors. The architecture is also capable of handling historical datasets and other related models. The architecture includes a decision support system along with tools to support data integration, exploitation and overall management of the marine ecology. An important feature of
Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.
The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine
|Under a U.S. Department of Commerce Sea Grant, Texas teachers have developed a three-book series designed to expose elementary and secondary students to the marine world. Book titles include "Marine Organisms in Science Teaching,""Children's Literature--Passage to the Sea," and "Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources." (LRA)|
|Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)|
Contents: Marine fouling in the Caspian Sea; Mass development of the Polychaete Mercierella enigmatica Fauvel in Krasnovodskiy zaliv; Data on the Flora of Diatom Algae in marine fouling along the East Coast of the Caspian Sea; Marine fouling in the Southe...
Spillover of adult fish biomass is an expected benefit from no-take marine reserves to adjacent fisheries. Here, we show fisher-naïve behaviour in reef fishes also spills over from marine reserves, potentially increasing access to fishery benefits by making fishes more susceptible to spearguns. The distance at which two targeted families of fishes began to flee a potential fisher [flight initiation distance (FID)] was lower inside reserves than in fished areas, and this reduction extended outside reserve boundaries. Reduced FID persisted further outside reserves than increases in fish biomass. This finding could help increase stakeholder support for marine reserves and improve current models of spillover by informing estimates for spatial changes in catchability. Behavioural changes of fish could help explain differences between underwater visual census and catch data in quantifying the spatial extent of spillover from marine reserves, and should be considered in the management of adjacent fisheries. PMID:23126388
Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Russ, Garry R
Background The Marine Genomics project is a functional genomics initiative developed to provide a pipeline for the curation of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) and gene expression microarray data for marine organisms. It provides a unique clearing-house for marine specific EST and microarray data and is currently available at . Description The Marine Genomics pipeline automates the processing, maintenance, storage and analysis of EST and microarray data for an increasing number of marine species. It currently contains 19 species databases (over 46,000 EST sequences) that are maintained by registered users from local and remote locations in Europe and South America in addition to the USA. A collection of analysis tools are implemented. These include a pipeline upload tool for EST FASTA file, sequence trace file and microarray data, an annotative text search, automated sequence trimming, sequence quality control (QA/QC) editing, sequence BLAST capabilities and a tool for interactive submission to GenBank. Another feature of this resource is the integration with a scientific computing analysis environment implemented by MATLAB. Conclusion The conglomeration of multiple marine organisms with integrated analysis tools enables users to focus on the comprehensive descriptions of transcriptomic responses to typical marine stresses. This cross species data comparison and integration enables users to contain their research within a marine-oriented data management and analysis environment.
McKillen, David J; Chen, Yian A; Chen, Chuming; Jenny, Matthew J; Trent, Harold F; Robalino, Javier; McLean, David C; Gross, Paul S; Chapman, Robert W; Warr, Gregory W; Almeida, Jonas S
New methods of optimally identifying and predicting marine habitat occurrence are needed to help best address management issues such as marine reserve designation, fisheries stock assessment and aquaculture planning across large areas. A combination of video sampling, acoustic remote sensing and learning-based classification methods are proposed as a means of optimally identifying marine habitats. More commonly used in the identification
Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries man- agement. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies,
Satie Airamé; Jenifer E. Dugan; Kevin D. Lafferty; Heather Leslie; Deborah A. McArdle; Robert R. Warner
This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415
Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P
This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.
Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.
In 1993, President Clinton directed the Forest Service to "develop a scientifically sound and ecosystem-based strategy for management of eastside forests." In response, this project was initiated by the USDA Forest Service (FS) and the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Website provides detailed information on the project, profiling scientific research, online reports and publications, spatial data, and a What's New section with news updates. Also online is the project's final Environmental Impact Statement, focusing on "critical needs at the broad scale: landscape health; aquatic habitats; terrestrial habitats; and human needs, products, and services." Interested viewers will want to take a closer look.
Atlantis ecosystem models are developed for the marine ecosystem of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, in order to provide new tools for investigation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) questions and ecological hypotheses. The models are...
A. Pares-Sierra C. H. Ainsworth E. A. Fulton H. N. M. Luna I. C. Kaplan J. Torre M. Mangel P. Turk-Boyer P. S. Levin R. Cudney-Bueno
...REVIEW BOARD Principal Elements of the Navy Department Discharge Review System Â§ 724.405 Commandant of the Marine Corps or the Commander, Naval Military...managers of the Marine Corps and the Navy; responsible for providing...
NOAAs National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is dedicated to sustainable management of our Nations living marine resources. Ending overfishing and rebuilding stocks to maximum sustainable yields is a top priority for this Administration, NMFS, the eight...
Activity-based costing has been embraced as the methodology which will be used to structure and organize cost management information for the Marine Corps. This methodology is applied to operations at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, California. ...
Comprehensive study of marine environmental geology was carried out to obtain basic data for the environmental management of the Kyeonggi Bay. Distribution and textural properties of the surface sediments in the Kyeonggi Bay are closely related to the hyd...
U.S. Coast Guard marine inspectors were surveyed to determine their needs for improved on-site data management. The results of this survey were used to develop performance requirements for a portable computer system to improve the collection and managemen...
As part of the White Fish Authority of the United Kingdom marine fish cultivation program, a number of aspects of fish rearing are under investigation. The role of economic analysis is to develop a model so that managers can see reasonably quickly what th...
The ocean monitoring community requires high quality data that is Data Management and Communications (DMAC)-compliant for both near real time and climate data records. The authors describe a flexible and cost effective automated data quality assurance (ADQA) system that can be used to assess the quality of marine observations and provide quality controlled data to a wide variety of end
The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.
Geller, Jonathan B.; Darling, John A.; Carlton, James T.
Biodiversity indicators provide a vital window on the state of the planet, guiding policy development and management. The most widely adopted marine indicator is mean trophic level (MTL) from catches, intended to detect shifts from high-trophic-level predators to low-trophic-level invertebrates and plankton-feeders. This indicator underpins reported trends in human impacts, declining when predators collapse ("fishing down marine food webs") and when low-trophic-level fisheries expand ("fishing through marine food webs"). The assumption is that catch MTL measures changes in ecosystem MTL and biodiversity. Here we combine model predictions with global assessments of MTL from catches, trawl surveys and fisheries stock assessments and find that catch MTL does not reliably predict changes in marine ecosystems. Instead, catch MTL trends often diverge from ecosystem MTL trends obtained from surveys and assessments. In contrast to previous findings of rapid declines in catch MTL, we observe recent increases in catch, survey and assessment MTL. However, catches from most trophic levels are rising, which can intensify fishery collapses even when MTL trends are stable or increasing. To detect fishing impacts on marine biodiversity, we recommend greater efforts to measure true abundance trends for marine species, especially those most vulnerable to fishing. PMID:21085178
Branch, Trevor A; Watson, Reg; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Jennings, Simon; McGilliard, Carey R; Pablico, Grace T; Ricard, Daniel; Tracey, Sean R
Maneerat, S. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(6) : 1263-1272 Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may even- tually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the
The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high
The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high
This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.
Oceanography and marine ecology have a considerable history in the use of computers for modeling both physical and ecological processes. With increasing stress on the marine environment due to human activities such as fisheries and numerous forms of pollution, the analysis of marine problems must increasingly and jointly consider physical, ecological and socio-economic aspects in a broader systems framework that transcends more traditional disciplinary boundaries. This often introduces difficult-to-quantify, soft elements, such as values and perceptions, into formal analysis. Thus, the problem domain combines a solid foundation in the physical sciences, with strong elements of ecological, socio-economic and political considerations. At the same time, the domain is also characterized by both a very large volume of some data, and an extremely datapoor situation for other variables, as well as a very high degree of uncertainty, partly due to the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the marine environment. Consequently, marine systems analysis and management require tools that can integrate these diverse aspects into efficient information systems that can support research as well as planning and also policy- and decisionmaking processes. Supporting scientific research, as well as decision-making processes and the diverse groups and actors involved, requires better access and direct understanding of the information basis as well as easy-to-use, but powerful tools for analysis. Advanced information technology provides the tools to design and implement smart software where, in a broad sense, the emphasis is on the man-machine interface. Symbolic and analogous, graphical interaction, visual representation of problems, integrated data sources, and built-in domain knowledge can effectively support users of complex and complicated software systems. Integration, interaction, visualization and intelligence are key concepts that are discussed in detail, using an operational software example of a coastal water quality model. The model comprises components of a geographical information and mapping system, data bases, dynamic simulation models, and an integrated expert system. An interactive graphical user interface, dynamic visualization of model results, and a hyper-text-based help-and-explain system illustrate some of the features of new and powerful software tools for marine systems analysis and modeling.
A riser tensioner for use in maintaining a tension on a marine riser from a tension leg platform, the tension leg platform moving relative to the marine riser, comprising: at least one elastomeric cylinder having a first torque arm and a second torque arm, an elastomeric disk bonded between the torque arms for deformation in torsional shear about a torsion axis; means for operatively securing the first torque arm to the tension leg platform at a position spaced from the torsion axis; and means for operatively connecting the second torque arm to the marine riser spaced from the torsion axis, torsional shear in the elastomeric disk tensioning the marine riser.
The Management Audit is described for possible application as an extension of the mission of the Office of Manpower Utilization (OMU), HQ, USMC. The present mission of OMU is viewed as a manpower research program to conduct Task Analysis of Marine Corps O...
The International Marine Science Cooperation Program presents the International Marine Science Funding Guide to provide information of potential funding sources for both marine scientists and social scientists. The IMS Funding Guide is an introduction to ...
The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal currents and water properties (Moorings, Ocean Gliders and HF Radar) and three for coastal ecosystems (Acoustic Tagging and Tracking, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and a biophysical sensor network on the Great Barrier Reef). The value from this infrastructure investment lies in the coordinated deployment of a wide range of equipment aimed at deriving critical data sets that serve multiple applications. Additional information on IMOS is available at the website (http://www.imos.org.au). The IMOS Operators are Australian Institute of Marine Science, James Cook University, Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Geoscience Australia, Bureau of Meteorology, South Australia Research and Development Institute, University of Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Tasmania.
Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.
This presentation highlights the implementation of the NOAA VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum at a two-year college. The VOICES OF THE BAY curriculum provides students with an understanding of the marine ecology, economy, and culture of fisheries through three interdisciplinary modules that use hands-on activities while meeting a wide range of science, math, social science, and communications standards. In the BALANCE IN THE BAY module, students use critical-thinking skills and apply principles of ecosystem-basedmanagement to analyze data, debate and discuss their findings, and make decisions that recognize the complex dynamics associated with maintaining a balance in fisheries. Through role-playing, teamwork, and a little fate, the FROM OCEAN TO TABLE module provides students with an opportunity to get an insiders view of what it takes to be an active stakeholder in a commercial fishery. In the CAPTURING THE VOICES OF THE BAY module, students research, plan, and conduct personal interviews with citizens of the local fishing community and explore the multiple dimensions of fisheries and how they inter-connect through the lives of those who live and work in the region. The VOICES OF THE BAY modules were introduced into the curriculum at Los Angeles Valley College during the Fall 2009 semester and are currently being used in the introductory Oceanography lecture, introductory Oceanography laboratory, and Environmental Science laboratory courses. Examples of curriculum materials being used (power point presentations, module worksheets and simulated fishing activities) will be presented. In addition, samples of completed student worksheets for the three interdisciplinary modules are provided. Students commented that their overall awareness and knowledge of the issues involved in sustainable fishing and managing fishery resources increased following completion of the VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum. Students enrolled in the laboratory sections commented that the lab was more enjoyable than the typical lab exercises and the hands-on nature of the activity made the concept of sustainable fishing more real to them. The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary sponsor professional development workshops to selected faculty to introduce the VOICES OF THE BAY fisheries education curriculum and assist with implementation in the classroom. Classroom materials are also available on the website http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/education/voicesofthebay.html or by contacting email@example.com.
Hams, J. E.; Uttal, L.; Hunter-Thomson, K.; Nachbar, S.
Biological control (biocontrol) has successfully regulated pest populations in terrestrial agroecosystems, but it has also caused negative unintended consequences for native species. Marine biologists and resource managers have recently published a growing number of proposals to include biocontrol in integrated pest management programs in oceans, seas and estuaries. Here, I review six ecologically and taxonomically diverse case studies of marine
This literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the ...
Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges. The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.
WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...
Marine invertebrates are a surprisingly rich source of oxidized fatty acid-derived substances known as oxylipins. They occur in many phyla of marine invertebrates, including Porifera, Coelenterata, Crustacea, Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Urochordata. Many of the oxylipins obtained from these life forms are structurally unique and have no direct parallel to oxylipins from other sources. Consequently, the biosynthetic pathways responsible for their
William H. Gerwick; Dale G. Nagle; Philip J. Proteau
MarineLink.com is an online source for news, events, and information in maritime fields. On the site, visitors will find access to news and updates on contracts, workboats, and maritime security in addition to the site's two magazines: Maritime Technology Reporter and Marine News. There is also information about upcoming events.
The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.
This book is intended to replace G. O. Watson's Dictionary of Marine Engineering and Nautical Terms (1964). It includes terms from marine and offshore engineering, naval architecture, shipbuilding, shipping, ship operation, and relevant terms from the electronics, control and computing fields. A few nautical terms are also included.
Education research related to the fi eld of marine education is limited and evaluating students' learning outcomes associated with outdoor experiences is important for improving pedagogies. It is diffi cult to learn about related research designs because the amount of research literature, regarding marine education learning evaluation is small. In this article a multi-method research evaluation technique is presented and
The mission of the SPMC is to increase understanding of the coastal marine environment and resources of the Puget Sound basin through research and education. Research projects target estuarine processes and traditional studies of marine biology and ecology. Site features information on the local environment, SPMC faculty, research, facilities, graduate program, undergraduate opportunities, and much more. Also includes the latest SPMC news and activities.
It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates little known two decades ago are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture freshwater as well as marine has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.
If developing coastal countries are to develop their ocean resources in a timely and efficient manner, they will require assistance from developed coastal states. The best form of assistance is probably the transfer of managerial and technical expertise\\/technology. This paper describes a program designed to provide such assistance being developed by the Marine Policy and Ocean Management Program of the
Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (20062009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST)
Shannon Balfry; David W. Welch; Jody Atkinson; Al Lill; Stephen Vincent; Steven J. Bograd
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six
Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle
Wood coupons, 3 in. x 4 in. x 3/4 in. of all sapwood Southern Yellow Pine and all heartwood Douglas Fir comprising 27 systems of various marine protective treatments are being exposed at Boston, Massachusetts, and the samples from Boston showed no evidenc...
Marine turtles occupy a wide range of terrestrial and marine habitats, and many aspects of their life history have been demonstrated to be closely tied to climatic variables such as ambient temperature and storminess. As a group, therefore, marine turtles may be good indicators of climate change effects on coastal and marine habitats. Despite the small number of species in
Lucy A. Hawkes; Annette C. Broderick; Matthew H. Godfrey; Brendan J. Godley
The development of marine fish aquaculture in the US is challenged by a number of complex issues such as political and regulatory constraints, marketing and market competition, health management and biosecurity, and water quality and waste management. However, the most commonly cited constraint to ...
The great majority of marine protected areas (MPAs) fail to meet their management objectives. So MPAs can be effective conservation tools, we recommend two paradigm shifts, the first related to how they are located and the second related to how they are managed. MPAs are unlikely to be effective if they are located in areas that are subject to numerous,
Stephen C Jameson; Mark H Tupper; Jonathon M Ridley
This site explains what marine bioinvaders are, how they get to New England, where they are, and their impact on ecosystems. There are maps of introduced and cryptogenic species along the Massachusetts coast. Fact sheets and general information are provided on exotic species, sources of bioinvasion, ballast water, aquaculture, New England marine bioinvaders, and Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Educational materials are available for loan for a small fee. There are also marine bioinvaders references, conference information, and information on a program to recruit the public to locate additional sightings of exotic species.
This Web site from San Francisco's Marine Mammal Center (MMC) offers a look at current research at the facility. Research focuses primarily on marine mammal health issues, with the goal of improving the rehabilitation process for stranded animals. Visitors to this site can read brief descriptions of current projects in three areas -- Disease Studies; Clinical Technique Studies, which investigates ways to improve diagnostic tests and clinical procedures for stranded marine mammals; and Tagging Studies, intended to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation. The site also provides a comprehensive bibliography of publications and conference presentations by MMC researchers.
Offered by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), CSIRO Marine Research Web site contains multiple levels of valuable information. The organization's mission is to "understand its oceans by conducting research in the sustainable use of Australia's marine resources, the ocean's role in climate, and the effective conservation of the marine ecosystem integrity." Visitors will find current news articles, research material including free modeling software, and various data and related products such as remote sensing information and publications. The strength of the site lies in the adaptability of its offerings to research and researchers around the world.
Science and nonscience majors work together in a remote field setting on authentic marine research projects supervised by faculty from multiple disciplines and institutions. In the process, they learn science by doing science, gain research and logistical
Marine biotoxins, which are globally distributed, are responsible for numerous human intoxication syndromes due to the ingestion of cooked or uncooked seafood. Over 2500 cases of foodborne diseases caused by fish and shellfish toxicity were reported to th...
A literature review of studies concerning marine and estuarine pollution is presented. The studies deal with pesticides, residues and heavy metals, petroleum pollution, drilling muds, mined materials, and complex effluents. (JMT)
Reish, D.J. (California State Univ., Long Beach); Geesey, G.G.; Wilkes, F.G.; Oshida, P.S.; Mearns, A.J.; Rossi, S.S.; Ginn, T.C.
Software was developed to measure characteristics of marine animal sounds (AcouStat). These measurements proved effective for classifying sounds in several contexts: identifying species, quantifying the repertoire of a single species, and identifying indi...
A marine riser base system is described comprising: a fluid-tight hull positioned on the marine bottom; a support member comprising; a platform; means for securing the platform above the hull; means on the platform adapted for securing the lower end of a marine riser to the platform; flowline connector means on the platform adapted to be connected to the lower end of a flowline carrier by the marine riser; and a means for fluidly connecting the flowline connector means on the platform to the interior of the hull through a point on the lower side of the hull; the means comprising: a length of rigid pipe having a circularly-curved portion conforming substantially to the surface of the hull and spaced therefrom. The pipe has one end fixed to the platform and has the flowline connector means thereon. Its other end is fixed to the lower side of the hull where the other end penetrates the hull.
A marine pipe riser, through which wells may be drilled during offshore drilling operations, is provided with an instrumented section equipped with stress-measuring elements so that loads and stress on the pipe riser may be measured. (7 figures)
H. K. J. van den Bussche; N. J. van Soldt; A. H. van de Krogt; W. Drinkwaard
Improved propulsion plant control schemes for gas turbine ships can provide both economic and tactical benefits to the fleet. One way to develop improved propulsion controllers is to use a marine propulsion emulator as an implementation test bed for propo...
A balanced marine aquarium reproduces the natural environment as closely as possible, and permits the successful mixing of fish and invertebrates within the closed system which has become increasingly popular in the past few years. It is more appealing an...
The tagline of the MarineBio site is "sharing the wonders of the ocean to inspire conservation, education, education, research, and a sea ethic." It's a well-thought out statement of purpose and direction, and they have a cornucopia of material on various marine species, ocean conservation, research projects, and habitat conservation. First-time visitors to the site will note that there are fifteen sections along the left-hand side of the site that include "A Sea Ethic", "Marine Biodiversity", and "Alien Species". The "Ocean Life News" area of the site is a fine way to stay abreast with current developments dealing with the world's oceans. Moving along, visitors can use two drop-down menus on the homepage to learn about key marine species. The site is rounded out by the "Deep Resources" area, which is a clearinghouse of information and academic resources that include relevant journals and online databases.
Many marine populations and ecosystems have experienced strong historical depletions, yet reports of recoveries are increasing. Here, we review the growing research on marine recoveries to reveal how common recovery is, its magnitude, timescale and major drivers. Overall, 10-50% of depleted populations and ecosystems show some recovery, but rarely to former levels of abundance. In addition, recovery can take many decades for long-lived species and complex ecosystems. Major drivers of recovery include the reduction of human impacts, especially exploitation, habitat loss and pollution, combined with favorable life-history and environmental conditions. Awareness, legal protection and enforcement of management plans are also crucial. Learning from historical recovery successes and failures is essential for implementing realistic conservation goals and promising management strategies. PMID:21852017
Lotze, Heike K; Coll, Marta; Magera, Anna M; Ward-Paige, Christine; Airoldi, Laura
The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power plants while mitigating nearby and distant impacts. Activities may include laboratory and computational modeling of mooring design or research on device spacing. The geographies, resources, technologies, and even nomenclature of the U.S. marine and hydrokinetic technology industry have yet to be fully understood or defined. The program characterizes and assesses marine and hydrokinetic devices, and then organizes the collected information into a comprehensive and searchable Web-based database, the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. The database, which reflects intergovernmental and international collaboration, provides industry with one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date public resources on marine and hydrokinetic devices.
LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan
A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.
LUMCON was formed in 1979 to coordinate and stimulate Louisiana's activities in marine research and education. It operates from the DeFelice Marine Center in Cocodrie, Louisiana. Information on research, facilities, faculty, and more is available. The K-12 Education section provides information on in-class and field trip opportunities, as well as teacher workshops and student summer camps. Site also features real time data from its five weather stations.
This site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. This site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.
The NOAA Marine Debris Program (MDP) supports national and international efforts to research, prevent, and reduce the impacts of marine debris. The MDP serves as a centralized capability within NOAA, coordinating and supporting activities within NOAA and with other federal agencies, as well as using partnerships to support projects carried out by state and local agencies, tribes, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry. Educational materials include activity books, curriculum, & crafts for all ages.
Competition is a negative interaction between two or more species that utilize the same shared, limiting resource (Connell\\u000a 1983). Although competition can have large local, immediate effects, (e.g. on demography, resource use, etc.), competition\\u000a in many marine systems is often assumed to have minimal effect on population persistence, primarily due to characteristics\\u000a of the dominant life histories of marine organisms.
This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.
This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of the concept of primary productivity and to have them use one or more methods to calculate primary productivity. Students will have also been introduced to the concepts of marine primary productivity, net productivity vs. gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. Marine primary producers are usually not plants as we typically think about them, but rather seaweeds or single cell algae. The classic example of a marine primary producer is a marine diatom. In this experiment students use marine diatoms to measure primary productivity. Real-time data from several sources may be used to increase understanding of this topic. Students will discover that although often ignored in the classroom, the marine environment produces 32 percent of the world's primary productivity on 71 percent of the Earth's surface area. Although this is far less than the 68 percent from the continental surfaces (29 percent of the Earth's surface area), this productivity is still very important.
Marine populations increase and decline in response to environmental conditions. Because significant changes in the abundance of exploited marine populations can lead to economic and societal consequences, fisheries science strives to sustain fisheries, protect species such as marine mammals, and maintain the marine ecosystems and essential habitats upon which these species depend. Today disciplines not traditionally applied to fisheries management are offering new possibilities to improve how these tasks are accomplished. Environmental information, in particular, has many applications to fisheries management.
This thesis documents the introduction of the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) within the U.S. Navy and discusses applications of the Appreciative Inquiry based Large Group Intervention (AI-LGI) within Marine Corps Logistics strategic planning, implementation, a...
The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.
Marine conservation is often criticized for a mono-disciplinary approach, which delivers fragmented solutions to complex problems\\u000a with differing interpretations of success. As a means of reflecting on the breadth and range of scientific research on the\\u000a management of the marine environment, this paper develops an analytical framework to gauge the foci of policy documents and\\u000a published scientific work on Marine
Information on movement patterns of marine fishes between estuarine populations and stocks at sea is fundamental to understanding\\u000a their population dynamics, life history tactics and behavior. Furthermore, understanding estuarine habitat use by marine fishes\\u000a is crucial for their effective conservation and integrated estuarine management. Although large numbers of young marine fish\\u000a make use of temperate estuaries in highly predictable abundance
Jef Guelinckx; Joachim Maes; Bram Geysen; Frans Ollevier
SUMMARY Oil pollution is one of the most important imbalancing problems affecting, specially, marine coastal environments in all over the world. Study in the field of integrated management in both inland and marine authorities, oil pollution prevention and cleanup, and using computer facilities, like Geographical Information System (GIS) and decision support system (DSS) for management plans are among the challenges,
In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation, and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic. Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U.S. waters and the Caribbean are painful but rarely deadly. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Treatment is symptomatic. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation. The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Surgical débridement occasionally is needed. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention. PMID:14989575
...Council Meeting Agenda and Workload Planning F. Pacific Halibut Management Incidental Catch Regulations for the 2011 Salmon Troll Fishery G. Salmon Management 1. National Marine Fisheries Service Report 2. Tentative Adoption of 2011 Management...
This grant provided training in developmental biology of embryos of marine organisms, particularly their defense mechanisms. Students were exposed to the patterns of development of a variety of marine organisms, and then trained in the use of cellular, im...
Contents: Marine thermoelectric plant operating conditions and principles of regulation (Thermoelectric generator operating conditions and characteristics, Principles of regulation of marine thermoelectric units); Prospects for the use of thermoelectric d...
Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...
Concepts in Marine Pollution Measurements examines a range of techniques for measuring marine pollution and its effects on the environment. The forty-three papers have been grouped under the following categories: Toxicity tests; Laboratory microcosms; Com...
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) of the U.S. Navy is starting a basic research program to address the initial events that control colonization of surfaces by organisms in marine environments. The program arises from the Navy's need to understand and ultimately control biofouling and biocorrosion in marine environments, according to a Navy announcement.The program, Biological Processes Controlling Surface Modification in the Marine Environment, will emphasize the application of in situ techniques and modern molecular biological, biochemical, and biophysical approaches; it will also encourage the development of interdisciplinary projects. Specific areas of interest include sensing and response to environmental surface (physiology/physical chemistry), factors controlling movement to and retention at surfaces (behavior/hydrodynamics), genetic regulation of attachment (molecular genetics), and mechanisms of attachment (biochemistry/surface chemistry).
A riser tensioner for use in maintaining a tension on a marine riser from a tension leg platform, the tension leg platform moving relative to the marine riser and the marine riser having a center line is described comprising: (a) an elastomeric assembly, adjustably deformable in pad shear, for maintaining the riser in tension during vertical movement of the platform relative to the riser, the elastomeric assembly having upper and lower ends; (b) a gimbal assembly for pivotally connecting the upper end of the elastomeric assembly to the tension leg platform to accommodate misalignment between the riser and the tension leg platform; (c) a base ring to which the lower end of the elastomeric assembly is secured; and (d) a collar, securely mounted on the riser, for resting within the base ring to connect the lower end of the elastomeric assembly to the riser.
In 1888, the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) was started in Woods Hole, and since then it has served as a place for world-class biologists and ecologists to gather and work together. Their ambitions are very broad and admirable, and visitors should start by reading through the introduction in the "About MBL" section before looking around further. Most visitors will then want to go to the "Education" area. Here they will find such resources as a marine organism database, a number of full-text classic works on marine organisms, and several image databases. Moving on, visitors might also want to look at the "Research" area, which contains materials on their laboratories, research opportunities at the MBL, and an overview of their current research projects.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) are the European umbrella regulations for water systems. It is a challenge for the scientific community to translate the principles of these directives into realistic and accurate approaches. The aim of this paper, conducted by the Benthos Ecology Working Group of ICES, is to describe how the principles have been translated, which were the challenges and best way forward. We have tackled the following principles: the ecosystem-based approach, the development of benthic indicators, the definition of 'pristine' or sustainable conditions, the detection of pressures and the development of monitoring programs. We concluded that testing and integrating the different approaches was facilitated during the WFD process, which led to further insights and improvements, which the MSFD can rely upon. Expert involvement in the entire implementation process proved to be of vital importance. PMID:21051051
Van Hoey, Gert; Borja, Angel; Birchenough, Silvana; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Degraer, Steven; Fleischer, Dirk; Kerckhof, Francis; Magni, Paolo; Muxika, Iñigo; Reiss, Henning; Schröder, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L
Habitat restoration in the Columbia River estuary (CRE) is an important off-site mitigation action in the 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), an operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The CRE, defined as the tidally influenced stretch of river from the mouth to Bonneville Dam 146 miles upstream, is part of the migration pathway for anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin, including salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Salmon in various stages of life, from fry to adults, use tidal channels and wetlands in the CRE to feed, find refuge from predators, and transition physiologically from freshwater to saltwater. Over the last 100 years, however, the area of some wetland habitats has decreased by as much as 70% because of dike and levee building, flow regulation, and other activities. In response to the decline in available habitat, the BiOp's Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) included mandates to 'develop a plan addressing the habitat needs of juvenile salmon and steelhead in the estuary' (RPA Action 159) and 'develop and implement an estuary restoration program with a goal of protecting and enhancing 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats' (RPA Action 160). To meet Action 159 and support Action 160, this document develops a science-based approach designed to improve ecosystem functions through habitat restoration activities in the CRE. The CRE habitat restoration program's goal and principles focus on habitat restoration projects in an ecosystem context. Since restoration of an entire ecosystem is not generally practical, individual habitat restoration projects have the greatest likelihood of success when they are implemented with an ecosystem perspective. The program's goal is: Implementation of well-coordinated, scientifically sound projects designed to enhance, protect, conserve, restore, and create 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats to aid rebuilding of ESA-listed salmon populations and native species using the CRE. The program's underlying principles are: (1) projects are founded on the best available ecological restoration science, implemented in an ecosystem context, and developed with the intent to restore relevant ecological processes; (2) projects incorporate adaptive management practices with testable hypotheses to track ecological responses to a given restoration effort; and (3) projects are implemented in a coordinated, open process and scientific results from monitoring and evaluation are communicated widely and readily accessible. With this goal and these principles in mind, we developed an approach for CRE habitat restoration. The intent of this document is to provide a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. The stepwise approach to CRE habitat restoration outlined is somewhat general and broad because the available scientific information is incomplete, e.g., juvenile salmon usage of various CRE wetland habitats. As new data become available, a more specific, detailed plan than was possible here can be produced as an outgrowth of this document. In conclusion, this document provides a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. As more experience is gained with CRE habitat restoration and scientific uncertainties are resolved, this document should be used as a basis for a detailed habitat restoration plan that specifically addresses (1) which habitat types offer the greatest ecological benefit to salmon, (2) the location of potential sites that if restored would likely provide these habitat types, and (3) how and when the restoration work should be done. This document supports the use of adaptive management so that all elements of salmonid habitat restoration actions in the CRE are under continual evaluation and revision at both the project and program levels. Lessons learned from curre
Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.
This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.
The evaluation system of operation of marine refrigeration is developed in oeder to improve the teaching means in operation and manage of shipping. By making model of Marine Refrigerating System, it mainly analyses the ways of making the model for the system of refrigeration simulation, that is using each equipment as objects and making the model for the each equipment,
The application of marine zoning and spatial planning methods has seen a worldwide increase to stem unsustainable use of coastal seas. However, prioritizing marine regions for focused management efforts and protection can be a difficult process. Uncertainties from the provision o...
The Minerals Management Service (MMS), Alaska OCS Region funded a pilot survey in 2008 of the offshore marine fishes of the Beaufort Sea. This was the first offshore marine fish survey to have taken place since an opportunistic survey in 1977. This pilot ...
|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)
The last 5 years have demonstrated that the Marine Corps Reserve is a full partner in the Total Force Marine Corps. Marine Forces Reserve remains committed to the rapid and efficient activation of combat-ready ground, air, and logistics units, as well as ...
Located in Sausalito, California, the Marine Mammal Center offers a variety of programs to introduce students 14 to 18 years of age to marine science related careers and to get involved in marine mammal conservation. Site features information on job shadowing, volunteering, and Center internships. Also links to adult volunteer opportunities, as well as the research, rehabilitation, and educational programs that the Center runs.
Located at several site in Greece, the HCMR was set up as a single institution in order to integrate government-funded marine science research in Greece. The Center consists of five institutes: oceanography, aquaculture, marine biological resources, inland waters, and marine biology and genetics. Site includes information on services it provides, the center library, current research initiatives, and the center's two aquaria.
|This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions
Recent studies document unprecedented declines in marine top predators that can initiate trophic cascades. Predicting the wider ecological consequences of these declines requires understanding how predators influence communities by inflicting mortality on prey and inducing behavioral modifications (risk effects). Both mechanisms are important in marine communities, and a sole focus on the effects of predator-inflicted mortality might severely underestimate the importance of predators. We outline direct and indirect consequences of marine predator declines and propose an integrated predictive framework that includes risk effects, which appear to be strongest for long-lived prey species and when resources are abundant. We conclude that marine predators should be managed for the maintenance of both density- and risk-driven ecological processes, and not demographic persistence alone. PMID:18308421
Heithaus, Michael R; Frid, Alejandro; Wirsing, Aaron J; Worm, Boris
It is important for fishery scientists and ecosystem-based fishery managers to recognize that there may be apparent persistence\\u000a in an ecosystem followed by ecosystem changes corresponding to different ecological states and different levels of fisheries\\u000a output; revenues paid to California fishers have varied more than fivefold in inflation adjusted dollars during the 75-year\\u000a period of our study. Empirical orthogonal function
Jerrold G. Norton; Samuel F. Herrick; Janet E. Mason
While still an economically developing country, Thailand possesses a commercial fishery comparable to those of the economically developed nations. The Thai fishing industry, one of the world's ten largest, with a fleet of over 20,000 modern vessels and a ...
The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System), but even these are an underestimate of described species. In addition, some partially completed databases for particular taxonomic groups, and specialized databases (for introduced and threatened species) have been used. Experts also provided estimates of the number of known species not yet in the major databases. For only some groups could we obtain an (expert opinion) estimate of undiscovered species. The databases provide patchy information about endemism, levels of threat, and introductions. We conclude that there are about 33,000 marine species (mainly animals) in the major databases, of which 130 are introduced, 58 listed as threatened and an unknown percentage endemic. An estimated 17,000 more named species are either known from the Australian EEZ but not in the present databases, or potentially occur there. It is crudely estimated that there may be as many as 250,000 species (known and yet to be discovered) in the Australian EEZ. For 17 higher taxa, there is sufficient detail for subdivision by Large Marine Domains, for comparison with other National and Regional Implementation Committees of the Census of Marine Life. Taxonomic expertise in Australia is unevenly distributed across taxa, and declining. Comments are given briefly on biodiversity management measures in Australia, including but not limited to marine protected areas.
Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.
Important ecological aspects of marine parasites are discussed. Whereas effects of parasites on host individuals sometimes leading to death are known from many groups of parasites, effects on host populations have been studied much less. Mass mortalities have been observed mainly among hosts occurring in abnormally dense populations or after introduction of parasites by man. As a result of large-scale
Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)
A literature review of environmental effects of pesticides, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, drilling fluids and muds, and dredge material is presentd. Diseases and abnormalities are described in aquatic ecosystems at contaminated sites. Papers dealing with nearly every aspect of petroleum in the marine environment are reviewed. Case histories of oil spills are cited. Included are 6 tables and 392 references. (JMT)
Reish, D.J. (California State Univ., Long Beach); Geesy, G.G.; Wilkes, F.G.; Oshida, P.S.; Mearns, A.J.; Rossi, S.S.; Ginn, T.C.
The purpose of this project was to comprehensively assess the sustainability of a selection of common products and materials for marine applications. The primary goal was to provide marina owners and patrons who wish to operate more sustainably with a sup...
The research funded by this award, sponsored investigations on novel marine viruses that were isolated in British Columbia coastal waters and the Gulf of Mexico. It was a continuation of Grant NOOOl4-92-J-l676 awarded at The University of Texas. The resul...
Solving the meteorological and oceanographic monitoring problems in frame of the actual ldquoJadran Projectrdquo the multipurpose marine buoy was developed to meat specific requirements in Adriatic Sea. The aluminum plastic coated buoy was designed to ensure stabile behavior at any waves high and wind speed that can occur in Adriatic aquatory. The 3 m high upper platform is provided for
The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji,
T. E. Chase; B. A. Seekins; J. D. Young; J. A. Wahler
Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used i...
Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concre...
Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped
Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.
This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of
Teachers' guides developed by Sea World featuring marine mammal educational materials for K-12. 14 different topics covered including sharks, wetlands, whales, birds, and much more. Several feature activities for all grade levels. Each guide includes goals and objectives, information, vocabulary, a bibliography, and classroom activities. Activities strive to integrate science, mathematics, geography, art, and language. Orca guide is in Spanish.
THE following method is cheap and simple, and gives excellent results with such soft-bodied marine animals as have been tried (Polychaetes, Doris, Priapulus, Nemertines, Ascidians). Make up 80 gm. of crystalline magnesium chloride in a litre of tap water. Immerse the animals in it. In one to four hours they will be relaxed and expanded. Add strong formalin to the
Located in Bodega Bay, California, BML mission is to lead the way to the multi-disciplinary scientific understanding required to solve complex environmental problems on the marine and terrestrial sides of the tideline in northern California. Site includes information on faculty, facilities, current research, news and events, and a wealth of real-time and archived data and maps.
This site by a Norwegian researcher features descriptions of marine geological formations: pockmarks, mud volcanoes, deep-water coral reefs, and gas hydrates. Using ROV technology, he has taken photos of these deep seafloor features, and compares them to geological structures seen on land, and even on the moon.
A marine riser is disclosed including a uniquely designed three element connection structure and associated connecting and releasing means for the inhibiting of fatigue failure caused by moments and axial loads resulting from relative motion between the fixed ocean bottom and a floating drilling platform or ship, such as a semisubmersible rig. The system includes a preloaded connection including a
A marine riser is described for use in drilling or production of hydrocarbons from a subsea formation comprising: elongated tubular body means constructed of a composite of elongated filaments of a material in a resin matrix having a modulus of elasticity not less than about 27x10â¶ psi. The filaments is bonded in a resin matrix to form a load bearing
An upper marine riser package, operable from a relatively moveable structure, such as on a floating vessel which is subject to movement by wave action and the like, and adapted to be connected and lowered through a confined opening such as a rotary table in the vessel and supportable on a diverter housing on the vessel is described comprising: a
|This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability
A thorough site for teachers in New England, specifically Massachusetts. Includes information on teacher workshops, MME membership, student contests, and teacher awards. Features an ocean tides classroom activity for middle school through high school students, links to other marine science education websites, and the latest issue of their newsletter available for download.
The report deals with shock wave experiments regarding marine fouling removal suck as chalk substances and forge scales etc. The device used in the experiments, is equipped with acoustic lenses. There is a need for further development in this field. In ad...
The oceans and coastal seas provide mankind with many benefits including food for around a third of the global population, the air that we breathe and our climate system which enables habitation of much of the planet. However, the converse is that generation of natural events (such as hurricanes, severe storms and tsunamis) can have devastating impacts on coastal populations, while pollution of the seas by pathogens and toxic waste can cause illness and death in humans and animals. Harmful effects from biogenic toxins produced by algal blooms (HABs) and from the pathogens associated with microbial pollution are also a health hazard in seafood and from direct contact with water. The overall global burden of human disease caused by sewage pollution of coastal waters has been estimated at 4 million lost person-years annually. Finally, the impacts of all of these issues will be exacerbated by climate change. A holistic systems approach is needed. It must consider whole ecosystems, and their sustainability, such as integrated coastal zone management, is necessary to address the highly interconnected scientific challenges of increased human population pressure, pollution and over-exploitation of food (and other) resources as drivers of adverse ecological, social and economic impacts. There is also an urgent and critical requirement for effective and integrated public health solutions to be developed through the formulation of politically and environmentally meaningful policies. The research community required to address "Oceans & Human Health" in Europe is currently very fragmented, and recognition by policy makers of some of the problems, outlined in the list of challenges above, is limited. Nevertheless, relevant key policy issues for governments worldwide include the reduction of the burden of disease (including the early detection of emerging pathogens and other threats) and improving the quality of the global environment. Failure to effectively address these issues will impact adversely on efforts to alleviate poverty, sustain the availability of environmental goods and services and improve health and social and economic stability; and thus, will impinge on many policy decisions, both nationally and internationally. Knowledge exchange (KE) will be a key element of any ensuing research. KE will facilitate the integration of biological, medical, epidemiological, social and economic disciplines, as well as the emergence of synergies between seemingly unconnected areas of science and socio-economic issues, and will help to leverage knowledge transfer across the European Union (EU) and beyond. An integrated interdisciplinary systems approach is an effective way to bring together the appropriate groups of scientists, social scientists, economists, industry and other stakeholders with the policy formulators in order to address the complexities of interfacial problems in the area of environment and human health. The Marine Board of the European Science Foundation Working Group on "Oceans and Human Health" has been charged with developing a position paper on this topic with a view to identifying the scientific, social and economic challenges and making recommendations to the EU on policy-relevant research and development activities in this arena. This paper includes the background to health-related issues linked to the coastal environment and highlights the main arguments for an ecosystem-based whole systems approach. PMID:23503989
The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.
The Minerals Management Services' Marine Mammal and Seabird Computer Database Analysis System (MMS-CDAS) has been created to enable analysts to access large databases and easily select those data pertinent to their information needs. The report is a user'...
This document compares four marine life conservation districts with surrounding areas that are not protected and managed. The report is based on benthic habitat maps and coral ecosystem monitoring studies conducted between 2002 and 2004 at Pupukea, Kealak...
A. M. Friedlander E. Brown L. M. Wedding M. E. Monaco
The purpose of this study was to establish time criteria for Marine Expeditionary Brigade logistics tasks and demonstrate how the established time criteria supports capacity and resource management. This study developed methods for making best logistics s...
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is a multiple use marine protected area of some 343,500 km2. Activity is controlled by legislation, spatial plans and permits. Spatial plans are of three types. Zoning Plans cover the entire Marine Park and are the primary control on use. Management Plans apply to smaller areas or to species requiring special protection. Management Plans
A. Skeat; A. Smith; J. Baldwin; M. Robinson; P. McGinnity; B. Nankivel
The National Marine Mammal Laboratory's Education Website, which targets K-12 learners, provides basic information on marine mammals, including whales (baleen and toothed, dolphins, and porpoises). Still under construction, the site will eventually provide pages on seals, sea lions, walruses, manatees, and dugongs. Educational tools currently include a Marine Mammal Quiz and a List of Endangered Marine Mammals. Additional information covers careers in marine mammal science. For more advanced information on marine mammal research, see the National Marine Mammal Laboratory homepage.
Marine reserves (or No-Take Zones) are implemented to protect species and habitats, with the aim of restoring a balanced ecosystem. Although the benefits of marine reserves are commonly monitored, there is a lack of insight into the potential detriments of such highly protected waters. High population densities attained within reserves may induce negative impacts such as unfavourable trophic cascades and disease outbreaks. Hence, we investigated the health of lobster populations in the UKs Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ) at Lundy Island. Comparisons were made between the fished, Refuge Zone (RZ) and the un-fished, No-Take Zone (NTZ; marine reserve). We show ostensibly positive effects such as increased lobster abundance and size within the NTZ; however, we also demonstrate apparent negative effects such as increased injury and shell disease. Our findings suggest that robust cost-benefit analyses of marine reserves could improve marine reserve efficacy and subsequent management strategies.
Wootton, Emma C.; Woolmer, Andrew P.; Vogan, Claire L.; Pope, Edward C.; Hamilton, Kristina M.; Rowley, Andrew F.
Marine reserves (or No-Take Zones) are implemented to protect species and habitats, with the aim of restoring a balanced ecosystem. Although the benefits of marine reserves are commonly monitored, there is a lack of insight into the potential detriments of such highly protected waters. High population densities attained within reserves may induce negative impacts such as unfavourable trophic cascades and disease outbreaks. Hence, we investigated the health of lobster populations in the UK's Marine Conservation Zone (MCZ) at Lundy Island. Comparisons were made between the fished, Refuge Zone (RZ) and the un-fished, No-Take Zone (NTZ; marine reserve). We show ostensibly positive effects such as increased lobster abundance and size within the NTZ; however, we also demonstrate apparent negative effects such as increased injury and shell disease. Our findings suggest that robust cost-benefit analyses of marine reserves could improve marine reserve efficacy and subsequent management strategies. PMID:23240047
Wootton, Emma C; Woolmer, Andrew P; Vogan, Claire L; Pope, Edward C; Hamilton, Kristina M; Rowley, Andrew F
Integrated coastal management (ICM) commonly utilizes marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management tool. The study demonstrates that MPAs, embedded within an ICM framework, have had positive impacts on coral reefs in Mabini, the Philippines and within tourism-reserved zones of the Bunaken National Park (BNP), Indonesia. ICM has not been able to stem all coral reef degradation, particularly in community-managed
Marine reserves are promoted as an effective supplement to traditional fishery management techniques of harvest quotas and effort limitation. However, quantitative fishery models have ignored the impact of noncompliance (poaching). Here we link a model of a harvested fish population to a game-theoretic representation of fisherman behavior to quantify the effect of poaching on fishery yield and the enforcement effort
Egypt, Israel, and the United States are conducting a cooperative program of marine technologies under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development. The program, which began in 1980, has encompassed a dozen projects in over 20 laboratories in the three countries. They include aquaculture, shore processes, lakes management, sea food toxins, waste water recycling and primary productivity of
...OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures Â§ 640.26 Tortugas marine...N. lat., 83Â°06â²00â² W. long. (b) Tortugas South. The area is bounded by rhumb lines connecting, in...
Marine reserves are areas of the sea where fishing is not allowed. They provide refuges where populations of exploited species can recover and habitats modified by fishing can regenerate. In some places, closed areas have been used for fisheries management for centuries  and, until recently, natural refugia also existed, inaccessible through depth, distance or adverse conditions. Developments in technology
The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD Schools,
Suggests using case studies of resource management conflict involving marine and aquatic resource issues to increase student involvement in decision-making processes. Provides information for a potential case involving oyster farms and six steps to help students explore problems and make decisions. (MDH)
A central question of marine ecology is, how far do larvae disperse? Evidence is accumulating that the probability of dispersal declines rapidly with distance. This provides an incentive for communities to manage their own fish stocks and cooperate with neighbors. PMID:23660355
|The purpose of this article is to share information about the Costa Rican Marine Education Programme in relation to the quality criteria for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Schools. We found that the application of these criteria is feasible, not only to the organisation and management of schools that are looking to become ESD
The management of marine mammals traditionally focuses on lethal takes, such as in bycatch, vessel collisions and strandings. However, we are beginning to realise that non-lethal impacts of human disturbance can also have serious conservation implications, indicating that mortality counts only reveal a fraction of the picture. Possibly the most important of non-lethal (at least, not immediately lethal) impacts arises
Andrew John Wright; Terrence Deak; E. C. M. Parsons
Doing things in the ocean that have economic value generally results in some modification of the natural environment. When we develop or managemarine resources, either within the ocean itself or on the ocean bottom, but especially along the coastal margins, then we are influencing the physical and biological state of the ocean in some manner that will have not
...context of captive maintenance of marine mammals, the only marine mammals exempted under this section are...actually captured or otherwise in captivity before December 21, 1972. (2) To any marine mammal product if the marine mammal...
...context of captive maintenance of marine mammals, the only marine mammals exempted under this section are...actually captured or otherwise in captivity before December 21, 1972. (2) To any marine mammal product if the marine mammal...
Sialyltransferases transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from the common donor substrate of these enzymes, cytidine 5?-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), to acceptor substrates. The enzymatic reaction products including sialyl-glycoproteins, sialyl-glycolipids and sialyl-oligosaccharides are important molecules in various biological and physiological processes, such as cell-cell recognition, cancer metastasis, and virus infection. Thus, sialyltransferases are thought to be important enzymes in the field of glycobiology. To date, many sialyltransferases and the genes encoding them have been obtained from various sources including mammalian, bacterial and viral sources. During the course of our research, we have detected over 20 bacteria that produce sialyltransferases. Many of the bacteria we isolated from marine environments are classified in the genus Photobacterium or the closely related genus Vibrio. The paper reviews the sialyltransferases obtained mainly from marine bacteria.
A marine seismic source employs a cylindrical gas exploder adapted to be supported from a surface vessel in a submerged state adjacent a marine bottom. The force of expanding gases within the exploder applies a thrust along the exploder longitudinal axis to a ground contact member operatively interconnected with the exploder to produce a seismic signal. The energy producing force is reacted by piston means within the exploder interconnected rigidly with a large area external water interacting disk. The mass of the reaction piston-disk system is sufficiently great so that the slow moving disk experiences viscous damping in the water and thus generates no significant undesirable secondary seismic signal in the water. The exploder may be oriented horizontally for maximum generation of shear waves or inclined at an acute angle to the vertical for generation of a combination of shear waves and compressional waves.
In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.
The precarious state of many nearshore marine ecosystems has prompted the use of marine protected areas as a tool for management and conservation. However, there remains substantial debate over their design and, in particular, how to best account for the spatial dynamics of nearshore marine species. Many commercially important nearshore marine species are sedentary as adults, with limited home ranges. It is as larvae that they disperse greater distances, traveling with ocean currents sometimes hundreds of kilometers. As a result, these species exist in spatially complex systems of connected subpopulations. Here, we explicitly account for the mutual dependence of subpopulations and approach protected area design in terms of network robustness. Our goal is to characterize the topology of nearshore metapopulation networks and their response to perturbation, and to identify critical subpopulations whose protection would reduce the risk for stock collapse. We define metapopulation networks using realistic estimates of larval dispersal generated from ocean circulation simulations and spatially explicit metapopulation models, and we then explore their robustness using node-removal simulation experiments. Nearshore metapopulations show small-world network properties, and we identify a set of highly connected hub subpopulations whose removal maximally disrupts the metapopulation network. Protecting these subpopulations reduces the risk for systemic failure and stock collapse. Our focus on catastrophe avoidance provides a unique perspective for spatial marine planning and the design of marine protected areas. PMID:21987813
Watson, James R; Siegel, David A; Kendall, Bruce E; Mitarai, Satoshi; Rassweiller, Andrew; Gaines, Steven D
Various toxic agents were investigated for their ability to prevent the attachment and growth of marine fouling organisms on concrete. Three methods of incorporating antifoulants into concrete were also studied. Porous aggregate was impregnated with creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) and then used in making the concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives.
Leifson, Einar (Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.), B. J. Cosenza, R. Murchelano, and R. C. Cleverdon. Motile marine bacteria. I. Techniques, ecology, and general characteristics. J. Bacteriol. 87:652666. 1964.Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the waters of the Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, Atlantic Ocean, and from the intestine of a variety of marine animals found along the shore of the Long Island Sound. A total of about 600 cultures of motile bacteria were studied morphologically and physiologically, with special emphasis on flagellar characteristics. The great majority of the bacteria isolated from the water were polar flagellate, nonfermentative, nonpigmented, and gramnegative. Most of these were straight, capsulated rods, but a considerable number were curved like vibrios. Yellow-pigmented isolates were often nonmotile, and the motile forms were most frequently subpolar flagellate. Several rosette-forming bacteria, including Caulobacter species, were isolated. Two typical spirilla and one flagellated coccus were found. Peritrichous flagellate bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative, were rare except in bottom mud. The normal intestinal flora of marine animals, such as fish and shellfish, consisted of polar flagellate, fermentative, non-pigmented, gram-negative, straight rods. Curved forms, like vibrios, were less common. Polar multitrichous flagellate forms were not uncommon and included all the luminescent types isolated. A considerable proportion of the polar monotrichous flagellate rods swarmed over the surface of agar media. When grown on solid media, all of these showed mixed polar and lateral flagellation; in liquid media, mainly polar flagellation was found. The ecology and general taxonomy of marine bacteria are discussed. Images
Leifson, Einar; Cosenza, B. J.; Murchelano, R.; Cleverdon, R. C.
Much less is known about marine biodiversity than that of terrestrial and freshwater environments. There is surprisingly little information about even the most common of organisms that live on the seashore. Science has limited resources to study them and volunteers can therefore make significant contributions. This article considers the value of a project in which volunteers are mapping the distribution and abundance of littoral animals and plants of the Northumberland coast. PMID:11509762
The station provides year-round research facilities and technical assistance to scientists from the five western Canadian universities as well as visiting scientists, offers courses for undergraduate and graduate students in the marine sciences, and runs a public education program for schools and interested groups of all ages. Information includes all the latest research news and events, plus field trip and community projects information. Explore OceanLink and Ocean News for an abundance of education resources.
. Marine diesel was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-(9 GHz) and W-bands (94 GHz). The experiments\\u000a were performed at room temperature (about 300 K). X-band spectra exhibited isotropy, resolved lines and negligible noise,\\u000a whereas the W-band spectra exhibited a poorer signal-to-noise ratio and anisotropy in g and in hyperfine interactions. Viscosity at room temperature (2.5 · 10?3
The disclosed device is a marine seismic source which emits a constantly varying FM signal in the 10 to 100 H /SUB z/ range. The seismic source utilizes an adjustable length cantilever spring rotatably attached to stiff acoustic radiators, which create a signal in the water. Varying the length of the cantilever spring as a function of the frequency will permit the device to be continuously tuned for maximum power output.
\\u000a Modern magnetic measurements have been acquired since the 1940s over land and the 1950s over oceans. Such measurements are\\u000a collected using magnetometer sensors rigidly fixed to the airframe or towed in a bird for airborne or in a fish in marine\\u000a surveys using a cable long enough to avoid the ship\\/airplane magnetic effect. Positioning problems have been considerably\\u000a reduced by
Mohamed Hamoudi; Yoann Quesnel; Jérôme Dyment; Vincent Lesur
\\u000a Marine macrophytes live in a highly variable environment in respect to light, UV-radiation, temperature and also salinity.\\u000a During evolution their metabolism has adapted to these strongly changing conditions, especially in the upper littoral zone.\\u000a In the lower subtidal, the photosynthetic apparatus has adapted to low light conditions, to absorb maximally the incident\\u000a photons and to utilize the absorbed energy with
: There is increasing interest in biotechnological production of marine sponge biomass owing to the discovery of many commercially\\u000a important secondary metabolites in this group of animals. In this article, different approaches to producing sponge biomass\\u000a are reviewed, and several factors that possibly influence culture success are evaluated. In situ sponge aquacultures, based\\u000a on old methods for producing commercial bath
The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest couldsubject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified hereinhave the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloudalbedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.
The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798
Marine isocyano (-NC) terpenoids are often accompanied by isothiocyanates (R-NCS) and formamides (R-NHCHO). Recent work has uncovered the less common cyanates (R-NCO), thiocyanates (R-SCN), amines (R-NH2) and carbonimidic dichlorides (R-N=CCl2). A majority of sesquiterpenes bear one of the nitrogenous functional groups of the related -NC\\/-NCS\\/-NHCHO triad. More complex substitution exists in diterpenoid skeletons. Most complex are the kalihinols which are
Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.
Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)
A detailed description is presented of the social, professional, and administrative life at four major marine biological research stations in Yugoslavia: Rovinj, Split, Dubrovnik, and Kotor. (NMFS abstract)
Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210
A composite quantitative index for the percentage of primary production required to sustain fisheries and the average trophic level of catch (%PPReTLc) was employed to develop ecosystem-based reference functions suitable for fisheries management. Established ecosystem models, characterized by pairs of %PPReTLc, were classified as either sustainably exploited or ecosystem overfished, on the basis of the results of factorial correspondence analysis
Comparatively little research has been conducted on the ecology of invasive organisms in marine ecosystems when balanced against\\u000a their terrestrial counterparts (Carlton and Geller 1993). Perhaps rates of invasions in marine systems are simply lower than\\u000a in other systems, but more likely lack of scrutiny, difficulty with taxonomic resolution, and unusual life-history characters\\u000a of marine organisms cause the vast majority
Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles\\u000a were especially successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles\\u000a in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians,\\u000a mosasaurs, and sea turtles. Medium-sized groups, such
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Marine Sanctuary Program education mission is to enhance public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the marine environment. The site features the Dive Into Education Marine Science Program for teachers to support ocean literacy in the classroom; and the Living Classrooms program, an ocean field studies program for teacher and student teams to participate in activities focused on marine sanctuaries and ocean conservation. Educators will find curriculum, lesson plans, and activities that will expand students' knowledge about science and technology, such as an environmental monitoring program.
...future development of the America's Marine Highway Program...support throughout DOT's leadership and inquired about the process...impediments to increased use of America's Marine Highway. Many of...and clarifying changes, the America's Marine Highway...
If you've ever been to the central coast region of California, it's hard not be impressed with the natural beauty of the various landforms, vegetation, and animal life around the area, and we haven't even started talking about what's in the ocean. Created in order to preserve and protect this unique habitat in 1992, the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) is larger than either Yosemite or Yellowstone National Parks as it extends 30 miles from shore. Some of the other resources within its borders include the nation's largest kelp forest and one of North America's largest underwater canyons. On the Sanctuary's site, visitors can learn about the resource management plan for this area, and of course, learn about visiting the Sanctuary. One helpful resource in this area is their online field guide to the Sanctuary, which can be downloaded and printed out for handy reference. The site is rounded out by a selection of publications, including their newsletters and annual reports.
The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.
Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action. PMID:23145705
Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob
All surfaces that are submerged in the sea rapidly become covered by a biofilm. This process, called biofouling, has substantial economic consequences. Paints containing tri-butyl-tin (TBT) and copper compounds are used to protect marine structures by reducing biofouling. However, these compounds have damaging effects on the marine environment, as they are not biodegradable. It has been noted that many seaweeds
Evelyn Armstrong; Kenneth G. Boyd; J. Grant Burgess
Saline and aqueous ethanol extracts of marine algae and the lectins from two red algal species were assayed for their antibiotic activity against marine vibrios. Experimental studies were also carried out on the influence of environmental factors on such activity, using batch cultures. The results indicated that many of the saline extracts of the algal species were active and that
W.-R. Liao; J.-Y. Lin; W.-Y. Shieh; W.-L. Jeng; R. Huang
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are among the olde st multicellular animals (metazoans), the sea's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, a nd of considerable ecological importance due to the ir abundance and ability to filter enormous volumes of seawater. In addition to these important attribute s, sponge microbiology is now a rapidly expanding fiel d. Marine sponges produce numerous bioactive
The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the scientific community, and anticipate increased taxonomic efficiency and quality control in marine biodiversity research and management. PMID:23505408
Costello, Mark J; Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W; Poore, Gary C B; van Soest, Rob W M; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim; Appeltans, Ward
... the Marine Environmental Sciences Consortium/Dauphin ... Marine Environmental Science Consortium - Dauphin ... Administrative and National Policy ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/foodsafetygrants
The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) of Woods Hole, Massachusetts maintains this database of "approximately 210 invertebrates and fish" that are collected or maintained by the MBL. The database is organized by phyla, and users may search for general information on Sponges, Polyps/Medusae, Comb Jellies, Flatworms, Ribbon Worms, Arrow Worms, Bryozoans, Mollusks, Peanut Worms, Arthropods, Echinoderms, Acorn Worms, or Chordates. In addition to the brief summaries, color photographs provide visual examples for each phylum, and a "derivation" box defines the origin of each name. Beginning students will find this site a helpful reference.
Method and means are provided for determining the position of a submerged marine streamer towed behind an exploration vessel. An array of at least three transponders secured to the ocean floor generate distinguishable acoustic pulses upon a command signal from the ship. These signals are received by hydrophones housed in the streamer and by the ship. The distance to each hydrophone may be triangulated from the data generated including accounting for changes in velocity between the vessel and the seismic streamer and the bottom transponders during the taking of such data.
A marine railway carriage is described, comprising: a lower frame having substantially parallel spaced sides and provided with railway wheels; an upper frame pivotally connected to the lower frame at spaced points adjacent the sides, respectively, on a transverse horizontal axis adjacent the normally forward end of the lower frame; spring means connected at the opposite ends thereof to the lower and upper frame, respectively, adjacent the normally rear end of the lower frame, and biasing the frames toward separation; and support means on the upper frame adapted to engage a boat.
Loliolide content was determined in 13 marine algae including red, brown and green algae collected from the Black Sea, the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea. Identification and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The loliolide content in green alga is 1.76 microg g(-1), ranges from 0.14 to 4.35 microg g(-1) in red and from 0.18 to 4.83 microg g(-1) in brown algae. The results obtained are in the same range as previously reported for algae, as well as terrestrial plants. This article represents the first report of loliolide occurrence in green algae. PMID:19296390
Regional chapter of National Marine Educators Association (NMEA) representing teachers in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Shares information on marine and aquatic science education and issues in Southeastern New England, provides opportunities for educators to communicate, encourages professional growth through workshops and conferences.
Oceanic fronts shape marine ecosystems; therefore front mapping and characterization are among the most important aspects of physical oceanography. Here we report on the first global remote sensing survey of fronts in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LME). This survey is based on a unique frontal data archive assembled at the University of Rhode Island. Thermal fronts were automatically derived with
Igor M. Belkin; Peter C. Cornillon; Kenneth Sherman
Despite the impressive advances that have been made in assessing the diversity of marine microorganisms, the mechanisms that underlie the participation of microorganisms in marine food webs and biogeochemical cycles are poorly understood. Here, we stress the need to examine the biochemical interactions of microorganisms with ocean systems at the nanometre to millimetre scale a scale that is relevant
Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)
The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...
At the Oceans'95 conference the authors presented a paper entitled Applications of remotely controlled equipment in Norwegian marine archaeology. That paper discussed the use of remotely controlled equipment in Norwegian marine archaeology, and more specifically a project that studies the wreck of a Russian navy ship which sank in 1760 off the coast of mid-Norway. This wreck, located in 280
F. Soreide; S. Hoseggen; M. E. Jasinski; S. Kristiansen; B. Sortland
This web page is a portal with around 80 links to universities, zoos, aquariums, organizations, private parks, and research institutions. The purpose is to provide advice for those interested in a career in the marine or aquatic sciences. The page contains a compilation of links to postings for jobs, post docs, traineeships, and internships specific to the marine and aquatic sciences.
Bacterioplankton of the marine Roseobacter clade have genomes that reflect a dynamic environment and diverse interactions with marine plankton. Comparative genome sequence analysis of three cultured repre- sentatives suggests that cellular requirements for nitrogen are largely provided by regenerated ammonium and organic compounds (polyamines, allophanate, and urea), while typical sources of carbon include amino acids, glyoxylate, and aromatic metabolites. An
M. A. Moran; R. Belas; M. A. Schell; J. M. Gonzalez; F. Sun; S. Sun; B. J. Binder; J. Edmonds; W. Ye; B. Orcutt; E. C. Howard; C. Meile; W. Palefsky; A. Goesmann; Q. Ren; I. Paulsen; L. E. Ulrich; L. S. Thompson; E. Saunders; A. Buchan
Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)
A bibliography of marine-oriented commercial and public domain courseware has been maintained by the Computer Education Committee of the Mid-Atlantic Marine Education Association for several years. This compilation is provided to interested persons by an established network with the following purposes: (1) to review and critique commercial and
The Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS) is a network of distributed sensors and centralized data collecting, processing and distributing unit. The system is designed to allow for the real-time assessment of weather and marine conditions throughout the major Bulgarian ports: Varna, Burgas and Balchik, supporting thereby Maritime administration to secure safety navigation in bays, canals and ports. Real-time information
A. Palazov; A. Stefanov; V. Slabakova; V. Marinova
The purpose of this UNC Sea Grant paper is to chronicle new concepts and developments in marine pollution control and progress in marine resources law. Topics discussed include the following: Pollution of the high seas--the oceans as international rivers;...
|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;
Homepage of the South Carolina Marine Educators Association (SCMEA), the SC chapter of the National Marine Educators Association (NMEA). Access information on upcoming conferences, teacher awards, scholarships, and grants, as well as becoming a member. The "Links for Teachers" section includes external links for teacher resources around the country.
...Administration RIN 0648-XX62 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) [[Page 42070