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1

New technology for Ecosystem-Based Management: Marine monitoring with the ORCA Kilroy Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) requires marine monitoring in real time with high temporal frequency and high spatial density. It also requires sensors that can provide direct measurements of biological processes and the means to track water movement and evaluate water quality. These requirements can not realistically be met using huge amalgamations of the independent instruments traditionally used for marine monitoring. To

Eric D. Thosteson; E. A. Widder; C. A. Cimaglia; J. W. Taylor; B. C. Burns; K. J. Paglen

2009-01-01

2

Resilience, Robustness, and Marine Ecosystem-based Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines robustness and resilience as they apply to marine ecosystems. Marine ecosystems provide essential services to humans, yet these services have been diminished, and their future sustainability endangered, by human patterns of exploitation that threaten system robustness and resilience. Marine ecosystems are complex adaptive systems composed of individual agents that interact with one another to produce collective effects, integrating scales from individual behaviors to the dynamics of whole systems. In such systems, small changes can be magnified through nonlinear interactions, facilitating regime shifts and collapses. Protection of the services these ecosystems provide must therefore maintain the adaptive capacities of these systems by preserving a balance among heterogeneity, modularity, and redundancy, tightening feedback loops to provide incentives for sound stewardship. The challenge for management is to increase incentives to individuals, and tighten reward loops, in ways that will strengthen the robustness and resilience of these systems and preserve their ability to provide ecosystem services for generations to come.

SIMON A. LEVIN (Princeton University;); JANE LUBCHENCO (Oregon State University;)

2008-01-01

3

Marine Ecosystems ManagementNews and analysis on ocean planning and ecosystem-based management  

E-print Network

food production on a collision course?: Experts respond In the previous edition of MEAM, Jake Rice; · Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture; and · Poverty alleviation and food security amid a changing climate - November 2013 Table of Contents Are marine conservation and sustainable food production on a collision

Carrington, Emily

4

Marine Reserves as a Tool for Ecosystem-Based Management: The Potential Importance of Megafauna  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the role of marine reserves. Marine predators attract significant attention in ocean conservation planning and are therefore often used politically to promote reserve designation. We discuss whether their ecology and life history can help provide a rigorous ecological foundation for marine reserve design. In general, we find that reserves can benefit marine megafauna, and that megafauna can help establish target areas and boundaries for ecosystem reserves. However, the spatial nature of the interplay between potential threats and predator life histories requires careful consideration for the establishment of effective reserves. Modeling tools such as demographic sensitivity analysis will aid in establishing protection for different life stages and distributional ranges. The need for pelagic marine reserves is becoming increasingly apparent, and it is in this venue that marine predators may be most effectively used as indicator species of underlying prey distribution and ecosystem processes.

SASCHA K. HOOKER and LEAH R. GERBER (;)

2004-01-01

5

Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1-3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

Mllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

2011-08-23

6

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF COWICHAN TRIBES of Resource Management Title of Research Project: Exploring Aboriginal Forestry and Ecosystem-based Management aboriginal forestry will be required. First Nations share a common desire for control over their forest

7

Accounting for indirect effects and non-commensurate values in ecosystem based fishery management (EBFM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM) requires taking account of indirect effects (such as habitat destruction, incidental mortality, and competition between the fishery and marine mammals or birds) and dealing with non-commensurate values (such as yield from the fishery and production of offspring by the birds or mammals competing for the same resource). The perspective of EBFM requires that the rate of

Kate Richerson; Phillip S. Levin; Marc Mangel

2010-01-01

8

Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

We analyze the strategies and actions that enable transitions toward ecosystem-based management using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park as a case study. The interplay among individual actors, organizations, and institutions at multiple levels is central in such transitions. A flexible organization, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, was crucial in initiating the transition to ecosystem-based management. This agency was also instrumental in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime and provided leadership throughout the process. Strategies involved internal reorganization and management innovation, leading to an ability to coordinate the scientific community, to increase public awareness of environmental issues and problems, to involve a broader set of stakeholders, and to maneuver the political system for support at critical times. The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef (from terrestrial runoff, overharvesting, and global warming) that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges. The focus of governance shifted from protection of selected individual reefs to stewardship of the larger-scale seascape. The study emphasizes the significance of stewardship that can change patterns of interactions among key actors and allow for new forms of management and governance to emerge in response to environmental change. This example illustrates that enabling legislations or other social bounds are essential, but not sufficient for shifting governance toward adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems. PMID:18621698

Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Hughes, Terry P.

2008-01-01

9

Preventing the collapse of the Baltic cod stock through an ecosystem-based management approach  

PubMed Central

Worldwide a number of fish stocks have collapsed because of overfishing and climate-induced ecosystem changes. Developing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) to prevent these catastrophic events in the future requires ecological models incorporating both internal food-web dynamics and external drivers such as fishing and climate. Using a stochastic food-web model for a large marine ecosystem (i.e., the Baltic Sea) hosting a commercially important cod stock, we were able to reconstruct the history of the stock. Moreover we demonstrate that in hindsight the collapse could only have been avoidable by adapting fishing pressure to environmental conditions and food-web interactions. The modeling approach presented here represents a significant advance for EBFM, the application of which is important for sustainable resource management in the future. PMID:19706557

Lindegren, Martin; Mollmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Stenseth, Nils C.

2009-01-01

10

Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires a change to the selective fishing philosophy  

PubMed Central

Globally, many fish species are overexploited, and many stocks have collapsed. This crisis, along with increasing concerns over flow-on effects on ecosystems, has caused a reevaluation of traditional fisheries management practices, and a new ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) paradigm has emerged. As part of this approach, selective fishing is widely encouraged in the belief that nonselective fishing has many adverse impacts. In particular, incidental bycatch is seen as wasteful and a negative feature of fishing, and methods to reduce bycatch are implemented in many fisheries. However, recent advances in fishery science and ecology suggest that a selective approach may also result in undesirable impacts both to fisheries and marine ecosystems. Selective fishing applies one or more of the 6-S selections: species, stock, size, sex, season, and space. However, selective fishing alters biodiversity, which in turn changes ecosystem functioning and may affect fisheries production, hindering rather than helping achieve the goals of EBFM. We argue here that a balanced exploitation approach might alleviate many of the ecological effects of fishing by avoiding intensive removal of particular components of the ecosystem, while still supporting sustainable fisheries. This concept may require reducing exploitation rates on certain target species or groups to protect vulnerable components of the ecosystem. Benefits to society could be maintained or even increased because a greater proportion of the entire suite of harvested species is used. PMID:20435916

Zhou, Shijie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Punt, Andre E.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Mark; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Pascoe, Sean; Bulman, Catherine; Bayliss, Peter; Sainsbury, Keith

2010-01-01

11

Toward ecosystem-based management for the oceans: A perspective for fisheries in the Bering Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large effort has advanced an ecosystem approach to fisheries management in Alaska and a framework has been developed to provide ecosystem-based information to support management decisions (Livingston, 2005). This framework uses status and trend data of ecosystem components and information on human effects to assess impacts of individual fisheries on ecosystem components, ecosystem effects on particular stocks, and ecosystem-level

Andrea Belgrano; Jennifer L. Boldt; Patricia Livingston; Jeffrey M. Napp

12

Scientific requirements for ecosystem-based management in the restoration of Chesapeake Bay and Coastal Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-based management requires integration of multiple system components and uses, identifying and striving for sustainable outcomes, precaution in avoiding deleterious actions, and adaptation based on experience to achieve effective solutions. Efforts underway or in planning to restore and manage two major coastal ecosystems, the Chesapeake Bay (Chesapeake Bay Program) and coastal Louisiana (Louisiana Coastal Area Plan and Gulf Hypoxia Action

Donald F. Boesch

2006-01-01

13

Ecosystem-based management in the Wadden Sea: Principles for the governance of knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The governance of the Wadden Sea has to contend with a complex interplay of social and ecological systems. Social systems tend to be characterized by pluralism of - often conflicting - norms and values, and ecological systems are characterized by high complexity and natural and human-induced variability, leading to unpredictable and nonlinear behavior. This highly volatile situation challenges traditional forms of management as well as traditional ways of organizing knowledge for decision-making processes. Ecosystem-based management approaches have been developed to find more effective, holistic, and evidence-based strategies to deal with the challenges of complex socio-ecological systems. They also require another way of dealing with (scientific) knowledge, the way it is produced and applied. In this paper, from the perspective of ecosystem-based management, we define the specific principles that apply to the way knowledge is mobilized and applied within decision-making processes. We illuminate these principles by examining three empirical cases of ecosystem-based management within, or related to, the Wadden Sea area. Finally, we reflect upon our findings and elaborate on the extent to which our theoretical framework is capable of describing and assessing the interaction between knowledge and decision making within ecosystem-based management approaches.

Giebels, Diana; van Buuren, Arwin; Edelenbos, Jurian

2013-09-01

14

Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

2012-12-01

15

ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT IN CANADA: TRENDS FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY AND RELEVANCE TO PROTECTED AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We conducted a nation-wide survey to assess the state of ecosystem-based management (EBM) in Canada. Detailed interviews were completed with at least 10 individuals in each region of Canada, representing government, industry, non-government environmental, and municipal agencies. Some significant results include: 1) EBM lacks explicit definitions in most jurisdictions; 2) explicit adoption of EBM terminology in policy and legislation

Michael S. Quinn; Jannette C. Theberge

16

Ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries, as a complemen-  

E-print Network

- holtz et al., 2008). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) play a vital ecological role in estuarine ration, and consumption of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) Christopher M. Butler (contact author by bluefin tuna on Atlantic men- haden (Brevoortia tyrannus). Bluefin tuna diet (n=448) was dominated

17

Assessing social - ecological trade-offs to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management.  

PubMed

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jrn O; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Mllmann, Christian

2014-01-01

18

Assessing Social - Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management  

PubMed Central

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jorn O.; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Mollmann, Christian

2014-01-01

19

Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values.  

PubMed

A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an "all or none" choice of either preserving coastal habitats or converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these relationships are rarely linear. By incorporating nonlinear wave attenuation in estimating coastal protection values of mangroves in Thailand, we show that the optimal land use option may instead be the integration of development and conservation consistent with ecosystem-based management goals. This result suggests that reconciling competing demands on coastal habitats should not always result in stark preservation-versus-conversion choices. PMID:18202288

Barbier, Edward B; Koch, Evamaria W; Silliman, Brian R; Hacker, Sally D; Wolanski, Eric; Primavera, Jurgenne; Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Aswani, Shankar; Cramer, Lori A; Stoms, David M; Kennedy, Chris J; Bael, David; Kappel, Carrie V; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Reed, Denise J

2008-01-18

20

Elements for Building a Participatory, Ecosystem-Based Marine Reserve Network  

E-print Network

of a national network of marine reserves to protect multispecies reef fish spawning aggregation sites capital, creating linkages among various stakeholder groups, and building awareness and capacity include. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was particularly generous throughout the process, as they directed funding from

21

Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30 over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to estimate water demand and calculate water use balance in 2015, 2021. The result of the water balance estimation shows that water consumption-use will be increased 3 times in the river basin by 2021. As the water consumption-use source, surface water - 6.4 % and groundwater is 93.6 percent. The current consumption of the mining sector is shares 71 percent of the total users; it would be 82 percent in 2021. However, the livestock water consumption-use is 27 percent of the current demand; it would be decrease up to 16 percent in 2021. Ecosystem based approach IWRM plan would be efficient to the local resident to adapt the climate change situation. Thus, the results of the research study on the river basin ecosystem services and values are the base of the planning.

Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

2014-05-01

22

Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services. Mixed measures are expected to have cumulative benefits which are likely to outweigh disbenefits and packages of actions are recommended rather than individual or localised actions for an integrated catchment management approach. NFM measures have the potential to provide significant environmental gains, however the time lags between the moment these measures are set in place until they become effective must be considered especially in flood vulnerable communities where there is already a stakeholders demand to decrease the risk of flooding even for the current level of exposure.

Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

2014-05-01

23

An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation.  

PubMed

An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

Fulton, Elizabeth A; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C; Johnson, Penelope

2014-01-01

24

Feasibility of ecosystem-based management in boreal forests: Management planning tools SFM Network  

E-print Network

was to test the preconception that ecosystem management on natural forest dynamics to which the community had, meeting sites, burial grounds). Closely associated with the values and lifestyles of the community methods designed to reproduce the frequency, severity, size and spatial distribution of natural

Asselin, Hugo

25

A Decision Support System for Ecosystem-Based Management of Tropical Coral Reef Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review a new collaborative program established between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to augment the NOAA Coral Reef Watch decision-support system. NOAA has developed a Decision Support System (DSS) under the Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program to forecast environmental stress in coral reef ecosystems around the world. This DSS uses models and 50 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to generate HotSpot and Degree Heating Week coral bleaching indices. These are used by scientists and resource managers around the world. These users, including National Marine Sanctuary managers, have expressed the need for higher spatial resolution tools to understand local issues. The project will develop a series of coral bleaching products at higher spatial resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR data. We will generate and validate products at 1 km resolution for the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, and test global assessments at 4 and 50 km. The project will also incorporate the Global Coral Reef Millennium Map, a 30-m resolution thematic classification of coral reefs developed by the NASA Landsat-7 Science Team, into the CRW. The Millennium Maps help understand the geomorphology of individual reefs around the world. The products will be available through the NOAA CRW and UNEP-WCMC web portals. The products will help users formulate policy options and management decisions. The augmented DSS has a global scope, yet it addresses the needs of local resource managers. The work complements efforts to map and monitor coral reef communities in the U.S. territories by NOAA, NASA, and the USGS, and is a contribution to international efforts in ecological forecasting of coral reefs under changing environments, coral reef research, resource management, and conservation. Acknowledgement: Funding is provided by the NASA Ecological Forecasting application area and by NOAA NESDIS.

Muller-Karger, F. E.; Eakin, C.; Guild, L. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hu, C.; Lynds, S. E.; Li, J.; Vega-Rodriguez, M.; Coral Reef Watch Decision Support System Team

2010-12-01

26

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

27

A comparison of community and trophic structure in five marine ecosystems based on energy budgets and system metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy budget models for five marine ecosystems were compared to identify differences and similarities in trophic and community structure. We examined the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the combined Norwegian\\/Barents Seas in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Comparable energy budgets

Sarah Gaichas; Georg Skaret; Jannike Falk-Petersen; Jason S. Link; William Overholtz; Bernard A. Megrey; Harald Gjster; William T. Stockhausen; Are Dommasnes; Kevin D. Friedland; Kerim Aydin

2009-01-01

28

Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L; Le Maitre, David C; Nel, Deon C; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W; Forsyth, Greg G; Theron, Andre K; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

29

Natural Hazards in a Changing World: A Case for Ecosystem-Based Management  

PubMed Central

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1?100 year flood event to a 1?80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1?100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L.; Le Maitre, David C.; Nel, Deon C.; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Forsyth, Greg G.; Theron, Andre K.; O'Farrell, Patrick J.; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A.; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

30

Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.  

PubMed

Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Bess catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. PMID:24880221

Corominas, Llus; Neumann, Marc B

2014-10-01

31

Ecosystem-based management of predator-prey relationships: piscivorous birds and salmonids.  

PubMed

Predator-prey relationships are often altered as a result of human activities. Where prey are legally protected, conservation action may include lethal predator control. In the Columbia River basin (Pacific Northwest, USA and Canada), piscivorous predators have been implicated in contributing to a lack of recovery of several endangered anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), and lethal and nonlethal control programs have been instituted against both piscine and avian species. To determine the consequences of avian predation, we used a bioenergetics approach to estimate the consumption of salmonid smolts by waterbirds (Common Merganser, California and Ring-billed Gull, Caspian Tern, Double-crested Cormorant) found in the mid-Columbia River from April through August, 2002-2004. We used our model to explore several predator-prey scenarios, including the impact of historical bird abundance, and the effect of preserving vs. removing birds, on smolt abundance. Each year, <1% of the estimated available salmonid smolts (interannual range: 44,830-109,209; 95% CI = 38,000-137,000) were consumed, 85-98% away from dams. Current diet data combined with historical gull abundance at dams suggests that past smolt consumption may have been 1.5-3 times current numbers, depending on the assumed distribution of gulls along the reaches. After the majority (80%) of salmonid smolts have left the study area, birds switch their diet to predominantly juvenile northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), which as adults are significant native salmonid predators in the Columbia River. Our models suggest that one consequence of removing birds from the system may be increased pikeminnow abundance, which--even assuming 80% compensatory mortality in juvenile pikeminnow survival--would theoretically result in an annual average savings of just over 180,000 smolts, calculated over a decade. Practically, this suggests that smolt survival could be maximized by deterring birds from the river when smolts are present, allowing bird presence after the diet switch to act as a tool for salmonid-predator control, and conducting adult-pikeminnow control throughout. Our analysis demonstrates that identifying the strength of ecosystem interactions represents a top priority when attempting to manage the abundance of a particular ecosystem constituent, and that the consequences of a single-species view may be counterintuitive, and potentially counterproductive. PMID:18488627

Wiese, Francis K; Parrish, Julia K; Thompson, Christopher W; Maranto, Christina

2008-04-01

32

Issues of ecosystem-based management of forage fisheries in open non-stationary ecosystems: the example of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of California system presents major challenges to the still developing frameworks for ecosystem-based management\\u000a (EBM). It is very much an open system and is intermittently subject to important influxes of migratory visitors, including large pelagic predatory fishes and small\\u000a pelagic forage fishes. These migrants include the more tropical species from the coastal ecosystems to the south and perhaps

Andrew Bakun; Elizabeth A. Babcock; Salvador E. Lluch-Cota; Christine Santora; Christian J. Salvadeo

2010-01-01

33

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

34

Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management.  

PubMed

The ecosystem services concept provides both an analytical and communicative tool to identify and quantify the link between human welfare and the environment, and thus to evaluate the ramifications of management interventions. Marine spatial planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) are a form of management intervention that has become increasingly popular and important globally. The ecosystem service concept is rarely applied in marine planning and management to date which we argue is due to the lack of a well-structured, systematic classification and assessment of marine ecosystem services. In this paper we not only develop such a typology but also provide guidance to select appropriate indicators for all relevant ecosystem services. We apply this marine-specific ecosystem service typology to MSP and EBM. We thus provide not only a novel theoretical construct but also show how the ecosystem services concept can be used in marine planning and management. PMID:24076513

Bhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Baulcomb, Corinne; Koss, Rebecca; Hussain, S Salman; de Groot, Rudolf S

2013-11-30

35

Data Base Design with GIS in Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management in Artvin, Turkey: A Case Study in Balc? Forest Management Planning Unit  

PubMed Central

In Turkey, the understanding of planning focused on timber production has given its place on Multiple Use Management (MUM). Because the whole infrastructure of forestry with inventory system leading the way depends on timber production, some cases of bottle neck are expected during the transition period. Database design, probably the most important stage during the transition to MUM, together with the digital basic maps making up the basis of this infrastructure constitute the main point of this article. Firstly, the forest management philosophy of Turkey in the past was shortly touched upon in the article. Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management (EBMUFM) approaches was briefly introduced. The second stage of the process of EBMUFM, database design was described by examining the classical planning infrastructure and the coverage to be produced and consumed were suggested in the form of lists. At the application stage, two different geographical databases were established with GIS in Balc? Planning Unit of the years 1984 and 2006. Following that the related basic maps are produced. Timely diversity of the planning unit of 20 years is put forward comparatively with regard to the stand parameters such as tree types, age class, development stage, canopy closure, mixture, volume and increment. PMID:22573978

Yolas?gmaz, Hac? Ahmet; Keles, Sedat

2009-01-01

36

Management of marine cage aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and BackgroundMarine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage\\u000a the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries\\u000a trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient

Cai Huiwen; Sun Yinglan

2007-01-01

37

Emergency Management Rosenstiel School of Marine &  

E-print Network

Emergency Management Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science HURRICANE GUIDELINES June 03, 2013 #12;Emergency Management This Page Left Intentionally Blank #12;Emergency Management 3 I. Table. Emergency Management / Campus Safety................................................. 16 D. Facilities

Miami, University of

38

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine data is collected by thousands of organisations around the world using a variety of different instruments and platforms. The high cost of its acquisition and the fact that the data itself is often unique and irreplaceable makes its re-use a priority for marine data managers. A significant barrier to the re-use of marine data is often the variety of different formats, standards, vocabularies etc. which have been used by the various organisations engaged with the collection and management of this data at a regional, national and international scale. This lack of a common approach to how the data is managed is also hindering the development of interoperability with other disciplines at a time when there is a need to adopt a more ecosystem based approach to marine research. Initiatives in a number of regions including Europe, USA and Australia are making significant progress in addressing these issues through the development of marine data management infrastructures. However the need for a more holistic approach to marine research necessitates a move towards a common marine data management infrastructure through the development of interoperability between these regional initiatives. To bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the EU, the National Science Foundation in the USA and the Australian government have recently funded the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project. ODIP is a collaborative project between 14 organisations in Europe, USA and Australia engaged in the acquisition and management of marine data. ODIP aims to develop interoperability between the regional marine data management infrastructures and to demonstrate this co-ordination through the development of several joint prototypes that illustrate effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and national boundaries. This will ultimately lead to the development of a common infrastructure for marine data management that can be extended to other organisations and global regions.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger

2013-04-01

39

Marine Planning Benefits the Environment  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

40

Tropical Marine EBM Feasibility: A Synthesis of Case Studies and Comparative Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview compares and synthesizes the articles of this theme issue. It highlights that progress has been made toward the goals of marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) in tropical regions. Four key findings are presented: (1) Tailoring EBM to specific contexts ultimately determines success. (2) Employment of a wide variety of marine management tools is necessary and complementary to spatial management

Patrick Christie; Richard B. Pollnac; David L. Fluharty; Mark A. Hixon; Gordon K. Lowry; Robin Mahon; Diana Pietri; Brian N. Tissot; Alan T. White; Nygiel Armada; Rose-Liza Eisma-Osorio

2009-01-01

41

Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management  

E-print Network

quality, CO 2 , pH, and chemical water quality because theses (EPA) marine water quality criteria for human-induced pHwater quality standards, this is apparent from its high involvement in the Effect category which contained components of carbonate, pH,

Ekstrom, Julia A.

2008-01-01

42

Dealing with uncertainty in ecosystem models: The paradox of use for living marine resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better manage living marine resources (LMRs), it has become clear that ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is a desired approach. To do EBFM, one of the key tools will be to use ecosystem models. To fully use ecosystem models and have their outputs adopted, there is an increasingly recognized need to address uncertainty associated with such modeling activities. Here we characterize uncertainty as applied to ecosystem models into six major factors, including: natural variability; observation error; inadequate communication among scientists, decision-makers and stakeholders; the structural complexity of the model(s) used; outcome uncertainty; and unclear management objectives. We then describe best practices to address each of these uncertainties as they particularly apply to ecosystem models being used in a LMR management context. We also present case studies to highlight examples of how these best practices have been implemented. Although we acknowledge that this work was compiled by ecosystem modelers in an LMR management context primarily for other ecosystem modelers, the principles and practices described herein are also germane for managers, stakeholders and other natural resource management communities. We conclude by emphasizing not only the need to address uncertainty in ecosystem models, but also the feasibility and benefits of doing so.

Link, J. S.; Ihde, T. F.; Harvey, C. J.; Gaichas, S. K.; Field, J. C.; Brodziak, J. K. T.; Townsend, H. M.; Peterman, R. M.

2012-09-01

43

Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications  

E-print Network

A computer-based energy management system for marine applications is presented. The problem of fuel-management for large diesel engines on board ship is discussed. The design of the computer hardware and software are presented including...

Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

1982-01-01

44

In Brief: Developing marine protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A draft framework for the development of a national system of marine protected areas (MPA) has been released for public comment by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under the proposed framework, an MPA is any area of the marine environment that has been reserved by U.S. federal, state, local, or other government regulations ``to provide lasting protection for part or all of the natural and cultural resources therein.'' About 1500 marine conservation areas initially would qualify as MPAs. The national system is intended to guide cooperative efforts among various parties and thus increase protection of these areas. The framework goals for a national system include: advancing conservation and management of marine resources through ecosystem-based approaches, and enhancing effective coordination and integration among MPAs in the national system and within the broader context of ecosystem-based management.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

45

Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.  

PubMed

This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy. PMID:19692167

Kim, Tae-Goun

2009-10-01

46

MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

E-print Network

1 MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Prepared for: BC Fisheries and Fisheries. #12;3 Executive Summary British Columbia's diversity and abundance of marine plants and in particular, kelp species, have long been viewed as an underutilized resource. This report details v British

California at Santa Cruz, University of

47

Comparison of methods for integrating biological and physical data for marine habitat mapping and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important first step in marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management efforts is the creation of benthic habitat maps that allow scientists and managers to understand the distribution of living and non-living resources on the seafloor. However, the location of boundaries between and composition of habitats is highly dependent on the approach taken to integrate abiotic and biotic information. The

E. J. Shumchenia; J. W. King

2010-01-01

48

Long Term Changes in Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Issue focuses on a research article by Barange (2003) that was published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. The article discusses long-term (inter-decadal and longer) patterns of change in marine species in the context of over-exploitation of marine fisheries. Baranges emphasis is use of ecosystem-based management practice to move us towards sustainable fisheries. However, he questions whether we know enough about patterns and causes of long term change in marine ecosystems to develop such practices.

D'Avanzo, Charlene

2010-02-16

49

Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial  

PubMed Central

Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fishfisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea. PMID:19126534

Corkeron, Peter J.

2009-01-01

50

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring  

E-print Network

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring MONITORING REPORT Number 49 Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites

51

Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish

Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

2010-01-01

52

Marine Managed Areas and Associated Fisheries in the US Caribbean.  

PubMed

The marine managed areas (MMAs) of the U.S. Caribbean are summarized and specific data-rich cases are examined to determine their impact upon fisheries management in the region. In this region, the productivity and connectivity of benthic habitats such as mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs is essential for many species targeted by fisheries. A minority of the 39 MMAs covering over 4000km(2) serve any detectable management or conservation function due to deficiencies in the design, objectives, compliance or enforcement. Fifty percent of the area within MMA boundaries had no-take regulations in the U.S. Virgin Islands, while Puerto Rico only had 3%. Six case studies are compared and contrasted to better understand the potential of these MMAs for fisheries management. Signs of success were associated with including sufficient areas of essential fish habitat (nursery, spawning and migration corridors), year-round no-take regulations, enforcement and isolation. These criteria have been identified as important in the conservation of marine resources, but little has been done to modify the way MMAs are designated and implemented in the region. Site-specific monitoring to measure the effects of these MMAs is needed to demonstrate the benefits to fisheries and gain local support for a greater use as a fisheries management tool. PMID:25358299

Schrer-Umpierre, Michelle T; Mateos-Molina, Daniel; Appeldoorn, Richard; Bejarano, Ivonne; Hernndez-Delgado, Edwin A; Nemeth, Richard S; Nemeth, Michael I; Valds-Pizzini, Manuel; Smith, Tyler B

2014-01-01

53

Inadequate Evaluation and Management of Threats in Australia's Marine Parks, Including the Great Barrier Reef, Misdirect Marine Conservation.  

PubMed

The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently. PMID:25358302

Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

2014-01-01

54

77 FR 15722 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...take marine mammals incidental to Russian River estuary management activities. Pursuant...conducted in management of the Russian River estuary in Sonoma County,...

2012-03-16

55

78 FR 14985 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...take marine mammals incidental to Russian River estuary management activities. Pursuant...conducted in management of the Russian River estuary in Sonoma County,...

2013-03-08

56

Trophic structure of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in 2000-2006: Insights on the effects of management scenarios for the hake fishery using the IBM trophic model Osmose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The individual-based trophic model Osmose is applied to the upwelling marine ecosystem off the coast of Peru. The dynamics and life cycle of eight major species of the Peruvian marine ecosystem are explicitly considered in the model. Reference simulations provide an overview of the trophic structure of the Peruvian ecosystem during the period 2000-2006. Results of model calibration and simulations are discussed in the light of current empirical knowledge on the trophic functioning of the Peruvian ecosystem and are compared to outputs obtained recently using the trophic model Ecopath. The impacts on the ecosystem of restoration plans for the depleted hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) population are explored through two management scenarios: a) a long term reduction of fishing effort targeting hake and b) a moratorium on the hake fishery. The simulations help better understand the recent failure of a 20 month hake moratorium and provide long-term strategic support to ecosystem-based management. Limits of our approach are discussed and recommendations are detailed for future developments of the Osmose model and ecosystem approach to fishery management in the Peruvian context.

Marzloff, Martin; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Tam, Jorge; Travers, Morgane; Bertrand, Arnaud

2009-01-01

57

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

2013-01-01

58

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

2014-01-01

59

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

2012-01-01

60

Optimization of Load Dependent Start Tables in Marine Power Management Systems with Blackout Prevention  

E-print Network

. Key­Words: - Marine power system, power management, optimization, fuel consumption, blackout1 Optimization of Load Dependent Start Tables in Marine Power Management Systems with Blackout procedures embedded in the power management system with regards to an overall vessel's safety

Johansen, Tor Arne

61

A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Marine Spatial Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.

Teh, Lydia C. L.; Teh, Louise S. L.

2011-04-01

62

Characterizing changes in marine ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

The benefits of marine ecosystems for people are increasingly being characterized through the concept of ecosystem services, with the promise to aid decision making from marine spatial planning to ecosystem-based management. The characterization of changes in marine ecosystem services is central to the application of ecological science to policy contexts, and this field is quickly evolving with innovations in frameworks for integrating science, understanding of ecosystems and human benefits, and innovations in tools for the modeling of services. In this article, we review efforts to characterize changes in marine ecosystem services, including recent advances, and we propose five key future directions for research: cultural values, qualitative or semi-quantitative modeling approaches, cumulative impacts, model evaluation, and markets. PMID:21173860

Ruckelshaus, Mary

2010-01-01

63

From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems, with case studies from temperate Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of Ecosystem Based Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We

Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey

64

Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198

Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

2013-04-01

65

Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management  

PubMed Central

Marine protected areas (MPAs) that exclude fishing have been shown repeatedly to enhance the abundance, size, and diversity of species. These benefits, however, mean little to most marine species, because individual protected areas typically are small. To meet the larger-scale conservation challenges facing ocean ecosystems, several nations are expanding the benefits of individual protected areas by building networks of protected areas. Doing so successfully requires a detailed understanding of the ecological and physical characteristics of ocean ecosystems and the responses of humans to spatial closures. There has been enormous scientific interest in these topics, and frameworks for the design of MPA networks for meeting conservation and fishery management goals are emerging. Persistent in the literature is the perception of an inherent tradeoff between achieving conservation and fishery goals. Through a synthetic analysis across these conservation and bioeconomic studies, we construct guidelines for MPA network design that reduce or eliminate this tradeoff. We present size, spacing, location, and configuration guidelines for designing networks that simultaneously can enhance biological conservation and reduce fishery costs or even increase fishery yields and profits. Indeed, in some settings, a well-designed MPA network is critical to the optimal harvest strategy. When reserves benefit fisheries, the optimal area in reserves is moderately large (mode ?30%). Assessing network design principals is limited currently by the absence of empirical data from large-scale networks. Emerging networks will soon rectify this constraint. PMID:20200311

Gaines, Steven D.; White, Crow; Carr, Mark H.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

66

Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

67

Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

2013-01-15

68

Bridging Knowledges: Understanding and Applying Indigenous and Western Scientific Knowledge for Marine Wildlife Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural knowledge sharing in natural resource management is receiving growing academic attention. Further consideration is necessary regarding how indigenous and Western knowledges are understood and validated by resource managers. Using a marine co-management case study in northern Australia, we explored how indigenous and nonindigenous managers engage with indigenous and Western scientific knowledge. Interview participants discussed the utility of empirical information

Kristen Weiss; Mark Hamann; Helene Marsh

2012-01-01

69

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Crcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

70

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Crcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

71

Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management  

E-print Network

modeling, grid power demand, energy storage. I. INTRODUCTION Highly predictable tidal resources and highApplication of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management Zhibin Zhou.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr, thtang@shmtu.edu.cn Abstract--Predictable tidal current resources make marine current turbine (MCT

Brest, Université de

72

Assessment of Management Options in Marine Fisheries by Qualitative Modelling Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective management of the rapidly dwindling marine fish resources is of great ecological, economic and social importance for the future. An over-development of commercial fisheries has brought about a multitude of negative environmental impacts, such as an accelerated exploitation of stocks or a decrease of marine biodiversity, and furthermore, a profound structural change in fish industry. However, the main

K. Eisenack; J. Kropp

2001-01-01

73

End-To-End Models for the Analysis of Marine Ecosystems: Challenges, Issues, and Next Steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in models of marine ecosystems that deal with the effects of climate change through the higher trophic levels. Such end-to-end models combine physicochemical oceanographic descriptors and organisms ranging from microbes to higher-trophic-level (HTL) organisms, including humans, in a single modeling framework. The demand for such approaches arises from the need for quantitative tools for ecosystem-based management,

Kenneth A. Rose; J. Icarus Allen; Yuri Artioli; Manuel Barange; Jerry Blackford; Franois Carlotti; Roger Cropp; Ute Daewel; Karen Edwards; Kevin Flynn; Simeon L. Hill; Reinier HilleRisLambers; Geir Huse; Steven Mackinson; Bernard Megrey; Andreas Moll; Richard Rivkin; Baris Salihoglu; Corinna Schrum; Lynne Shannon; Yunne-Jai Shin; S. Lan Smith; Chris Smith; Cosimo Solidoro; Michael St. John; Meng Zhou

2010-01-01

74

Two Approaches to Ecosystem-based Management in British Columbia  

E-print Network

: Soudeh Jamshidian PhD Student Ken Lertzman Senior Supervisor Professor Evelyn Pinkerton Supervisor and guidance of Prof. Ken Lertzman and Prof. Evelyn Pinkerton from whom I learned so much. I am forever deepy grateful. Thank you to Prof. Diana Allen who has supported and funded my research through

Pedersen, Tom

75

Ecosystem-Based Management in the Whitebark Pine Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating white- bark pine forests. Preliminary results indicate these restoration treatments are successfully restoring the fire processes at a small scale,

Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart

76

New Tools to Meet New Challenges: Emerging Technologies for Managing Marine Ecosystems for Resilience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience provides an overview of current techniques used in evaluating marine ecosystem health. The goal of this article is to highlight evolving tools, recent advances, and emerging techniques that are being used to understand natural variability in marine ecosystems. These technical approaches range from the tagging of large pelagic organisms to the use of genomics to provide insight into the abundance and health of marine organisms. Although these techniques vary dramatically in scale, they share the potential to remove critical impediments to the effective management of marine systems.

GRETCHEN E. HOFMANN (University of California, Santa Barbara;); STEVEN D. GAINES (University of California, Santa Barbara;)

2008-01-01

77

Marine biosecurity: the importance of awareness, support and cooperation in managing a successful incursion response.  

PubMed

Shipping is almost certainly the most prevalent human-mediated transport vector for non-indigenous species (NIS) within the marine environment. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has long acknowledged the importance of sound environmental management and in recent years has taken a proactive approach to addressing risks associated with marine biosecurity. primarily as a result of biofouling on Navy vessel returning from overseas operations. This paper describes two case studies that highlight the effectiveness of the RAN marine biosecurity management framework in identifying an unwanted marine species on Navy vessels, and the successful biosecurity management program that ensued. In particular, the early detection and identification of a suspect NIS, the quick response to the discovery and the collaborative approach adopted between the RAN and the Government regulatory agency (Western Australian Department of Fisheries) charged with coordinating the incursion response serves as a model for how future incursion responses should be reported and managed. PMID:22748502

Piola, Richard F; McDonald, Justin I

2012-09-01

78

Reintroduction to the Wild as an Option for Managing Navy Marine Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Biosciences Division (Code 51) of the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division (NRaD) investigated and evaluated reintroduction to the wild as an option for managing the Navy's marine mammals. Data were gathered from expert ...

R. L. Brill, W. A. Friedl

1993-01-01

79

Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial ecology research group, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Yerseke 4400 AC, the  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Yerseke 4400 AB, the Netherlands. 4 Delft of shorelines to keep up with relative sea-level rise (Fig. 1). In recent years, ecosystem-based flood defence

Cai, Long

80

Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more traditional stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airam, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

2009-12-01

81

The Australian Ocean Data Network as a tool for supporting management of marine biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN) is a rapidly growing distributed data network bringing together marine data collections from Commonwealth Agencies, Universities, State Governments, national programs and private industry. These data are made publicly available through the AODN portal (http://portal.aodn.org.au), an open source information infrastructure itself downloadable from https://github.com/aodn/aodn-portal. Increasingly, the data collections are multi-disciplinary requiring access to multiple layers of information from different sources. This requires rich metadata to enable the appropriate layers to be discovered and integrated. Recently, the Marine Biodiversity Hub of the National Environmental Research Program (NERP), funded by the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, has commited to making its data publicly available through the AODN. The next 3-4 years provide a key opportunity to fundamentally change the way we monitor marine biodiversity throughout Australia. The Hub collaborates with the Department and stakeholders to understand ecosystems and biodiversity especially in Northern Australia. Key outcomes will include better methods for measuring ecosystem health and Marine Protected Area (MPA) performance, more management options, and increased understanding of marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, leading to improved monitoring and management of marine biodiversity and listed species in Australia. The ability to bring together the wide range of data necessary to fulfil the Marine Biodiversity Hub's aims represents a challenge for the AODN. This will be illustrated through a test case based on marine park requirements.

Proctor, Roger; Dunstan, Piers; Hedge, Paul; Atkins, Natalia; Mancini, Sebastien; Bax, Nic

2013-04-01

82

An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.

Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

2003-10-14

83

Attitudes and perceptions of indigenous fishermen towards marine resource management in Kuna Yala, Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kuna are a strong and independent culture, however outside influences are imposing growing pressure on their people. Overpopulation and large-scale overfishing are among the most severe threats. The Kuna have developed their own management strategies to address these pressing issues. This study presents local perceptions and attitudes towards marine resource management of six indigenous fishing communities in Kuna Yala,

Stefanie Hoehn; Brijesh Thapa

2009-01-01

84

Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whale shark is the largest fish in the ocean. A tourism industry based on interacting with whale sharks has developed recently in Ningaloo Marine Park, off the coast of Western Australia. This is the only known, accessible place in the world where whale sharks congregate in significant numbers. Results from surveys of participants in the whale shark experience are

Alastair Birtles; Peter Valentine; Michael Cuthill

1997-01-01

85

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences University Marine Biological Station MSc Marine Ecology and Environmental Management  

E-print Network

and other facilities, and to enjoy the experience of being based in a National Facility for Marine Biology;3 Programme Modules Modules comprise a variety of lectures, seminars, and practical and written exercises additional information at a relevant time relating to how these are submitted electronically (for plagiarism

Chittka, Lars

86

Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.  

PubMed

The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

2014-09-15

87

New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

2009-01-01

88

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the regions locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

89

Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial shift toward use of marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation and fisheries management is currently underway.\\u000a This shift to explicit spatial management presents new challenges and uncertainties for ecologists and resource managers.\\u000a In particular, the potential for MPAs to change population sustainability, fishery yield, and ecosystem properties depends\\u000a on the poorly understood consequences of three critical forms of

Louis W. Botsford; Daniel R. Brumbaugh; Churchill Grimes; Julie B. Kellner; John Largier; Michael R. OFarrell; Stephen Ralston; Elaine Soulanille; Vidar Wespestad

2009-01-01

90

An ecosystem-based approach to assess the status of a Mediterranean ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow.  

PubMed

Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

Personnic, Sbastien; Boudouresque, Charles F; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Grard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jrmy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

2014-01-01

91

Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queenslands State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is complying with all relevant legislation and policies. Further research is required to confirm compliance and conclude that military activities have good accord with environmental management objectives.

Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

2010-05-01

92

Changes in the marine pollution management system in response to the Amorgos oil spill in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The Marine Pollution Control Act (MPCA) of Taiwan was promulgated on November 1, 2000, with the specific aim of controlling marine pollution, safeguarding public health, and promoting the sustainable use of marine resources. In addition to land-based pollution, oil spills are one of the most significant threats to the local marine environment largely on account of the some 30,000 tankers which pass through Taiwan's coastal waters each year. In January 2001, two months after the enactment of this newly-introduced law, a Greek merchant vessel, the Amorgos ran aground in the vicinity of a national park on the southern tip of Taiwan, causing a serious oil spill and leading to considerable changes with regard to the marine pollution management system. The incident brought to the forefront many serious problems, such as a lack of experience, expertise as well as equipment required to respond to such disasters, as well as the ambiguous, unclear jurisdiction among related agencies. Thus, this paper reviews the incident of the Amorgos spill, identifies the major issues and lessons learned, and proposes several recommendations in an effort for Taiwan to further improve its marine pollution management system. PMID:16291204

Chiau, Wen-Yen

2005-01-01

93

Implications of variability on many time scales for scientific advice on sustainable management of living marine resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual basis for understanding and management of living marine resources is built on three basic ecological principles developed in the first half of the past century: the law of the minimum, competitive exclusion, and succession. This paper highlights aspects of these principles that make them insufficient as a sound foundation for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, points out dangers

Jake Rice

2001-01-01

94

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

95

Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management  

PubMed Central

There is a growing focus around the world on marine spatial planning, including spatial fisheries management. Some spatial management approaches are quite blunt, as when marine protected areas (MPAs) are established to restrict fishing in specific locations. Other management tools, such as zoning or spatial user rights, will affect the distribution of fishing effort in a more nuanced manner. Considerable research has focused on the ability of MPAs to increase fishery returns, but the potential for the broader class of spatial management approaches to outperform MPAs has received far less attention. We use bioeconomic models of seven nearshore fisheries in Southern California to explore the value of optimized spatial management in which the distribution of fishing is chosen to maximize profits. We show that fully optimized spatial management can substantially increase fishery profits relative to optimal nonspatial management but that the magnitude of this increase depends on characteristics of the fishing fleet and target species. Strategically placed MPAs can also increase profits substantially compared with nonspatial management, particularly if fishing costs are low, although profit increases available through optimal MPA-based management are roughly half those from fully optimized spatial management. However, if the same total area is protected by randomly placing MPAs, starkly contrasting results emerge: most random MPA designs reduce expected profits. The high value of spatial management estimated here supports continued interest in spatially explicit fisheries regulations but emphasizes that predicted increases in profits can only be achieved if the fishery is well understood and the regulations are strategically designed. PMID:22753469

Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Siegel, David A.

2012-01-01

96

?Ocean biodiversity informatics?: a new era in marine biology research and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean biodiversity informatics (OBI) is the use of computer technologies to manage marine biodiversity information, including data capture, storage, search, retrieval, visualisation, mapping, modelling, analysis and publication. The latest information systems are open-access, making data and\\/or information publicly available over the Internet. This ranges from primary data on species occurrences, such as in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), to

Mark J. Costello; Edward Vanden Berghe

2006-01-01

97

Interactions between poaching and management policy affect marine reserves as conservation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of poaching within marine reserve boundaries under three different management policies this analysis uses a simple age-structured reserve model based on yield maximization or reproductive thresholds of Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Departures from the traditional assumptions of full compliance to reserve boundaries alter the conclusions of prior modeling work that demonstrate yield equivalence to no-reserve effort

Suresh A. Sethi; Ray Hilborn

2008-01-01

98

Biological Assessment of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries and NMFS Managed Endangered Species Act Listed Marine  

E-print Network

Biological Assessment of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries and NMFS Managed Endangered Species Act Listed Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles April 2006 Prepared by NMFS Alaska Region Sustainable Fisheries Division Juneau, Alaska #12;This Page Intentionally Blank #12;i Table of Contents LIST OF FIGURES

99

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

100

The 1994 Net Ban Constitutional Amendment: a case study of marine fisheries management in Florida  

E-print Network

in the management of Florida's marine fisheries resources. This thesis presents a case study of the issues and events leading to the electoral approval of Article X, Section 16 of the Florida Constitution. An in-depth look at the case is presented, highlighting...

Grimes, Shepherd Russell

2012-06-07

101

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

102

MARINE FACILITY / SIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURES Title: Prepared By: Revision No: Section  

E-print Network

MARINE FACILITY / SIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURES Title: Prepared By: Revision No: Section: Policy on Alcoholic E. Buck 1 720 Beverages on Approved By: Effective: Page: SIO Ships T. Althouse 10/9/06 1 of 2 msp720.doc Policy on Alcoholic Beverages on SIO Ships 1.0 PURPOSE 1.1 On October 5, 2006 the UNOLS

Russell, Lynn

103

A conceptual framework for the integral management of marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general conceptual framework for the management of marine protected areas (MPAs) was developed. The driver-pressure-state-impacts-response (DPSIR) framework was used to determine the elements affecting MPAs. The developed evaluation framework helped to select an appropriate suite of indicators to support an ecosystem approach, an assessment of the MPAs functioning and policy decisions. Gaps derived from the management and policy responses

Celia Ojeda-Martnez; Francisca Gimnez Casalduero; Just T. Bayle-Sempere; Carmen Barbera Cebrin; Carlos Valle; Jose Luis Sanchez-Lizaso; Aitor Forcada; Pablo Sanchez-Jerez; Pablo Martn-Sosa; Jess M. Falcn; Fuensanta Salas; Mariagrazia Graziano; Renato Chemello; Ben Stobart; Pedro Cartagena; Angel Prez-Ruzafa; Frderic Vandeperre; Elisabeth Rochel; Serge Planes; Alberto Brito

2009-01-01

104

NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program FY2009 Progress Report Performance Evaluation of Marine Zoning  

E-print Network

This multi-year project has used a multi-tiered approach to evaluate Marine Protected Areas in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. During the Federal Fiscal Year 09 (Oct. 08- Sept. 09), spatial and temporal rates of movement of acoustically tagged snappers and groupers were measured in the Tortugas region, including annual spawning migratory movements between Rileys Hump, the Tortugas Ecological Reserves and the Dry Tortugas National Park, including the Research Natural Area. In addition, the abundance and size-structure of spiny lobsters in and adjacent to the Western Sambo Ecological Reserve were surveyed. Results will be used to assess the importance of habitat linkages between adjacent marine protected areas and provide information for an ecosystem-based approach to management of marine resources.

unknown authors

2009-01-01

105

Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists?  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists B., Martinez C., Imbach P., 2009. Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy and livelihoods depend largely on ecosystem services, policies for adaptation to climate change should take

Boyer, Edmond

106

Marine data management: a positive evolution from JGOFS to OCEANS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JGOFS project has been highly successful in providing new insights into global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and associated elements in the oceans through a multi-national effort at the regional scale (process studies in the North Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific, Southern Ocean and North Pacific), global scale (carbon survey) and from long-term measurements at key ocean sites (time-series). The database thus created is very large and complex in diversity and format, and it is currently managed at the international level, thank to the efforts of the JGOFS Data Management Task Team. To be fully usable for current and future studies, the JGOFS datasets will be organised as a single database (so-called, the International JGOFS Master Dataset), in a single format and in a single location (in the World Data Centre (WDC) system, thanks to an initiative of PANGAEA / WDC-MARE; and on CDs or DVDs) before the end of the project (Dec. 2003). This should be achieved by adapting previously developed tools, especially from the US-JGOFS DMO (for the user query interface) and from ODV/PANGAEA (for the datasets visualization and metadata handling). Whilst the OCEANS project science and implementation plans are being prepared, the international oceanographic community is now hoping to benefit from the JGOFS data management experience and to elaborate beforehand the best design and practices for its data management. The draft OCEANS data management plan (international data policy and recommendations for participating international agencies and national data managers) is presented. This plan should result in the rapid and full availability of data, and its long-term preservation and accessibility, thanks to a better, integrated and fully implemented data management system.

Avril, B.

2003-04-01

107

Congruence among encounters, norms, crowding, and management in a marine protected area.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades, recreation and tourism use has increased at many marine protected areas, generating concerns about impacts of this increasing use on experiences and conditions at these areas (e.g., crowding, conflict). This article uses data from Molokini Shoal Marine Life Conservation District in Hawai'i to examine: (a) reported encounters, crowding, normative tolerances for various use levels, and support of use related management strategies at this site; and (b) whether users who encounter higher use levels than their norms feel more crowded and are more supportive of restrictive management strategies. Data were obtained from onsite pre-trip and post-trip questionnaires of 712 passengers on commercial snorkel and dive tours visiting this site. Norms were measured with acceptance of 12 photographs depicting levels of boat use. On average, users would accept seeing no more than approximately 16 boats at one time at Molokini and this number was observed on over 20% of trips to the site. Although the majority of users expected to escape crowds at Molokini, 67% felt crowded and up to 79% supported actions that would directly restrict use at this site (e.g., limit number of boats). Users who encountered more boats than their normative tolerance felt more crowded and were more supportive of these management strategies. Findings suggest that this marine protected area is operating over its capacity and management is needed to improve experiences and conditions. PMID:21710221

Bell, Caitlin M; Needham, Mark D; Szuster, Brian W

2011-09-01

108

Charging for nature: marine park fees and management from a user perspective.  

PubMed

User fees can contribute to the financial sustainability of marine protected areas (MPAs), yet they must be acceptable to users. We explore changes in the fee system and management of Bonaire National Marine Park (BNMP) from the perspective of users. Responses from 393 tourists indicated that 90% were satisfied with park conditions and considered current user fees reasonable. However, only 47% of divers and 40% of non-divers were prepared to pay more. Diver willingness-to-pay (WTP) appears to have decreased since 1991, but this difference could be due in part to methodological differences between studies. Although current fees are close to diver maximum stated WTP, revenues could potentially be increased by improving the current fee system in ways that users deem acceptable. This potential surplus highlights the value of understanding user perceptions toward MPA fees and management. PMID:21090006

Uyarra, Maria C; Gill, Jennifer A; Ct, Isabelle M

2010-11-01

109

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management  

PubMed Central

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (20002010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2013-01-01

110

Thermodynamic analysis of ecosystem based on remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

key words: ecosystem thermodynamic, energy balance, exergy, Transformation of matter and energy in plant associations and their relationship with other parts of the ecosystem are being determined by the physiological processes in plants. Accordingly, to identify general patterns of ecosystem energy transformation, assessment of an energy balance components reflecting the nature of physiological processes: photosynthesis, transpiration (of which carbon balance is evaluated), water and minerals exchange, is required. Assessment of the main energy variables for ecosystems is possible on the basis of information-thermodynamic approach in which the ecosystem - is an open system, producing yield for self-maintenance on its structure through the conversion of solar energy. In doing so, the distribution of energy absorbed by balance components depends on the structure of the system that determines the nonequilibrium energy conversion. In the information-thermodynamic approach essential component in the transformation of solar energy is exergy - the maximum work that a thermodynamic system may commit during its transition from the current state to the state of equilibrium with the environment. Exergy sometimes called system yield, it is the function of the distance between the current state of the system and thermodynamic equilibrium. Relating to ecosystems, exergy - part of absorbed solar energy, spend on biological productivity and evapotranspiration (exergy of solar radiation). The rest goes into the bound energy - energy transition in the heat flow and entropy, and in increment of internal energy - system energy accumulation wich in its turn spend on maintenance of intercomponent and interspecific interactions, local cycles. Get estimation of energy balance for the entire set of ecosystems based on ground-based measurements is virtually impossible. Such assessments are possible on the basis of remote sensing data, which show the energetic state of the Earth's surface at the time of shooting in different spectral bands. Satellite measurements of reflected solar energy in relation to the solar constant allow the calculation of solar radiation absorbed per unit surface. Heat channel allows to calculate the heat flow from the surface and its temperature. The development of remote sensing and instrument base allows to measure a wide range of ecosystems characteristics: measurements are preformed directly in the field on transects with the regular testing step, and through remote sensing and digital models of different relief. Ultimately, the combination of complex ground and remote measurements in the study of energy balance should promote understanding of the interaction mechanism between relief, soil, vegetation and atmosphere at various hierarchical levels of the landscape cover and create a basis for the development of models describing mesoclimate, as a result of landscape functioning and self-evolution.

Sandlerskiy, Robert; Puzachenko, Yurii

2010-05-01

111

United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement: filling data gaps to better understand the effects of anthropogenic noise on marine life.  

PubMed

Protecting the environment while ensuring the safe development of our Nation's offshore energy(from both renewable and traditional sources) and marine mineral resources is a critical part of the mission of the BOEMRE. The BOEMRE, as with all federal agencies, must consider the potential environmental impacts for every decision made. This includes understanding the potential for and degree of adverse effects that may result from the introduction of anthropogenic noise into the marine environment from BOEMRE-regulated industry sources. The ESP and the TAR Program are integral in helping the BOEMRE achieve this mission because the strength and quality of the environmental decision making can only be as good as the science supporting it. Cumulatively,these research programs help the BOEMRE pursue an adaptive and ecosystem-based approach to its stewardship responsibilities. PMID:22278565

Lewandowski, Jill; Burkhard, Elizabeth; Skrupky, Kimberly; Epperson, Deborah

2012-01-01

112

Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

2013-04-01

113

GENIES/SimCLIM Tools to Support Climate Change Information and Marine Resource Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will significantly impact the global environment, and the faster the change, the greater the risk of damage. The natural environment will be assaulted by increases in sea surface temperature and changes in the biogeochemical cycles of ocean ecosystems. Marine resource managers have begun to realize that the projected impacts of climate change in coastal and marine environments are full of uncertainties, creating enormous challenges when it comes to climate change response planning. CMIP5 GCMs produced a large amount of climate and ocean biogeochemical data for different climate change scenarios, which can provide indispensable information for marine resource planning and decision making. However, for end users, climate and ocean information needs to be processed to make it usable while applying robust scientific methods to make that processing acceptable. SimCLIM/GENIES software provides a comprehensive climate information, data management, and impact assessment platform. The software system consists of historical data and projections for atmospheric and oceanic variables, including air-temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sea surface temperature, ocean primary production, pH, pCO2, DIO, and DIC, with the potential for other data layers. These data are pre-processed using different downscaling and pattern scaling approaches, and then stored in a compact format with a very high compression ratio, which makes them more transferable. Users can carry out statistical and ensemble analyses with the software in order to better understand uncertainties. Within the software system, historical climate data, a climate change scenario generator, and impact assessment tools are all integrated into a single platform. They are policy-maker and end-user oriented and present climate information in a friendly and easily understandable manner with excellent spatial visualization tools. Moreover, the system provided and released an ArcGIS/marine add-in, which allows ArcGIS users to directly use climate information in their familiar software environment. GENIES is a decision support system built on a system dynamics simulation library with powerful simulation capabilities and great flexibility in simulation architecture, control, construction and integration. GENIES uses a visual coupling tool for data conversion, and dynamic updating of workflows. A user can easily build, extend and revise their own/already existing models when a new domain is explored or new questions arise, even during the runtime. Marine resources management model tools can be either coupled or developed with GENIES in a fast and friendly way. A coral reef impact model is developed as a demonstration.

Li, Y.; Urich, P.; Yin, C.; Kouwenhoven, P.; CLIMsystems Team

2013-05-01

114

77 FR 24990 - Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. OSHA-2012-0016] Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards; Extension...contained in the Standards on Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917) and Longshoring...C. 657). The Standards on Marine Terminals and Longshoring contain a number of...

2012-04-26

115

Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries, this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures appear to reflect local socioeconomic conditions in two Papua New Guinean communities. Attributes of the customary management (including size, shape, permanence, and gear restrictions) are examined in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions (including resource users ability to switch gears, fishing grounds, and occupations). Customary closures in the two communities appear to reflect local socioeconomic circumstances in three ways. First, in situations where people can readily switch between occupations, full closures are acceptable with periodic harvests to benefit from the closure. In comparison, communities with high dependence on the marine resources are more conducive to employing strategies that restrict certain gear types while still allowing others. Second, where there is multiple clan and family spatial ownership of resources, the communities have one closure per clan/family; one large no-take area would have disproportionate affect on those compared to the rest of the community. In contrast, communities that have joint ownership can establish one large closure as long as there are other areas available to harvest. Third, historical and trade relationships with neighboring communities can influence regulations by creating the need for occasional harvests to provide fish for feasts. This study further demonstrates the importance of understanding the socioeconomic context of factors such as community governance and levels of dependence for the conservation of marine resources.

Cinner, J. E.

2007-12-01

116

Fisheries management under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to determine what steps might be taken to ensure that fishery management plans (FMPs) developed under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) are ecologically sound and fully consistent with the FCMA and with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The relevant provisions of the three Acts were

Hammond; K. A. G

1980-01-01

117

The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to manage the wide variety of marine information as common vocabularies, Catalogues (CSR & EDIOS), Data and Metadata. 3.Other tools for analysis and data management - Import_DB: Script to import data and metadata from the Medatlas ASCII files into the database. - SelDamar/Selavi: interface with the database for local and web access. Allows selective retrievals applying the criteria introduced by the user, as geographical bounds, data responsible, cruises, platform, time periods, etc. Includes also statistical reference values calculation, plotting of original and mean profiles together with vertical interpolation. - ExtractDAMAR: Script to extract data when they are archived in ASCII files that meet the criteria upon an user request through SelDamar interface and export them in ODV format, making also a unit conversion.

Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

2010-05-01

118

Tropical Marginal Seas: Priority Regions for Managing Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems - coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes - and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence - from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas - but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

McKinnon, A. David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

119

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jimnez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimnez-Aleixandre, Mara-Pilar

2012-01-01

120

Case studies of ecosystem-based approaches to remediation  

SciTech Connect

Applications of the ecological sciences to site remediation have becoming increasingly common, as objectives have expanded from surface stabilization and aesthetic improvement to actual ecosystem reconstruction. In the fields of surface mining reclamation, specific techniques are often applied to common problems such as slope instability and erosion. The influence of larger scale physical and biological pressures on a site from the surrounding ecosystem, such as vegetation succession, is usually ignored. These processes affect the success of reclamation techniques, the management effort required to achieve success, the appropriateness of choices where alternative techniques exist, and the long term ecosystem sustainability. We stress a need for design approaches that examine the broad ecological context of site specific projects. Using cases study examples, we discuss cost-effective considerations including successional trajectory, bioregional wildlife and vegetation management criteria, and large scale biodiversity targets. Such considerations are used in establishing goals for site specific projects, and as tools in choosing appropriate techniques. In one example, the rehabilitation design for a limestone quarry in southern Ontario addressed regional aquatic habitat requirements, wildlife and forest community targets, and bioregional populations of internationally significant species, while at the same time minimizing approval and maintenance issues.

Trimble, K.

1996-12-31

121

Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

2011-12-01

122

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales  

PubMed Central

Background Resolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques including site-based monitoring, genetic analyses, mark-recapture studies and telemetry can facilitate robust definitions of population segments at multiple biological and spatial scales to address different management and research challenges. Methodology/Principal Findings To address these issues for marine turtles, we collated all available studies on marine turtle biogeography, including nesting sites, population abundances and trends, population genetics, and satellite telemetry. We georeferenced this information to generate separate layers for nesting sites, genetic stocks, and core distributions of population segments of all marine turtle species. We then spatially integrated this information from fine- to coarse-spatial scales to develop nested envelope models, or Regional Management Units (RMUs), for marine turtles globally. Conclusions/Significance The RMU framework is a solution to the challenge of how to organize marine turtles into units of protection above the level of nesting populations, but below the level of species, within regional entities that might be on independent evolutionary trajectories. Among many potential applications, RMUs provide a framework for identifying data gaps, assessing high diversity areas for multiple species and genetic stocks, and evaluating conservation status of marine turtles. Furthermore, RMUs allow for identification of geographic barriers to gene flow, and can provide valuable guidance to marine spatial planning initiatives that integrate spatial distributions of protected species and human activities. In addition, the RMU framework including maps and supporting metadata will be an iterative, user-driven tool made publicly available in an online application for comments, improvements, download and analysis. PMID:21253007

Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Hurley, Brendan J.; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Duenas, Raquel Briseno; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Godfrey, Matthew H.; Hamann, Mark; Lopez-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Troeng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

2010-01-01

123

Benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic marine landscapes are a combination of ecologically relevant hydrographical and geological datasets that characterize potential broad scale habitat distribution patterns with the overall aim to allocate conservation efforts on biodiversity and spaces instead of single species. At the best the benthic marine landscapes describe both the habitat distribution as well as the characteristics of the physical environment. This kind of spatial knowledge that informs both about geology and biology at the regional scale is very usable in ecosystem based management (ESBM) of marine areas. Here we will present the benthic marine landscapes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland at the scale of 1:500 000 and explain the analysis methods behind. The study area in the Eastern Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is a transboundary marine area shared by Finland and Russia. The HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan along with EU, Finnish and Russian legislation requires both countries to identify and assess the state of the marine environment in the Gulf of Finland. These appoint the need for shared knowledge on the marine environment, its state, physical characteristics and distribution of habitats among others. In order to produce ecologically relevant marine landscapes we have collected geological, hydrographical and biological data from the transboundary study area and studied their correlation. The statistical analyses have been run with Primer -software (BEST and LINKTREE). The study is a part of ENPI CBC funded Finnish-Russian co-operation project, the TOPCONS (http://www.merikotka.fi/topcons/). Project aims to develop innovative spatial tools for the regional planning of the sea areas in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. The objective is to create methodology and tools to map the locations of the most diverse and sensitive marine landscapes. These will help the society when striving for the sustainable consolidation of human activities and the marine nature values. The TOPCONS is implemented in close relationship to the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU).

Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Orlova, Marina; Ronkainen, Minna; Rousi, Heta; Ryabchuk, Daria

2014-05-01

124

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2  

E-print Network

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2 , Qinghua Zheng1, 2 that an e-learning ecosystem is the next generation e- learning. However, the current models of e-learning computation and storage resources for e- learning ecosystems. Cloud computing is a promising infrastructure

Li, Haifei

125

A risk management decision: Developing a training program to prevent marine transfer spills  

SciTech Connect

Does a company really need to develop a training program to prevent marine transfer spills? The answer is yes. In today`s competitive global market the government, the community, the stockholders, and competitors expect one to be nothing short of perfect, that is, have zero pollution incidents. If and when one is less than perfect, each of the entities will hold one accountable in ways that one may not appreciate. A company can avert crises, both major and minor, with the utilization and management of an information system. The paper looks at some of the determining factors that would influence the decision to develop a Spill Prevention Program and how this approach can boost profits, improve one`s image with the buying public, increase one`s standing with government, community, and stockholders, and place one ahead of the competition.

Richards, S. [Pollution Control Representatives, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-09-01

126

MANAGING MULTIPLE VECTORS for MARINE INVASIONS in an1 INCREASINGLY CONNECTED WORLD2  

E-print Network

invasion risk for coastal marine and41 estuarine species.42 Rachel Fontana, PhD, is an environmental and coastal marine ecologist who studies the30 ecological effects of non-native species and applies results and coastal restoration.46 #12; 3 A. Whitman Miller, PhD, is a Research Scientist who studies marine

Ishida, Yuko

127

The northeast US application of ATLANTIS: A full system model exploring marine ecosystem dynamics in a living marine resource management context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding marine ecosystem dynamics is a key challenge and opportunity facing us. One of the ways we can continue to unravel and understand marine ecosystem dynamics is via ecosystem modeling. We used one such model, ATLANTIS, to help explore the dynamics of the Northeast United States (NEUS) Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). We have parameterized ATLANTIS for the NEUS LME by including major functional groups across a range of biota, the physiographic dynamics of the ecosystem, and the major fishing fleets. The objectives of this work were to describe the application of this ATLANTIS NEUS model; briefly highlight modeling skill; note areas for further improvement, data gaps, major lessons learned, and how our understanding of the ecosystem was enhanced as we executed the modeling process; and note how these model outputs could inform living marine resource management in this region. The preliminary results we show here describe outputs from a multivariate, multispecies, multifactorial modeling approach. Our modeling skill is reasonable, as determined by the fact that over 90% of our fleet effort estimates, nearly 80% of our functional group catches, and 100% of our main functional group biomasses were within limits of tolerance. Moreover, the general patterns and phenology of major events were replicated consistently, both in space and time across a broad suite of physical, chemical, biological and human factors. These include several taxa groups such as primary producers, zooplankton, benthos, fishes, marine mammals, as well as nutrients, landings, and fishing effort. Conversely, as expected, there were some groups or fleets that did exceed levels of tolerance. These were mostly invertebrate groups such as shrimp, squid or gelatinous zooplankton, groups which are notorious for being difficult to model. Yet the major taxa groups and main fishing fleets were all well within levels of tolerance. Thus, we assert that with the majority of all main processes and state variables simulated, this ATLANTIS model can indeed reasonably approximate observations for the NEUS LME across a range of factors, and more importantly can be used to evaluate the relative prominence across a range of factors that contribute to the dynamics of this marine ecosystem.

Link, Jason S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Gamble, Robert J.

2010-10-01

128

Tropical marginal seas: priority regions for managing marine biodiversity and ecosystem function.  

PubMed

Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems-coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes-and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence-from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas-but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs. PMID:24128091

McKinnon, A David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J W; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J

2014-01-01

129

The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2003-01-01

130

Achieving a paradigm shift in environmental and living resources management in the Gulf of Guinea: the large marine ecosystem approach.  

PubMed

The Gulf of Guinea is situated in the narrow protrusion of eastern Equatorial Atlantic between latitudes 2 degrees S and 5 degrees N and longitudes 8 degrees W to 12 degrees E, spanning a coastline length of approximately 130 nautical miles. The dominant feature of this shallow ocean off the coast of countries in Western Africa is the Guinea Current. The distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophodynamics of this shallow ocean qualify it as a large marine ecosystem (LME) and is indeed recognized as the number 28 of the 64 delineated LMEs globally. This area is one of the world's productive marine areas that is rich in fishery resources, oil and gas reserves, precious minerals and an important global reservoir of marine biological diversity. Unfortunately, pollution from residential and industrial sources has affected the waters of the Gulf of Guinea resulting in habitat degradation, loss of biological diversity and productivity, and degenerating human health. In reversing this trend of marine environmental degradation, the countries of the region adopted an integrated and holistic approach using the LME concept to sustainably manage the environmental and living resources of the region. The concept is predicated on the fact that marine environmental pollution and living resources respect no political or geographical boundaries and so require a holistic and regional approach for its management. The Gulf of Guinea countries through the Global Environment facility funded regional/communal project on water pollution control and biodiversity conservation achieved a paradigm shift in living resources and environmental management in the region using the LME concept. PMID:12787623

Ukwe, C N; Ibe, C A; Alo, B I; Yumkella, K K

2003-01-01

131

The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

2008-10-01

132

Cost Effectiveness Study of Wastewater Management Systems for Selected U.S. Coast Guard Vessels. Volume V. Characteristics and Cost Estimates of Selected Marine Sanitary Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full characterization is presented of five Marine Sanitary Devices (MSDs) which were hybridized to form the subsystems of 18 candidate Wastewater Management System (WMS) concepts considered in this study. The five MSDs considered are: Jered Sewage Dispo...

S. Orbach

1977-01-01

133

Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

2014-01-01

134

Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

2013-10-01

135

Evolutionary techniques for sensor networks energy optimization in marine environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of coastal and offshore ecosystems, such as for example coral reef environments, requires the collection of accurate data across various temporal and spatial scales. Accordingly, monitoring systems are seen as central tools for ecosystem-based environmental management, helping on one hand to accurately describe the water column and substrate biophysical properties, and on the other hand to correctly steer sustainability policies by providing timely and useful information to decision-makers. A robust and intelligent sensor network that can adjust and be adapted to different and changing environmental or management demands would revolutionize our capacity to wove accurately model, predict, and manage human impacts on our coastal, marine, and other similar environments. In this paper advanced evolutionary techniques are applied to optimize the design of an innovative energy harvesting device for marine applications. The authors implement an enhanced technique in order to exploit in the most effective way the uniqueness and peculiarities of two classical optimization approaches, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms. Here, this hybrid procedure is applied to a power buoy designed for marine environmental monitoring applications in order to optimize the recovered energy from sea-wave, by selecting the optimal device configuration.

Grimaccia, Francesco; Johnstone, Ron; Mussetta, Marco; Pirisi, Andrea; Zich, Riccardo E.

2012-10-01

136

Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: A globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves  

PubMed Central

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:20176947

McCook, Laurence J.; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J. Howard; Evans, Richard D.; De Freitas, Debora M.; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Pressey, Robert L.; Russ, Garry R.; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R.; Williamson, David H.

2010-01-01

137

[Advanced approaches to studying the population diversity of marine fishes: new opportunities for fisheries control and management].  

PubMed

Recent conceptual and technological advances now enable fisheries geneticists to detect and monitor the dynamics and distribution of marine fish populations more effectively than ever before. Information on the extent of genetically-based divergence among populations, so-called "population diversity", is crucial in the quest to manage exploited living resources sustainably since it endows evolutionary potential in the face of environmental change. The generally limited dialogue between scientists, fisheries managers and policy makers, however, continues to constrain integration of population genetic data into tangible policy applications. Largely drawing on the approach and outputs from a European research project, FishPopTrace, we provide an example how the uncovering of marine fish population diversity enables players from genetics, forensics, management and the policy realm to generate a framework tackling key policy-led questions relating to illegal fishing and traceability. We focus on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in European populations of cod, herring, hake and common sole, and explore how forensics together with a range of analytical approaches, and combined with improved communication of research results to stakeholders, can be used to secure sufficiently robust, tractable and targeted data for effective engagement between science and policy. The essentially binary nature of SNPs, together with generally elevated signals of population discrimination by SNPs under selection, allowed assignment of fish to populations from more areas and with higher certainty than previously possible, reaching standards suitable for use in a court of law. We argue that the use of such tools in enforcement and deterrence, together with the greater integration of population genetic principles and methods into fisheries management, provide tractable elements in the arsenal of tools to achieve sustainable exploitation and conservation of depleted marine fish stocks. PMID:22384692

Zelenina, D A; Martinson, Ia T; Ogden, R; Volkov, A A; Zelenina, I A; Carvalho, G R

2011-12-01

138

Ecosystem simulations supporting ecosystem-based fisheries management in the Coral Triangle, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive field study ongoing in Eastern Indonesia has provided data for a trophodynamic Ecosim ecosystem model of the Raja Ampat archipelago on the west coast of New Guinea. Model dynamics have been tuned to agree with local catch and relative biomass time series data developed for this project, and validated by experts. The model is used in this article

C. H. Ainsworth; D. A. Varkey; T. J. Pitcher

2008-01-01

139

Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management KALEV JO~ GISTE1  

E-print Network

than intensive, obstinate, artificial-only production-orien- tated strategies. Historically, resource, such as site productivity and average weather patterns, it fails to account for the role of dynamic processes

140

A Decision Support System for Ecosystem-Based Management of Tropical Coral Reef Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a new collaborative program established between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to augment the NOAA Coral Reef Watch decision-support system. NOAA has developed a Decision Support System (DSS) under the Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program to forecast environmental stress in coral reef ecosystems around the world. This DSS

F. E. Muller-Karger; C. Eakin; L. S. Guild; R. R. Nemani; C. Hu; S. E. Lynds; J. Li; M. Vega-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

141

Integration at the Round Table: Marine Spatial Planning in Multi-Stakeholder Settings  

PubMed Central

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is often considered as a pragmatic approach to implement an ecosystem based management in order to manage marine space in a sustainable way. This requires the involvement of multiple actors and stakeholders at various governmental and societal levels. Several factors affect how well the integrated management of marine waters will be achieved, such as different governance settings (division of power between central and local governments), economic activities (and related priorities), external drivers, spatial scales, incentives and objectives, varying approaches to legislation and political will. We compared MSP in Belgium, Norway and the US to illustrate how the integration of stakeholders and governmental levels differs among these countries along the factors mentioned above. Horizontal integration (between sectors) is successful in all three countries, achieved through the use of neutral round-table meeting places for all actors. Vertical integration between government levels varies, with Belgium and Norway having achieved full integration while the US lacks integration of the legislature due to sharp disagreements among stakeholders and unsuccessful partisan leadership. Success factors include political will and leadership, process transparency and stakeholder participation, and should be considered in all MSP development processes. PMID:25299595

Olsen, Erik; Fluharty, David; Hoel, Alf Hakon; Hostens, Kristian; Maes, Frank; Pecceu, Ellen

2014-01-01

142

Recommendations for Integrated Management Using a Cultural Landscape Approach in the National MPA System Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee  

E-print Network

charged the Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee (MPA FAC) with providing guidance on the development of the cultural heritage track of the National System of Marine Protected Areas (national system). In anticipation of this charge, the MPA FAC had augmented its capacities by establishing the Cultural Heritage Resources Working Group (CHRWG) in September 2009, to provide expert advice on improving the comprehensive conservation and management of cultural heritage resources within the national system. The 21-member working group includes six MPA FAC members and brings together people who have an unusually diverse array of cultural and professional backgrounds, and who represent many different interests across the national community. The conservation of the nations cultural heritage is one of the three goals of the National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The national system will strengthen the protection of cultural heritage resources by enhancing coordination among MPAs and by conducting gap analyses to identify areas that contribute to the systems priority conservation objectives that would benefit from additional protection. These objectives include both material cultural and historic resources such as shipwrecks and resources as well as sites important to the cultural

unknown authors

2011-01-01

143

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

2014-05-01

144

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai'i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

145

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or Minerals Management Service inspectors...or Minerals Management Service inspectors...the Minerals Management Service (MMS...activities and risk to life or...recognize valid international certificates accepted by the United States,...

2010-07-01

146

Dendrilla nigra, a marine sponge, as potential source of antibacterial substances for managing shrimp diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra were tested for determining the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Based on the exploratory experiments, the chosen dose of D. nigra (500 mg\\/kg of shrimp) was used for pilot experiment. The percent relative protection (PRP) of shrimps treated with Dendrilla feed and challenged with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen was evaluated. Dendrilla

Joseph Selvin; A. P Lipton

2004-01-01

147

Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure and Management 2 Giuseppe Masetti, Brian Calder and Lee Alexander  

E-print Network

shipwrecks, oil rigs, pipelines, and dumping areas. To adequately assess the environmental risk offices and marine protection agencies. Key words: GML, PPMS, Risk Index, shipwreck, S-100 1. INTRODUCTION proactively at the risks of oil and other pollutants being released from such submerged sources as shipwrecks

New Hampshire, University of

148

The survival of coral reefs requires integrated watershed-based management activities and marine conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

oral reefs are the most diverse of all marine ecosystems, and they are rivaled in biodiversity by few ter- restrial ecosystems. They support peo- ple directly and indirectly by building islands and atolls. They protect shore- lines from coastal erosion, support fish- eries of economic and cultural value, provide diving-related tourism and serve as habitats for organisms that produce natural

Eric Wolanski; Robert Richmond; Laurence McCook; Hugh Sweatman

2003-01-01

149

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use

Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

2009-04-01

150

78 FR 55061 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...paper on GOA Trawl Bycatch Management; Final action on GOA Trawl...on Ecosystem Based Fished Management Workplan. The Advisory Panel...scientific advice for fishery management decisions, the SSC functions as the Councils primary...

2013-09-09

151

76 FR 5141 - Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...development of an Ecosystem Fishery Management Plan (EFMP). At the September...the Council's four fishery management plans (FMPs) to identify existing ecosystem-based principles as well as common management needs that may benefit...

2011-01-28

152

Fiji's Great Astrolabe Lagoon: baseline study and management issues for a pristine marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Astrolabe Lagoon (1845?S,17832?E), located some 70km south of Suva, the capital of Fiji, is a marine environment in relatively pristine condition, impacted only by low human populations on small islands. The Great Astrolabe Reef which encloses the Lagoon is a barrier reef composed of oceanic ribbon reefs. A baseline study of the Lagoon was carried out in 198992

R. J. Morrison; Milika R. Naqasima

1999-01-01

153

Management of marine fish farming in the sub-tropical environment: a modelling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two deterministic models were applied to simulate hydrographic and water quality conditions within a sub-tropical marine fish culture site, where trash fish is used as feed. A two-dimensional, two-layer hydrodynamic model of tidal flows and salt transport calculated the water level, velocity and salinity in each grid cell of 50 m square in each layer within the culture area approximately

R. S. S. Wu; P. K. S. Shin; D. W. MacKay; M. Mollowney; D. Johnson

1999-01-01

154

Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Marine Bacterial Pathogens: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are one of the most common infection syndromes and may be caused by a large number\\u000a of microorganisms. Some principles of aquatic injuries are different than those of land-based trauma. Wounds sustained in\\u000a marine environment are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in different settings. These include Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Shewanella

Renato Finkelstein; Ilana Oren

155

Setting Priorities for the Management of Marine Pests Using a Risk-Based Decision Support Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this framework is to provide an approach to setting priorities that caters for marine biosecurity threats (from\\u000a existing or potential pests) to different types of coastal values or stakeholder sectors (e.g., aquaculture, conservation)\\u000a at different scales of interest (e.g., national vs. internal border control). It is a framework that promotes forward planning\\u000a to avoid poorly informed, ad

B. M. Forrest; M. D. Taylor; J. Sinner

156

Using expert judgment to estimate marine ecosystem vulnerability in the California Current.  

PubMed

As resource management and conservation efforts move toward multi-sector, ecosystem-based approaches, we need methods for comparing the varying responses of ecosystems to the impacts of human activities in order to prioritize management efforts, allocate limited resources, and understand cumulative effects. Given the number and variety of human activities affecting ecosystems, relatively few empirical studies are adequately comprehensive to inform these decisions. Consequently, management often turns to expert judgment for information. Drawing on methods from decision science, we offer a method for eliciting expert judgment to (1) quantitatively estimate the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, (2) help prioritize the management of stressors across multiple ecosystems, (3) evaluate how experts give weight to different criteria to characterize vulnerability of ecosystems to anthropogenic stressors, and (4) identify key knowledge gaps. We applied this method to the California Current region in order to evaluate the relative vulnerability of 19 marine ecosystems to 53 stressors associated with human activities, based on surveys from 107 experts. When judging the relative vulnerability of ecosystems to stressors, we found that experts primarily considered two criteria: the ecosystem's resistance to the stressor and the number of species or trophic levels affected. Four intertidal ecosystems (mudflat, beach, salt marsh, and rocky intertidal) were judged most vulnerable to the suite of human activities evaluated here. The highest vulnerability rankings for coastal ecosystems were invasive species, ocean acidification, sea temperature change, sea level rise, and habitat alteration from coastal engineering, while offshore ecosystems were assessed to be most vulnerable to ocean acidification, demersal destructive fishing, and shipwrecks. These results provide a quantitative, transparent, and repeatable assessment of relative vulnerability across ecosystems to any ongoing or emerging human activity. Combining these results with data on the spatial distribution and intensity of human activities provides a systematic foundation for ecosystem-based management. PMID:20666257

Teck, Sarah J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kappel, Carrie V; Micheli, Fiorenza; Selkoe, Kimberly A; Crain, Caitlin M; Martone, Rebecca; Shearer, Christine; Arvai, Joe; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Grant; Neslo, Rabin; Cooke, Roger

2010-07-01

157

Implications of variability on many time scales for scientific advice on sustainable management of living marine resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual basis for understanding and management of living marine resources is built on three basic ecological principles developed in the first half of the past century: the law of the minimum, competitive exclusion, and succession. This paper highlights aspects of these principles that make them insufficient as a sound foundation for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, points out dangers of continuing to use approaches built on them, and presents alternatives which might be more appropriate and of lower risk. To do this, the paper considers variability of marine ecosystems on annual, medium and long-term time scales, highlighting that these scales correspond to less than, approximately equal to, and much greater than, the generation times of dominant predators in the systems. It also considers how each interval of variability may affect directly ecosystems which are controlled from the bottom up, top down, and middle outward, and how position and duration of forcing affect five types of responses: growth, maturation, recruitment, predation, and competition. Generally these five processes have manifestations at the scale of individuals, populations, and ecosystems, attention is drawn to which manifestations are the most significant for each duration and position of forcing. Effects of some combinations of duration of forcing and position of forcing can be explained reasonably well by conventional ecological theory. For other combinations, particularly forcing at time scales of predator generations on top-down or middle-out ecosystems, theory based on contest competition and equilibria are likely to be misleading. In these systems the major dynamics are transients, when many ecosystems are far from their carrying capacities, so scramble competition dominates, and the carrying capacity is not helpful in explaining the system dynamics. This review clarifies the sorts of questions that we should be asking, in order to begin to understand the transient behaviour of these non-equilibrium ecosystems. The answers to the new classes of questions may lead to great improvements in how ecosystems are managed, as well as how their variation is explained.

Rice, Jake

158

Community-based Restoration Matching Grants Program TNC Global Marine Team & NOAA Restoration Center  

E-print Network

Ecosystem-Based Management. A focal area of particular interest, though not exclusive or limiting, is native support to assist project proponents in the development and implementation of sound coastal restoration

159

Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.  

PubMed

Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning. PMID:24988780

Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, ivind

2014-06-01

160

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

161

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

1972-01-01

162

Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry  

PubMed Central

Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

2012-01-01

163

The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its functioning, and thus be in a position to better protect it. While most of the reef fish surveys are conducted in shallow areas (0-20 m), it is recognized that many commercially exploited fish stocks also utilize deeper habitats (50-400m). However, traditional methods (e.g., hook-and-line) for sampling these bottom fish species cannot be used in many areas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve [now a Monument] and other restricted fishing areas. Our ability to assess and monitor ocean living marine resources is important for ecosystem management as well as for determining the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The development and deployment of non-extractive sampling methods such as autonomous camera systems to collect information about the spatial distribution and relative abundance of bottom fish species is one of the preferred methods. In addition, OER and the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL) were two of the first groups to conduct scientific research in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve after it was established in 2000. Submersible dives (down to 2000 m) or ROV dives into the depths surrounding the remote islands, banks, and atolls have led to dozens of discoveries of new and yet to be identified species.

Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

2012-12-01

164

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this door. Marine Biology I joined the military RIVERSIDE Marine Biology A Thesis submitted in partialBiology

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

165

76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSHA-2011-0066] Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the...contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29 CFR part...contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts for Marine Terminals (29 CFR part...

2011-07-12

166

National Marine Fisheries Service University of Florida 2014 Marine Resources Population Dynamics Workshop Application  

E-print Network

, Conservation Biology, Ecology, Fisheries, Marine Biology, Natural Resource Management, Statistics, Wildlife1 National Marine Fisheries Service ­ University of Florida 2014 Marine Resources Population ETS scores may be requested.) . ADVANCED PLACEMENT If you have taken AP math or statistics exams

Watson, Craig A.

167

National Marine Fisheries Service University of Florida 2013 Marine Resources Population Dynamics Workshop Application  

E-print Network

, Conservation Biology, Ecology, Fisheries, Marine Biology, Natural Resource Management, Statistics, Wildlife1 National Marine Fisheries Service ­ University of Florida 2013 Marine Resources Population ETS scores may be requested.) . ADVANCED PLACEMENT If you have taken AP math or statistics exams

Watson, Craig A.

168

National Marine Fisheries Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NMFS is the federal agency responsible for the stewardship of the nation's living marine resources and their habitat. NOAA Fisheries is responsible for the management, conservation and protection of living marine resources within the United States' Exclusive Economic Zone (water three to 200 mile offshore). Site includes information on the organization of NMFS and features information on many marine science topics, including aquaculture, bycatch, legislation, permits, strandings, and grants.

169

National Marine Sanctuary Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Sanctuary Program identifies, designates and manages areas of the marine environment of special national significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, research, educational, or aesthetic qualities. Access information and pictures of marine sanctuaries all over the U.S. and its territories. Discover ways to get involved with the sanctuary program, no matter where you live. Scientific publications are available for download.

170

New marine studies center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.

171

76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...activities conducted at the mouth of the Russian River, Sonoma County, California. DATES...April 1 to December 31, 2010; and Russian River Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive...

2011-04-26

172

77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management Activities AGENCY...activities conducted at the mouth of the Russian River, Sonoma County, California. DATES...July 2009 to December 2011); Russian River Estuary Outlet Channel Adaptive...

2012-04-24

173

Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses  

SciTech Connect

To support marine ecological resource management and emergency response and to enhance scientific understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in Puget Sound, a real-time Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OFS) was developed by the Coastal Ocean Dynamics & Ecosystem Modeling group (CODEM) of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PS-OFS employs the state-of-the-art three-dimensional coastal ocean model and closely follows the standards and procedures established by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). PS-OFS consists of four key components supporting the Puget Sound Circulation and Transport Model (PS-CTM): data acquisition, model execution and product archive, model skill assessment, and model results dissemination. This paper provides an overview of PS-OFS and its ability to provide vital real-time oceanographic information to the Puget Sound community. PS-OFS supports pacific northwest regions growing need for a predictive tool to assist water quality management, fish stock recovery efforts, maritime emergency response, nearshore land-use planning, and the challenge of climate change and sea level rise impacts. The structure of PS-OFS and examples of the system inputs and outputs, forecast results are presented in details.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Chase, Jared M.; Wang, Taiping

2009-12-01

174

Management of contaminated marine marketable resources after oil and HNS spills in Europe.  

PubMed

Different risk evaluation approaches have been used to face oil and hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spills all over the world. To minimize health risks and mitigate economic losses due to a long term ban on the sale of sea products after a spill, it is essential to preemptively set risk evaluation criteria and standard methodologies based on previous experience and appropriate scientifically sound criteria. Standard methodologies are analyzed and proposed in order to improve the definition of criteria for reintegrating previously contaminated marine marketable resources into the commercialization chain in Europe. The criteria used in former spills for the closing of and lifting of bans on fisheries and harvesting are analyzed. European legislation was identified regarding food sampling, food chemical analysis and maximum levels of contaminants allowed in seafood, which ought to be incorporated in the standard methodologies for the evaluation of the decision criteria defined for oil and HNS spills in Europe. A decision flowchart is proposed that opens the current decision criteria to new material that may be incorporated in the decision process. Decision criteria are discussed and compared among countries and incidents. An a priori definition of risk criteria and an elaboration of action plans are proposed to speed up actions that will lead to prompt final decisions. These decisions, based on the best available scientific data and conducing to lift or ban economic activity, will tend to be better understood and respected by citizens. PMID:24508845

Cunha, Isabel; Neuparth, Teresa; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda

2014-03-15

175

Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: implications for ballast water management.  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with plankton are of importance in marine bioinvasions and the implementation of ship's ballast water treatment technologies. In this study, epibiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with zooplankton, including barnacle nauplii, veliger larvae, and adults of the copepod Oithona sp., were characterized and quantified. Barnacle nauplius and veliger larva harbored ~4.4 10(5)cells ind(-1) whereas Oithona sp. had 8.8 10(5)cells ind(-1). Computation of bacterial contribution based on biovolume indicated that despite being the smallest zooplankton tested, veliger larvae harbored the highest number of bacteria, while barnacle nauplii, the largest of the zooplankton, tested in terms of volume contributed the least. Pulverization of zooplankton led to an increase in bacterial numbers; for example, Vibrio cholerae, which was initially 3.5 10(3), increased to 5.4 10(5)CFU g(-1); Escherichia coli increased from 5.0 10(2) to 1.3 10(4)CFU g(-1); and Streptococcus faecalis increased from 2.1 10(2) to 2.5 10(5)CFU g(-1), respectively. Pulverized zooplankton was aged in the dark to assess the contribution of bacteria from decaying debris. Aging of pulverized zooplankton led to emergence of Chromobacterium violaceum, which is an opportunistic pathogen in animals and humans. PMID:23846742

Khandeparker, Lidita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

2013-09-01

176

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

177

Marine science for strategic planning and management: the requirement for estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic management and planning within estuaries seeks to identify a framework that enshrines sustainability. Within the UK, a scoping exercise has been used to clarify user requirements and define the economic benefits that could be derived from a supporting programme of research. The programme recognises the need for a mix of fundamental, strategic and applied research, to address, in particular,

Ian Townend

2002-01-01

178

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

179

78 FR 23746 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...management as well as the scientific literature, leads us to believe that the effects...exists for pinnipeds at the mouth of the Russian River. Pinnipeds have co-existed with...regarding pupping at the mouth of the Russian River, but SCWA monitors have...

2013-04-22

180

A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited

Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang

2010-01-01

181

A thematic cost-benefit analysis of a marine protected area.  

PubMed

The implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is ultimately a social endeavour to sustain or improve human well-being via the conservation of marine ecosystems. The degree to which ecological gains are realised can depend upon how economic, ecological and social costs (negative impacts) and benefits (positive impacts) are included in the designation and management process. Without the support of key stakeholder groups whose user rights have been affected by the creation of an MPA, human impacts cannot be reduced. This study analyses a three year dataset to understand the themes associated with the economic, environmental and social costs and benefits of an MPA in Lyme Bay, United Kingdom (UK) following its establishment in 2008. Methodologically, the paper presents an ecosystem based management framework for analysing costs and benefits. Two hundred and forty one individuals were interviewed via questionnaire between 2008 and 2010 to determine perceptions and the level of support towards the MPA. Results reveal that despite the contentious manner in which this MPA was established, support for the MPA is strong amongst the majority of stakeholder groups. The level of support and the reasons given for support vary between stakeholder groups. Overall, the stakeholders perceive the social, economic and environmental benefits of the MPA to outweigh the perceived costs. There have been clear social costs of the MPA policy and these have been borne by mobile and static gear fishermen and charter boat operators. Local support for this MPA bodes well for the development of a network of MPAs around the UK coast under the United Kingdom Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009. However, this initial optimism is at risk if stakeholder expectation is not managed and the management vacuum is not filled. PMID:23206804

Rees, Sin E; Attrill, Martin J; Austen, Melanie C; Mangi, Stephen C; Rodwell, Lynda D

2013-01-15

182

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, Mara C.

2014-05-01

183

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

1972-01-01

184

Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris') problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement

Arie Trouwborst

2011-01-01

185

How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazn, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people. PMID:24912580

Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

2014-08-01

186

Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs  

PubMed Central

Measures of trophic position (TP) are critical for understanding food web interactions and human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. Nitrogen stable isotopes (?15N) provide a powerful tool to estimate TP but are limited by a pragmatic assumption that isotope discrimination is constant (change in ?15N between predator and prey, ?15N=3.4), resulting in an additive framework that omits known ?15N variation. Through meta-analysis, we determine narrowing discrimination from an empirical linear relationship between experimental ?15N and ?15N values of prey consumed. The resulting scaled ?15N framework estimated reliable TPs of zooplanktivores to tertiary piscivores congruent with known feeding relationships that radically alters the conventional structure of marine food webs. Apex predator TP estimates were markedly higher than currently assumed by whole-ecosystem models, indicating perceived food webs have been truncated and species-interactions over simplified. The scaled ?15N framework will greatly improve the accuracy of trophic estimates widely used in ecosystem-based management. PMID:24308860

Hussey, Nigel E; MacNeil, M Aaron; McMeans, Bailey C; Olin, Jill A; Dudley, Sheldon FJ; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Fennessy, Sean T; Fisk, Aaron T

2014-01-01

187

Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs.  

PubMed

Measures of trophic position (TP) are critical for understanding food web interactions and human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. Nitrogen stable isotopes (?(15) N) provide a powerful tool to estimate TP but are limited by a pragmatic assumption that isotope discrimination is constant (change in ?(15) N between predator and prey, ?(15) N = 3.4), resulting in an additive framework that omits known ?(15) N variation. Through meta-analysis, we determine narrowing discrimination from an empirical linear relationship between experimental ?(15) N and ?(15) N values of prey consumed. The resulting scaled ?(15) N framework estimated reliable TPs of zooplanktivores to tertiary piscivores congruent with known feeding relationships that radically alters the conventional structure of marine food webs. Apex predator TP estimates were markedly higher than currently assumed by whole-ecosystem models, indicating perceived food webs have been truncated and species-interactions over simplified. The scaled ?(15) N framework will greatly improve the accuracy of trophic estimates widely used in ecosystem-based management. PMID:24308860

Hussey, Nigel E; Macneil, M Aaron; McMeans, Bailey C; Olin, Jill A; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Fennessy, Sean T; Fisk, Aaron T

2014-02-01

188

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses  

PubMed Central

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-01-01

189

Marine Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The five papers in this publication on marine careers were selected so that science teachers, guidance councilors, and students could benefit from the experience and knowledge of individuals active in marine science. The areas considered are indicated by the titles: Professional Careers in Marine Science with the Federal Government, Marine Science

Gordon, Bernard L.

190

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01...inspectors. 140.101 Section 140.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Coast Guard marine inspectors conduct an initial inspection of each fixed OCS...

2013-07-01

191

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01...inspectors. 140.101 Section 140.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Coast Guard marine inspectors conduct an initial inspection of each fixed OCS...

2011-07-01

192

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01...inspectors. 140.101 Section 140.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD...Coast Guard marine inspectors conduct an initial inspection of each fixed OCS...

2012-07-01

193

Communication, its possible role in marine commercial fisheries management: a pilot observation and interview study of the marine commercial fisheries of Texas  

E-print Network

Salmon Fishery A second west coast fishery that has experienced a rapid develop- ment and decline is the U. S. salmon fishery. Royce (1973) suggests that many of the problems and principles of fishery management are found in the salmon fishery..., including fishery regulations, environmental problems, and stock argumentation. The salmon fishery is also marked by problems that are spin-offs of the fishes' complicated life cycle; i. e. , international regulatory problems and the need to manage indi...

DeGeorges, Nicolas Jacques

2012-06-07

194

This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries  

PubMed Central

The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of enlightened self interest underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

Caddy, J.F.; Seijo, J.C.

2005-01-01

195

This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries.  

PubMed

The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of "enlightened self interest" underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

Caddy, J F; Seijo, J C

2005-01-29

196

Patterns of interannual climate variability in large marine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the vulnerability of the Brazilian and western African Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) to local and remote forcing, including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) regime shift. The analyses are based on the total and partial correlation between climate indices (Nio3, tropical South Atlantic (TSA), tropical North Atlantic (TNA) and Antarctic oscillation (AAO) and oceanic and atmospheric variables (sea surface temperature (SST), wind stress, Ekman transport, sea level pressure and outgoing longwave radiation). Differences in the correlation fields between the cold and warm PDO indicate that this mode exerts a significant impact on the thermodynamic balance of the ocean-atmosphere system on the South Atlantic ocean, mainly in the South Brazil and Benguela LMEs. The PDO regime shift also resulted in an increase in the spatial variability of SST and wind stress anomalies, mainly along the western African LMEs. Another important finding is the strong AAO influence on the SST anomalies (SSTA) in the South Brazil LME. It is also striking that TSA modulates the relation between El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and SSTA, by reducing the influence of ENSO on SSTA during the warm PDO period in the North and East Brazil LMEs and in the Guinea Current LME. The relation between AAO and SSTA on the tropical area is also influenced by the TSA. The results shown here give a clear indication that future ecosystem-based management actions aimed at the conservation of marine resources under climate change need to consider the high complexity of basin-scale interactions between local and remote climate forcings, including their effects on the ocean-atmosphere system of the South Atlantic ocean.

Soares, Helena Cachanhuk; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Paes, Eduardo Tavares

2014-06-01

197

Selecting Indicator Portfolios for Marine Species and Food Webs: A Puget Sound Case Study  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States Puget Sound, Washington where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system. PMID:21991305

Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F.; James, C. Andrew; Levin, Phillip S.

2011-01-01

198

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets Viewing services = Mapping of metadata Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products Product services = Generic and standard products Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

2010-05-01

199

Marine Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biotechnology based upon genes from the marine environment (sometimes referred to as blue-biotechnology) has a considerable,\\u000a if hitherto relatively unused, potential because of the enormous phylogenetic diversity of marine organisms and the potential\\u000a for novel undiscovered biological mechanisms, including biochemical pathways. The increasing knowledge of marine genomics\\u000a has started to have a major impact on the field of marine biotechnology.

Joel Querellou; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Michael J. Allen; Jonas Colln

200

Size matters: management of stress responses and chronic stress in beaked whales and other marine mammals may require larger exclusion zones.  

PubMed

Marine mammal management traditionally focuses on lethal takes, but non-lethal (or not immediately lethal) impacts of human disturbance, such as prolonged or repeated activation of the stress response, can also have serious conservation implications. The physiological stress response is a life-saving combination of systems and events that maximises the ability of an animal to kill or avoid being killed. However, "chronic stress" is linked to numerous conditions in humans, including coronary disease and infertility. Through examples, including beaked whales and sonar exposure, we discuss increasing human disturbance, mal-adaptive stress responses and chronic stress. Deep-diving and coastal species, and those targeted by whalewatching, may be particularly vulnerable. The various conditions linked with chronic stress in humans would have troubling implications for conservation efforts in endangered species, demands management attention, and may partly explain why some species have not recovered after protective measures (e.g., smaller protected areas) have been put into place. PMID:20045527

Wright, Andrew J; Deak, Terrence; Parsons, E C M

2011-01-01

201

Management Relevance of Benthic Biogeography at Multiple Scales in Coastal Waters of the Northeast U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing pressures from human activities have harmed the health of ocean ecosystems, particularly those near the coast. Current management practices that operate on one sector at a time have not resulted in healthy oceans that can sustainably provide the ecosystem services humans want and need. Now, adoption of ecosystem-based management (EBM) and coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States should result in a more holistic approach. Recent marine biogeographical studies and benthic habitat mapping using satellite imagery, large-scale monitoring programs, ocean observation systems, acoustic and video techniques, landscape ecology, geographic information systems, integrated databases, and ecological modeling provide information that can support EBM, make CMSP ecologically meaningful, and contribute to planning for marine biodiversity conservation. Examples from coastal waters along the northeast coast of the United States from Delaware Bay to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, illustrate how benthic biogeography and bottom seascape diversity information is a useful lens through which to view EBM and CMSP in nearshore waters. The focus is on benthic communities, which are widely used in monitoring programs and are sensitive to many stresses from human activities.

Hale, Stephen S.; Cot, Melville P.; Tedesco, Mark A.; Searfoss, Renee

2013-04-01

202

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundResolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques including site-based monitoring,

Bryan P. Wallace; Andrew D. DiMatteo; Brendan J. Hurley; Elena M. Finkbeiner; Alan B. Bolten; Milani Y. Chaloupka; Brian J. Hutchinson; F. Alberto Abreu-Grobois; Diego Amorocho; Karen A. Bjorndal; Jerome Bourjea; Brian W. Bowen; Raquel Briseo Dueas; Paolo Casale; B. C. Choudhury; Alice Costa; Peter H. Dutton; Alejandro Fallabrino; Alexandre Girard; Marc Girondot; Matthew H. Godfrey; Mark Hamann; Milagros Lpez-Mendilaharsu; Maria Angela Marcovaldi; Jeanne A. Mortimer; John A. Musick; Ronel Nel; Nicolas J. Pilcher; Jeffrey A. Seminoff; Sebastian Trong; Blair Witherington; Roderic B. Mast

2010-01-01

203

NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY ADVISORY COUNCIL APPLICATION FORM  

E-print Network

Tourism _____ Economic Development _____ Recreational/Commercial Fishing _____ Recreational Diving Home protection and management of marine or Great Lake resources 2. Formal community and professional affiliations

204

Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

205

Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.

Laura May-Collado

206

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

207

Maryland Marine Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

208

Maryland Marine Notes Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

2011-05-02

209

Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web.  

PubMed

Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-based management context. PMID:23818413

Niiranen, Susa; Yletyinen, Johanna; Tomczak, Maciej T; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Mackenzie, Brian R; Mller-Karulis, Brbel; Neumann, Thomas; Meier, H E Markus

2013-11-01

210

Marine biodiversity characteristics.  

PubMed

Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

Boeuf, Gilles

2011-05-01

211

South Atlantic marine protected areas: year three of a pre-closure evaluation of habitat and fish assemblages in five proposed reserves. A report to the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council February, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) has proposed implementation of eight marine protected areas (MPAs) between Cape Hatteras, NC and the Florida Keys to protect seven species of grouper and tilefish, all members of the deepwater snapper-grouper complex. During 2007, we completed the third annual survey of five of the proposed MPA sites with three main objectives: 1) establish

Stacey Harter; Andrew David; Marta Ribera

212

New Zealand marine biosecurity: Delivering outcomes in a fluid environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biosecurity, the protection of the marine environment from impacts of non?indigenous species, has a high profile in New Zealand largely associated with a dependence on shipping. The Ministry of Fisheries is the lead agency for marine biosecurity and is tasked with managing the risks posed by pests and non?indigenous marine species. Much like the terrestrial environment, multiple pathways provide

Chad L. Hewitt; Jane Willing; Allan Bauckham; A. Maria Cassidy; Camilla M. S. Cox; Liz Jones; Debra M. Wotton

2004-01-01

213

National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this resource will find information about U.S. marine sanctuaries - their history and current management, their scientific and educational programs, and their continuing efforts to conserve our nation's ocean and coastal treasures. A national calendar provides information on the many exciting events that take place in the sanctuaries throughout the year. Within the 13 sections of the site, users will discover a vast range of marine creatures, habitats, historical artifacts, and flourishing maritime cultures. These include the breeding and calving grounds of giant humpback whales around Hawaii, the remains of an 18th century shipwreck (the Monitor), and thriving coral reef colonies and kelp forests.

2003-08-29

214

Marine Biomedicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early

Bang, Frederik B.

1977-01-01

215

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

216

49USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Ecosystem-Based Planning on a  

E-print Network

a somewhat modified approach to natural resources management. The approach is fairly consistent within natural resources and natural resources management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS of natural resource management-related conservation practices on private agricultural lands. The agency

Standiford, Richard B.

217

National Marine Fisheries Service University of Florida 2015 Marine Resources Population Dynamics Workshop Application  

E-print Network

, Conservation Biology, Ecology, Fisheries, Marine Biology, Natural Resource Management, Statistics, Wildlife1 National Marine Fisheries Service � University of Florida 2015 Marine Resources Population be requested.) . ADVANCED PLACEMENT If you have taken AP math or statistics exams, please list the score(s) you

Watson, Craig A.

218

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

219

Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. Stingray City Sandbar in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical management actions for their wildlife attraction.

Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

2007-10-01

220

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

221

77 FR 3233 - National Policy for Distinguishing Serious From Non-Serious Injuries of Marine Mammals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...incorporating the results into marine mammal stock assessment reports and marine mammal conservation management regimes (e.g., Marine Mammal Protection Act List of Fisheries, take reduction plans, ship speed regulations). NMFS...

2012-01-23

222

77 FR 60677 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation and Management...on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Convention) established the...for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). CCAMLR meets...

2012-10-04

223

Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in

Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian

2010-01-01

224

Marine structure  

SciTech Connect

A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

Olsen, O.

1981-12-08

225

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

226

Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model: The case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named loco, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23S and 29S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.

Garavelli, Lysel; Kaplan, David Michael; Colas, Franois; Stotz, Wolfgang; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

2014-05-01

227

Low-cost marine monitoring: From sensors to information delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tasmanian Marine Analysis Network (Tas-MAN) project has initiatives to reduce costs at every level of a marine sensor network; including hardware, deployment, maintenance, data management, and information delivery.

Daniel Hugo; Ben Howell; Claire D'Este; Greg Timms; Chris Sharman; Paulo de Souza; Simon Allen

2011-01-01

228

Department of Commerce $ National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration $ National Marine Fisheries Service NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE INSTRUCTION 02-110-17  

E-print Network

Department of Commerce $ National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration $ National Marine Fisheries Service NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE INSTRUCTION 02-110-17 Protected Resource Management Endangered POLLUTION CONTROL ACT'S NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN AND THE ESA NOTICE

229

Marine Antimalarials  

PubMed Central

Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

2009-01-01

230

A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry greenwashing from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately, support aquaculture initiatives alongside well managed ornamental fisheries. PMID:25207538

Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

2014-01-01

231

Marine Technology Student: Marine Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn how a degree in marine technology helped one student go from working at a marine farming company to becoming a partner in that company. Trevor Fay uses the GPS/GIS technology he studied in school to farm the red abalone, tracking their locations and monitoring their population. This technology helps marine farmers maintain healthy populations of sea creatures and understand more about the important ecosystem of the ocean.The video runs 4:18 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-05-30

232

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William; Smith, David

2010-06-04

233

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through

Meith, Nikki

234

75 FR 21231 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic...provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...conservation and management of fishery resources. The marine...

2010-04-23

235

Perceiving tomorrow's marine shipping spill risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in ship design and construction mark advancement in the maritime industry. Also, continuous developments in regulatory efforts identify the need to manage and ensure the advancement in design parameters is a step forward - toward a future which remembers marine shipping's disastrous, historical events. The goal of this paper is to outline a method of quantifying marine shipping spill

Ryan Morton; Det Norske Veritas

2010-01-01

236

A Spatial Model for Marine Park Zoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of stakeholder interests, governing structures, and biophysical processes often present challenges in adopting multiple-use approaches in the management of large marine areas. Marine zoning plans provide a mechanism for ensuring the realization of conservation objectives under spatially varying levels of resource use. The need for a systematic and transparent approach to zone planning highlights the role of Geographical

Eleanor M. Bruce; Ian G. Eliot

2006-01-01

237

MARINE RESERVE CREATION FOR SEDENTARY SPECIES WITH UNCERTAIN METAPOPULATION DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen an increase in models focusing on marine reserves as a fisheries management tool. An important reason is that in many fisheries worldwide traditional measures of fisheries management have failed (Bohnsack, 1993; Caddy and Cochrane, 2001). The idea of using marine reserves as a fisheries management tool is not new. Beverton and Holt (1957) were the

J. Hoekstra; R. Imeson; P. A. L. D. Nunes; A. T. de Blaeij

238

Technology for Evaluating Marine Ecosystems in the Early Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring, monitoring, and predicting oceanic and coastal conditions are widely acknowledged as essential activities in support\\u000a of long-term ecosystem-based fishery management efforts. Efforts are underway to build new administrative and technical infrastructures\\u000a to support collecting oceanographic data, assimilate it into models, and ensure its availability to the public, managers,\\u000a and scientists in a timely fashion. In large part, however, the

Dale Vance Holliday

239

The Relative Impact of Warming and Removing Top Predators on the Northeast US Large Marine Biotic Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based fisheries management necessitates that we take a more holistic view of the many factors affecting ecosystems. All too often, perturbations to fisheries ecosystems are studied in isolation even though there may be important interactions among them that yield unexpe...

240

Marine Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the world's leading countries in landings (catch) of marine resources. The pioneer studies of human impacts on coastal marine communities provided the scientific basis on which to establish novel resource management strategies for exploited wild populations but were not used to develop a com- prehensive marine conservation plan that would also include no-take areas. We reviewed

MIRIAM FERNNDEZ; JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

2005-01-01

241

Surveillance and Poaching on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, is managed under the GBR Marine Park Act (1975) and is seen as a shining example of marine resource management. The principle tool of management is zoning for multiple use. We examined surveillance and illegal fishing around two inshore islands (Magnetic and Orpheus) of the GBR Marine Park in 2000\\/2001. Both islands are near

K. L. F. DAVIS; G. R. RUSS; D. H. WILLIAMSON; R. D. EVANS

2004-01-01

242

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-10

243

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they cant see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerthe alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

244

NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE NORTHEAST REGIONAL OFFICE  

E-print Network

functions, including abundant living marine resources, human uses, and resilient coastal communities ecological and anthropogenic, affect living aquatic resources and their habitats, and our habitat program. These include: Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA); Fish and Wildlife Coordination

245

Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAAs regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed value. However, this cost was minimal when local conservation actions were part of a concerted coast-wide plan. The simulations demonstrate the utility of using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model within NOAAs Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, by illustrating an end-to-end modeling tool that allows consideration of multiple management alternatives that are relevant to numerous state, federal and private interests.

Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

2012-09-01

246

Marine Program Annual Report 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

247

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

, Louisiana Department of Wild Ii fe and Fisheries. Articles 57(1), 1995 Species Trends in Sport Fisheries of Management and Budget. The NMFS does not approve, recommend, or endorse any proprietary product offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes for subscriptions for this journal to: Marine Fisheries Review

248

76 FR 82183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...characteristics. CE-BA 2 also amends South Atlantic FMPs as needed to designate...of the water column in the South Atlantic EEZ bounded by the Gulf Stream, as EFH for pelagic Sargassum...modify management in the SMZs of South Carolina, establish...

2011-12-30

249

Marine Seismic Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.

250

Marine spatial planning in practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple competing uses of continental-shelf environments have led to a proliferation of marine spatial planning initiatives, together with expert guidance on marine spatial planning. This study provides an empirical review of marine spatial plans, their attributes, and the extent to which the expert guidance is actually being followed. We performed a structured review of 16 existing marine spatial plans and created an idealized marine spatial plan from the steps included in recent expert papers. A cluster analysis of the yes/no answers to 28 questions was used to ordinate the 16 marine spatial plans and to compare them with the idealized plan. All the plans that have been implemented have a high-level government mandate and the authority to implement spatial planning vested in existing institutions. Almost all the plans used data with clear criteria for data inclusion. Stakeholders were included in almost all the plans; they did not participate in all stages of the planning process but their roles were generally clearly defined. Decision-support tools were applied inconsistently across plans and were seldom used dynamically over time. Most spatial planning processes did not select specific outcomes, such as preferred use scenarios. Success is defined inconsistently across plans; in half the cases there are no metrics of success with reference benchmarks. Although monitoring is included in the majority of plans, only in some cases do monitoring results feed back into management decisions. The process of marine spatial planning had advanced in that some of the more recent plans were developed more quickly and contain more desirable attributes than earlier plans. Even so, existing marine spatial plans are heterogeneousthere are essential ingredients, but no single recipe for success.

Collie, Jeremy S.; (Vic) Adamowicz, W. L.; Beck, Michael W.; Craig, Bethany; Essington, Timothy E.; Fluharty, David; Rice, Jake; Sanchirico, James N.

2013-01-01

251

Uncertainties in projected impacts of climate change on European agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems based on scenarios from regional climate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainties and sources of variation in projected impacts of climate change on agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a depend not only on the emission scenarios and climate models used for projecting future climates, but also on the impact models\\u000a used, and the local soil and climatic conditions of the managed or unmanaged ecosystems under study. We addressed these uncertainties\\u000a by applying

J. E. Olesen; T. R. Carter; C. H. Daz-Ambrona; S. Fronzek; T. Heidmann; T. Hickler; T. Holt; M. I. Minguez; P. Morales; J. P. Palutikof; M. Quemada; M. Ruiz-Ramos; G. H. Rubk; F. Sau; B. Smith; M. T. Sykes

2007-01-01

252

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their

Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

2010-01-01

253

Marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic and Sub-arctic in the course of towering industrial activity: ability of the management with using documentation facilities of satellite ecological criminalistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our studies we are following for the classification of the marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic that was suggested by prof. Ye.S. Korotkevich who had provided summarizing results of the long-term in situ field experiments and airborne studies that was fulfilled by scientists of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) under his leadership in Russian Arctic after the 2-nd World War. But satellite multispectral observations show significant temporal and spatial modification of the suggested scheme especially for Arctic ice landscapes that had occurred in nowadays due to the climate change and anthropogenic press. Design main principle and rules of satellite ecological criminalistics - science of crime detection of ecocatastrophe and incidents on sea and fresh waters with using aerospace survey as well for the control, for the management and the preventing of ecological instability of the marine and lakes ecosystems was done by Academician Kirill Kondratiev together with his apprentices and follower in 1970-s. In frame proposed paper we shall present results of our comprehensive satellite-airborne studies of the marine and ice landscapes as well discuss the incidents that happened in Arctic inside the inland and international waters in past and present days and were revealed with using multispectral remote sensing. But for all that we need to mention that our contemporary investigations are based on the all-weather satellite ERS-1/2 - Envisat - RADARSAT SAR survey archived since 1990-s by SUAI and NERSC/NIERSC.

Melentyev, Vladimir; Vladimirovich Melentyev, Konstantin; Petterssen, Lasse Herbert; Andreevna Zakharova, Tatiana

2013-04-01

254

50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

2011-10-01

255

50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

2010-10-01

256

50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

2011-10-01

257

50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

2010-10-01

258

Understanding and Protecting Marine Vertebrates Using Electronic Tracking Tags  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in satellite telemetry and electronic tags allow researchers and managers to follow the distribution, movement, and behavior of large marine animals, gather oceanographic data in areas that were previously inaccessible, and make better-informed marine conservation and management decisions.

Daniel Costa (University of California at Santa Cruz ;)

2011-03-15

259

An integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of human pressures and environmental forcing on the status of Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ecosystem approach to the management of the marine environment has received considerable attention over recent years. However, there are few examples which demonstrate its practical implementation. Much of this relates to the history of existing marine monitoring and assessment programmes which (for many countries) are sectoral, making it difficult to integrate monitoring data and knowledge across programmes at the operational level. To address this, a scientific expert group, under the auspices of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), prepared a plan for how ICES could contribute to the development of an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) for the North Sea by undertaking a pilot study utilising marine monitoring data. This paper presents the main findings arising from the expert group and in particular it sets out one possible integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of environmental forcing and fishing pressure on the ecological status of the North Sea, it then compares the findings with assessments made of other Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). We define the North Sea ecosystem on the basis of 114 state and pressure variables resolved as annual averages between 1983 and 2003 and at the spatial scale of ICES rectangles. The paper presents results of integrated time-series and spatial analysis which identifies and explains significant spatial and temporal gradients in the data. For example, a significant shift in the status of the North Sea ecosystem (based upon 114 state-pressure variables) is identified to have occurred around 1993. This corresponds to previously documented shifts in the environmental conditions (particularly sea surface temperature) and changes in the distribution of key species of plankton ( Calanus sp.), both reported to have occurred in 1989. The difference in specific timing between reported regime shifts for the North Sea may be explained, in part, by time-lag dependencies in the trophic structure of the ecosystem with shifts in higher trophic levels occurring later than 1989. By examining the connection (or relatedness) between ecosystem components (e.g. environment, plankton, fish, fishery and seabirds) for the identified regime states (1983-1993; 1993-2003) we conclude that both the North Sea pelagic and benthic parts of the ecosystem were predominantly top-down (fishery) controlled between 1983 and 1993, whereas between 1993 and 2003 the pelagic stocks shifted to a state responding mainly to bottom-up (environment) influences. However, for the demersal fish stocks between 1993 and 2003 top-down (fishery) pressure dominated even though over this period significant reductions in fishing pressure occurred. The present analysis, therefore, provides further evidence in support of the need for precautionary management measures taken in relation to setting fishery quotas.

Kenny, Andrew J.; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Engelhard, Georg H.; Kershaw, Peter J.; Reid, James B.

2009-04-01

260

Monitoring and managing the spread of marine introduced species: development of approaches and application to the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) and the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus).  

E-print Network

??Managing introduced species, a current environmental problem, is hindered by real-world limitations of personnel, data, and funding. Monitoring is an important precursor to effective management (more)

Delaney, David

2009-01-01

261

Glossary of Marine Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of terms used in marine biology is associated with the textbook, Marine Biology, Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, by Jeffery Levinton (Oxford University Press, New York). It is associated with Marine Biology Web, which provides links to other marine biology topics.

262

U.S. Department of Commerce | National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service  

E-print Network

, and management of living marine resources and their habitats for long-term sustainable use by current and future is dedicated to protecting and conserving our nation's living marine resources through scientific research of living marine resources through science- based conservation and management, and the promotion of healthy

263

Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management  

E-print Network

ecosystem model matrix into interaction types corresponding with the categories of Source, Cause, Effect, Impact, and Ecological Impact, and Humanecosystem matrix between categories of Source and Cause. Source Cause Effect Impact Eco Impact Human

Ekstrom, Julia A.

2008-01-01

264

Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management  

E-print Network

Mining of Ocean Law to Measure Overlapping Jurisdictions Digital Government Research, Montreal, Canada. mining of ocean law to measure overlapping agency and jurisdictional authority in Proceedings of the Digital Government Research Conference, Montreal, Canada.

Ekstrom, Julia A.

2008-01-01

265

MARINE AFFAIRS, B.S. Fall 2013 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

Management: MAF 100 Human Use & Management of the Marine Environment MAF 120 New England & the Sea MAF 220 include: fisheries and marine ecosystems, coastal management, maritime transportation and ports, and ocean agencies (federal, state, and local) concerned with coastal zone, environmental, or fisheries management

Rhode Island, University of

266

76 FR 39858 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Guam  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guam MCP contains eight conservation and management objectives...Guam's 3-year marine conservation plan. Objective 5...and monitoring of Guam coral reef flat communities. Objective...Objective 7. Marine conservation education,...

2011-07-07

267

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries website provides health advisories and closures related to seafood consumption and recreational fishing. Links are provided to the Division's programs and projects, including shellfish sanitation and management, and shellfish closures. Maps and notices regarding closures related to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are posted with each health notice, as well as a link to general information regarding PSP and the state's PSP monitoring program.

2010-02-12

268

MarineSIM: Robot simulation for marine environments  

E-print Network

Development of robust navigation algorithms for marine robotics is a challenge faced by many marine robotists. This paper presents MarineSIM, a marine robot simulation platform which provides an infrastructure to easily ...

Senarathne, P. G. C. Namal

269

New marine geology center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geologists at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, have created a new Center for Marine Geology. The formation of the center is part of a university-wide effort to extend interests in marine research in all directions, Director James M. Hall said. The center, formed in April, will be a focus for the expansion of research in marine geology, for the development of marine instrumentation, for the expansion of advanced training of Third World geologists in marine geology, and for the university's interaction with the petroleum industry involved in a major play in the areas off the eastern Canadian shore, Hall said.

270

Frontiers of marine science  

PubMed Central

On 913 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas. PMID:21208943

Webb, Thomas J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

2011-01-01

271

Supply Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on supply management is designed to provide the supply chief with an understanding of the fundamental functions of supply management as it applies to a supply office. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

272

Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation  

E-print Network

exploited for food Marine Conservation · Risks to Marine Biodiversity · Overexploitation of marine resources · Global climate change · Pollution · Coastal habitat destruction or degradation · Invasive species · Advantages within reserves: % Reduce fishing mortality: · more effective than quotas % Reduce habitat

273

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

274

Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

2003-01-01

275

24 Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 24-31 (2010) OPTIMAL HEATING AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

scale produced [20], more cooling water required and higher risk of damaging rolling mills stemming from** Key words: slab optimal heating, reheating furnace, hot strip mill, energy consumption and management numerically to aid in managing energy consumption of the reheating furnace in a hot strip mill, where

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

276

Proposal to protect marine areas around Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty percent of Antarctica's Southern Ocean should be protected in a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and no-take marine reserves, according to a 21 May report by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which is composed of about 20 environmental groups. The protected areas should include the 19 Antarctic marine habitats outlined in the report, along with existing MPAs and areas identified through previous conservation and planning analyses, the report notes. Protected areas should include the Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell and Ross seas, the Indian Ocean Benthic Environment, and Pacific seamounts, according to the report. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which manages living resources for the Southern Ocean, has already agreed to establish an initial network of Antarctic MPAs this year, the report states.

Showstack, Randy

2012-05-01

277

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

278

An ecosystem approach to wildlife management in wilderness areas: A case study of the greater Kluane region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the implications of an ecosystem approach to planning and management for sustainable wildlife populations within a wilderness setting. Kluane National Park Reserve and the surrounding region are the focus of the study, providing a relatively unaltered ecosystem in which to explore certain questions regarding ecosystem-based wildlife management. The ever increasing human population and constant surge of development

Lori Katherina Krebs

1994-01-01

279

Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic failures in marine fisheries management have led some to suggest that marine protected areas (MPAs) are the solution to achieve sustainable fisheries. While such systems work for certain habitat-specific and nonmobile species, their utility for highly mobile stocks is questionable. Often the debate among proponents and critics of MPAs is confused by a lack of appreciation of the goals

Michel J. Kaiser

2005-01-01

280

Controlled Burns on the Urban Fringe, Mount Tamalpais, Marin County,  

E-print Network

damage the soil much more than a cool controlled fire; slope-damaging fire-fighting measures urbanization of Mill Valley, Larkspur and Kentfield. These slopes support a dense stand of decadent of Mount Tamalpais on lands managed by the Marin Municipal Water District and the Marin County Open Space

Standiford, Richard B.

281

MARINE AFFAIRS, B.A. Fall 2013 College of the Environment & Life Sciences (CELS)  

E-print Network

requirements: MAF 100 Human Use & Management of the Marine Environment MAF 120 New England & the Sea MAF 220 and their societal and environmental implications. Subject areas in this major include: management of fisheries) concerned with coastal zone, environmental, or fisheries management, and in marine transportation

Rhode Island, University of

282

Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

2011-04-01

283

Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.  

PubMed

This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415

Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

2011-04-01

284

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences  

E-print Network

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Graduate Program in Marine Sciences Requirements for Degrees: MS: 30 credits; PhD: 18 thesis credits The marine biology graduate program focuses on the ecology, physiology and biochemistry/molecular biology of marine organisms. Students may pursue either

Hartman, Chris

285

Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology General Goals of the Minor in Marine Biology About who choose the Minor in Marine Biology will learn about the biology, evolution and ecology of organisms that inhabit these environments and the ecological processes linking them. Marine biology draws

Chen, Tsuhan

286

76 FR 26253 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ecosystem Restoration Task Force; National Ocean Policy, coastal and marine spatial planning, ocean energy and climate change adaptation; fisheries management; quota re-allocation policy; and aquaculture policy implementation. Updates...

2011-05-06

287

Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program  

E-print Network

1 Marine Conservation Science and Policy Service learning Program Conservation is an ethic conservationists. Stewardship is an ethic that embodies cooperative planning and management of environmental Understand the concepts of conservation and preservation Learn the importance of Environmental Stewardship

Miami, University of

288

Marine Monument Iwo Jima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Corps War Memorial stands as a symbol of this grateful Nation's esteem for the honored dead of the U.S. Marine Corps. While the statue depicts one of the most famous incidents of World War II, the memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have given their lives in the defense of the United States since 1775. The 32-foot-high

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

289

Discovery Collection: Marine Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Breslof, Lisa; Schiller, William

290

Sea Grant Marine Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.

2010-08-20

291

Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troeng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

2014-01-01

292

Geoengineering marine stratocumulus clouds.  

E-print Network

??Marine cloud brightening (MCB) geoengineering has been proposed as a means of ameliorating anthropogenic climate change. High concentrations of nanometre-sized aerosols would be emitted from (more)

Jenkins, Annabel Ka Lai

2014-01-01

293

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers For Environmental Prediction, National O.

294

Preliminary evaluation of effects of invasive tunicate management with acetic acid and calcium hydroxide on non-target marine organisms in Prince Edward Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of invasive tunicates in Prince Edward Island (PEI) estuaries has necessitated the development of approaches for managing tunicates that foul aquaculture structures, especially Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis. Spraying or immersion with a saturated solution of hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) or 5% acetic acid are effective against these tunicates, but are also biocidal to a variety of non-target

Andrea Locke; Kenneth G. Doe; Wayne L. Fairchild; Paula M. Jackman; Erica J. Reese

2009-01-01

295

Global changes in marine systems: A social-ecological approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the case for the adoption of a social-ecological approach to marine systems, which recognises the interdependence of biophysical and human social components. It discusses the management and governance challenges that arise when biophysical marine systems and fishing-dependent human communities, considered as interdependent marine social-ecological systems, are stressed by global changes. Drivers of change in marine biophysical systems include processes such as climate variability and change, human processes such as fishing, habitat degradation, and contaminants, and their interactions. Fishing makes marine populations, marine communities, and ecosystems more sensitive to climate forcing. Human communities responses to marine ecosystem variability can ameliorate or exacerbate these changes. Drivers of change in fishing-dependent human communities include environmental and resource changes, human social changes relating to demographics, health issues, and shifting societal values, and their interactions at local and global scales. This multi-faceted interdependence means that fisheries management needs to develop approaches which maintain the capacities of both fish and fishing communities, acting as interactive social-ecological systems, to adapt to the impacts of globalization and environmental change. In general, a less-heavily fished marine system managed on an ecosystem basis is likely to provide more stable catches under normal conditions than would a heavily fished system. However, under climate change the whole ecosystem may alter in ways that cannot yet be predicted. Issues of scale are crucial, and fisheries governance needs a concerted effort to contrast and compare multiple local management experiments, since the exposure, susceptibility, and adaptive capacities of biophysical and human social marine systems varies immensely. These experiments should be conducted in developed and developing nations so as to understand the range of policy issues which support marine social-ecological systems in an era of global change.

Perry, R. Ian; Barange, Manuel; Ommer, Rosemary E.

2010-10-01

296

Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations  

PubMed Central

Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n?=?47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

2013-01-01

297

75 FR 70904 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee, Golden Crab Committee, Southeast Data, Assessment...Amendment for public hearings. 5. Golden Crab Committee Meeting: December 7, 2010, 3:30 p.m. Until 4:30 p.m. The Golden Crab Committee will approve issues in...

2010-11-19

298

Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10g) were sprayed with 2.0ml of 1,600AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4C to >21days as against <14days observed in the untreated samples. The total count of spoilage bacteria was reduced by 2.5 logarithmic units in the treated sample during the 14th day of storage as against the control. Chemical analysis revealed a significant change (P?

Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

2012-07-01

299

Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1993, President Clinton directed the Forest Service to "develop a scientifically sound and ecosystem-based strategy for management of eastside forests." In response, this project was initiated by the USDA Forest Service (FS) and the USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project Website provides detailed information on the project, profiling scientific research, online reports and publications, spatial data, and a What's New section with news updates. Also online is the project's final Environmental Impact Statement, focusing on "critical needs at the broad scale: landscape health; aquatic habitats; terrestrial habitats; and human needs, products, and services." Interested viewers will want to take a closer look.

300

Surface Immuno-Functionalisation for the Capture and Detection of Vibrio Species in the Marine Environment: A New Management Tool for Industrial Facilities  

PubMed Central

Bacteria from the genus Vibrio are a common and environmentally important group of bacteria within coastal environments and include species pathogenic to aquaculture organisms. Their distribution and abundance are linked to specific environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity and nutrient enrichment. Accurate and efficient detection of Vibrios in environmental samples provides a potential important indicator of overall ecosystem health while also allowing rapid management responses for species pathogenic to humans or species implicated in disease of economically important aquacultured fish and invertebrates. In this study, we developed a surface immuno-functionalisation protocol, based on an avidin-biotin type covalent binding strategy, allowing specific sandwich-type detection of bacteria from the Vibrio genus. The assay was optimized on 12 diverse Vibrio strains, including species that have implications for aquaculture industries, reaching detection limits between 7103 to 3104 cells mL?1. Current techniques for the detection of total Vibrios rely on laborious or inefficient analyses resulting in delayed management decisions. This work represents a novel approach for a rapid, accurate, sensitive and robust tool for quantifying Vibrios directly in industrial systems and in the environment, thereby facilitating rapid management responses. PMID:25310801

Laczka, Olivier F.; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.; Bourne, David G.; Fielder, Stewart S.; Doblin, Martina A.

2014-01-01

301

Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

Cossa, Daniel

2013-10-01

302

Understanding Marine Customers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts.

Comet

2006-11-02

303

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

304

Texas Marine Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site features information on the Texas Marine Education Association, a conglomerate of educators from Texas and adjoining states whose goals include promoting awareness and education for the marine environment. Includes links to educator resources (Texas-specific and general), tidal information, and access to Dolphin Talk, the groups monthly newsletter. Also information on student and teacher grants and workshops.

305

Instructors Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Instructors Marine Biology Location: Charleston Closes: 30-Nov-2012 The University of Oregon's Institute of Marine Biology maintains a pool of applicants for temporary instructional positions during the Institute's summer session. For summer 2012 we are interested in applicants to teach an eight week biology

Oregon, University of

306

Marine Attitude Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;

Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

307

MSc Programme Marine technology  

E-print Network

, construction, production and operation of these ships and marine systems. Master's programme The MasterMSc Programme Marine technology Track Design, Production and Operation Facultyof the seas. These days, we take it for granted that cargo ships can safely navigate the seas ­ largely

Langendoen, Koen

308

Cultivation of marine sponges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sponges are the most primitive of multicellular animals, and are major pharmaceutical sources of marine secondary metabolites. A wide variety of new compounds have been isolated from sponges. In order to produce sufficient amounts of the compounds of the needed, it is necessary to obtain large amount of sponges. The production of sponge biomass has become a focus of marine biotechnology.

Qu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Hua; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Meifang

2005-06-01

309

MARINE AND ESTUARINE POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the ...

310

Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

311

Marine Environmental Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.

Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College (edlaine@bowdoin.edu) and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor (cfield@bowdoin.edu). Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (ssavanic@carleton.edu).

312

Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae, and invertebrates). Keystone groups were prevalent in estuarine or small/shallow systems, and in systems with reduced fishing pressure. Changes to the abundance of key functional groups might have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems and should be avoided through management. Conclusion/significance Our results provide additional understanding of patterns of structural and functional indicators in different ecosystems. Ecosystem traits such as type, size, depth, and location need to be accounted for when setting reference levels as these affect absolute values of ecological indicators. Therefore, establishing absolute reference values for ecosystem indicators may not be suitable to the ecosystem-based, precautionary approach. Reference levels for ecosystem indicators should be developed for individual ecosystems or ecosystems with the same typologies (similar location, ecosystem type, etc.) and not benchmarked against all other ecosystems. PMID:24763610

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

2014-01-01

313

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

314

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-01-01

315

Disease in marine aquaculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become almost a truism that success in intensive production of animals must be based in part on development of methods for disease diagnosis and control. Excellent progress has been made in methods of diagnosis for major pathogens of cultivated fish, crustacean and molluscan species. In many instances these have proved to be facultative pathogens, able to exert severe effects in populations of animals under other stresses (marginal physical or chemical conditions; overcrowding). The concept of stress management as a critical prophylactic measure is not new, but its significance is being demonstrated repeatedly. The particular relationship of water quality and facultative pathogens such as Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas species has been especially apparent. Virus diseases of marine vertebrates and invertebrates little known two decades ago are now recognized to be of significance to aquaculture. Virus infections of oysters, clams, shrimps and crabs have been described, and mortalities have been attributed to them. Several virus diseases of fish have also been recognized as potential or actual problems in culture. In some instances, the pathogens seem to be latent in natural populations, and may be provoked into patency by stresses of artificial environments. One of the most promising approaches to disease prophylaxis is through immunization. Fish respond well to various vaccination procedures, and new non-stressing methods have been developed. Vibriosis probably the most severe disease of ocean-reared salmon has been controlled to a great extent through use of a polyvalent bacterin, which can be modified as new pathogenic strains are isolated. Prophylactic immunization for other bacterial diseases of cultivated fish has been attempted, especially in Japan, with some success. There is also some evidence that the larger crustaceans may be immunologically responsive, and that at least short-term protection may be afforded to cultured populations. Some progress has been made in marine disease control through chemical treatment in intensive culture systems, principally through application and modification of methods developed for freshwater aquaculture. Major constraints to use of chemicals are restrictions due to public health concerns about food contamination, and the negative effects of some chemicals on biological filters and on algal food production. There is a continuing need, however, for development of specific treatments for acute disease episodes such as the nitrofurans, developed in Japan, which are effective for some bacterial diseases. The history of aquaculture freshwater as well as marine has been characterized by transfers and introductions of species to waters beyond their present ranges. The process continues, and carries with it the possibility of transfers of pathogens to native species and to the recipient culture environments. International groups are attempting to define codes of practice to govern such mass movements, but examples of introductions of real or potential pathogens already exist. The most recent and the most dramatic is the world wide transfer of a virus pathogen of penaeid shrimps. Earlier examples include the introduction of a protozoan pathogen of salmonids to the western hemisphere, and the introduction of a parasitic copepod from the Far East to the west coast of North America and to France. The conclusion is inevitable diseases are substantial deterrents to aquaculture production. Diagnostic and control procedures are and will be important components of emerging aquaculture technology.

Sindermann, C. J.

1984-03-01

316

Biological control of marine invasive species: cautionary tales and land-based lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control (biocontrol) has successfully regulated pest populations in terrestrial agroecosystems, but it has also caused negative unintended consequences for native species. Marine biologists and resource managers have recently published a growing number of proposals to include biocontrol in integrated pest management programs in oceans, seas and estuaries. Here, I review six ecologically and taxonomically diverse case studies of marine

David Secord

2003-01-01

317

A review of initial investigations to utilize ERTS-1 data in determining the availability and distribution of living marine resources. [fish harvesting and management in Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was initiated in July 1972 to determine the reliability of satellite and high altitude sensors to provide data about oceanographic parameters in coastal waters; demonstrate the use of remotely sensed oceanographic information to predict the distribution and abundance of adult menhaden; and, demonstrate the potential of using satellite acquired information for improving the harvest and management of a fishery resource. The study focused on coastal are as in the north central portion of the Gulf of Mexico including parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The area used in the final analysis was limited to the Mississippi Sound, which is approximately 145 kilometers (90 miles) long and 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide, has an average water depth of about 3.7 meters (12 feet), and in general characterizes an estuarine environment.

Stevenson, W. H.; Kemmerer, A. J.; Atwell, B. H.; Maughan, P. M.

1974-01-01

318

Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand  

PubMed Central

The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to M?ori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research. PMID:20689846

Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

2010-01-01

319

Gulf of Maine Marine Habitat Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book provides an overview of the Gulf of Maine's coastal and offshore habitats for resource managers and other coastal decision-makers in government, Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. Illustrated with color photographs and drawings, the primer describes habitat characteristics, ecological functions, economic and recreational values, human impacts, and management considerations. It is intended as a tool for resource managers, planners, legislators, conservation commissioners, NGO staff members, and other people seeking a better understanding of marine habitats from Massachusetts to Nova Scotia. The book is available in six downloadable sections, or it can be ordered as a hard copy.

320

Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

2014-08-01

321

Viruses and marine pollution.  

PubMed

This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems. PMID:12604062

Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

2003-03-01

322

Marine Magnetic Data Holdings of World Data Center-a for Marine Geology and Geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The World Data Center-A for Marine Geology and Geophysics is co-located with the Marine Geology & Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO. Fifteen million digital marine magnetic trackline measurements are managed within the GEOphysical DAta System (GEODAS). The bulk of these data were collected with proton precision magnetometers under Transit Satellite navigational control. Along-track sampling averages about 1 sample per kilometer, while spatial density, a function of ship's track and survey pattern, range from 4 to 0.02 data points/sq. km. In the near future, the entire geophysical data set will be available on CD-ROM. The Marine Geology and Geophysics Division (World Data Center-A for MGG), of the National Geophysical Data Center, handles a broad spectrum of marine geophysical data, including measurements of bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, seismic reflection subbottom profiles, and side-scan images acquired by ships throughout the world's oceans. Digital data encompass the first three, while the latter two are in analog form, recorded on 35mm microfilm. The marine geophysical digital trackline data are contained in the GEODAS data base which includes 11.6 million nautical miles of cruise trackline coverage contributed by more than 70 organizations worldwide. The inventory includes data from 3206 cruises with 33 million digital records and indexing to 5.3 million track miles of analog data on microfilm.

Sharman, George F.; Metzger, Dan

1992-01-01

323

Marine medicinal glycomics  

PubMed Central

Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

Pomin, Vitor H.

2014-01-01

324

Marine Natural Products Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

Chang, Clifford W. J.

1978-01-01

325

Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

2005-01-01

326

Marine riser base system  

SciTech Connect

A marine riser base system is described comprising: a fluid-tight hull positioned on the marine bottom; a support member comprising; a platform; means for securing the platform above the hull; means on the platform adapted for securing the lower end of a marine riser to the platform; flowline connector means on the platform adapted to be connected to the lower end of a flowline carrier by the marine riser; and a means for fluidly connecting the flowline connector means on the platform to the interior of the hull through a point on the lower side of the hull; the means comprising: a length of rigid pipe having a circularly-curved portion conforming substantially to the surface of the hull and spaced therefrom. The pipe has one end fixed to the platform and has the flowline connector means thereon. Its other end is fixed to the lower side of the hull where the other end penetrates the hull.

Baugh, B.F.

1986-12-30

327

Marine petroleum source rocks  

SciTech Connect

Marine petroleum source rocks are of interest not only to petroleum geologists and geochemists but also to sedimentologists, stratigraphers and many oceanographers. This book is a collection of papers which were presented at a meeting held at the Royal Society, London, which was organized by the Petroleum Geochemistry and Marine Studies Groups of the Geological Society of London, with support from the Petroleum Exploration Society of Great Britain and various oil companies. The aim of the meeting was to bring together acknowledged experts and active workers from all the various disciplines that study marine petroleum source rocks and organic-rich marine sediments. General principles, depositional environments, especially important geographical areas and critical periods of the geological record were considered.

Brooks, J.; Fleet, A.

1986-01-01

328

Mariner-Venus 1967  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

1971-01-01

329

Teaching Sustainability and Resource Management Using NOAA's Voices Of The Bay Community Fisheries Education Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation highlights the implementation of the NOAA VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum at a two-year college. The VOICES OF THE BAY curriculum provides students with an understanding of the marine ecology, economy, and culture of fisheries through three interdisciplinary modules that use hands-on activities while meeting a wide range of science, math, social science, and communications standards. In the BALANCE IN THE BAY module, students use critical-thinking skills and apply principles of ecosystem-based management to analyze data, debate and discuss their findings, and make decisions that recognize the complex dynamics associated with maintaining a balance in fisheries. Through role-playing, teamwork, and a little fate, the FROM OCEAN TO TABLE module provides students with an opportunity to get an insiders view of what it takes to be an active stakeholder in a commercial fishery. In the CAPTURING THE VOICES OF THE BAY module, students research, plan, and conduct personal interviews with citizens of the local fishing community and explore the multiple dimensions of fisheries and how they inter-connect through the lives of those who live and work in the region. The VOICES OF THE BAY modules were introduced into the curriculum at Los Angeles Valley College during the Fall 2009 semester and are currently being used in the introductory Oceanography lecture, introductory Oceanography laboratory, and Environmental Science laboratory courses. Examples of curriculum materials being used (power point presentations, module worksheets and simulated fishing activities) will be presented. In addition, samples of completed student worksheets for the three interdisciplinary modules are provided. Students commented that their overall awareness and knowledge of the issues involved in sustainable fishing and managing fishery resources increased following completion of the VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum. Students enrolled in the laboratory sections commented that the lab was more enjoyable than the typical lab exercises and the hands-on nature of the activity made the concept of sustainable fishing more real to them. The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary sponsor professional development workshops to selected faculty to introduce the VOICES OF THE BAY fisheries education curriculum and assist with implementation in the classroom. Classroom materials are also available on the website http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/education/voicesofthebay.html or by contacting voicesofthebay@noaa.gov.

Hams, J. E.; Uttal, L.; Hunter-Thomson, K.; Nachbar, S.

2010-12-01

330

Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell

331

Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LUMCON was formed in 1979 to coordinate and stimulate Louisiana's activities in marine research and education. It operates from the DeFelice Marine Center in Cocodrie, Louisiana. Information on research, facilities, faculty, and more is available. The K-12 Education section provides information on in-class and field trip opportunities, as well as teacher workshops and student summer camps. Site also features real time data from its five weather stations.

332

Competition in Marine Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition is a negative interaction between two or more species that utilize the same shared, limiting resource (Connell\\u000a 1983). Although competition can have large local, immediate effects, (e.g. on demography, resource use, etc.), competition\\u000a in many marine systems is often assumed to have minimal effect on population persistence, primarily due to characteristics\\u000a of the dominant life histories of marine organisms.

James E. Byers

333

Marine Mammal Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-profit hospital located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area near Sausalito, California that rescues and rehabilitates marine mammals. Site contains information on education, research, and adopt-a-seal; features a photo gallery and FAQs. Volunteer, membership, and donation opportunities available. Information on what to do when finding a stranded marine mammal and stay current with the Center's patients. Education programs available at the Center or at your location (fees associated).

2010-09-16

334

Marine Mammal Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-profit hospital located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area near Sausalito, California that rescues and rehabilitates marine mammals. Site contains information on education, research, and adopt-a-seal; features a photo gallery and FAQs. Volunteer, membership, and donation opportunities available. Information on what to do when finding a stranded marine mammal and stay current with the Center's patients. Education programs available at the Center or at your location (fees associated).

335

Ecosystem modelling: Towards the development of a management tool for a marine coastal system part-II, ecosystem processes and biogeochemical fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pagasitikos gulf is a semi-enclosed basin highly influenced both by anthropogenic activities (inflow of nutrients at the north and west parts) as well as by water exchange between the gulf and the Aegean Sea at its south part (Trikeri channel) resulting in the development of functional sub-areas within the gulf. Thus the inner part is characterised by eutrophic conditions with sporadic formation of harmful algal blooms whilst the central part acts as a buffer with mesotrophic characteristics influenced by the outer area. In a companion paper, the circulation fields and the development of water masses in the Pagasitikos gulf were explored. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions between the physical and biogeochemical systems in the Pagasitikos gulf by coupling advanced hydrodynamic and ecological models. The simulation system comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and an ecological model adapted from the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) for this specific ecosystem. After a model spin up period of 10 years, the results from an annual simulation are presented. Emphasis is given to the description of the spatial and temporal variability of the ecosystem parameters as well as to the relationship between physical forcing and the evolution of the ecosystem along with other factors affecting the nutrient cycling and primary production. A cost function is used for the validation of model results with field data. Simulation results are in good agreement with in-situ data illustrating the role of the physical processes in determining the evolution and variability of the ecosystem, as well as highlighting the potential usefulness of the model as an operational tool to support environmental management decisions.

Petihakis, G.; Triantafyllou, G.; Korres, G.; Tsiaras, K.; Theodorou, A.

2012-06-01

336

Zoninglessons from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is bigger than the United Kingdom, Holland and Switzerland combined. Over the last 25 years a range of management tools, including zoning plans, permits, education, and more recently management plans, have been applied to regulate access and to control and mitigate impacts associated with human use of the GBRMP. A multiple-use zoning approach

Jon C. Day

2002-01-01

337

Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles  

E-print Network

PRESENCE OF FEMALES 7 5 APPENDIX B : LOGGERHEAD AND LEATHERBACK TURTLES IMarine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project 1809 (1981 Wildlife Fund #12;Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project

Prestwich, Ken

338

Marine Biological Laboratory's Marine Organisms Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Learn why studying squid and horseshoe crabs are so important to learning about human sight and how sea urchins are shedding new light on human birth defects. All this and a searchable photo database. Site also includes resources for purchasing specimens for laboratory or display purposes.

2012-03-07

339

European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

2014-05-01

340

An overview of commercial fishers attitudes towards marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attracting widespread attention worldwide as a tool for fishery management and marine ecosystem\\u000a conservation. The establishment of MPAs has increased greatly in recent years mostly due to international commitments to the\\u000a establishment of a global network of MPAs by 2012. MPAs have the potential to strongly affect the fishing industry, and their\\u000a success depends, at

Cristina PitaGraham; Graham J. Pierce; Ioannis Theodossiou; Karen Macpherson

2011-01-01

341

Bioprospecting marine plankton.  

PubMed

The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stphane; Bowler, Chris

2013-01-01

342

Bioprospecting Marine Plankton  

PubMed Central

The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stephane; Bowler, Chris

2013-01-01

343

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor ecology; fish biology; fish pathology; fisheries science; seaweed biology; maritime studies; and ocean Island Biological Laboratory, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Maine Department of Marine

Thomas, Andrew

344

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three years into the most extensive biological inventory ever attempted, scientists working on the Census of Marine Life (CoML) have already found over 200,000 marine species -- just a fraction of what they expect to find at the end of this 10-year project. The CoML Web site "is designed to provide quick and easy access the all elements of the CoML and basic information about each element;" including field project overviews and reports, timely news articles, and other resources. Readers will also find the recently released "Baseline Report of the Census of Marine Life 2003" and a draft plan outlining the next 7 years. The site also includes fantastic photos of newly described species, QuickTime movies from the field, and other cool features.

345

Marine Biological Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1888, the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) was started in Woods Hole, and since then it has served as a place for world-class biologists and ecologists to gather and work together. Their ambitions are very broad and admirable, and visitors should start by reading through the introduction in the "About MBL" section before looking around further. Most visitors will then want to go to the "Education" area. Here they will find such resources as a marine organism database, a number of full-text classic works on marine organisms, and several image databases. Moving on, visitors might also want to look at the "Research" area, which contains materials on their laboratories, research opportunities at the MBL, and an overview of their current research projects.

346

Mote Marine Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), "an independent, nonprofit research organization dedicated to excellence in marine science and education." The MML website links to information about the laboratory's various research centers including the Center for Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Research, Center for Shark Research, Center for Eco-Toxicology, and Center for Fisheries Enhancement. The MML Center for Coastal Ecology links to information on its three research programs -- Coastal Resources, Benthic Ecology, and Chemical Ecology. The MML research efforts are focused on the Southwest Florida coastal region, and they have academic connections with Florida State University, the University of South Florida, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The MML website also contains information about the lab's staff, Tropical Research Laboratory, and Arthur Vining Davis Library which offers online journals, and links to bibliographic databases.

347

Marine bioorganic chemistry as the base of marine biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies carried out at the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at other centers of structural investigation of marine organism metabolites were used as examples to consider some features of the biochemistry of marine natural products and the achievements of marine bioorganic chemistry, which open up ways to the development

G. B. Elyakov; V. A. Stonik

2003-01-01

348

The Marine Science Minor 27 semester hours in Marine Science  

E-print Network

Ecosystem MARE 325 (3) Coral Reef Ecology MARE 350353L (5) Coastal Methods and Analysis) Marine Microbial Ecology MARE 460 (3) Marine Conservation MARE 461 (3) Geological Oceanography Conservation and Ecology and Lab MARE 494AZ (13) Special Topics in Marine Science #12;

Wiegner, Tracy N.

349

Not to be cited without prior reference to the authors ICES CM/R:13 An ecosystem approach for oyster restoration and management  

E-print Network

model (ORO) incorporates predictions from three-dimensional water quality (NPDZ with oyster filtration of the ORO model as applied to ecosystem-based fisheries management are discussed. Key words: Eastern oyster, the Oyster Restoration Optimization (ORO) model, for the practical implementation of an ecosystem approach

North, Elizabeth W.

350

Mariner 9 navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

1973-01-01

351

Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to chapters from an online book (PDF format), which reflects many of the recent developments in marine microbiology. Published by the National Institute of Oceanography in India, it is geared towards ocean scientists, environmentalists, aqua-culturists and seafood processing technologists. The book provides recent literature, newer analytical approaches, and an overall summary of the present understanding of marine microbiology in tropical waters. Chapters include subjects such as heterotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and the sulfur cycle, hypersaline microorganisms, symbiosis, the role of fungi in detrital process, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, microbial diseases in shrimp, microzooplankton, biofilms, and more. Links are provided to each chapter in PDF format.

Ramaiah, Nagappa

2010-03-17

352

Alkaloids in marine algae  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Kas?m Cemal Gven; Aline Percot; Ekrem Sezik

353

Marine natural products.  

PubMed

This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michle R

2013-02-01

354

Marine natural products.  

PubMed

This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michle R

2014-01-17

355

Perceptions of Rule-Breaking Related to Marine Ecosystem Health  

PubMed Central

Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing) and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t?=?3.5, df?=?297, p<0.01). Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying some (32% of responses) or most (15% of responses) people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z?=??3.44, p<0.001) in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas), policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities. PMID:24586558

Slater, Matthew J.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Stead, Selina M.

2014-01-01

356

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

College of Engineering 11 12 12 Ann Arbor 12 Department History 13 Naval Architecture and MarineNaval Architecture and Marine Engineering Undergraduate Program The University of Michigan #12;2 The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Educational Objectives The Educational Objectives

Eustice, Ryan

357

Freshwater and Marine Image Bank  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Freshwater and Marine Image Bank is an ongoing digital collection of images related to freshwater and marine topics, in all their diversity. It includes images of fish, shellfish, and marine mammals, pictures of fish hatcheries and dams and vessels, materials related to polar exploration, regional and traditional fisheries, and limnological (freshwater) subjects. Its scope is global.

Washington, University O.

2010-02-16

358

Marine Ecological Processes Online section  

E-print Network

to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems · Assessed the function of the environment in the ecology of marineMarine Ecological Processes Online section FAS 4270 (3 credits) Fall 2012 Course Description The course covers the ecology of marine organisms and habitats with focus on how general ecological

Watson, Craig A.

359

Arlington: Marine Corps War Memorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Also called the Iwo Jima memorial, the Marine Corps War Memorial was designed by Felix de Weldon. He was inspired by the photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima taken by Joe Rosenthal during the Battle of iwo Jima. The memorial is dedicated to all Marines who have perished in battle since 1775, but features specifically Marines and a sailor

Chet Smolski

1995-01-01

360

Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)

Kolb, James A.

361

Wave energy propelling marine ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wave energy propelling marine ship comprises a cylindrical ship body having a hollow space therein for transporting fluid material therewithin, a ship body disposed in or on the sea; a propeller attached to the ship body for the purpose of propelling the marine ship for sailing; a rudder for controlling the moving direction of the marine ship; at least

Kitabayashi

1982-01-01

362

Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of\\u000a MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and\\u000a local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study\\u000a to investigate whether the

Angela DikouNiki Dionysopoulou; Niki Dionysopoulou

2011-01-01

363

Marine Optical Characterizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

Clark, Dennis K.

1996-01-01

364

Marine and estuarine pollution  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of environmental effects of pesticides, heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, drilling fluids and muds, and dredge material is presentd. Diseases and abnormalities are described in aquatic ecosystems at contaminated sites. Papers dealing with nearly every aspect of petroleum in the marine environment are reviewed. Case histories of oil spills are cited. Included are 6 tables and 392 references. (JMT)

Reish, D.J. (California State Univ., Long Beach); Geesy, G.G.; Wilkes, F.G.; Oshida, P.S.; Mearns, A.J.; Rossi, S.S.; Ginn, T.C.

1982-01-01

365

Marine Science Comes Alive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

Wright, Dorothy

1996-01-01

366

Massachusetts Marine Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough site for teachers in New England, specifically Massachusetts. Includes information on teacher workshops, MME membership, student contests, and teacher awards. Features an ocean tides classroom activity for middle school through high school students, links to other marine science education websites, and the latest issue of their newsletter available for download.

367

Massachusetts Marine Educators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough site for teachers in New England, specifically Massachusetts. Includes information on teacher workshops, MME membership, student contests, and teacher awards. Features an ocean tides classroom activity for middle school through high school students, links to other marine science education websites, and the latest issue of their newsletter available for download.

2012-04-23

368

Marine Electrician--Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of electricity, safety, and tools. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units,

Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

369

Marine Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

2011-11-09

370

Biogeography of Marine Algae  

E-print Network

Biogeography of Marine Algae David J Garbary, St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia and vicariance in establishing distributions and as factors associated with speciation. Since eukaryotic algae. There are many species that are virtually cosmopolitan (e.g. the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, the red

371

Law and Marine Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making

Bockrath, Joseph

1976-01-01

372

MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The ; reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three ; passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, ; and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design ; makes a compact

M. F. Sankovich; J. F. Mumm; D. C. Jr. North; H. R. Rock; D. K. Gestson

1961-01-01

373

MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The ; reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three ; passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, ; and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing ; design makes a

J. F. Mumm; D. C. Jr. North; H. R. Rock; D. K. Geston

1961-01-01

374

Marine Biological Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Explore all the latest research, education information, including graduate admissions and teacher workshops, and a glimpse at MBL history, facilities, and more. Current news and links to all kinds of additional MBL resources are also available.

375

Moss Landing Marine Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to MLML, including course and faculty information. Includes guidance for prospective students and donors. Information also available on MLML academic programs, affiliates, and resources, including marine operations, diving, library, and graphic design center. Information on seminars, workshops, and thesis and dissertation defenses.

376

Marine Microbial Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

Division, Australian A.

377

Marine fog: a review  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

Kora?in, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

2014-01-01

378

Marine fog: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulations and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

Kora?in, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

2014-06-01

379

Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology  

E-print Network

pollution and overfishing the marine environment is at the forefront of global climate change. Approximately with further specialist advice to international bodies including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change but there are more types of animals in the oceans than any other environment on Earth. Understanding

Howie, Jim

380

NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-print Network

. Using 3.5 kHz sonar data, seep distribution offshore of Coal Oil Point was mapped forAugust 1996, July in the environment (Hovland et al., 1993; Hornafius et al., 1999). Natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore of Coal. 1). Farther offshore, seepage passes through overlying Sisquoc Formation cap rock and includes both

Luyendyk, Bruce

381

MODMAG, a MATLAB program to model marine magnetic anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying marine magnetic anomalies is the most common way to date the ocean floor. Although the technique of magnetic anomaly identification has not changed since the 1960s, a forward modeling software that is easy to use, fast and automatic, without abstruse parameters, was lacking. We present a user-friendly MATLAB-based interface, called MODMAG, which allows one to perform forward modeling of marine magnetic anomalies resulting from several successive spreading periods with different spreading rates and asymmetric spreading possibly alternating with axial jumps. The main advantage of our program is that the management of the magnetized bodies resulting from such successive spreading periods is not the user's responsibility. Spreading parameters can be set easily for the picking of the marine magnetic anomalies. Non-specialist geophysicists or geologists can therefore easily identify marine magnetic anomalies with the help of MODMAG.

Mendel, Vronique; Munschy, Marc; Sauter, Daniel

2005-06-01

382

Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides. PMID:22072999

Zheng, Lan-Hong; Wang, Yue-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Wang, Fang; Zheng, Yuan; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Sun, Mi

2011-01-01

383

Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles  

PubMed Central

Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a conservation priorities portfolio system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n?=?58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for widespread, long-lived taxa. PMID:21969858

Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jerome; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseno Duenas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; Lopez-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troeng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

2011-01-01

384

Prioritizing marine spatial planning efforts with the assets, threats and solvability framework  

EPA Science Inventory

The application of marine zoning and spatial planning methods has seen a worldwide increase to stem unsustainable use of coastal seas. However, prioritizing marine regions for focused management efforts and protection can be a difficult process. Uncertainties from the provision o...

385

Incorporating dugong habitats into the marine protected area design for the Great Barrier  

E-print Network

of using high profile species as a basis for de- signing protected areas (e.g. see Refs. [7e10]), marine and implemented by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA), aimed to protect the Great Barrier Reef reef-wide framework for managing human use of the area. The aim of this paper is to describe how

Marsh, Helene

386

P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide  

E-print Network

P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide Table of Contents Last...................................................................................................................................... 8 #12;P a g e | 2 Operation of SFU marine vessels ...........................................................................10 #12;P a g e | 3 This document was last updated March 2012. Please advise Risk Management of any

387

Fishers' Needs in Marine Protected Area Zoning: A Case Study from Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving marine ecosystems, while ensuring the livelihood needs of communities, is a challenge for protected area managers worldwide. Multiple-use zoning can help to balance human uses with conservation goals. Developing effective zoning plans requires information on the condition and uses of marine resources and the conflicts among them. Through interviews and participant observation, we investigated residents' reliance on nearshore fisheries

Kristin E. Lunn; Philip Dearden

2006-01-01

388

National Marine Fisheries Service August 1997 SFA UpdateUpdateUpdateUpdateUpdate  

E-print Network

National Marine Fisheries Service August 1997 SFA UpdateUpdateUpdateUpdateUpdate This is the second in a series of updates on National Marine Fisheries Service implementation of Sustainable Fisheries Act (SFA Fish Habitat), FMP (fishery management plan), and HMS (Highly Migratory Species). Changing the National

389

Introduction 1 I. Conservation and Use of Living Marine Resources 2  

E-print Network

aquaculture and fisheries, build more resilient coastal communities and probe the effects of ocean and Seabirds 2 Pacific Salmon 3 Fisheries Management 4 Marine Aquaculture and Shellfish Harvests 5 Geoduck Aquaculture 7 II. Sustainable and Resilient Coastal Communities 8 Marine Business Support 8 Coastal

Hochberg, Michael

390

Marine water quality monitoring: a review.  

PubMed

Marine water quality monitoring is performed for compliance with regulatory issues, trend detection, model validation and assessment of the effectiveness of adopted policies. As the end users are managers and policy makers, the objectives should be of practical interest and the answers should reduce the uncertainty concerning environmental impact, supporting planning and decision making. Simple and clearcut answers on environmental issues require synthesis of the field information using statistics, simulation models and multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Statistics is easy to apply whereas simulation models enable researchers to forecast future trends as well as test different scenarios. MCA allows the co-estimation of socio-economic variables providing a compromise between scientists' and policy makers' priorities. In addition, stakeholders and the public have the right to know and participate. This article reviews marine water quality monitoring principles, design and data analysis procedures. A brief review of international conventions of regional seas is also included. PMID:24090882

Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

2013-12-15

391

Nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

It is generally considered that nitrogen availability is one of the major factors regulating primary production in temperate coastal marine environments. Coastal regions often receive large anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen that cause eutrophication. The impact of these nitrogen additions has a profound effect in estuaries and coastal lagoons where water exchange is limited. Such increased nutrient loading promotes the growth of phytoplankton and fast growing pelagic macroalgae while rooted plants (sea-grasses) and benthic are suppressed due to reduced light availability. This shift from benthic to pelagic primary production introduces large diurnal variations in oxygen concentrations in the water column. In addition oxygen consumption in the surface sediments increases due to the deposition of readily degradable biomass. In this review the physico-chemical and biological factors regulating nitrogen cycling in coastal marine ecosystems are considered in relation to developing effective management programmes to rehabilitate seagrass communities in lagoons currently dominated by pelagic macroalgae and/or cyanobacteria. PMID:10525167

Herbert, R A

1999-10-01

392

75 FR 67948 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program (Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey) AGENCY: National...these requirements, NOAA Fisheries has implemented the Marine...replace the Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey. MRIP is testing...

2010-11-04

393

The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries  

PubMed Central

Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it. PMID:15713592

Roberts, Callum M.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Gell, Fiona R.

2005-01-01

394

75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Highly Migratory Species Management 1. National Marine Fisheries...Report 2. Changes to Routine Management Measures for 2011-2012 3...Recommendations to International Fishery Management Organizations Schedule of Ancillary...

2010-08-19

395

15 CFR 922.192 - Joint Management Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint Management Committee. 922.192 Section 922...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Underwater Preserve 922.192 Joint Management Committee. (a) A...

2010-01-01

396

The use of benthic indicators in Europe: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.  

PubMed

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) are the European umbrella regulations for water systems. It is a challenge for the scientific community to translate the principles of these directives into realistic and accurate approaches. The aim of this paper, conducted by the Benthos Ecology Working Group of ICES, is to describe how the principles have been translated, which were the challenges and best way forward. We have tackled the following principles: the ecosystem-based approach, the development of benthic indicators, the definition of 'pristine' or sustainable conditions, the detection of pressures and the development of monitoring programs. We concluded that testing and integrating the different approaches was facilitated during the WFD process, which led to further insights and improvements, which the MSFD can rely upon. Expert involvement in the entire implementation process proved to be of vital importance. PMID:21051051

Van Hoey, Gert; Borja, Angel; Birchenough, Silvana; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Degraer, Steven; Fleischer, Dirk; Kerckhof, Francis; Magni, Paolo; Muxika, Iigo; Reiss, Henning; Schrder, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L

2010-12-01

397

Marine mammals and ocean noise: Future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada.  

PubMed

Marine mammals are ecologically and culturally important species, and various countries have specific legislation to protect the welfare of individual marine mammals and the conservation of their populations. Anthropogenic noise represents a particular challenge for conservation and management. There is a large and growing body of research to support the conclusion that anthropogenic noise can affect marine mammal behavior, energetics, and physiology. The legal, policy, and management issues surrounding marine mammals and noise are similarly complex. Our objective is twofold. First, we discuss how policy and legal frameworks in Canada have some important differences from other jurisdictions covered in previous reviews, and provide a useful general case study. Secondly, we highlight some priority research areas that will improve marine mammal conservation and management. Our examples focus on the research needed to meet stated conservation objectives for marine mammal species in waters under Canadian jurisdiction. PMID:25087130

Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; Blight, Louise; Jasny, Michael; Nowlan, Linda

2014-09-15

398

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Habitat Restoration Projects with Emphasis on Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary, 2003 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

Habitat restoration in the Columbia River estuary (CRE) is an important off-site mitigation action in the 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), an operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The CRE, defined as the tidally influenced stretch of river from the mouth to Bonneville Dam 146 miles upstream, is part of the migration pathway for anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin, including salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Salmon in various stages of life, from fry to adults, use tidal channels and wetlands in the CRE to feed, find refuge from predators, and transition physiologically from freshwater to saltwater. Over the last 100 years, however, the area of some wetland habitats has decreased by as much as 70% because of dike and levee building, flow regulation, and other activities. In response to the decline in available habitat, the BiOp's Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) included mandates to 'develop a plan addressing the habitat needs of juvenile salmon and steelhead in the estuary' (RPA Action 159) and 'develop and implement an estuary restoration program with a goal of protecting and enhancing 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats' (RPA Action 160). To meet Action 159 and support Action 160, this document develops a science-based approach designed to improve ecosystem functions through habitat restoration activities in the CRE. The CRE habitat restoration program's goal and principles focus on habitat restoration projects in an ecosystem context. Since restoration of an entire ecosystem is not generally practical, individual habitat restoration projects have the greatest likelihood of success when they are implemented with an ecosystem perspective. The program's goal is: Implementation of well-coordinated, scientifically sound projects designed to enhance, protect, conserve, restore, and create 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats to aid rebuilding of ESA-listed salmon populations and native species using the CRE. The program's underlying principles are: (1) projects are founded on the best available ecological restoration science, implemented in an ecosystem context, and developed with the intent to restore relevant ecological processes; (2) projects incorporate adaptive management practices with testable hypotheses to track ecological responses to a given restoration effort; and (3) projects are implemented in a coordinated, open process and scientific results from monitoring and evaluation are communicated widely and readily accessible. With this goal and these principles in mind, we developed an approach for CRE habitat restoration. The intent of this document is to provide a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. The stepwise approach to CRE habitat restoration outlined is somewhat general and broad because the available scientific information is incomplete, e.g., juvenile salmon usage of various CRE wetland habitats. As new data become available, a more specific, detailed plan than was possible here can be produced as an outgrowth of this document. In conclusion, this document provides a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. As more experience is gained with CRE habitat restoration and scientific uncertainties are resolved, this document should be used as a basis for a detailed habitat restoration plan that specifically addresses (1) which habitat types offer the greatest ecological benefit to salmon, (2) the location of potential sites that if restored would likely provide these habitat types, and (3) how and when the restoration work should be done. This document supports the use of adaptive management so that all elements of salmonid habitat restoration actions in the CRE are under continual evaluation and revision at both the project and program levels. Lessons learned from curre

Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-11-01

399

Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

1980-01-01

400

Marine Insects Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website centers around the popular, age-old question of why so few insects live in the oceans; only about 250-350 species are routinely exposed to seawater. Marine insects and their special adaptations are discussed and the life histories of several species are treated in detail. The authors formulate and discuss six hypotheses as to why there are so few insects in the ocean. They then weigh in on their choice of the most likely explanation. Teaching notes are included that discuss the utility of marine insects in formulating and evaluating scientific questions and in exploring evolutionary aspects of life. The site is easy to navigate, requires only about 30 minutes to view, and is full of solid information that is presented in a light-hearted manner. No special requirements are needed to use this resource.

0002-11-30

401

Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion  

PubMed Central

In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

Roberto, Francisco F.

2007-01-01

402

Mariner 9 michelson interferometer.  

PubMed

The Michelson interferometer on Mariner 9 measures the thermal emission spectrum of Mars between 200 cm(-1) and 2000 cm(-1) (between 5 microm and 50 microm) with a spectral resolution of 2.4 cm(-1) in the apodized mode. A noise equivalent radiance of 0.5 x 10(-7) W cm(-2) sr(-1)/cm(-1) is deduced from data recorded in orbit around Mars. The Mariner interferometer deviates in design from the Nimbus 3 and 4 interferometers in several areas, notably, by a cesium iodide beam splitter and certain aspects of the digital information processing. Special attention has been given to the problem of external vibration. The instrument performance is demonstrated by calibration data and samples of Mars spectra. PMID:20119381

Hanel, R; Schlachman, B; Breihan, E; Bywaters, R; Chapman, F; Rhodes, M; Rodgers, D; Vanous, D

1972-11-01

403

Status of marine biomedical research.  

PubMed Central

A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

Bessey, O

1976-01-01

404

Loliolide in marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loliolide content was determined in 13 marine algae including red, brown and green algae collected from the Black Sea, the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea. Identification and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The loliolide content in green alga is 1.76 g g, ranges from 0.14 to 4.35 g g in red and from 0.18 to 4.83 g g

Aline Percot; Ahmet Yal?n; Veysel Aysel; Hseyin Erdu?an; Berrin Dural; Kas?m Cemal Gven

2009-01-01

405

Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused\\u000a on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production,\\u000a and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability\\u000a of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers

Heather G. Silverman; Francisco F. Roberto

2007-01-01

406

Marine Cloud Brightening  

SciTech Connect

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

2012-09-07

407

Marine cloud brightening  

PubMed Central

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest couldsubject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified hereinhave the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii)microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloudalbedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around100100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-01-01

408

Marine cloud brightening.  

PubMed

The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

2012-09-13

409

Peroxidases from marine microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidase activity was detected in cell-free extractsof strains of three species of the marine microalgae,Porphyridium purpureum, Phaeodactylumtricornutum and Dunaliella tertiolecta. However, no bromo- or chloroperoxidase activity wasdetected in any, using the standard 2-chlorodimedoneassay. Only the extract from P. purpureumoxidized iodide and this peroxidase was partiallypurified via anion-exchange chromatography. KI ando-dianisidine assay of the fractions indicatedthat only one peroxidase was present.

Cormac D. Murphy; Robert M. Moore; Robert L. White

2000-01-01

410

Molybdenum in marine deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and rates of accumulation of Mo in marine deposits have been determined and compared with the same parameters for U and Mn. High concentrations of Mo are associated both with oxidizing environments represented by the presence of ferro-manganese oxide-rich sediments (where Mo\\/U ~- 3) and with reducing environments (where Mo\\/U is about unity). The supply of Mo by

Kathe K. Bertine; Karl K. Turekian

1973-01-01

411

Tunable marine seismic source  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed device is a marine seismic source which emits a constantly varying FM signal in the 10 to 100 H /SUB z/ range. The seismic source utilizes an adjustable length cantilever spring rotatably attached to stiff acoustic radiators, which create a signal in the water. Varying the length of the cantilever spring as a function of the frequency will permit the device to be continuously tuned for maximum power output.

Mifsud, J. F.

1985-12-10

412

Bamfield Marine Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The station provides year-round research facilities and technical assistance to scientists from the five western Canadian universities as well as visiting scientists, offers courses for undergraduate and graduate students in the marine sciences, and runs a public education program for schools and interested groups of all ages. Information includes all the latest research news and events, plus field trip and community projects information. Explore OceanLink and Ocean News for an abundance of education resources.

413

15 CFR 922.4 - Effect of National Marine Sanctuary designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS General...flag state of the foreign vessel, if the person is a crew member of the...

2011-01-01

414

15 CFR 922.4 - Effect of National Marine Sanctuary designation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS General...flag state of the foreign vessel, if the person is a crew member of the...

2010-01-01

415

78 FR 4390 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2013-01-22

416

76 FR 66274 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-10-26

417

75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-09-21

418

77 FR 5492 - Availability of Seat for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2012-02-03

419

76 FR 2347 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-01-13

420

76 FR 68429 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-11-04

421

76 FR 12070 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-03-04

422

75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the [[Page...

2010-03-31

423

75 FR 57442 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-09-21

424

77 FR 16813 - Availability of Seat for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2012-03-22

425

78 FR 20297 - Availability of Seats for the National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2013-04-04

426

77 FR 56190 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2012-09-12

427

78 FR 5779 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2013-01-28

428

76 FR 40336 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-07-08

429

75 FR 61424 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-10-05

430

76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-11-04

431

75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-07-21

432

75 FR 16074 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-03-31

433

75 FR 44215 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-07-28

434

75 FR 39656 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-07-12

435

78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2013-01-15

436

78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2013-03-05

437

76 FR 27307 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-05-11

438

75 FR 16075 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-03-31

439

75 FR 3444 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-01-21

440

76 FR 4868 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-01-27

441

75 FR 9390 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-03-02

442

77 FR 8810 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2012-02-15

443

76 FR 77780 - Availability of Seats for the Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-12-14

444

76 FR 12069 - Availability of Seats for the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2011-03-04

445

75 FR 66064 - Availability of Seats for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2010-10-27

446

77 FR 38273 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular expertise and experience in relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence in the area affected...

2012-06-27

447