These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Improving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: The Galapagos Marine Reserve  

E-print Network

Improving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: The Galapagos Marine impacts that fishing imposes on marine ecosystems has encouraged adoption of ecosystem-based management component [8]. The idea is that since marine ecosystems are places, and human activities affecting them

Charles, Anthony

2

[Management of large marine ecosystem based on ecosystem approach].  

PubMed

Large marine ecosystem (LME) is a large area of ocean characterized by distinct oceanology and ecology. Its natural characteristics require management based on ecosystem approach. A series of international treaties and regulations definitely or indirectly support that it should adopt ecosystem approach to manage LME to achieve the sustainable utilization of marine resources. In practices, some countries such as Canada, Australia, and U.S.A. have adopted ecosystem-based approach to manage their oceans, and some international organizations such as global environment fund committee have carried out a number of LME programs based on ecosystem approach. Aiming at the sustainable development of their fisheries, the regional organizations such as Caribbean Community have established regional fisheries mechanism. However, the adoption of ecosystem approach to manage LME is not only a scientific and legal issue, but also a political matter largely depending on the political will and the mutual cooperation degree of related countries. PMID:22126063

Chu, Jian-song

2011-09-01

3

Ecosystem-based marine spatial management: Review of concepts, policies, tools, and critical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional sectoral management and piecemeal governance are considered less and less appropriate in pursuit of sustainable development. Ecosystem based marine spatial management (EB-MSM) is an approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem, including human uses, rather than considering single issues, species, or ecosystem services in isolation. Marine spatial planning and ocean zoning are emerging concepts that

Stelios Katsanevakis; Vanessa Stelzenmüller; Andy South; Thomas Kirk Sřrensen; Peter J. S. Jones; Sandy Kerr; Fabio Badalamenti; Christos Anagnostou; Patricia Breen; Guillem Chust; Giovanni D’Anna; Mike Duijn; Tatiana Filatova; Fabio Fiorentino; Helena Hulsman; Kate Johnson; Aristomenis P. Karageorgis; Ingrid Kröncke; Simone Mirto; Carlo Pipitone; Susan Portelli; Wanfei Qiu; Henning Reiss; Dimitris Sakellariou; Maria Salomidi; Luc van Hoof; Vassiliki Vassilopoulou; Tomás Vega Fernández; Sandra Vöge; Anke Weber; Argyro Zenetos; Remment ter Hofstede

2011-01-01

4

Resilience, Robustness, and Marine Ecosystem-based Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience examines robustness and resilience as they apply to marine ecosystems. Marine ecosystems provide essential services to humans, yet these services have been diminished, and their future sustainability endangered, by human patterns of exploitation that threaten system robustness and resilience. Marine ecosystems are complex adaptive systems composed of individual agents that interact with one another to produce collective effects, integrating scales from individual behaviors to the dynamics of whole systems. In such systems, small changes can be magnified through nonlinear interactions, facilitating regime shifts and collapses. Protection of the services these ecosystems provide must therefore maintain the adaptive capacities of these systems by preserving a balance among heterogeneity, modularity, and redundancy, tightening feedback loops to provide incentives for sound stewardship. The challenge for management is to increase incentives to individuals, and tighten reward loops, in ways that will strengthen the robustness and resilience of these systems and preserve their ability to provide ecosystem services for generations to come.

SIMON A. LEVIN (Princeton University;); JANE LUBCHENCO (Oregon State University;)

2008-01-01

5

Marine Ecosystem-based Management in Practice: Scientific and Governance Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience looks at the principles of ecosystem-based management and applies them to real world examples. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) in the ocean is a relatively new approach, and existing applications are evolving from more traditional management of portions of ecosystems. Because comprehensive examples of EBM in the marine environment do not yet exist, we first summarize EBM principles that emerge from the fisheries and marine social and ecological literature. We then apply those principles to four cases in which large parts of marine ecosystems are being managed, and ask how including additional components of an EBM approach might improve the prospects for those ecosystems. The case studies provide examples of how additional elements of EBM approaches, if applied, could improve ecosystem function. In particular, two promising next steps for applying EBM are to identify management objectives for the ecosystem, including natural and human goals, and to ensure that the governance structure matches with the scale over which ecosystem elements are measured and managed.

MARY RUCKELSHAUS (NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center;); Terrie Klinger (University of Washington;); Nancy Knowlton (Scripps Institution of Oceanography;); Douglas P. DeMaster (NOAA FisheriesĂÂAlaska Fisheries Science Center;)

2008-01-01

6

Marine spatial planning (MSP): a first step to ecosystem-based management (EBM) in the Wider Caribbean.  

PubMed

The rapid decline of coastal ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean is entering its fifth decade. Some of the best science documenting this decline and its causes has been done by the laboratories of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean (AMLC). Alarmed at the trends, Caribbean conservation pioneers established marine protected areas (MPAs) which spread throughout the region. Unfortunately, many have little or no protection and are now known to be too small to be effective in sustaining coastal ecosystems. Marine spatial planning (MSP) holds much promise to encompass the large geographic scales of the ecological processes and human impacts that influence coastal ecosystems and adjacent lands. The AMLC, through the scientific expertise and the national political connections of its member institutions, is well-positioned to help implement a pilot project. MSP a first step in ecosystem-based management and has had considerable success elsewhere. It holds our best chance of sustaining human use and conserving the coral reefs and associated ecosystems. PMID:21299097

Ogden, John C

2010-10-01

7

Marine Reserves as a Tool for Ecosystem-Based Management: The Potential Importance of Megafauna  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the role of marine reserves. Marine predators attract significant attention in ocean conservation planning and are therefore often used politically to promote reserve designation. We discuss whether their ecology and life history can help provide a rigorous ecological foundation for marine reserve design. In general, we find that reserves can benefit marine megafauna, and that megafauna can help establish target areas and boundaries for ecosystem reserves. However, the spatial nature of the interplay between potential threats and predator life histories requires careful consideration for the establishment of effective reserves. Modeling tools such as demographic sensitivity analysis will aid in establishing protection for different life stages and distributional ranges. The need for pelagic marine reserves is becoming increasingly apparent, and it is in this venue that marine predators may be most effectively used as indicator species of underlying prey distribution and ecosystem processes.

SASCHA K. HOOKER and LEAH R. GERBER (;)

2004-01-01

8

Lab 3: Oh What a Tangled Web: Ecosystem-Based Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin this investigation by reading about the basic premises of Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM). They then watch a short animation about how the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) project of the Census of Marine Life (CoML) endeavor will track and monitor ocean life with implanted tags and underwater listening lines. In Part B of the investigation, students play the Australian Fisheries Management Authority's Great Australian Fisheries Challenge game, in which helps students learn about managing a marine ecosystem in a sustainable way by assuming the role of a fishery manager.

9

Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-based management is logistically and politically challenging because ecosystems are inherently complex and management decisions affect a multitude of groups. Coastal ecosystems, which lie at the interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and provide an array of ecosystem services to different groups, aptly illustrate these challenges. Successful ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems requires incorporating scientific information and the knowledge and views of interested parties into the decision-making process. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services under alternative management schemes offers a systematic way to incorporate biogeophysical and socioeconomic information and the views of individuals and groups in the policy and management process. Employing ecosystem services as a common language to improve the process of ecosystem-based management presents both benefits and difficulties. Benefits include a transparent method for assessing trade-offs associated with management alternatives, a common set of facts and common currency on which to base negotiations, and improved communication among groups with competing interests or differing worldviews. Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human interventions will affect ecosystems, how such changes will affect the provision of ecosystem services, and how changes in service provision will affect the welfare of different groups in society. In a case study from Puget Sound, Washington, we illustrate the potential of applying ecosystem services as a common language for ecosystem-based management. PMID:19906066

Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Kappel, Carrie V; Reed, Denise J; Stoms, David M; Koch, Evamaria W; Kennedy, Chris J; Cramer, Lori A; Hacker, Sally D; Barbier, Edward B; Aswani, Shankar; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Silliman, Brian R; Muthiga, Nyawira; Bael, David; Wolanski, Eric

2010-02-01

10

ECOSYSTEM-BASED F I S H E RY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

Conservation and Management Act 1996 #12;NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE ECOSYSTEM PRINCIPLES ADVISORY PANELECOSYSTEM-BASED F I S H E RY MANAGEMENT A Report to Congress by the Ecosystem Principles Advisory ..................... National Coalition for Marine Conservation Edward Houde ................. University of Maryland Center

Ronquist, Fredrik

11

ECOSYSTEM-BASED F I S H E RY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

Conservation and Management Act 1996 #12;NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE ECOSYSTEM PRINCIPLES ADVISORY PANELECOSYSTEM-BASED F I S H E RY MANAGEMENT A Report to Congress by the Ecosystem Principles ..................... National Coalition for Marine Conservation Edward Houde ................. University of Maryland Center

12

Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management KALEV JO~ GISTE1  

E-print Network

PREFACE Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management KALEV JO~ GISTE1 , W. KEITH and Analysis Program, St Paul, Minnesota, USA Ecosystem-based management is intended to bal- ance ecological ecosystem is usually defined through productivity, biodiversity, stability or other terms. However

13

Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90-125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12-16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the "escapement" due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Forcada, J.; Malone, D.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

2009-01-01

14

Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management.

Forcada, J.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

2009-01-01

15

Managing for ocean biodiversity to sustain marine ecosystem services  

E-print Network

Managing a complex ecosystem to balance delivery of all of its services is at the heart of ecosystem-based management. But how can this balance be accomplished amidst the conflicting demands of stakeholders, managers, and policy makers? In marine...

Palumbi, Stephen R.; Sandifer, Paul A.; Allan, J. David; Beck, Michael W.; Fautin, Daphne G.; Fogarty, Michael J.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Norse, Elliott; Stachowicz, John J.; Wall, Diana H.

2009-05-01

16

Scientific requirements for ecosystem-based management in the restoration of Chesapeake Bay and Coastal Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-based management requires integration of multiple system components and uses, identifying and striving for sustainable outcomes, precaution in avoiding deleterious actions, and adaptation based on experience to achieve effective solutions. Efforts underway or in planning to restore and manage two major coastal ecosystems, the Chesapeake Bay (Chesapeake Bay Program) and coastal Louisiana (Louisiana Coastal Area Plan and Gulf Hypoxia Action

Donald F. Boesch

2006-01-01

17

Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

2012-12-01

18

Development of an integrated economic and ecological framework for ecosystem-based fisheries management in New England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an integrated economic-ecological framework designed to help assess the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) in New England. We develop the framework by linking a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of a coastal economy to an end-to-end (E2E) model of a marine food web for Georges Bank. We focus on the New England region using coastal county economic data for a restricted set of industry sectors and marine ecological data for three top level trophic feeding guilds: planktivores, benthivores, and piscivores. We undertake numerical simulations to model the welfare effects of changes in alternative combinations of yields from feeding guilds and alternative manifestations of biological productivity. We estimate the economic and distributional effects of these alternative simulations across a range of consumer income levels. This framework could be used to extend existing methodologies for assessing the impacts on human communities of groundfish stock rebuilding strategies, such as those expected through the implementation of the sector management program in the US northeast fishery. We discuss other possible applications of and modifications and limitations to the framework.

Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Dalton, T. M.; Thunberg, E. M.

2012-09-01

19

Assessing social--ecological trade-offs to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management.  

PubMed

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian

2014-01-01

20

Assessing Social – Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management  

PubMed Central

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian

2014-01-01

21

Ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries, as a complemen-  

E-print Network

- holtz et al., 2008). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) play a vital ecological role in estuarine ration, and consumption of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) Christopher M. Butler (contact author by bluefin tuna on Atlantic men- haden (Brevoortia tyrannus). Bluefin tuna diet (n=448) was dominated

22

Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values.  

PubMed

A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an "all or none" choice of either preserving coastal habitats or converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these relationships are rarely linear. By incorporating nonlinear wave attenuation in estimating coastal protection values of mangroves in Thailand, we show that the optimal land use option may instead be the integration of development and conservation consistent with ecosystem-based management goals. This result suggests that reconciling competing demands on coastal habitats should not always result in stark preservation-versus-conversion choices. PMID:18202288

Barbier, Edward B; Koch, Evamaria W; Silliman, Brian R; Hacker, Sally D; Wolanski, Eric; Primavera, Jurgenne; Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Aswani, Shankar; Cramer, Lori A; Stoms, David M; Kennedy, Chris J; Bael, David; Kappel, Carrie V; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Reed, Denise J

2008-01-18

23

Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ń over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to estimate water demand and calculate water use balance in 2015, 2021. The result of the water balance estimation shows that water consumption-use will be increased 3 times in the river basin by 2021. As the water consumption-use source, surface water - 6.4 % and groundwater is 93.6 percent. The current consumption of the mining sector is shares 71 percent of the total users; it would be 82 percent in 2021. However, the livestock water consumption-use is 27 percent of the current demand; it would be decrease up to 16 percent in 2021. Ecosystem based approach IWRM plan would be efficient to the local resident to adapt the climate change situation. Thus, the results of the research study on the river basin ecosystem services and values are the base of the planning.

Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

2014-05-01

24

Breaking through the Crisis in Marine Conservation and Management: Insights from the Philosophies  

E-print Network

- 20th-century marine ecologist, offer a framework and clear guidance for taking an ecosystem approach. Keywords: conflict resolution, conservation philosophy, ecosystem-based management, Ed Ricketts, marineEssay Breaking through the Crisis in Marine Conservation and Management: Insights from

Sagarin, Rafe

25

An ecosystem-based approach for Alaska groundfish fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Witherell, D., Pautzke, C., and Fluharty, D. 2000. An ecosystem-based approach for Alaska groundfish fisheries. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 771-777. An ecosystem-based approach is being developed for the management of groundfish fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean off Alaska, USA. The approach involves public participation, reliance on scientific research and advice, conservative catch quotas, comprehensive monitoring and

David Witherell; Clarence Pautzke; David Fluharty

2000-01-01

26

Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services. Mixed measures are expected to have cumulative benefits which are likely to outweigh disbenefits and packages of actions are recommended rather than individual or localised actions for an integrated catchment management approach. NFM measures have the potential to provide significant environmental gains, however the time lags between the moment these measures are set in place until they become effective must be considered especially in flood vulnerable communities where there is already a stakeholders demand to decrease the risk of flooding even for the current level of exposure.

Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

2014-05-01

27

An Integrated Approach Is Needed for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management: Insights from Ecosystem-Level Management Strategy Evaluation  

PubMed Central

An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.; Johnson, Penelope

2014-01-01

28

A Decision Support System for Ecosystem-Based Management of Tropical Coral Reef Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review a new collaborative program established between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to augment the NOAA Coral Reef Watch decision-support system. NOAA has developed a Decision Support System (DSS) under the Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program to forecast environmental stress in coral reef ecosystems around the world. This DSS uses models and 50 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to generate “HotSpot” and Degree Heating Week coral bleaching indices. These are used by scientists and resource managers around the world. These users, including National Marine Sanctuary managers, have expressed the need for higher spatial resolution tools to understand local issues. The project will develop a series of coral bleaching products at higher spatial resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and AVHRR data. We will generate and validate products at 1 km resolution for the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, and test global assessments at 4 and 50 km. The project will also incorporate the Global Coral Reef Millennium Map, a 30-m resolution thematic classification of coral reefs developed by the NASA Landsat-7 Science Team, into the CRW. The Millennium Maps help understand the geomorphology of individual reefs around the world. The products will be available through the NOAA CRW and UNEP-WCMC web portals. The products will help users formulate policy options and management decisions. The augmented DSS has a global scope, yet it addresses the needs of local resource managers. The work complements efforts to map and monitor coral reef communities in the U.S. territories by NOAA, NASA, and the USGS, and is a contribution to international efforts in ecological forecasting of coral reefs under changing environments, coral reef research, resource management, and conservation. Acknowledgement: Funding is provided by the NASA Ecological Forecasting application area and by NOAA NESDIS.

Muller-Karger, F. E.; Eakin, C.; Guild, L. S.; Nemani, R. R.; Hu, C.; Lynds, S. E.; Li, J.; Vega-Rodriguez, M.; Coral Reef Watch Decision Support System Team

2010-12-01

29

Species-and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management  

E-print Network

refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management units for hake could be helpful in refining currently proposed indicators of marine ecosystems, and also help Directive (MSFD) that aims at implementing an ecosystem-based management of European marine ecosystems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

MAPPING MARINE ECOLOGICAL REGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA: LAYING THE FOUNDATION FOR COOPERATIVE ECOSYSTEM-BASED CONSERVATION IN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY It has been said that all that we do is touched by the ocean, yet we remain at its shores in terms of knowledge. Marine and estuarine ecosystems, including the diverse array of species and habitats they encompass, hold important roles in our lives—yet to most, the marine realm remains relatively obscure. Compared to their land counterparts, the understanding

Tara Wilkinson; Ed Wiken; Tom Hourigan; Chris Madden; Juan Bezaury; Moreno Padilla Juan

31

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

32

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish.  

PubMed

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics--herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Levin, Philip S

2014-01-01

33

Critical thresholds and tangible targets for ecosystem-based management of coral reef fisheries  

PubMed Central

Sustainably managing ecosystems is challenging, especially for complex systems such as coral reefs. This study develops critical reference points for sustainable management by using a large empirical dataset on the coral reefs of the western Indian Ocean to investigate associations between levels of target fish biomass (as an indicator of fishing intensity) and eight metrics of ecosystem state. These eight ecological metrics each exhibited specific thresholds along a continuum of fishable biomass ranging from heavily fished sites to old fisheries closures. Three thresholds lay above and five below a hypothesized window of fishable biomass expected to produce a maximum multispecies sustainable yield (BMMSY). Evaluating three management systems in nine countries, we found that unregulated fisheries often operate below the BMMSY, whereas fisheries closures and, less frequently, gear-restricted fisheries were within or above this window. These findings provide tangible management targets for multispecies coral reef fisheries and highlight key tradeoffs required to achieve different fisheries and conservation goals. PMID:21949381

McClanahan, Tim R.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Muthiga, Nyawira A.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Wilson, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

34

Natural Hazards in a Changing World: A Case for Ecosystem-Based Management  

PubMed Central

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1?100 year flood event to a 1?80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1?100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L.; Le Maitre, David C.; Nel, Deon C.; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Forsyth, Greg G.; Theron, Andre K.; O’Farrell, Patrick J.; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A.; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

35

Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L; Le Maitre, David C; Nel, Deon C; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W; Forsyth, Greg G; Theron, Andre K; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

36

Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.  

PubMed

Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besňs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. PMID:24880221

Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

2014-10-01

37

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

38

Data Base Design with GIS in Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management in Artvin, Turkey: A Case Study in Balc? Forest Management Planning Unit  

PubMed Central

In Turkey, the understanding of planning focused on timber production has given its place on Multiple Use Management (MUM). Because the whole infrastructure of forestry with inventory system leading the way depends on timber production, some cases of bottle neck are expected during the transition period. Database design, probably the most important stage during the transition to MUM, together with the digital basic maps making up the basis of this infrastructure constitute the main point of this article. Firstly, the forest management philosophy of Turkey in the past was shortly touched upon in the article. Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management (EBMUFM) approaches was briefly introduced. The second stage of the process of EBMUFM, database design was described by examining the classical planning infrastructure and the coverage to be produced and consumed were suggested in the form of lists. At the application stage, two different geographical databases were established with GIS in Balc? Planning Unit of the years 1984 and 2006. Following that the related basic maps are produced. Timely diversity of the planning unit of 20 years is put forward comparatively with regard to the stand parameters such as tree types, age class, development stage, canopy closure, mixture, volume and increment. PMID:22573978

Yolas??maz, Hac? Ahmet; Kele?, Sedat

2009-01-01

39

Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.  

PubMed

Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093

Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

2014-11-29

40

20 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-print Network

strategies to achieve ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries include: 1) maintaining abundant fish agencies and com- munities to address nonfishery impacts on marine ecosystems (Francis et al., 200720 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction In 2010, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order

41

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management  

E-print Network

Developing Regional Marine Ecosystem Approaches to Management M.C. Holliday and A.B. Gautam mechanism for adopting an ecosystem approach to living marine resource management. By April 2004, FEP encompassing regional marine ecosystem strategies across many sectors. This would enable other agencies

42

76 FR 53414 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific...Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700...Issues C. Marine Protected Areas 1. Monterey...Ecosystem Based Management Initiative D...Issues 2. 2011 Methodology Review I....

2011-08-26

43

Author's personal copy Regime shifts in marine ecosystems  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Regime shifts in marine ecosystems: detection, prediction and management unknown. Marine ecosystems show relatively sudden and dramatic changes in form and function, called regime shifts is timely as we move toward devel- oping ecosystem-based approaches to managing marine systems

deYoung, Brad

44

Marine Planning Benefits the Environment  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

45

Legal frameworks for integrated marine environmental management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian federal government is rethinking its policy-based approach to integrated marine environmental management. Does effective coordination of oceans management activities require an overarching legislative framework? Should legislation operate to enforce cross-jurisdictional coordination? Can it also assure cross-sectoral integration? This paper explores possible answers to these questions, considering options for a legal framework for integrated marine environmental management in a

G. L. Rose

2006-01-01

46

Communication at the International Marine Conservation Congress (Washington D.C, 20-24 May 2009)  

E-print Network

fisheries governance, the ecosystem-based management applied to marine protected areas, the MPAs governance1 Communication at the International Marine Conservation Congress (Washington D.C, 20-24 May 2009) Communication with the support of the French Agency for Marine Protected Areas Governance of Marine Protected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem management means different things to different people, but the underlying concept is similar to that of the long-standing ethic of conservation. Current interest in marine ecosystem management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries and the perceived need for broader perspectives in fisheries management. A central scientific question is whether the effects of harvesting (top down) or changes

P. A. Larkin; Hut B

1996-01-01

48

701xml UMGD_A_346798 October 22, 2008 4:31 Marine Geodesy, 31: 18, 2008  

E-print Network

An Ecosystem Management Approach to Planning for Marine Reserve Networks" (see16 presentations and resources the application of ecosystem-based management (EBM)1 to the design of marine reserve28 networks (e.g., Lubchenco701xml UMGD_A_346798 October 22, 2008 4:31 Marine Geodesy, 31: 1­8, 2008 Copyright © Taylor

49

Ekstrom, Draft 11/14/08 California Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Publicly Available Dataset of State and  

E-print Network

Ekstrom, Draft 11/14/08 1 California Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Publicly Available-689-7449 (phone) 650-723-7514 (fax) jekstrom@stanford.edu Keywords: ecosystem-based management, marine governance, ocean law, large marine ecosystem INTRODUCTION Historically, governments have managed ocean uses within

Stanford University

50

Tropical Marine EBM Feasibility: A Synthesis of Case Studies and Comparative Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview compares and synthesizes the articles of this theme issue. It highlights that progress has been made toward the goals of marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) in tropical regions. Four key findings are presented: (1) Tailoring EBM to specific contexts ultimately determines success. (2) Employment of a wide variety of marine management tools is necessary and complementary to spatial management

Patrick Christie; Richard B. Pollnac; David L. Fluharty; Mark A. Hixon; Gordon K. Lowry; Robin Mahon; Diana Pietri; Brian N. Tissot; Alan T. White; Nygiel Armada; Rose-Liza Eisma-Osorio

2009-01-01

51

Deep-Sea Research I 54 (2007) 385402 Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying  

E-print Network

Deep-Sea Research I 54 (2007) 385­402 Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying November 2006 Available online 2 February 2007 Abstract The move to ecosystem-based management of marine marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions

52

Responsible fisheries in the marine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem was held in Reykjavik from 1 to 4 October 2001. The challenge provided to the conference was to define the practical next steps to move from the present fisheries management framework to ecosystem-based management. A series of invited review papers were prepared by leading experts in their respective scientific fields. These

M Sinclair; R Arnason; J Csirke; Z Karnicki; J Sigurjonsson; H Rune Skjoldal; G Valdimarsson

2002-01-01

53

Dealing with uncertainty in ecosystem models: The paradox of use for living marine resource management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better manage living marine resources (LMRs), it has become clear that ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is a desired approach. To do EBFM, one of the key tools will be to use ecosystem models. To fully use ecosystem models and have their outputs adopted, there is an increasingly recognized need to address uncertainty associated with such modeling activities. Here we characterize uncertainty as applied to ecosystem models into six major factors, including: natural variability; observation error; inadequate communication among scientists, decision-makers and stakeholders; the structural complexity of the model(s) used; outcome uncertainty; and unclear management objectives. We then describe best practices to address each of these uncertainties as they particularly apply to ecosystem models being used in a LMR management context. We also present case studies to highlight examples of how these best practices have been implemented. Although we acknowledge that this work was compiled by ecosystem modelers in an LMR management context primarily for other ecosystem modelers, the principles and practices described herein are also germane for managers, stakeholders and other natural resource management communities. We conclude by emphasizing not only the need to address uncertainty in ecosystem models, but also the feasibility and benefits of doing so.

Link, J. S.; Ihde, T. F.; Harvey, C. J.; Gaichas, S. K.; Field, J. C.; Brodziak, J. K. T.; Townsend, H. M.; Peterman, R. M.

2012-09-01

54

Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft  

E-print Network

Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: Spatial Hart, PhD Abstract: Informed management of marine resources often depends on knowledge of genetic. We discuss the implications of the results for the biology and management of surfclam populations

55

Marine pollution and management of shores; Pollutions marines et amenagement des rivages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourteen chapters of the book are presented in three sections ; entitled description of marine pollution, oceanographic techniques in marine ; pollution studies, and prevention of marine pollution and management of shores. ; The first section discusses thermal, bacterial, radioactive, chemical and organic ; pollution. In the chapter on thermal pollution, emphasis is placed on the ; effects of

M. Aubert; J. Aubert

1973-01-01

56

MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

E-print Network

1 MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Prepared for: BC Fisheries and Louis Druehl for sharing their knowledge of marine plants. Disclaimer: The contents of this report and Fisheries. #12;3 Executive Summary British Columbia's diversity and abundance of marine plants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

57

Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications  

E-print Network

A computer-based energy management system for marine applications is presented. The problem of fuel-management for large diesel engines on board ship is discussed. The design of the computer hardware and software are presented including...

Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

1982-01-01

58

Data use and information creation: challenges for marine scientists and for managers.  

PubMed

In the coastal waters of European countries and in the offshore waters of the north-east Atlantic, there is an increasing need for scientists to meet challenging objectives, such as to identify meaningful measures of 'quality', and to recommend 'indicators' to underpin implementation of directives, conventions, statutes and other more informal national and international initiatives. Those indicators may relate to particular species or habitats, to changes in physical and chemical characteristics, and even to the use to which the system is put. The problems to be overcome are difficult, but new and developing approaches will make a significant contribution. The approaches include: criteria to identify 'sensitivity' and 'importance', structures to organise information and electronic information resources to access data. The real challenge is to make the results of the various scientific initiatives relevant to and understandable by a wide range of customers with similar overlapping requirements, and thus make a genuine contribution to protecting the marine environment. Above and beyond that is the need for scientists to drive the agenda to enable real and lasting progress to be made towards ecosystem-based management of our seas and a proper consideration of what 'sustainability' may mean in the marine environment and how we utilise its resources. PMID:12735950

Hiscock, Keith; Elliott, Michael; Laffoley, Dan; Rogers, Stuart

2003-05-01

59

Options for Managing Invasive Marine Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biological invasions are increasingly recognised as a threat to biodiversity and coastal industry, including fisheries. Globally, efforts are underway to contain, if not eradicate, several high-impact marine invasive species. However, working in a marine environment places unique social, political and technical constraints on options for pest control, which we explored in a series of stakeholder workshops. Results suggest that

Ronald E. Thresher; Armand M. Kuris

2004-01-01

60

Letter from Participants in the International Marine Conservation Congress in Fairfax VA  

Microsoft Academic Search

in the National Ocean Service, including the National Marine Sanctuary Program. The $5.0 billion should also provide meaningful real increases for the Protected Species Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service and for planning throughout NOAA for marine ecosystem-based spatial management. We are fully aware of the intense demands on the Federal budget, but are also well-positioned to see that

Elliott A. Norse; Sylvia Earle; John Fitzgerald; Ratana Chuenpagdee

2010-01-01

61

Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management  

PubMed Central

Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it essential to customize management. This methodology could be applied on a broader scale to include other sympatric and inter-related species. PMID:24893163

Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

2014-01-01

62

75 FR 13731 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific...Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700...Report D. Marine Protected Areas 1. Update on...Marine Sanctuary Management Plan Review E...Service Report 4. Methodology Review...

2010-03-23

63

Management Response to the Tsunami, Surin Marine National Park, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surin Marine National Park lies northwest of Phuket. Before the 26 December 2004 tsunami, its reputation as the best shallow-water reef in Thailand attracted more than 30000 visitors per year to the 8km2 of fringing reef. Visitor management included fees, permits, specific activities management, a zoning plan and an information centre. Zoning plan exclusion areas included the area of highest

Suchai Worachananant; Marc Hockings; Pasinee Reopanichkul

64

Marine mammals' influence on ecosystem processes affecting fisheries in the Barents Sea is trivial  

PubMed Central

Some interpretations of ecosystem-based fishery management include culling marine mammals as an integral component. The current Norwegian policy on marine mammal management is one example. Scientific support for this policy includes the Scenario Barents Sea (SBS) models. These modelled interactions between cod, Gadus morhua, herring, Clupea harengus, capelin, Mallotus villosus and northern minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Adding harp seals Phoca groenlandica into this top-down modelling approach resulted in unrealistic model outputs. Another set of models of the Barents Sea fish–fisheries system focused on interactions within and between the three fish populations, fisheries and climate. These model key processes of the system successfully. Continuing calls to support the SBS models despite their failure suggest a belief that marine mammal predation must be a problem for fisheries. The best available scientific evidence provides no justification for marine mammal culls as a primary component of an ecosystem-based approach to managing the fisheries of the Barents Sea. PMID:19126534

Corkeron, Peter J.

2009-01-01

65

MARINE PROTECTED AREAS Fisheries Science and Management  

E-print Network

·global warming Changes in the functioning of oceans worldwide : - chemistry - biology - ecology What · habitat degradation · invasive species · harmful algal blooms · marine epidemics · mass mortalities globally: What is the problem? ·species diversity ·population abundance, size structure, sex ratios

Limburg, Karin E.

66

Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish…

Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

2010-01-01

67

Traditional marine resource management in Vanuatu: Acknowledging, supporting and strengthening indigenous management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the marine related traditional knowledge held by fishers in Vanuatu relates to increasing catches while managing resources of cultural, social and subsistence value. Traditional beliefs and practices asso- ciated with fisheries and their management follow natural cycles of resource abundance, accessibility, and respect for customary rules enshrined in oral traditions. Many management related rules that control fish- ers'

Francis R. Hickey

2006-01-01

68

Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.  

PubMed

Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

Mora, Camilo; Myers, Ransom A; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J; Sumaila, Rashid U; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J; Worm, Boris

2009-06-16

69

Resilience of marine turtle regional management units to climate change.  

PubMed

Enhancing species resilience to changing environmental conditions is often suggested as a climate change adaptation strategy. To effectively achieve this, it is necessary first to understand the factors that determine species resilience, and their relative importance in shaping the ability of species to adjust to the complexities of environmental change. This is an extremely challenging task because it requires comprehensive information on species traits. We explored the resilience of 58 marine turtle regional management units (RMUs) to climate change, encompassing all seven species of marine turtles worldwide. We used expert opinion from the IUCN-SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group (n = 33 respondents) to develop a Resilience Index, which considered qualitative characteristics of each RMU (relative population size, rookery vulnerability, and genetic diversity) and non climate-related threats (fisheries, take, coastal development, and pollution/pathogens). Our expert panel perceived rookery vulnerability (the likelihood of functional rookeries becoming extirpated) and non climate-related threats as having the greatest influence on resilience of RMUs to climate change. We identified the world's 13 least resilient marine turtle RMUs to climate change, which are distributed within all three major ocean basins and include six of the world's seven species of marine turtle. Our study provides the first look at inter- and intra-species variation in resilience to climate change and highlights the need to devise metrics that measure resilience directly. We suggest that this approach can be widely used to help prioritize future actions that increase species resilience to climate change. PMID:23505145

Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Pike, David A; Dimatteo, Andrew; Wallace, Bryan P

2013-05-01

70

REAL-TIME RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT & MANAGEMENT OF MARINE PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-line instrumentation information processing procedures have been developed and implemented to permit 'real-time' assessment of the reliability characteristics of marine pipelines. The objective of this work is to provide pipeline engineers, owners and operators with additional useful information that can help determine what should be done to help maintain pipelines. This paper describes the real-time RAM (reliability assessment and management)

Robert Bea; Charles Smith; Bob Smith; Johannes Rosenmoeller; Thomas Beuker; Bryce Brown

2002-01-01

71

Marine managed areas and associated fisheries in the US Caribbean.  

PubMed

The marine managed areas (MMAs) of the U.S. Caribbean are summarized and specific data-rich cases are examined to determine their impact upon fisheries management in the region. In this region, the productivity and connectivity of benthic habitats such as mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs is essential for many species targeted by fisheries. A minority of the 39 MMAs covering over 4000km(2) serve any detectable management or conservation function due to deficiencies in the design, objectives, compliance or enforcement. Fifty percent of the area within MMA boundaries had no-take regulations in the U.S. Virgin Islands, while Puerto Rico only had 3%. Six case studies are compared and contrasted to better understand the potential of these MMAs for fisheries management. Signs of success were associated with including sufficient areas of essential fish habitat (nursery, spawning and migration corridors), year-round no-take regulations, enforcement and isolation. These criteria have been identified as important in the conservation of marine resources, but little has been done to modify the way MMAs are designated and implemented in the region. Site-specific monitoring to measure the effects of these MMAs is needed to demonstrate the benefits to fisheries and gain local support for a greater use as a fisheries management tool. PMID:25358299

Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle T; Mateos-Molina, Daniel; Appeldoorn, Richard; Bejarano, Ivonne; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A; Nemeth, Richard S; Nemeth, Michael I; Valdés-Pizzini, Manuel; Smith, Tyler B

2014-01-01

72

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2011-07-01

73

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2013-07-01

74

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2012-07-01

75

Inadequate Evaluation and Management of Threats in Australia's Marine Parks, Including the Great Barrier Reef, Misdirect Marine Conservation.  

PubMed

The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently. PMID:25358302

Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

2014-01-01

76

Insight to Ecosystem Based Approach (EBA) at Landscape Level Using a Geospatial Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem based approach (EBA) for resource management is a concerted, environmentally tuned and an integrated framework that\\u000a holistically addresses the ecological character of the natural resource, its societal benefit spectrum and its environmental\\u000a functions. In this paper, the EBA concept is closely linked with the emerging concept of multiple use systems (MUS) while\\u000a taking account of environmental, economic, and social

Nidhi Nagabhatla; Sonali S. Sellamuttu; A. Ghosh Bobba; Max Finlayson; Rohan Wickramasuriya; Martin Van Brakel; S. Narendra Prasad; Chiranjibi Pattanaik

77

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research  

E-print Network

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group ­ Burning Issues Working Group, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America, 2 Global Marine Division, Conservation International, Arlington

Florida, University of

78

From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems, with case studies from temperate Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of Ecosystem Based Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We

Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey

79

A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Marine Spatial Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.

Teh, Lydia C. L.; Teh, Louise S. L.

2011-04-01

80

Selected marine mammals of Alaska: species accounts with research and management recommendations  

SciTech Connect

This book is the result of a need seen by the Marine Mammal Commission for a current summary of the biology and status of ten species of Alaskan marine mammals, including recommendations for research and management. Its purpose is to serve as a reference and working document as conservation and management plans are developed and implemented for the ten species.

Lentfer, J.W.

1988-01-01

81

Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

82

Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management  

PubMed Central

Marine protected areas (MPAs) that exclude fishing have been shown repeatedly to enhance the abundance, size, and diversity of species. These benefits, however, mean little to most marine species, because individual protected areas typically are small. To meet the larger-scale conservation challenges facing ocean ecosystems, several nations are expanding the benefits of individual protected areas by building networks of protected areas. Doing so successfully requires a detailed understanding of the ecological and physical characteristics of ocean ecosystems and the responses of humans to spatial closures. There has been enormous scientific interest in these topics, and frameworks for the design of MPA networks for meeting conservation and fishery management goals are emerging. Persistent in the literature is the perception of an inherent tradeoff between achieving conservation and fishery goals. Through a synthetic analysis across these conservation and bioeconomic studies, we construct guidelines for MPA network design that reduce or eliminate this tradeoff. We present size, spacing, location, and configuration guidelines for designing networks that simultaneously can enhance biological conservation and reduce fishery costs or even increase fishery yields and profits. Indeed, in some settings, a well-designed MPA network is critical to the optimal harvest strategy. When reserves benefit fisheries, the optimal area in reserves is moderately large (mode ?30%). Assessing network design principals is limited currently by the absence of empirical data from large-scale networks. Emerging networks will soon rectify this constraint. PMID:20200311

Gaines, Steven D.; White, Crow; Carr, Mark H.; Palumbi, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

83

Critical research needs for managing coral reef marine protected areas: perspectives of academics and managers.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary policy instrument for managing and protecting coral reefs. Successful MPAs ultimately depend on knowledge-based decision making, where scientific research is integrated into management actions. Fourteen coral reef MPA managers and sixteen academics from eleven research, state and federal government institutions each outlined at least five pertinent research needs for improving the management of MPAs situated in Australian coral reefs. From this list of 173 key questions, we asked members of each group to rank questions in order of urgency, redundancy and importance, which allowed us to explore the extent of perceptional mismatch and overlap among the two groups. Our results suggest the mismatch among MPA managers and academics is small, with no significant difference among the groups in terms of their respective research interests, or the type of questions they pose. However, managers prioritised spatial management and monitoring as research themes, whilst academics identified climate change, resilience, spatial management, fishing and connectivity as the most important topics. Ranking of the posed questions by the two groups was also similar, although managers were less confident about the achievability of the posed research questions and whether questions represented a knowledge gap. We conclude that improved collaboration and knowledge transfer among management and academic groups can be used to achieve similar objectives and enhance the knowledge-based management of MPAs. PMID:23220604

Cvitanovic, C; Wilson, S K; Fulton, C J; Almany, G R; Anderson, P; Babcock, R C; Ban, N C; Beeden, R J; Beger, M; Cinner, J; Dobbs, K; Evans, L S; Farnham, A; Friedman, K J; Gale, K; Gladstone, W; Grafton, Q; Graham, N A J; Gudge, S; Harrison, P L; Holmes, T H; Johnstone, N; Jones, G P; Jordan, A; Kendrick, A J; Klein, C J; Little, L R; Malcolm, H A; Morris, D; Possingham, H P; Prescott, J; Pressey, R L; Skilleter, G A; Simpson, C; Waples, K; Wilson, D; Williamson, D H

2013-01-15

84

INCORPORATING MARINE BIRD DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE INFORMATION INTO MARINE CONSERVATION AREA MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The marine conservation mandate of Parks Canada Agency, passed in 2002, includes maintaining ecosystem structure and function while permitting multiple sustainable uses such as Aboriginal subsistence use, tourism and fisheries within National Marine Conservation Areas. We recently completed a review of the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) region as a first

A. Harfenist; N. A. Sloan; P. M. Bartier

2002-01-01

85

Engaging Los Angeles County subsistence anglers in the California marine protected area planning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-based management is more successful when a great diversity of stakeholders is engaged early in a decision-making process. Implementation of the California Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) has been stakeholder-based, coordinating the participation of a wide range of people including divers, fishermen, conservationists, local officials, business owners and coastal residents. Although commercial and recreational fishermen have actively participated throughout the

Charlotte Stevenson; Sarah Abramson Sikich; Mark Gold

86

Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial ecology research group, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Yerseke 4400 AC, the  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Yerseke 4400 AB, the Netherlands. 4 Delft of shorelines to keep up with relative sea-level rise (Fig. 1). In recent years, ecosystem-based flood defence

Cai, Long

87

A Survey of Marine Debris Management and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste in the world's waters and solid waste that accumulates on the shorelines of waterways is known as marine debris. Marine debris has been recognized as a form of pollution for nearly 50 years and is a concern for the general public for aesthetic reasons and may also pose a human health and safety hazard. Marine debris can affect

Jenna Jambeck; Timothy G. Townsend; Charles G. Barr

88

The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fletcher, W. J. 2005. The application of qualitative risk assessment methodology to prioritize issues for fisheries management. e ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62: 1576e1587. Implementing more holistic forms of fisheries management (e.g. Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD), Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management) usually increases the number and scope of impacts requiring assessment. This study examined the effectiveness of a qualitative risk assessment

W. J. Fletcher

2005-01-01

89

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

90

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

91

Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management  

E-print Network

modeling, grid power demand, energy storage. I. INTRODUCTION Highly predictable tidal resources and highApplication of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management Zhibin Zhou.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr, thtang@shmtu.edu.cn Abstract--Predictable tidal current resources make marine current turbine (MCT

Brest, Université de

92

Governance Profiles and the Management of the Uses of Large Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the management of the environment and its resources on an ecosystem basis has been increasing in both terrestrial and marine contexts. The emergence of the concept of large marine ecosystems (LMEs) is one important example of this development. LMEs have been examined through five linked modules: (1) productiv- ity of the ecosystem; (2) fish and fisheries; (3) pollution

LAWRENCE JUDA; TIMOTHY HENNESSEY

2001-01-01

93

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

94

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

to do research, forgoing short-term economic benefits, lack of institutional flexibility and long the opportunity to work with at Cowichan Tribes. I appreciate the laughter, the frustration, and the knowledge

95

Ecosystem-Based Management in the Whitebark Pine Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating white- bark pine forests. Preliminary results indicate these restoration treatments are successfully restoring the fire processes at a small scale,

Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart

96

New Tools to Meet New Challenges: Emerging Technologies for Managing Marine Ecosystems for Resilience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience provides an overview of current techniques used in evaluating marine ecosystem health. The goal of this article is to highlight evolving tools, recent advances, and emerging techniques that are being used to understand natural variability in marine ecosystems. These technical approaches range from the tagging of large pelagic organisms to the use of genomics to provide insight into the abundance and health of marine organisms. Although these techniques vary dramatically in scale, they share the potential to remove critical impediments to the effective management of marine systems.

GRETCHEN E. HOFMANN (University of California, Santa Barbara;); STEVEN D. GAINES (University of California, Santa Barbara;)

2008-01-01

97

Guiding ecological principles for marine spatial planning Melissa M. Foley a,b,, Benjamin S. Halpern c  

E-print Network

Keywords: Marine spatial planning MSP Ecosystem-based MSP Ecological principles a b s t r a c t The declining health of marine ecosystems around the world is evidence that current piecemeal governance. One proposed solution to this problem is ecosystem-based marine spatial planning (MSP), which

Palumbi, Stephen

98

An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.

Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

2003-10-14

99

The Australian Ocean Data Network as a tool for supporting management of marine biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN) is a rapidly growing distributed data network bringing together marine data collections from Commonwealth Agencies, Universities, State Governments, national programs and private industry. These data are made publicly available through the AODN portal (http://portal.aodn.org.au), an open source information infrastructure itself downloadable from https://github.com/aodn/aodn-portal. Increasingly, the data collections are multi-disciplinary requiring access to multiple layers of information from different sources. This requires rich metadata to enable the appropriate layers to be discovered and integrated. Recently, the Marine Biodiversity Hub of the National Environmental Research Program (NERP), funded by the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, has commited to making its data publicly available through the AODN. The next 3-4 years provide a key opportunity to fundamentally change the way we monitor marine biodiversity throughout Australia. The Hub collaborates with the Department and stakeholders to understand ecosystems and biodiversity especially in Northern Australia. Key outcomes will include better methods for measuring ecosystem health and Marine Protected Area (MPA) performance, more management options, and increased understanding of marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, leading to improved monitoring and management of marine biodiversity and listed species in Australia. The ability to bring together the wide range of data necessary to fulfil the Marine Biodiversity Hub's aims represents a challenge for the AODN. This will be illustrated through a test case based on marine park requirements.

Proctor, Roger; Dunstan, Piers; Hedge, Paul; Atkins, Natalia; Mancini, Sebastien; Bax, Nic

2013-04-01

100

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine disciplines. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

Glaves, H. M.; Miller, S. P.; Proctor, R.; Schaap, D.

2012-12-01

101

Mind the Gap: furthering the development of an international collaboration in marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large and ever increasing amount of marine data is available throughout Europe, USA, Australia and beyond. The challenges associated with the acquisition of this data mean that the cost of collection is high and the data itself often irreplaceable. At a time when the demand for marine data is growing while financial resources for its collection are being dramatically reduced the need to maximise its re-use is becoming a priority for marine data managers. A number of barriers to the re-use of marine data currently exist due to the various formats, standards, vocabularies etc. used by the organisations engaged in collecting and managing this data. These challenges are already being addressed at a regional level by projects in Europe (Geo-Seas, SeaDataNet etc.), USA (R2R) and Australia (IMOS). To expand these projects further and bridge the gap between these regional initiatives the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) will establish a collaborative platform which will facilitate the development of a common approach to marine data management. Proactive dissemination of the outcomes and products of this project will promote adoption of the common standards and practices developed by the ODIP project to other organisations and regions beyond the 20 original consortium partners. To demonstrate this coordinated approach several joint prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential solutions for solving the marine data management issues identified within the different marine. These prototypes will also be used to illustrate the effective sharing of data across scientific domains, organisations and international boundaries through the development of common practices and standards in marine data management.

Glaves, Helen; Miller, Stephen; Proctor, Roger; Schaap, Dick

2013-04-01

102

A new imperative for improving management of large marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued over-fishing in the face of scientific warnings, fishing down food webs, destruction of habitat, and accelerated pollution loading—especially nitrogen export—have resulted in significant degradation to coastal and marine ecosystems of both rich and poor nations. Fragmentation among institutions, international agencies, and disciplines, lack of cooperation among nations sharing marine ecosystems, and weak national policies, legislation, and enforcement all contribute

Alfred M. Duda; Kenneth Sherman

2002-01-01

103

An evaluation of the use of fishing club records in the management of marine recreational fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are limitations to the usefulness of data from fishing club records in management of marine recreational fisheries, the present study shows that, with careful analysis, trends relevant to resource management can be discerned. Club records analysed in the present study show that there are very large differences in catches and catch rates over time, including seasonally throughout the

Donald F. Gartside; Bradley Harrison; Bret L. Ryan

1999-01-01

104

Management of an invasive marine species: defining and testing the effectiveness of ballast-water management options using management strategy evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive marine and fresh-water species are being spread around the world in ships' ballast water, damaging industries and natural resources. Management policies are being developed nationally and internationally in response to the threat, but these options are not being rigorously evaluated for their potential to meet management objectives. We used management strategy evaluation (MSE) simulation to compare the performance of

Piers K. Dunstan; Nicholas J. Bax

2008-01-01

105

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

106

Incorporating indirect ecosystem services into marine protected area planning and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are recognised as being the mechanism through which marine ecosystem services may be conserved to benefit human well-being. Planning and decision-making can be supported by the quantification and valuation of ecosystem services. To inform the development and management of MPAs a ‘service-orientated’ framework has been developed to use available data to spatially map and explore the

Siân E. Rees; Melanie C. Austen; Martin J. Attrill; Lynda D. Rodwell

2012-01-01

107

Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.  

PubMed

The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

2014-09-15

108

Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial shift toward use of marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation and fisheries management is currently underway.\\u000a This shift to explicit spatial management presents new challenges and uncertainties for ecologists and resource managers.\\u000a In particular, the potential for MPAs to change population sustainability, fishery yield, and ecosystem properties depends\\u000a on the poorly understood consequences of three critical forms of

Louis W. Botsford; Daniel R. Brumbaugh; Churchill Grimes; Julie B. Kellner; John Largier; Michael R. O’Farrell; Stephen Ralston; Elaine Soulanille; Vidar Wespestad

2009-01-01

109

IDENTIFYING AND MANAGING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS: USING SCIENCE EFFECTIVELY  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the imperatives that came out of the World Summit on Sustainable Development was to develop a representative network of marine protected areas by 2012. The report of the Summit specifically mentions the identification of those protected areas based on scientific information. Another imperative from the Summit was \\

K. Hiscock

110

Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management  

PubMed Central

There is a growing focus around the world on marine spatial planning, including spatial fisheries management. Some spatial management approaches are quite blunt, as when marine protected areas (MPAs) are established to restrict fishing in specific locations. Other management tools, such as zoning or spatial user rights, will affect the distribution of fishing effort in a more nuanced manner. Considerable research has focused on the ability of MPAs to increase fishery returns, but the potential for the broader class of spatial management approaches to outperform MPAs has received far less attention. We use bioeconomic models of seven nearshore fisheries in Southern California to explore the value of optimized spatial management in which the distribution of fishing is chosen to maximize profits. We show that fully optimized spatial management can substantially increase fishery profits relative to optimal nonspatial management but that the magnitude of this increase depends on characteristics of the fishing fleet and target species. Strategically placed MPAs can also increase profits substantially compared with nonspatial management, particularly if fishing costs are low, although profit increases available through optimal MPA-based management are roughly half those from fully optimized spatial management. However, if the same total area is protected by randomly placing MPAs, starkly contrasting results emerge: most random MPA designs reduce expected profits. The high value of spatial management estimated here supports continued interest in spatially explicit fisheries regulations but emphasizes that predicted increases in profits can only be achieved if the fishery is well understood and the regulations are strategically designed. PMID:22753469

Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Siegel, David A.

2012-01-01

111

Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management.  

PubMed

There is a growing focus around the world on marine spatial planning, including spatial fisheries management. Some spatial management approaches are quite blunt, as when marine protected areas (MPAs) are established to restrict fishing in specific locations. Other management tools, such as zoning or spatial user rights, will affect the distribution of fishing effort in a more nuanced manner. Considerable research has focused on the ability of MPAs to increase fishery returns, but the potential for the broader class of spatial management approaches to outperform MPAs has received far less attention. We use bioeconomic models of seven nearshore fisheries in Southern California to explore the value of optimized spatial management in which the distribution of fishing is chosen to maximize profits. We show that fully optimized spatial management can substantially increase fishery profits relative to optimal nonspatial management but that the magnitude of this increase depends on characteristics of the fishing fleet and target species. Strategically placed MPAs can also increase profits substantially compared with nonspatial management, particularly if fishing costs are low, although profit increases available through optimal MPA-based management are roughly half those from fully optimized spatial management. However, if the same total area is protected by randomly placing MPAs, starkly contrasting results emerge: most random MPA designs reduce expected profits. The high value of spatial management estimated here supports continued interest in spatially explicit fisheries regulations but emphasizes that predicted increases in profits can only be achieved if the fishery is well understood and the regulations are strategically designed. PMID:22753469

Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Siegel, David A

2012-07-17

112

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. • SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. • European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. • Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

113

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

114

?Ocean biodiversity informatics?: a new era in marine biology research and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean biodiversity informatics (OBI) is the use of computer technologies to manage marine biodiversity information, including data capture, storage, search, retrieval, visualisation, mapping, modelling, analysis and publication. The latest information systems are open-access, making data and\\/or information publicly available over the Internet. This ranges from primary data on species occurrences, such as in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), to

Mark J. Costello; Edward Vanden Berghe

2006-01-01

115

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

116

SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

2007-12-01

117

Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists?  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists B., Martinez C., Imbach P., 2009. Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy and livelihoods depend largely on ecosystem services, policies for adaptation to climate change should take

Boyer, Edmond

118

Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

2010-11-01

119

An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: The Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. PMID:25461028

Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

2015-02-01

120

Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

Pontecorvo, Guilio

121

Use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems To Support Spatial Management and Conservation of Marine Resources In Tropical Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destructive fishing methods have degraded coral reefs and depleted fisheries in the Philippines and Indonesia. Both countries have passed laws to decentralize management of fisheries and the coastal zone. There is an urgent need to implement ecosystem management strategies. Conservationists and scientists have advocated spatial management involving the implementation of networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). A weakness of many

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand P. Cruz; Tomas V. Jamir

122

75 FR 39638 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic Region; Correction...a correction to the final rule to implement Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic region that...

2010-07-12

123

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

2013-12-01

124

MAPPING OF CORAL REEFS FOR MANAGEMENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS USING REMOTE S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, the Australian high commission joined other national efforts, such as the US Coral Reef Task Force, to meet the challenge of developing a remote sensingintegrated management plan to ‘conserve and protect’ coral reef ecosystems. Today, in Australia alone, over 408 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been developed conserving and protecting the country’s reef heritage (www.mpaglobal.org). These MPAs represent

CANDACE M. NEWMAN; ELLSWORTH F. LeDREW; ALAN LIM

125

Geo-Seas - building a unified e-infrastructure for marine geoscientific data management in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant barrier to marine geoscientific research in Europe is the lack of standardised marine geological and geophysical data and data products which could potentially facilitate multidisciplinary marine research extending across national and international boundaries. Although there are large volumes of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations as well as between countries. This makes the direct use of primary data very difficult and also hampers use of the data to produce integrated multidisciplinary data products and services. The Geo-Seas project, an EU Framework 7 funded initiative, is developing a unified e-infrastructure to facilitate the sharing of marine geoscientific data within Europe. This e-infrastructure is providing on-line access to both discovery metadata and the associated federated data sets from 26 European data centres via a dedicated portal. The implementation of the Geo-Seas portal is allowing a range of end users to locate, assess and access standardised geoscientific data from multiple sources which is interoperable with other marine data types. Geo-Seas is building on the work already done by the existing SeaDataNet project which currently provides a data management e-infrastructure for oceanographic data which allows users to locate and access federated oceanographic data sets. By adopting and adapting the SeaDataNet methodologies and technologies the Geo-Seas project has not only avoid unnecessary duplication of effort by reusing existing and proven technologies but also contributed to the development of a multidisciplinary approach to ocean science across Europe through the creation of a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data. This approach is also leading to the development of collaborative links with other European projects including EMODNET, Eurofleets. Genesi-DEC and iMarine as well as extending to the wider marine geoscientific and oceanographic community including projects in the USA such as the Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) initiative and also organisations in both the USA and Australia. On behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), LNEG (Portugal), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), NRC-IGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingdom), MUMM (Belgium), UB (Spain), UCC (Ireland), EU-Consult (Netherlands), CNRS (France), SHOM (France), CEFAS (United Kingdom), and LU (Latvia).

Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

2012-04-01

126

Geo-Seas - building a unified e-infrastructure for marine geoscientific data management in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant barrier to marine geoscientific research in Europe is the lack of standardised marine geological and geophysical data and data products which could potentially facilitate multidisciplinary marine research extending across national and international boundaries. Although there are large volumes of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations as well as between countries. This makes the direct use of primary data very difficult and also hampers use of the data to produce integrated multidisciplinary data products and services. The Geo-Seas project, an EU Framework 7 funded initiative, is developing a unified e-infrastructure to facilitate the sharing of marine geoscientific data within Europe. This e-infrastructure is providing on-line access to both discovery metadata and the associated federated data sets from 26 European data centres via a dedicated portal. The implementation of the Geo-Seas portal is allowing a range of end users to locate, assess and access standardised geoscientific data from multiple sources which is interoperable with other marine data types. Geo-Seas is building on the work already done by the existing SeaDataNet project which currently provides a data management e-infrastructure for oceanographic data which allows users to locate and access federated oceanographic data sets. By adopting and adapting the SeaDataNet methodologies and technologies the Geo-Seas project has not only avoid unnecessary duplication of effort by reusing existing and proven technologies but also contributed to the development of a multidisciplinary approach to ocean science across Europe through the creation of a joint infrastructure for both marine geoscientific and oceanographic data. This approach is also leading to the development of collaborative links with other European projects including EMODNET, Eurofleets. Genesi-DEC and iMarine as well as extending to the wider marine geoscientific and oceanographic community including projects in the USA such as the Rolling Deck Repository (R2R) initiative and also organisations in both the USA and Australia.

Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.

2012-12-01

127

Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.  

PubMed

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

2013-01-01

128

Synthesis of Knowledge on Marine Biodiversity in European Seas: From Census to Sustainable Management  

PubMed Central

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000–2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

2013-01-01

129

Management of marine construction works using ecological modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of bridges and tunnels between Denmark and Sweden is being constructed. The environmental management of the dredging and reclamation work includes planning using a mathematical model which can forecast the effect of different spill scenarios in order to minimize adverse effects on eelgrass beds. To develop the model, plots of eelgrass beds (4 m 2) were covered with nets excluding 30, 60 and 90% of the light. Shoot density, leaf and root/rhizome biomass, and soluble carbohydrates in roots and rhizomes were observed in order to determine the response of the plants to shading. In selected plots, all aboveground biomass was harvested to assess the re-growth potential. The minimum level of soluble carbohydrates necessary for securing re-growth was 60-90 mg g -1. The inclusion of the subsediment parts of the eelgrass permits model runs beyond one growth season, and the prediction of re-growth after subsequent shading and winter dormancy. The model has been satisfyingly calibrated and validated. A feedback monitoring system has been developed based on field studies of eelgrass variables, a set of pre-fixed environmental criteria and forecasting of the effects of the construction works. The system facilitates planning and management of the dredging and reclamation operations, and mitigating actions during the progression of the work.

Bach, H. K.; Jensen, K.; Lyngby, J. E.

1997-01-01

130

Thermodynamic analysis of ecosystem based on remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

key words: ecosystem thermodynamic, energy balance, exergy, Transformation of matter and energy in plant associations and their relationship with other parts of the ecosystem are being determined by the physiological processes in plants. Accordingly, to identify general patterns of ecosystem energy transformation, assessment of an energy balance components reflecting the nature of physiological processes: photosynthesis, transpiration (of which carbon balance is evaluated), water and minerals exchange, is required. Assessment of the main energy variables for ecosystems is possible on the basis of information-thermodynamic approach in which the ecosystem - is an open system, producing yield for self-maintenance on its structure through the conversion of solar energy. In doing so, the distribution of energy absorbed by balance components depends on the structure of the system that determines the nonequilibrium energy conversion. In the information-thermodynamic approach essential component in the transformation of solar energy is exergy - the maximum work that a thermodynamic system may commit during its transition from the current state to the state of equilibrium with the environment. Exergy sometimes called system yield, it is the function of the distance between the current state of the system and thermodynamic equilibrium. Relating to ecosystems, exergy - part of absorbed solar energy, spend on biological productivity and evapotranspiration (exergy of solar radiation). The rest goes into the bound energy - energy transition in the heat flow and entropy, and in increment of internal energy - system energy accumulation wich in its turn spend on maintenance of intercomponent and interspecific interactions, local cycles. Get estimation of energy balance for the entire set of ecosystems based on ground-based measurements is virtually impossible. Such assessments are possible on the basis of remote sensing data, which show the energetic state of the Earth's surface at the time of shooting in different spectral bands. Satellite measurements of reflected solar energy in relation to the solar constant allow the calculation of solar radiation absorbed per unit surface. Heat channel allows to calculate the heat flow from the surface and its temperature. The development of remote sensing and instrument base allows to measure a wide range of ecosystems characteristics: measurements are preformed directly in the field on transects with the regular testing step, and through remote sensing and digital models of different relief. Ultimately, the combination of complex ground and remote measurements in the study of energy balance should promote understanding of the interaction mechanism between relief, soil, vegetation and atmosphere at various hierarchical levels of the landscape cover and create a basis for the development of models describing mesoclimate, as a result of landscape functioning and self-evolution.

Sandlerskiy, Robert; Puzachenko, Yurii

2010-05-01

131

Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to identify the important steps in the evolution of the ecosystem approach to management under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The first section provides the background to CCAMLR, including the formulation of the convention and its objectives, its operation, and the historical trends in fisheries. Later sections describe (i) the reasons why

David J. Agnew; Inigo Everson; Denzil Miller

2000-01-01

132

United States Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement: filling data gaps to better understand the effects of anthropogenic noise on marine life.  

PubMed

Protecting the environment while ensuring the safe development of our Nation's offshore energy(from both renewable and traditional sources) and marine mineral resources is a critical part of the mission of the BOEMRE. The BOEMRE, as with all federal agencies, must consider the potential environmental impacts for every decision made. This includes understanding the potential for and degree of adverse effects that may result from the introduction of anthropogenic noise into the marine environment from BOEMRE-regulated industry sources. The ESP and the TAR Program are integral in helping the BOEMRE achieve this mission because the strength and quality of the environmental decision making can only be as good as the science supporting it. Cumulatively,these research programs help the BOEMRE pursue an adaptive and ecosystem-based approach to its stewardship responsibilities. PMID:22278565

Lewandowski, Jill; Burkhard, Elizabeth; Skrupky, Kimberly; Epperson, Deborah

2012-01-01

133

Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

2013-04-01

134

GENIES/SimCLIM Tools to Support Climate Change Information and Marine Resource Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will significantly impact the global environment, and the faster the change, the greater the risk of damage. The natural environment will be assaulted by increases in sea surface temperature and changes in the biogeochemical cycles of ocean ecosystems. Marine resource managers have begun to realize that the projected impacts of climate change in coastal and marine environments are full of uncertainties, creating enormous challenges when it comes to climate change response planning. CMIP5 GCMs produced a large amount of climate and ocean biogeochemical data for different climate change scenarios, which can provide indispensable information for marine resource planning and decision making. However, for end users, climate and ocean information needs to be processed to make it usable while applying robust scientific methods to make that processing acceptable. SimCLIM/GENIES software provides a comprehensive climate information, data management, and impact assessment platform. The software system consists of historical data and projections for atmospheric and oceanic variables, including air-temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sea surface temperature, ocean primary production, pH, pCO2, DIO, and DIC, with the potential for other data layers. These data are pre-processed using different downscaling and pattern scaling approaches, and then stored in a compact format with a very high compression ratio, which makes them more transferable. Users can carry out statistical and ensemble analyses with the software in order to better understand uncertainties. Within the software system, historical climate data, a climate change scenario generator, and impact assessment tools are all integrated into a single platform. They are policy-maker and end-user oriented and present climate information in a friendly and easily understandable manner with excellent spatial visualization tools. Moreover, the system provided and released an ArcGIS/marine add-in, which allows ArcGIS users to directly use climate information in their familiar software environment. GENIES is a decision support system built on a system dynamics simulation library with powerful simulation capabilities and great flexibility in simulation architecture, control, construction and integration. GENIES uses a visual coupling tool for data conversion, and dynamic updating of workflows. A user can easily build, extend and revise their own/already existing models when a new domain is explored or new questions arise, even during the runtime. Marine resources management model tools can be either coupled or developed with GENIES in a fast and friendly way. A coral reef impact model is developed as a demonstration.

Li, Y.; Urich, P.; Yin, C.; Kouwenhoven, P.; CLIMsystems Team

2013-05-01

135

Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.  

PubMed

Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. PMID:24768172

Wells, Peter G

2014-06-15

136

Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries, this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures appear to reflect local socioeconomic conditions in two Papua New Guinean communities. Attributes of the customary management (including size, shape, permanence, and gear restrictions) are examined in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions (including resource users’ ability to switch gears, fishing grounds, and occupations). Customary closures in the two communities appear to reflect local socioeconomic circumstances in three ways. First, in situations where people can readily switch between occupations, full closures are acceptable with periodic harvests to benefit from the closure. In comparison, communities with high dependence on the marine resources are more conducive to employing strategies that restrict certain gear types while still allowing others. Second, where there is multiple clan and family spatial ownership of resources, the communities have one closure per clan/family; one large no-take area would have disproportionate affect on those compared to the rest of the community. In contrast, communities that have joint ownership can establish one large closure as long as there are other areas available to harvest. Third, historical and trade relationships with neighboring communities can influence regulations by creating the need for occasional harvests to provide fish for feasts. This study further demonstrates the importance of understanding the socioeconomic context of factors such as community governance and levels of dependence for the conservation of marine resources.

Cinner, J. E.

2007-12-01

137

76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...predator-dominated marine ecosystems with a...approach to wildlife, plant, and habitat conservation...and adaptation. Marine debris impacts and removal. Invasive species prevention...including coral reefs, marine clams, apex...

2011-04-05

138

78 FR 74046 - Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Regulations and Management Plan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA...Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Georgia...Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary NOAA...

2013-12-10

139

Tropical Marginal Seas: Priority Regions for Managing Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems - coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes - and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence - from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas - but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

McKinnon, A. David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

140

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

141

Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60–99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems. PMID:24324585

Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

2013-01-01

142

Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

2011-12-01

143

Overcoming Governance and Institutional Barriers to Integrated Coastal Zone, Marine Protected Area, and Tourism Management in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major barriers to addressing complex social–ecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area

Robert B. Powell; Ariel Cuschnir; Prakash Peiris

2009-01-01

144

Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: What scope for payments for environmental services?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in payments for environmental services (PES) for ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA). So far, however, experiences and theoretical analyses of PES specifically for adaptation have not been well documented. This paper addresses this gap by analysing the opportunities and constraints of PES as an instrument for EBA. Specifically, we examine the potential for

Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff; Bruno Locatelli; Sven Wunder; Maria Brockhaus

2011-01-01

145

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2  

E-print Network

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2 , Qinghua Zheng1, 2 that an e-learning ecosystem is the next generation e- learning. However, the current models of e-learning ecosystems lack the support of underlying infrastructures, which can dynamically allocate the required

Li, Haifei

146

The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.  

PubMed

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarŕ, G; Ceccherelli, G

2015-01-15

147

77 FR 29555 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 for the South Atlantic Region; Correction...action corrects the final rule implementing the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 (CE-BA 2) for the South Atlantic...

2012-05-18

148

Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

Knowles, M.; Baglee, D.

2012-05-01

149

Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

2010-11-09

150

The Growing Need for Sustainable Ecological Management of Marine Communities of the Persian Gulf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed marine system surrounded by eight countries, many of which are experiencing substantial\\u000a development. It is also a major center for the oil industry. The increasing array of anthropogenic disturbances may have substantial\\u000a negative impacts on marine ecosystems, but this has received little attention until recently. We review the available literature\\u000a on the Gulf’s marine

Peter F. Sale; David A. Feary; John A. Burt; Andrew G. Bauman; Geórgenes H. Cavalcante; Kenneth G. Drouillard; Björn Kjerfve; Elise Marquis; Charles G. Trick; Paolo Usseglio; Hanneke Van Lavieren

2011-01-01

151

Evolutionary techniques for sensor networks energy optimization in marine environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of coastal and offshore ecosystems, such as for example coral reef environments, requires the collection of accurate data across various temporal and spatial scales. Accordingly, monitoring systems are seen as central tools for ecosystem-based environmental management, helping on one hand to accurately describe the water column and substrate biophysical properties, and on the other hand to correctly steer sustainability policies by providing timely and useful information to decision-makers. A robust and intelligent sensor network that can adjust and be adapted to different and changing environmental or management demands would revolutionize our capacity to wove accurately model, predict, and manage human impacts on our coastal, marine, and other similar environments. In this paper advanced evolutionary techniques are applied to optimize the design of an innovative energy harvesting device for marine applications. The authors implement an enhanced technique in order to exploit in the most effective way the uniqueness and peculiarities of two classical optimization approaches, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms. Here, this hybrid procedure is applied to a power buoy designed for marine environmental monitoring applications in order to optimize the recovered energy from sea-wave, by selecting the optimal device configuration.

Grimaccia, Francesco; Johnstone, Ron; Mussetta, Marco; Pirisi, Andrea; Zich, Riccardo E.

2012-10-01

152

Development of a decision support system to manage contamination in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In recent years, contamination and its interaction with climate-change variables have been recognized as critical stressors in coastal areas, emphasizing the need for a standardized framework encompassing chemical and biological data into risk indices to support decision-making. We therefore developed an innovative, expert decision support system (Exp-DSS) for the management of contamination in marine coastal ecosystems. The Exp-DSS has two main applications: (i) to determine environmental risk and biological vulnerability in contaminated sites; and (ii) to support the management of waters and sediments by assessing the risk due to the exposure of biota to these matrices. The Exp-DSS evaluates chemical data, both as single compounds and as total toxic pressure of the mixture, to compare concentrations to effect-based thresholds (TELs and PELs). Sites are then placed into three categories of contamination: uncontaminated, mildly contaminated, and highly contaminated. In highly contaminated sites, effects on high-level ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e. survival and reproduction) are used to determine risk at the organism-population level, while ecological parameters (i.e. alterations in community structure and ecosystem functions) are considered for assessing effects on biodiversity. Changes in sublethal biomarkers are utilized to assess the stress level of the organisms in mildly contaminated sites. In Triad studies, chemical concentrations, ecotoxicological high-level effects, and ecological data are combined to determine the level of environmental risk in highly contaminated sites; chemical concentration and ecotoxicological sublethal effects are evaluated to determine biological vulnerability in mildly contaminated sites. The Exp-DSS was applied to data from the literature about sediment quality in estuarine areas of Spain, and ranked risks related to exposure to contaminated sediments from high risk (Huelva estuary) to mild risk (Guadalquivir estuary and Bay of Cadiz). A spreadsheet-based version of the Exp-DSS is available at the MEECE and DiSIT web sites (www.meece.eu and www.disit.unipmn.it). PMID:23892026

Dagnino, A; Viarengo, A

2014-01-01

153

Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

2014-03-01

154

Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

2013-10-01

155

Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment process  

E-print Network

Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment: Ecosystem-based management Integrated ecosystem assessment Public policy process Ocean resource management and developed appropriate modeling tools in support of an ecosystem-based approach to natural resource manage

156

Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.  

PubMed

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:20176947

McCook, Laurence J; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J Howard; Evans, Richard D; De Freitas, Debora M; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J; Pitcher, C Roland; Pressey, Robert L; Russ, Garry R; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R; Williamson, David H

2010-10-26

157

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd

Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

2010-05-01

158

Integration at the round table: marine spatial planning in multi-stakeholder settings.  

PubMed

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is often considered as a pragmatic approach to implement an ecosystem based management in order to manage marine space in a sustainable way. This requires the involvement of multiple actors and stakeholders at various governmental and societal levels. Several factors affect how well the integrated management of marine waters will be achieved, such as different governance settings (division of power between central and local governments), economic activities (and related priorities), external drivers, spatial scales, incentives and objectives, varying approaches to legislation and political will. We compared MSP in Belgium, Norway and the US to illustrate how the integration of stakeholders and governmental levels differs among these countries along the factors mentioned above. Horizontal integration (between sectors) is successful in all three countries, achieved through the use of neutral 'round-table' meeting places for all actors. Vertical integration between government levels varies, with Belgium and Norway having achieved full integration while the US lacks integration of the legislature due to sharp disagreements among stakeholders and unsuccessful partisan leadership. Success factors include political will and leadership, process transparency and stakeholder participation, and should be considered in all MSP development processes. PMID:25299595

Olsen, Erik; Fluharty, David; Hoel, Alf Hĺkon; Hostens, Kristian; Maes, Frank; Pecceu, Ellen

2014-01-01

159

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OCS activities is subject to inspection by the Coast Guard. (b) On behalf of the Coast Guard, each fixed OCS facility engaged in OCS...in full compliance with applicable Coast Guard regulations. The Coast Guard marine inspector or the...

2010-07-01

160

Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: lessons from long-enduring customary management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some\\u000a researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources.\\u000a To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries,\\u000a this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures

J. E. Cinner

2007-01-01

161

BIGHORN IN OUR BACKYARD: A COOPERATIVE ECOSYSTEM-BASED EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Bighorn In Our Backyard (BIOB) project was initiated in 1997 by Osprey Communications with the support of Parks Canada in the Radium Hot Springs area at the southwestern edge of Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. The project's partners now include three levels of government, First Nations, industry, and locally based interest groups. Blue-listed Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis

Jennifer Dubois; Bill Swan; Alan D. Dibb

162

SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2014-05-01

163

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai'i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

164

78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the management of living marine resources in international waters...responsibility for managing marine fin and shellfish species and...distribution of species and stocks, ecosystem process changes, and marine ecological research. The...

2013-05-02

165

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

2014-05-01

166

Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.  

PubMed

Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change. PMID:19783356

Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

2009-10-01

167

Marine envenomations.  

PubMed

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

2014-02-01

168

Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An important principle of environmental science is that changes in single components of systems are likely to have consequences elsewhere in the same systems. In the sea, food web data are one of the few foundations for predicting such indirect effects, whether of fishery exploitation or following recovery in marine protected areas (MPAs). We review the available literature on

J. K. PINNEGAR; N. V. C. POLUNIN; P. FRANCOUR; F. BADALAMENTI; R. CHEMELLO; M.-L. HARMELIN-VIVIEN; B. HEREU; M. MILAZZO; M. ZABALA; G. D'ANNA; C. PIPITONE

2000-01-01

169

ICES CM 2008/R:06 Pacific-wide marine metadata discovery, management and delivery  

E-print Network

and adjacent marginal seas; to advance scientific knowledge about the ocean environment, global weather detection and prediction of ecosystem change in the North Pacific Ocean, it is beneficial to discover data supports PICES' goals to promote and co-ordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific

170

The survival of coral reefs requires integrated watershed-based management activities and marine conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

oral reefs are the most diverse of all marine ecosystems, and they are rivaled in biodiversity by few ter- restrial ecosystems. They support peo- ple directly and indirectly by building islands and atolls. They protect shore- lines from coastal erosion, support fish- eries of economic and cultural value, provide diving-related tourism and serve as habitats for organisms that produce natural

Eric Wolanski; Robert Richmond; Laurence McCook; Hugh Sweatman

2003-01-01

171

Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental conservation focus for Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge (HSNWR), Florida is to provide protected nesting habitat for three threatened or endangered marine turtle species. Turtle nesting and hatching spans from early spring to fall each year. Left unchecked, nest predation by raccoons and armadillos would destroy most turtle nests. Predators are removed to protect nests, primarily with a

Richard M. Engeman; R. Erik Martin; Bernice Constantin; Ryan Noel; John Woolard

2003-01-01

172

MARINE PROCESSES, THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO POLLUTION AND A FRAMEWORK FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The transport and transformation processes which influence th way in which waste materials are dispersed and incorporated into the marine environment are reviewed and summarized as a preface for appreciation of the technical papers which follow in this volume. n a similar vein th...

173

Estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystem restoration: Confusing management and science – A revision of concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents recent concepts, understanding and experience of the restoration, recovery and human-mediated modification of estuarine, coastal and marine ecosystems. It shows that these can be divided into four categories: natural recovery from a natural or anthropogenic change (whether adverse or otherwise); anthropogenic interventions in response to a degraded or anthropogenically changed environment; anthropogenic responses to a single stressor;

Michael Elliott; Daryl Burdon; Krystal L. Hemingway; Sabine E. Apitz

2007-01-01

174

Marine Geomorphology in the Design of Marine Reserve Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine environments, key life-support systems for the earth, are under severe threat. Issues associated with managing these common property resources are complex and interrelated. Networks of marine reserves can be valuable for mitigating threats to marine systems, yet the successful design and implementation of such networks has been limited. Efficient ways to conserve marine environments are urgently needed. This Focus

William D. Heyman; Dawn J. Wright

2011-01-01

175

MARINE MAMMALS OF THE AL ASK A REGION marine mammals  

E-print Network

267 MARINE MAMMALS OF THE AL ASK A REGION UNIT 21 marine mammals of the alaska region Unit 21 Marine Mammal Laboratory Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION The Alaska Region has 42 stocks of 25 species of marine mammals. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages three of these species (sea otter, polar bear

176

Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me?  

E-print Network

Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me? If you have an interest in learning about life in the sea then Marine Biology may be a good option for you. You will need good time management skills a marine biology degree are wide-ranging and provide a good basis for employment in almost any sector

Harman, Neal.A.

177

Marine Bioinvasions in the Southeastern Pacific: Status, Ecology, Economic Impacts, Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.

Juan C. Castilla; Paula E. Neill

178

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

1972-01-01

179

What are we protecting? Fisher behavior and the unintended consequences of spatial closures as a fishery management tool.  

PubMed

Spatial closures like marine protected areas (MPAs) are prominent tools for ecosystem-based management in fisheries. However, the adaptive behavior of fishermen, the apex predator in the ecosystem, to MPAs may upset the balance of fishing impacts across species. While ecosystem-based management (EBM) emphasizes the protection of all species in the environment, the weakest stock often dominates management attention. We use data before and after the implementation of large spatial closures in a North Pacific trawl fishery to show how closures designed for red king crab protection spurred dramatic increases in Pacific halibut bycatch due to both direct displacement effects and indirect effects from adaptations in fishermen's targeting behavior. We identify aspects of the ecological and economic context of the fishery that contributed to these surprising behaviors, noting that many multispecies fisheries are likely to share these features. Our results highlight the need either to anticipate the behavioral adaptations of fishermen across multiple species in reserve design, a form of implementation error, or to design management systems that are robust to these adaptations. Failure to do so may yield patterns of fishing effort and mortality that undermine the broader objectives of multispecies management and potentially alter ecosystems in profound ways. PMID:22645809

Abbott, Joshua K; Haynie, Alan C

2012-04-01

180

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

181

The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its functioning, and thus be in a position to better protect it. While most of the reef fish surveys are conducted in shallow areas (0-20 m), it is recognized that many commercially exploited fish stocks also utilize deeper habitats (50-400m). However, traditional methods (e.g., hook-and-line) for sampling these bottom fish species cannot be used in many areas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve [now a Monument] and other restricted fishing areas. Our ability to assess and monitor ocean living marine resources is important for ecosystem management as well as for determining the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The development and deployment of non-extractive sampling methods such as autonomous camera systems to collect information about the spatial distribution and relative abundance of bottom fish species is one of the preferred methods. In addition, OER and the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL) were two of the first groups to conduct scientific research in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve after it was established in 2000. Submersible dives (down to 2000 m) or ROV dives into the depths surrounding the remote islands, banks, and atolls have led to dozens of discoveries of new and yet to be identified species.

Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

2012-12-01

182

78 FR 23539 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); May 6...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The Pacific Council will host a meeting of the Council Coordination Committee (CCC) consisting of the eight Regional Fishery Management Council (RFMC) chairs, vice chairs, and executive directors and its subcommittees in May 2013. The intent of this meeting is to discuss issues of relevance to the Councils, including: budget issues, CCC meeting protocols, Managing Our Nation's Fisheries 3 (MONF3)......

2013-04-19

183

77 FR 22761 - Draft Management Plan and Environmental Assessment for Monitor National Marine Sanctuary: Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...management plan and draft environmental assessment may be submitted by one of the following methods: 1. Federal eRulemaking...The accompanying draft environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of the draft...

2012-04-17

184

Marine Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

1978-01-01

185

Management of the marine environment: Integrating ecosystem services and societal benefits with the DPSIR framework in a systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever increasing and diverse use of the marine environment is leading to human-induced changes in marine life, habitats and landscapes, making necessary the development of marine policy that considers all members of the user community and addresses current, multiple, interacting uses. Taking a systems approach incorporating an understanding of The Ecosystem Approach, we integrate the DPSIR framework with ecosystem services

Jonathan P. Atkins; Daryl Burdon; Mike Elliott; Amanda J. Gregory

2011-01-01

186

The Adult Student Learning Experience: A Mixed-Methods Investigation in a Marine Corps Program from a Knowledge Management Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On one Marine Corps base, a minimum of 5% of adult enlisted Marines per year lack certain competencies and seek admittance into a high school competency remediation program. The lack of these competencies impedes qualification for many military occupational specialties, the ability to convert from an enlisted Marine to a Warrant Officer, or…

Stephens, Jennifer Gray

2010-01-01

187

Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse. PMID:24477070

Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

2015-01-01

188

A thematic cost-benefit analysis of a marine protected area.  

PubMed

The implementation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is ultimately a social endeavour to sustain or improve human well-being via the conservation of marine ecosystems. The degree to which ecological gains are realised can depend upon how economic, ecological and social costs (negative impacts) and benefits (positive impacts) are included in the designation and management process. Without the support of key stakeholder groups whose user rights have been affected by the creation of an MPA, human impacts cannot be reduced. This study analyses a three year dataset to understand the themes associated with the economic, environmental and social costs and benefits of an MPA in Lyme Bay, United Kingdom (UK) following its establishment in 2008. Methodologically, the paper presents an ecosystem based management framework for analysing costs and benefits. Two hundred and forty one individuals were interviewed via questionnaire between 2008 and 2010 to determine perceptions and the level of support towards the MPA. Results reveal that despite the contentious manner in which this MPA was established, support for the MPA is strong amongst the majority of stakeholder groups. The level of support and the reasons given for support vary between stakeholder groups. Overall, the stakeholders perceive the social, economic and environmental benefits of the MPA to outweigh the perceived costs. There have been clear social costs of the MPA policy and these have been borne by mobile and static gear fishermen and charter boat operators. Local support for this MPA bodes well for the development of a network of MPAs around the UK coast under the United Kingdom Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009. However, this initial optimism is at risk if stakeholder expectation is not managed and the management vacuum is not filled. PMID:23206804

Rees, Siân E; Attrill, Martin J; Austen, Melanie C; Mangi, Stephen C; Rodwell, Lynda D

2013-01-15

189

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

190

Marine science for strategic planning and management: the requirement for estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic management and planning within estuaries seeks to identify a framework that enshrines sustainability. Within the UK, a scoping exercise has been used to clarify user requirements and define the economic benefits that could be derived from a supporting programme of research. The programme recognises the need for a mix of fundamental, strategic and applied research, to address, in particular,

Ian Townend

2002-01-01

191

Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) uses spatial planning exercises in State Renewable Energy Task Force meetings to identify competing and conflicting ocean uses, and to delineate areas suitable for renewable energy development. Similarly terrestrial areas such as in national parks and national wildlife refuges managed by the Department of the Interior (DOI) prepare management plans for preservation and restoration of species and habitats of concern, some of which are protected by law. The analogy to CMSP is clear - multiple users and multiple expectations, resulting in the requirement to establish spatial plans for management of different resources and different ecosystem services. A two-day workshop on December 1-2, 2010, was convened for DOI representatives and several key non-DOI participants with roles in CMSP as a step toward clarifying national perspectives and consequences of the National Ocean Policy for the West (appendix 1). Discussions helped to develop an understanding of CMSP from the federal perspective and to identify regional priorities. An overarching theme was to promote a better understanding of current and future science needs. The workshop format included briefings by key Federal agencies on their understanding of the national focus followed by discussion of regional issues, including the needs for scientific information and coordination. The workshop also explored potential science contributions by Federal agencies and others; utilizing current capabilities, data, and information systems; and provided a foundation for possible future regional workshops focusing in turn on the West Coast Region (California, Oregon, and Washington), Pacific Islands (sometimes referred to as Oceania) and Alaska. Participants were asked to share information in the following areas, recognizing that the purpose would be to learn more about the national perspective (see appendixes 2-4): Explore how the Western U.S. (Alaska, Pacific Islands, and West Coast Region) migh

Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

2011-01-01

192

Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: implications for ballast water management.  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with plankton are of importance in marine bioinvasions and the implementation of ship's ballast water treatment technologies. In this study, epibiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with zooplankton, including barnacle nauplii, veliger larvae, and adults of the copepod Oithona sp., were characterized and quantified. Barnacle nauplius and veliger larva harbored ~4.4 × 10(5)cells ind(-1) whereas Oithona sp. had 8.8 × 10(5)cells ind(-1). Computation of bacterial contribution based on biovolume indicated that despite being the smallest zooplankton tested, veliger larvae harbored the highest number of bacteria, while barnacle nauplii, the largest of the zooplankton, tested in terms of volume contributed the least. Pulverization of zooplankton led to an increase in bacterial numbers; for example, Vibrio cholerae, which was initially 3.5 × 10(3), increased to 5.4 × 10(5)CFU g(-1); Escherichia coli increased from 5.0 × 10(2) to 1.3 × 10(4)CFU g(-1); and Streptococcus faecalis increased from 2.1 × 10(2) to 2.5 × 10(5)CFU g(-1), respectively. Pulverized zooplankton was aged in the dark to assess the contribution of bacteria from decaying debris. Aging of pulverized zooplankton led to emergence of Chromobacterium violaceum, which is an opportunistic pathogen in animals and humans. PMID:23846742

Khandeparker, Lidita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

2013-09-01

193

Management of contaminated marine marketable resources after oil and HNS spills in Europe.  

PubMed

Different risk evaluation approaches have been used to face oil and hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spills all over the world. To minimize health risks and mitigate economic losses due to a long term ban on the sale of sea products after a spill, it is essential to preemptively set risk evaluation criteria and standard methodologies based on previous experience and appropriate scientifically sound criteria. Standard methodologies are analyzed and proposed in order to improve the definition of criteria for reintegrating previously contaminated marine marketable resources into the commercialization chain in Europe. The criteria used in former spills for the closing of and lifting of bans on fisheries and harvesting are analyzed. European legislation was identified regarding food sampling, food chemical analysis and maximum levels of contaminants allowed in seafood, which ought to be incorporated in the standard methodologies for the evaluation of the decision criteria defined for oil and HNS spills in Europe. A decision flowchart is proposed that opens the current decision criteria to new material that may be incorporated in the decision process. Decision criteria are discussed and compared among countries and incidents. An a priori definition of risk criteria and an elaboration of action plans are proposed to speed up actions that will lead to prompt final decisions. These decisions, based on the best available scientific data and conducing to lift or ban economic activity, will tend to be better understood and respected by citizens. PMID:24508845

Cunha, Isabel; Neuparth, Teresa; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda

2014-03-15

194

Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex The Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex comprises the Coastal  

E-print Network

in coastal marine science, engineering, policy, or management. #12;United States Senator Judd Gregg SenatorJudd Gregg Marine Research Complex The Judd Gregg Marine Research Complex comprises the Coastal Marine Laboratory, Marine Research Pier, and Pier Support Facility located in New Castle, N.H. Together

New Hampshire, University of

195

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

196

Hobart Marine Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at five sites throughout Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research's work encompasses the assessment of atmospheric and earth systems and the prediction of climate, weather and ocean processes; and research to integrate coastal management and ensure marine resources and industries are sustainable. Site includes information on facilities, partnerships, publications, and news and upcoming events. Research section features extensive information on the current projects.

197

Integrating the provision of ecosystem services and trawl fisheries for the management of the marine environment.  

PubMed

The species interaction and their biological traits (BT) determine the function of benthic communities and, hence, the delivery of ecosystem services. Therefore, disturbance of benthic communities by trawling may compromise ecosystem service delivery, including fisheries' catches. In this work, we explore 1) the impact of trawling activities on benthic functional components (after the BTA approach) and 2) how trawling impact may affect the ecosystem services delivered by benthic communities. To this aim, we assessed the provision of ecosystem services by adopting the concept of Ecosystem Service Providers (ESP), i.e. ecological units that perform ecosystem functions that will ultimately deliver ecosystem services. We studied thirteen sites subjected to different levels of fishing effort in the Mediterranean. From a range of environmental variables included in the study, we found ESPs to be mainly affected by fishing effort and grain size. Our results suggested that habitat type has significant effects on the distribution of ESPs and this natural variability influences ESP response to trawling at a specific site. In order to summarize the complex relationships between human uses, ecosystem components and the demand for ecosystem services in trawling grounds, we adapted a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response) framework to the study area, emphasizing the role of society as Drivers of change and actors demanding management Responses. This integrative framework aims to inform managers about the interactions between all the elements involved in the management of trawling grounds, highlighting the need for an integrated approach in order to ensure ecosystem service provision. PMID:25433378

Muntadas, Alba; de Juan, Silvia; Demestre, Montserrat

2015-02-15

198

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

199

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

1972-01-01

200

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover: The Pacific halibut is an important part of the Bering Sea, Administrator Terry L. LeitzeIl, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Managing Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub- lished monthly by the Scientific

201

76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee; King and Spanish Mackerel Committee; Golden Crab Committee...on ecosystem activities. 8. King and Spanish Mackerel Committee: June 13, 2011...will receive a report from the King and Spanish Mackerel Committee, consider...

2011-05-27

202

How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

2014-08-01

203

Building an ecosystem model using mismatched and fragmented data: A probabilistic network of early marine survival for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Strait of Georgia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the effects of biophysical conditions and hatchery production on the early marine survival of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Due to a paucity of balanced multivariate ecosystem data, we developed a probabilistic network that integrated physical and ecological data and information from literature, expert opinion, oceanographic models, and in situ observations. This approach allowed us to evaluate alternate hypotheses about drivers of early marine survival while accounting for uncertainties in relationships among variables. Probabilistic networks allow users to explore multiple environmental settings and evaluate the consequences of management decisions under current and projected future states. We found that the zooplankton biomass anomaly, calanoid copepod biomass, and herring biomass were the best indicators of early marine survival. It also appears that concentrating hatchery supplementation during periods of negative PDO and ENSO (Pacific Decadal and El Nińo Southern Oscillation respectively), indicative of generally favorable ocean conditions for salmon, tends to increase survival of hatchery coho salmon while minimizing negative impacts on the survival of wild juveniles. Scientists and managers can benefit from the approach presented here by exploring multiple scenarios, providing a basis for open and repeatable ecosystem-based risk assessments when data are limited.

Andres Araujo, H.; Holt, Carrie; Curtis, Janelle M. R.; Perry, R. I.; Irvine, James R.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.

2013-08-01

204

Marine Fisheries On the cover: Yellowfin  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: Yellowfin tuna larvae. A review of fish egg and larvae, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Managing Editor: W. Hobart Marine Marine Fisheries Ser- vice, NOAA, Room 450, 1107 N.E. 45th St., Seattle, WA 98105. Single copies

205

Marine Fisheries On the cover' Barging  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover' Barging juvenile salmonids down the Columbia River See.eitzell, Assistant Administrator for Fisherie' National Marine Fisherie' Service Managing Edilor: W. Hoharl Marine, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Rm.450, 1107 N.E. 45th St.. Seattle, WA 98105. Single copies

206

Marine Fisheries On the cover: A canary  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover: A canary rockfish, Sebastes pinniger, photo- graphed Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Managing Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub- lished monthly by the Scientific Publications Of- fice, National Marine Fisheries

207

Selecting Indicator Portfolios for Marine Species and Food Webs: A Puget Sound Case Study  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States – Puget Sound, Washington – where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system. PMID:21991305

Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F.; James, C. Andrew; Levin, Phillip S.

2011-01-01

208

This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries  

PubMed Central

The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of ‘enlightened self interest’ underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

Caddy, J.F.; Seijo, J.C.

2005-01-01

209

David M. Kaplan Virginia Institute of Marine Science  

E-print Network

, statistical ecology, spatial management of marine ecosystems, larval dispersal and movement behavior of marine Recherche, 1ere Classe, IRD, Sète, France Research focusing on spatial management of large marine ecosystems locations. 06/2012 UCT Winter Course "Mode ling the marine ecosystem from the ocean to the fish", UCT, South

Hartley, Troy W.

210

Population Connectivity Shifts at High Frequency within an Open-Coast Marine Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50–84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions. PMID:25077486

Cook, Geoffrey S.; Parnell, P. Ed; Levin, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

211

Communication, its possible role in marine commercial fisheries management: a pilot observation and interview study of the marine commercial fisheries of Texas  

E-print Network

, including fishery regulations, environmental problems, and stock argumentation. The salmon fishery is also marked by problems that are spin-offs of the fishes' complicated life cycle; i. e. , international regulatory problems and the need to manage indi... that reflected real life constraints as well as the time and money limits of the researcher. CHAPTER Y METHODS AND DATA LIMITATIONS: A DISCUSSION Due to the methods used in this study, the question of b1as and limitations should be discussed...

DeGeorges, Nicolas Jacques

2012-06-07

212

Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

2014-12-01

213

Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism: Development, Impacts and Management (1998).  

E-print Network

Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism, Australia. Since 1992 a group of wild bottlenose dolphins have been regular visitors to the beach adjacent to this resort (Orams, 1994). The dolphins visit the area nightly to receive fish handouts from tourists

214

Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is described. (15…

McCain, Katherine W.

1992-01-01

215

Adaptive governance and the human dimensions of marine mammal management: Implications for policy in a changing North  

Microsoft Academic Search

As climate change has driven dramatic changes in Northern sea ice regimes, marine mammals have gained iconic status around the world reflecting the perils of global warming. There is a tension between policies that have international support like a ban on seal hunting or whaling, and the adoption of adaptive, flexible rules that are likely to work in Northern places.

Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Riku Varjopuro; Martha Dowsley; Aaron T. Dale

2011-01-01

216

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

217

A Public Sentiment Index for Ecosystem Management  

E-print Network

A Public Sentiment Index for Ecosystem Management Ratana Chuenpagdee,1 * Lisa Liguori,2 Dave ABSTRACT Although ecosystem-based management can lead to sustainable resource use, its successful imple the ecosystems with stakeholders' preferences is therefore needed. We propose here a 'Public Sen- timent Index

Pauly, Daniel

218

AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Melinda T. Agapito for the degree of Master of Science in Marine Resource Management  

E-print Network

Resource Management presented on June 26, 2008. Title: Mapping and Lithologic Interpretation display of varied thematic layers, qualitative interpretation, quantitative accuracy assessment and management efforts such as the ocean zoning in the nearshore region of the Oregon coast, which includes

Goldfinger, Chris

219

Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

220

Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

221

6 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-print Network

of data sources, including commercial fisheries observers and self-reported. Bycatch estimation methods extent of the fishery, quantity and quality of data collected, and the availability of supplemental data6 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction Effective management of living marine resources depends

222

Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundResolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring,

Bryan P. Wallace; Andrew D. DiMatteo; Brendan J. Hurley; Elena M. Finkbeiner; Alan B. Bolten; Milani Y. Chaloupka; Brian J. Hutchinson; F. Alberto Abreu-Grobois; Diego Amorocho; Karen A. Bjorndal; Jerome Bourjea; Brian W. Bowen; Raquel Briseńo Dueńas; Paolo Casale; B. C. Choudhury; Alice Costa; Peter H. Dutton; Alejandro Fallabrino; Alexandre Girard; Marc Girondot; Matthew H. Godfrey; Mark Hamann; Milagros López-Mendilaharsu; Maria Angela Marcovaldi; Jeanne A. Mortimer; John A. Musick; Ronel Nel; Nicolas J. Pilcher; Jeffrey A. Seminoff; Sebastian Troëng; Blair Witherington; Roderic B. Mast

2010-01-01

223

Molluscs in the marine curio and souvenir trade in NE Brazil: species composition and implications for their conservation and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine molluscs are sold all over the world as curios and souvenirs. This market encompasses about 5,000 species of molluscs\\u000a (bivalves and gastropods) worldwide, but the mollusc species involved in this trade are undocumented in all but a very small\\u000a number of countries. The present study provides a baseline assessment of the mollusc species used in the manufacture of crafts,

Thelma L. P. Dias; Nivaldo A. Leo Neto; Rômulo R. N. Alves

224

Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center  

E-print Network

...............................................9 MMI Cetacean Conservation and Genetic Laboratory..10 MMI Pinniped Ecology Applied Research Ecology................................................8 Marine Fisheries Genetics Operations, Management and Information Division.....22 Conservation Biology Division

225

DIVISION OF MARINE AFFAIRS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

resource economics, political ecology and marine anthropology, underwater archaeology, weather and climate Preserve: The Division manages an underwater site at Little Salt Spring (LSS), in North Port, Sarasota

Miami, University of

226

Marine Protected Areas A Multidisciplinary Approach  

E-print Network

Marine Protected Areas A Multidisciplinary Approach Edited by JOACHIM CLAUDET National Centerfor.1 Introduction Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly used as tools to conserve biodiversity, manage-lasting local increases in the density, size, diversity, and/or productivity of marine organisms within MPA

Osenberg, Craig W.

227

Maryland Marine Notes Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

2011-05-02

228

49USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Ecosystem-Based Planning on a  

E-print Network

natural resources and natural resources management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS of natural resource management-related conservation practices on private agricultural lands. The agency a somewhat modified approach to natural resources management. The approach is fairly consistent within

Standiford, Richard B.

229

Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical management actions for their wildlife attraction.

Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

2007-10-01

230

Chiropractic management of mechanical low back pain secondary to multiple-level lumbar spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis in a United States Marine Corps veteran: a case report  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective This case report describes the evaluation and conservative management of mechanical low back pain secondary to multiple-level lumbar spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis in a United States Marine Corps veteran within a Veterans Affairs Medical Center chiropractic clinic. Clinical Features The 43-year–old patient had a 20-year history of mechanical back pain secondary to an injury sustained during active military duty. He had intermittent radiation of numbness and tingling involving the right lower extremity distal to the knee. Radiographs of the lumbosacral region demonstrated a grade I spondylolisthesis of L3 in relation to L4 and a grade II spondylolisthesis of L4 in relation to L5 secondary to bilateral pars interarticularis defects. There was marked narrowing of the L4-5 disk space with associated subchondral sclerosis. Intervention and Outcome A course of conservative management consisting of 10 treatments including lumbar flexion/distraction and activity modification was provided over an 8-week period. Despite the long-standing nature of the complaint and underlying multiple-level lumbar spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis, there was a 25% reduction in low back pain severity on the numeric rating scale and a 22% reduction in perceived disability related to low back pain on the Revised Oswestry Disability Questionnaire. Conclusions Conservative management is considered to be the standard of care for spondylolysis and should be explored in its various forms for symptomatic low back pain patients who present without neurologic deficits and with spondylolisthesis below grade III. The response to treatment for the veteran patient in this case suggests that lumbar flexion/distraction may serve as a safe and effective component of conservative management of mechanical low back pain for some patients with spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. PMID:19703668

Dunn, Andrew S.; Baylis, Shayne; Ryan, Danielle

2009-01-01

231

BODEGA MARINE LABORATORY MARINE OPERATIONS GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

BODEGA MARINE LABORATORY MARINE OPERATIONS GUIDELINES These guidelines cover small boat and diving operations at Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML). This document is intended for faculty, staff, and students

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

232

Marine biodiversity characteristics.  

PubMed

Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

Boeuf, Gilles

2011-05-01

233

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Museum, Bishop

234

Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 34 species of marine mammals have been documented in Costa Rican waters, representing approximately 26% of all marine\\u000a mammals worldwide. The Costa Rican marine mammal fauna consist of 30 cetacean species, one manatee, and three pinnipeds, one\\u000a of which went extinct since the 1950s. At least 31 of these species most likely also occur in other Central American countries.

Laura May-Collado

235

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

236

76 FR 40336 - Availability of Seats for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishing--Commercial--Marine/Tropical (member), Fishing-- Commercial--Marine/Tropical (alternate...alternate), South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (member), and South Florida Ecosystem Restoration (alternate...protection and management of marine resources; and...

2011-07-08

237

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 922—Marine...

2014-01-01

238

15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart G of... - Marine Reserve Boundaries  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G, App. B Appendix B to Subpart G of Part 922—Marine Reserve...

2014-01-01

239

Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model: The case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named “loco”, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23°S and 29°S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.

Garavelli, Lysel; Kaplan, David Michael; Colas, François; Stotz, Wolfgang; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

2014-05-01

240

Marine Biomedicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

Bang, Frederik B.

1977-01-01

241

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

242

The Use of a Predictive Habitat Model and a Fuzzy Logic Approach for Marine Management and Planning  

PubMed Central

Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as ‘high’. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study. PMID:24146867

Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Chérif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc’h, François

2013-01-01

243

78 FR 51736 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel...202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee...Merchant Mariner Evaluation of Fitness for Entry Level...

2013-08-21

244

78 FR 40757 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Merchant Mariner Evaluation of Fitness for Entry Level Ratings...202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will...Merchant Mariner Evaluation of Fitness for Entry Level Ratings...

2013-07-08

245

78 FR 33855 - Merchant Mariner Medical Advisory Committee: Intercessional Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...E, Merchant Mariner Evaluation of Fitness for Entry Level Ratings.'' The meeting...202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department...E, Merchant Mariner Evaluation of Fitness for Entry Level Ratings. (4)...

2013-06-05

246

78 FR 11214 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel...202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee...Merchant Marine Certification of Fitness for Entry Level...

2013-02-15

247

San Diego State University Coastal and Marine Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal & Marine Institute studies environmental processes, advises on the management of natural resources, and coordinates oceanography and marine studies at San Diego State University. Undergraduate students can emphasize marine studies within their departmental degree program; Biology and Geology departments offer marine-related minors. CMI offers marine-related graduate degrees in: Biology; Chemistry; Ecology; Engineering; Genetics; Geology; Geography; Political Science. Also profiled are: research facilities; faculty expertise; student projects.

248

Chapter 12: Species and Landscape Approaches to Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Marine Ecosystem-Based Management #12;Essay 13.1 (B) The ecological effects of ecosystem over-fishing Marine Ecosystem-Based Management #12;Understanding ecosystem dynamics and resilience · Ecosystems at Landscape Scale · Demonstration of TreeLife model (Matlack et al.)? Chapter 13: Ecosystem Approaches

Gottgens, Hans

249

Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed value. However, this cost was minimal when local conservation actions were part of a concerted coast-wide plan. The simulations demonstrate the utility of using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model within NOAA’s Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, by illustrating an end-to-end modeling tool that allows consideration of multiple management alternatives that are relevant to numerous state, federal and private interests.

Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

2012-09-01

250

No-take Reserve Networks: Sustaining Fishery Populations and Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved management approaches are needed to reduce the rate at which humans are depleting exploited marine populations and degrading marine ecosystems. Networks of no-take marine reserves are promising management tools because of their potential to (1) protect coastal ecosys- tem structure and functioning, (2) benefit exploited populations and fisheries, (3) improve scientif- ic understanding of marine ecosystems, and (4) provide

Steven N. Murray; Richard F. Ambrose; James A. Bohnsack; Louis W. Botsford; Mark H. Carr; Gary E. Davis; Paul K. Dayton; Dan Gotshall; Don R. Gunderson; Mark A. Hixon; Jane Lubchenco; Marc Mangel; Alec MacCall; Deborah A. McArdle; John C. Ogden; Joan Roughgarden; Richard M. Starr; Mia J. Tegner; Mary M. Yoklavich

1999-01-01

251

A GIS-Based Tool for Representing Larval Dispersal for Marine Reserve Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing efforts to implement marine protected areas (MPAs) as a means of managing marine ecosystems have created a need for evaluating potential spatial management plans. Almost all marine populations are metapopulations, connected reproductively by the dispersal of pelagic larvae. Models of marine population dynamics must account for larval connectivity, but despite recent advances connectivity patterns are still poorly understood. To

Douglas T. Fischer; J. Wilson White; Louis W. Botsford; John Largier; David M. Kaplan

2011-01-01

252

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

253

A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry “greenwashing” from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately, support aquaculture initiatives alongside well managed ornamental fisheries. PMID:25207538

Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

2014-01-01

254

A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately, support aquaculture initiatives alongside well managed ornamental fisheries. PMID:25207538

Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

2014-01-01

255

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

256

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

257

The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton assemblages from tropical (Goa) and temperate (UK) locations were exposed to a 28 day dark period, followed by a period of re-exposure to light. During this time phytoplankton survival and changes in nutrient concentrations were mapped. The tropical plankton water samples showed high nutrient levels after the dark period which were utilised by cells during the re-exposure period. UK experiments looked at the effect of three different water types on population recovery after the 28 day dark period, and differences due to seasonal effects. The population growth observed during the re-exposure period in the tropical population was comparable to that of the temperate population. Water type affected recovery and of the three tested media fresh seawater promoted the highest levels of growth. Seasonality had a significant influence on species survival. Understanding the effects of all these factors can aid the development of effective risk assessments in ballast water management. PMID:21489565

Carney, K J; Delany, J E; Sawant, S; Mesbahi, E

2011-06-01

258

Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences  

PubMed Central

As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

2010-01-01

259

ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program  

E-print Network

ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2

260

Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019  

E-print Network

Marine Strategy 2014­2019 1 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 Providing Australians with marine environmental intelligence for their safety, sustainability, well-being and prosperity. #12;2 Marine Strategy 2014­2019 #12;Marine Strategy 2014­2019 3 Foreword I am pleased to present the Bureau of Meteorology

Greenslade, Diana

261

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology Volume 2011, Article ID 396982, 14 pages and Implications for Marine Management Kent E. Carpenter,1 Paul H. Barber,2 Eric D. Crandall,3 Ma. Carmen A. Ablan-Me~nez,8 Mudjekeewis D. Santos,9 Craig J. Starger,2 and Abdul Hamid A. Toha10 1Biological Sciences

Hynes, Wayne L.

262

A Spatial Model for Marine Park Zoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of stakeholder interests, governing structures, and biophysical processes often present challenges in adopting multiple-use approaches in the management of large marine areas. Marine zoning plans provide a mechanism for ensuring the realization of conservation objectives under spatially varying levels of resource use. The need for a systematic and transparent approach to zone planning highlights the role of Geographical

Eleanor M. Bruce; Ian G. Eliot

2006-01-01

263

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11397 An index to assess the health and benefits  

E-print Network

;MARINE PROTECTED AREAS #12;ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT Diagnosing the Whole #12;Policy it to Samhouri et al. 2012 Ecosphere #12;Marine livelihoods Decide what to measure #12;Marine$er Number of marine jobs #12;Marine livelihoods Decide what to measure Worse

Rohs, Remo

264

This is the authors' own version of the published paper which is freely available for download. The published format is subject to copyright, but this version is the same  

E-print Network

) Marine Protected Areas and the Governance of Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries. Conservation Biology 25-1739.2011.01771.x Special Section Essay Marine Protected Areas and the Governance of Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries tools for the management of marine resources. MPAs as Tools for Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management

Jones, Peter JS

265

Ghent University: Marine Biology Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features Ghent University's Marine Biology Section. The Section's homepage links to information on research, publications, section staff, and more. Involved in marine ecosystem research since the 1970s, some of the Marine Biology Section's current interests include: Atlantic Ocean Deep-sea Areas, Biology of the Antartic Meiobenthos, Ecology of Tropical Estuaries and Lagoons, Ecophysiology of Meiobenthos, and more. The site links to basic information about recent research projects as well as information on environmental management research for coastal zones, sampling and analyses equipment, and one available database focusing on marine Nematoda and Mysida. The site provides research interests and contact information for faculty, and a list of publications and Ph.D. Theses from 1969-2003 (with PDF files for publication abstracts from 1994 on). The site also offers a list of relevant links.

266

Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

Not Available

1985-01-31

267

Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

2013-12-01

268

New Priorities for the 21st National Marine Fisheries Service  

E-print Network

. More and more they recognize the importance and value of healthy marine ecosystems to our environment and ocean resources through an ecosystem approach to management." The National Marine Fisheries Service of marine ecosystems for the greatest benefit to the Nation. The NMFS Strategic Plan is an important link

269

MArine science School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences  

E-print Network

MArine science School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences 907-474-7824 www.sfos.uaf.edu/academics/ Minor only Though the marine science minor is available to students in all degree programs, fisheries/or benefit from training in marine science (policy-making, resource management, education, the seafood

Hartman, Chris

270

Marine Technology Student: Marine Farming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn how a degree in marine technology helped one student go from working at a marine farming company to becoming a partner in that company. Trevor Fay uses the GPS/GIS technology he studied in school to farm the red abalone, tracking their locations and monitoring their population. This technology helps marine farmers maintain healthy populations of sea creatures and understand more about the important ecosystem of the ocean.The video runs 4:18 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

271

BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):251274. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1089  

E-print Network

and fisheries management--i.e., marine conservation biology, marine ecology, fisheries science, economicsBULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):251­274. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1089 251Bulletin of Marine Science © 2011 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami Bridging

272

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

273

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William

274

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With some knowledge of MatLab, Mathcad, Maple, or Mathmatica, one should be able to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels and practice writing about the results of a mathematical study.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

275

Mariner Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

276

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

Meith, Nikki

277

75 FR 51240 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Salmon Management 1. 2010 Salmon Methodology Review 2. Fishery Management Plan a...Marine Protected Areas 1. Update...of Marine Protected Areas G. Administrative...Ecosystem Management 1. Ecosystem...Assessment and Methodology Review...

2010-08-19

278

77 FR 31330 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee; Dolphin Wahoo Committee; Shrimp Committee; Snapper...activities and provide direction to staff. 3. Dolphin Wahoo Committee Meeting: June 11, 2012, 3:30 p.m. Until 4:30 p.m. The Dolphin Wahoo Committee will receive a...

2012-05-25

279

Marine Fisheries Marine recreational angling. Florida  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W Marine recreational angling. Florida News Bureau photo by Jack Fortune 1980 Jay D. Andrews 1 Social Considerations Associated With Marine Recreational Fishing Under FCMA/NMFS Developments Index, 1980 Papers in Marine Fisheries Review, 1980 Chad P. Dawson and Bruce T. Wilkins 12 Charles

280

Marine Program Annual Report 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

281

Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.  

PubMed

Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources. PMID:24162104

Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

2013-01-01

282

Marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic and Sub-arctic in the course of towering industrial activity: ability of the management with using documentation facilities of satellite ecological criminalistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our studies we are following for the classification of the marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic that was suggested by prof. Ye.S. Korotkevich who had provided summarizing results of the long-term in situ field experiments and airborne studies that was fulfilled by scientists of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) under his leadership in Russian Arctic after the 2-nd World War. But satellite multispectral observations show significant temporal and spatial modification of the suggested scheme especially for Arctic ice landscapes that had occurred in nowadays due to the climate change and anthropogenic press. Design main principle and rules of satellite ecological criminalistics - science of crime detection of ecocatastrophe and incidents on sea and fresh waters with using aerospace survey as well for the control, for the management and the preventing of ecological instability of the marine and lakes ecosystems was done by Academician Kirill Kondratiev together with his apprentices and follower in 1970-s. In frame proposed paper we shall present results of our comprehensive satellite-airborne studies of the marine and ice landscapes as well discuss the incidents that happened in Arctic inside the inland and international waters in past and present days and were revealed with using multispectral remote sensing. But for all that we need to mention that our contemporary investigations are based on the all-weather satellite ERS-1/2 - Envisat - RADARSAT SAR survey archived since 1990-s by SUAI and NERSC/NIERSC.

Melentyev, Vladimir; Vladimirovich Melentyev, Konstantin; Petterssen, Lasse Herbert; Andreevna Zakharova, Tatiana

2013-04-01

283

DATA MANAGEMENT FOR MARINE GEOLOGY  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................................................................6 1.5 Relevant URLs ..........................................................................................................20 Appendix 4: Relevant URLs

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

284

46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Management Information System requirements. 16...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS...TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

2014-10-01

285

46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Management Information System requirements. 16...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS...TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

2012-10-01

286

46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Management Information System requirements. 16...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS...TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

2013-10-01

287

46 CFR 16.500 - Management Information System requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Management Information System requirements. 16...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS...TESTING Management Information System § 16.500 Management Information System requirements....

2011-10-01

288

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they canât see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scannerâ¦the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

289

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

290

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks;

2002-06-10

291

50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

2011-10-01

292

50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

2011-10-01

293

50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

2010-10-01

294

50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

2010-10-01

295

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve: a marine tourism project in Fiji involving local communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shark Reef Marine Reserve in Fiji is an ecotourism project designed to protect a small reef patch and its fauna while preserving the livelihood of local communities. It involves the local communities by using a participatory business planning approach to Marine Protected Area management, generating income through diver user fees, distributed to the local villages that have exchanged their

Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

2010-01-01

296

A review of initial investigations to utilize ERTS-1 data in determining the availability and distribution of living marine resources. [harvest and management of fisheries resources in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Marine Fisheries Service has been studying the application of aerospace remote sensing to fisheries management and utilization for many years. The 15-month ERTS study began in July 1972 to: (1) determine the reliability of satellite and high altitude sensors to provide oceanographic parameters in coastal waters; (2) demonstrate the use of remotely-sensed oceanographic information to predict the distribution and abundance of adult menhaden; and (3) demonstrate the potential use of satellites for acquiring information for improving the harvest and management of fisheries resources. The study focused on a coastal area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico, including parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The test area used in the final analysis was the Mississippi Sound and the area outside the barrier islands to approximately the 18-meter (10-fathom) curve.

Stevenson, W. H.; Kemmerer, A. J.; Atwell, B. H.; Maughan, P. M.

1974-01-01

297

Understanding and Protecting Marine Vertebrates Using Electronic Tracking Tags  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in satellite telemetry and electronic tags allow researchers and managers to follow the distribution, movement, and behavior of large marine animals, gather oceanographic data in areas that were previously inaccessible, and make better-informed marine conservation and management decisions.

Daniel Costa (University of California at Santa Cruz ;)

2011-03-15

298

Coupled Marine Ecosystem Modelling on High-Performance Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of the marine environment has become an important tool across a wide range of human activities, with applications in coastal engineering, offshore industries, fisheries management, marine pollution monitoring, weather forecasting and climate research to name but a few. Hydrodynamic models have been under development for many years and have reached a high level of sophistication. However, sustainable management of

M. Ashworth; R. Proctor; J. I. Allen; J. C. Blackford

299

The human dimensions of marine mammal management in a time of rapid change: comparing policies in Canada, Finland and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic coastal populations share a close relationship with their environment consisting of linkages among communities, landscapes and seascapes, and the social institutions developed to sustain the system. This cultural–biogeophysical dynamic is termed throughout the section as a social–ecological system (SES). Marine mammals constitute a large portion of the subsistence diet for these communities, and as such represent key ecological services

Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Chanda L. Meek

2011-01-01

300

EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGYJournal of ExperimentalMarine Biologyand Ecology Institute, P.O. Box 10712, Marine Parade, Durban, South Africa Received24 November 1993;revision received4

301

SYNTHESIS Functional responses and scaling in predatorprey interactions of marine fishes: contemporary issues and emerging concepts  

E-print Network

of overharvesting top predators on the structure and function of marine ecosystems. It follows that ecological forecasting, ecosystem management, and marine spatial planning require a better understanding of food web­prey interactions in the context of the sustainable marine fisheries and ecosystem management. Keywords Ecosystem

Anderson, Todd

302

MarineBio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MarineBio.org is an evolving online tribute to all ocean life, marine biology, and marine conservation. Find out about fascinating marine species, get involved in ocean conservation, explore dynamic research and daily marine life news. This comprehensive site contains a wealth of information including species profiles, links to research journals, ocean fact sheets, information on marine science education and careers, forums, and so much more.

303

SCHOOL OF BIOLOGY SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHY & GEOSCIENCES  

E-print Network

Mammal Science" and "Ecosystem-based Management of Marine Systems" (jointly with The Scottish Association including climate change, food security, biodiversity and ecosystem services, marine noise and marine mammal STUDY 42 THE MARINE ALLIANCE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR SCOTLAND (MASTS) 43 EUROPEAN MARINE

Brierley, Andrew

304

Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

Not Available

1988-01-31

305

Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management  

E-print Network

Shipping and Transportation system was represented with the selection of following components: vessel, dredge, port, navigation, ballast,ballast traffic collis port Table 4.3. QAP Correlation (R) results for links between the modeled Shipping and

Ekstrom, Julia A.

2008-01-01

306

COMMUNITY-BASED ECOSYSTEM MONITORING: A TOOL FOR DEVELOPING AND PROMOTING ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING IN THE LONG POINT WORLD BIOSPHERE RESERVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The paper examines the community based monitoring establishment process undertaken by the Long Point World Biosphere Reserve Foundation and partners. Interested citizens, government agencies, industry, academia, community groups, and local institutions brought complimentary skills, roles and resources to the table in an effort to initiate the development of a comprehensive monitoring program to monitor, track, and respond effectively to

Brian Craig; Graham Whitelaw; Jeff Robinson; Paula Jongerden

307

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

308

78 FR 49479 - Updates to List of National System of Marine Protected Areas MPAs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The National System of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provides a mechanism...received by the National Marine Protected Areas Center (MPA Center). The managing...conserving the nation's important natural and cultural resources. For...

2013-08-14

309

Instructors Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Instructors Marine Biology Location: Charleston Closes: 30-Nov-2012 The University of Oregon's Institute of Marine Biology maintains a pool of applicants for temporary instructional positions during are invertebrate zoology, biology of marine birds and mammals, and marine ecology. Courses may be taught in other

Oregon, University of

310

Glossary of Marine Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of terms used in marine biology is associated with the textbook, Marine Biology, Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, by Jeffery Levinton (Oxford University Press, New York). It is associated with Marine Biology Web, which provides links to other marine biology topics.

311

MarineBio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MarineBio serves the marine biology research community with a number of online resources. Visitors are invited to "find out about new species, get involved in ocean conservation, explore dynamic research or marine life news" and to generally take part in MarineBio's "evolving tribute to all ocean life." MarineBio offers a number of message boards for keeping up-to-date with developments in the field. Many resources rely heavily on user input, such as the Web site's species inventory, which aims to be "the greatest source of the latest and most complete information about every marine plant and animal species online." MarineBio is a nonprofit project developed and maintained by marine biology researchers, Web designers, writers, and other professionals dedicated promoting marine biology and protecting marine resources.

312

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries website provides health advisories and closures related to seafood consumption and recreational fishing. Links are provided to the Division's programs and projects, including shellfish sanitation and management, and shellfish closures. Maps and notices regarding closures related to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are posted with each health notice, as well as a link to general information regarding PSP and the state's PSP monitoring program.

313

Predictive Habitat Modelling as a Tool to Assess the Change in Distribution and Extent of an OSPAR Priority Habitat under an Increased Ocean Temperature Scenario: Consequences for Marine Protected Area Networks and Management  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in “future-proofing” conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as ‘good’ to ‘excellent’ on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of “most suitable”, “less suitable” and “unsuitable” habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of “most suitable” habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible “conservation management tool”. PMID:23894298

Gormley, Kate S. G.; Porter, Joanne S.; Bell, Michael C.; Hull, Angela D.; Sanderson, William G.

2013-01-01

314

Proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (University of Hawaii, Manoa Campus, January 13, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…

1978

315

Marine antivenoms.  

PubMed

There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

Currie, Bart J

2003-01-01

316

Marine microgels.  

PubMed

The ocean plays a critical role in global carbon cycling: it handles half of the global primary production, yielding the world's largest stock of reduced organic carbon (ROC) that supports one of the world's largest biomasses. However, the mechanisms whereby ROC becomes mineralized remain unresolved. This review focuses on laboratory and field observations that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) self-assembles, forming self-assembled microgels (SAGs). Self-assembly has approximately10% yield, generating an estimated global seawater SAG budget of approximately 10(16) g C. Transects at depths of 10-4,000 m reveal concentrations of approximately 10(6) to approximately 3 x 10(12) SAG L(-1), respectively, forming an estimated ROC stock larger than the global marine biomass. Because hydrogels have approximately 1% solids (10 g L(-1)), whereas seawater DOC reaches approximately 10(-3) g L(-1), SAGs contain approximately 10(4) more bacterial substrate than seawater. Thus, microgels represent an unsuspected and huge micron-level ocean patchiness that could profoundly influence the passage of DOC through the microbial loop, with ramifications that may scale to global cycles of bioactive elements. PMID:22457980

Verdugo, Pedro

2012-01-01

317

Marine Biology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biology Web, created by veteran marine biologist Dr. Jeff Levinton of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is a great educational resource for both curious students and prospective marine biologists. The Becoming a Marine Biologist page gives students frank advice, and a realistic sense of what marine biology is and what marine biologists do. This website contains a sizeable list of hyperlinked marine labs, institutes, graduate programs, and undergraduate programs. A nice list of marine biology-related internships and courses are included as well. The website also features the useful MBREFâ??-A Reference Source for Marine Biology Student Research. The site even links to a system that allows visitors â??to obtain tidal predictions computed by CO-OPS for more than 3000 water level stations.â?ť

318

MarineSIM: Robot simulation for marine environments  

E-print Network

Development of robust navigation algorithms for marine robotics is a challenge faced by many marine robotists. This paper presents MarineSIM, a marine robot simulation platform which provides an infrastructure to easily ...

Senarathne, P. G. C. Namal

319

Marine Debris & Plastics: Environmental Concerns, Sources, Impacts and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine debris (marine litter) is one of the most pervasive and solvable pollution problems plaguing the world’s oceans and waterways. Nets, food wrappers, cigarette filters, bottles, resin pellets,\\u000a and other debris items can have serious impacts on wildlife, habitat, and human safety. Successful management of the problem\\u000a requires a comprehensive understanding of both marine debris and human behavior. Knowledge is

S. B. Sheavly; K. M. Register

2007-01-01

320

An approach for integrating economic impact analysis into the evaluation of potential marine protected area sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one tool that can be used in the comprehensive management of human activities in areas of the ocean. Although researchers have supported using MPAs as an ecosystem management tool, scientific research on MPAs in areas other than fisheries and fisheries management is limited. This paper presents a model for designing marine protected areas that protect

Tracey Morin Dalton

2004-01-01

321

75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...hereby given that Dr. Terrie Williams, Long Marine Lab, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California at Santa Cruz,...

2010-12-08

322

Etat des lieux en robotique marine et sous-marine  

E-print Network

Etat des lieux en robotique marine et sous-marine Cas particulier de la commande des mini-véhicules sous-marins Vincent Creuze (MCF), LIRMM, Montpellier Animateur axe robotique marine et sous-marine du Nationales de la Recherche en Robotique 2013, Annecy : France (2013)" #12;Types de robots marins et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6, 139-164 (1996) Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem  

E-print Network

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6, 139-164 (1996) Concepts and issues in marine ecosystem in marine ecosystem management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries. Objectives in marine ecosystem management are varied. From a biological perspective, an underlying principle

324

A comparison of frameworks and objectives for implementation of marine protected areas in Northern Europe and in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proliferation of marine protected areas around the world, including Europe and Southeast Asia, is evidence of a growing global concern for the marine environment and its living resources. While marine protected areas in Europe on a wider scale have generally been considered a tool for either nature conservation or a technical measure in management of fisheries, overall management objectives

Thomas Kirk Sřrensen; Linda Nguyen Thomsen

2009-01-01

325

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration MARINE AQUACULTURE POLICY1  

E-print Network

June 2011 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration MARINE AQUACULTURE POLICY1 Purpose The purpose of this policy is to enable the development of sustainable marine aquaculture within the context considerations in management decisions concerning aquaculture. This policy reaffirms that aquaculture

326

A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is

Benjamin S. Halpern; Shaun Walbridge; Kimberly A. Selkoe; Carrie V. Kappel; Fiorenza Micheli; Caterina D'Agrosa; John F. Bruno; Kenneth S. Casey; Colin Ebert; Helen E. Fox; Rod Fujita; Dennis Heinemann; Hunter S. Lenihan; Elizabeth M. P. Madin; Matthew T. Perry; Elizabeth R. Selig; Mark Spalding; Robert Steneck; Reg Watson

2008-01-01

327

New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource managers and scientists from disparate dis- ciplines are rising to the challenge of understanding and moderating human impacts on marine ecosystems. Traditional barriers to communication between marine ecologists, fisheries biologists, social scientists and economists are beginning to break down, and the distinction between applied and basic research is fading. These ongoing trends arise, in part, from an increasing awareness

Terence P. Hughes; David R. Bellwood; Carl Folke; Robert S. Steneck; James Wilson

2005-01-01

328

Case Histories of Marine Protected Areas Mortimer, J. A. 2000.  

E-print Network

PART m 327 Case Histories of Marine Protected Areas Cite as: Mortimer, J. A. 2000. Sea turtle, along 30 km of shoreline) to protect gravid leatherback turtles during th e nesting season.R., and Siirila, E. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A guide for planners and managers. IUCN. Washington, D

Prestwich, Ken

329

IMPLEMENTING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS POLICY: LESSONS FROM CANADA AND  

E-print Network

i IMPLEMENTING MARINE PROTECTED AREAS POLICY: LESSONS FROM CANADA AND AUSTRALIA by Jodi Stark B: Implementing Marine Protected Areas Policy: Lessons From Canada And Australia Report No. 369 Examining Management Simon Fraser University Date Approved: #12;iii Abstract Canada's Oceans Act and Australia's Oceans

330

ABOUT THE JOURNAL Marine Resource Economics publishes creative and scholarly  

E-print Network

300 x 250 pixels Online 1 month $150 300 x 250 pixels 2014 ADVERTISING DEADLINES Issue Space Art-based management, marine biodiversity, and marine transportation. 2014 ADVERTISING RATES Position Rate Specs Full Spring Dec 1 Jan 2 Summer Mar 1 April 1 Fall Jun 1 Jul 1 Winter Sep 1 Oct 1 Color Options: Color ad space

Mateo, Jill M.

331

Supermarket Marine Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

1995-01-01

332

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats  

PubMed Central

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

2014-01-01

333

Luis A. Vega, Ph.D. National Marine Renewable Energy CenterNational Marine Renewable Energy Center  

E-print Network

Luis A. Vega, Ph.D. National Marine Renewable Energy CenterNational Marine Renewable Energy CenterWorkshop Objectives · Are commercialization challenges: (i) Technical(i) Technical, (ii) Engineering, D l t sts SCHEDULE Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 1.0 MANAGEMENT 2.0 ENGINEERING DESIGN/PERMITS 3.0 ACQUISITION

334

Plymouth University Marine Building  

E-print Network

and academics from the University's School of Marine Science and Engineering. They will also be supportedPlymouth University Marine Building #12;The University's motto, `explore, dream, discover as it was at the school's founding in the Victorian era. The new Marine Building encapsulates that spirit ­ a £19 million

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

335

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

336

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2014-2015 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

Eustice, Ryan

337

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2011-2012 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

Eustice, Ryan

338

Marine Science Scholarships  

E-print Network

Marine Science Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Name Contact Phone Number Contact E-mail Address Marine Science Endowed Student Support Fund Both incoming and current marine science majors are eligible to apply for these merit-based scholarships. Awards consist

Almor, Amit

339

Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation  

E-print Network

Marine Conservation · Overview · Resource overexploitation % Impacts on target spp % Impacts on non'target spp, % Impacts on community/ecosystem % Marine protected areas Friday: · Global climate change · Invasive species · Solutions · Study Guide: Monday !" April · Discussion: Wednesday# !$ April % Marine

340

Marine Fisheries NATIONALOCEA  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries REVIEW NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M for this journal to: Marine Fisheries Re- view, c/o Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. This publication is available online at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mcontent.htm The Marine Fisheries Review (ISSN 0090

341

Marine Fisheries NATIONALOCEA  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries REVIEW NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M for subscriptions for this journal to: Marine Fisheries Re- view, c/o Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government in November 2010. This publication is available online at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mcontent.htm The Marine

342

Marine Fisheries NATIONALOCEA  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries REVIEW NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M for subscriptions for this journal to: Marine Fisheries Re- view, c/o Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 2010. This publication is available online at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mcontent.htm The Marine Fisheries

343

Marine Fisheries NATIONALOCEA  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries REVIEW NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M for subscriptions for this journal to: Marine Fisheries Re- view, c/o Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government in October 2011. This publication is available online at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mcontent.htm The Marine

344

Marine Fisheries NATIONALOCEA  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries REVIEW NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M of this NMFS publication. POSTMASTER: Send address changes for subscriptions for this journal to: Marine online at http://spo.nwr.noaa.gov/mcontent.htm The Marine Fisheries Review (ISSN 0090-1830) is pub

345

POLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas  

E-print Network

to damages. Introduction Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide refuge to coral reefs from human exploitationPOLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas Jeffrey Wielgus, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Keywords Coral reefs; diving; economics; financing; management; marine

Gerber, Leah R.

346

Contribution of Biology and Oceanography to Increased Harvest of Marine Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of marine fisheries, when compared to agriculture, is handicapped by the small amount of influence that can be exerted in any phase of fish production except the harvest. However, fishery science can contribute to increased fish catches in several ways. Although planting of hatchery-reared marine fish has been of little use, cultivation of marine animals, particularly of molluscs, can

C. P. Idyll

1958-01-01

347

Behavioral biology of marine mammal deterrents: A review and Zachary A. Schakner  

E-print Network

Review Behavioral biology of marine mammal deterrents: A review and prospectus Zachary A. Schakner Non-lethal deterrents Marine mammals Depredation Conservation behavior Fear conditioning a b s t r a c t Marine mammal depredation of fisheries is a concern from a scientific, management, and conservation

Blumstein, Daniel T.

348

Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

2011-04-01

349

76 FR 26253 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem Restoration Task Force; National Ocean Policy, coastal and marine spatial planning, ocean energy and climate change adaptation; fisheries management; quota re-allocation policy; and aquaculture policy implementation. Updates...

2011-05-06

350

76 FR 50744 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel. This meeting...202-372-1918. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will...

2011-08-16

351

77 FR 12068 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel. This meeting...202-372-1918. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will...

2012-02-28

352

77 FR 47424 - Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...various issues related to the training and fitness of merchant marine personnel. This meeting...202-372-1918. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department...certification, documentation, and fitness standards. The Committee will...

2012-08-08

353

Cedar Rock Preserve Management Plan 10/28/08 1 MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE  

E-print Network

................................................................... 54 Management of non-native and invasive plants ............................................. 55 Marine Stewardship Area Plan ....................................... 20 Environmental and cultural · On terrestrial portions of the Preserve .................................................... . 45 · On marine

Carrington, Emily

354

Preliminary evaluation of effects of invasive tunicate management with acetic acid and calcium hydroxide on non-target marine organisms in Prince Edward Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of invasive tunicates in Prince Edward Island (PEI) estuaries has necessitated the development of approaches for managing tunicates that foul aquaculture structures, especially Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis. Spraying or immersion with a saturated solution of hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) or 5% acetic acid are effective against these tunicates, but are also biocidal to a variety of non-target

Andrea Locke; Kenneth G. Doe; Wayne L. Fairchild; Paula M. Jackman; Erica J. Reese

2009-01-01

355

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

356

Carotenoids in marine animals.  

PubMed

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

357

Marine defaunation: animal loss in the global ocean.  

PubMed

Marine defaunation, or human-caused animal loss in the oceans, emerged forcefully only hundreds of years ago, whereas terrestrial defaunation has been occurring far longer. Though humans have caused few global marine extinctions, we have profoundly affected marine wildlife, altering the functioning and provisioning of services in every ocean. Current ocean trends, coupled with terrestrial defaunation lessons, suggest that marine defaunation rates will rapidly intensify as human use of the oceans industrializes. Though protected areas are a powerful tool to harness ocean productivity, especially when designed with future climate in mind, additional management strategies will be required. Overall, habitat degradation is likely to intensify as a major driver of marine wildlife loss. Proactive intervention can avert a marine defaunation disaster of the magnitude observed on land. PMID:25593191

McCauley, Douglas J; Pinsky, Malin L; Palumbi, Stephen R; Estes, James A; Joyce, Francis H; Warner, Robert R

2015-01-16

358

Surface Immuno-Functionalisation for the Capture and Detection of Vibrio Species in the Marine Environment: A New Management Tool for Industrial Facilities  

PubMed Central

Bacteria from the genus Vibrio are a common and environmentally important group of bacteria within coastal environments and include species pathogenic to aquaculture organisms. Their distribution and abundance are linked to specific environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity and nutrient enrichment. Accurate and efficient detection of Vibrios in environmental samples provides a potential important indicator of overall ecosystem health while also allowing rapid management responses for species pathogenic to humans or species implicated in disease of economically important aquacultured fish and invertebrates. In this study, we developed a surface immuno-functionalisation protocol, based on an avidin-biotin type covalent binding strategy, allowing specific sandwich-type detection of bacteria from the Vibrio genus. The assay was optimized on 12 diverse Vibrio strains, including species that have implications for aquaculture industries, reaching detection limits between 7×103 to 3×104 cells mL?1. Current techniques for the detection of total Vibrios rely on laborious or inefficient analyses resulting in delayed management decisions. This work represents a novel approach for a rapid, accurate, sensitive and robust tool for quantifying Vibrios directly in industrial systems and in the environment, thereby facilitating rapid management responses. PMID:25310801

Laczka, Olivier F.; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.; Bourne, David G.; Fielder, Stewart S.; Doblin, Martina A.

2014-01-01

359

Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

1994-01-01

360

Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10 g) were sprayed with 2.0 ml of 1,600 AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18 °C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4 °C to >21 days as against <14 days observed in the untreated samples. The total count of spoilage bacteria was reduced by 2.5 logarithmic units in the treated sample during the 14th day of storage as against the control. Chemical analysis revealed a significant change (P?

Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

2012-07-01

361

Teaching Sustainability and Resource Management Using NOAA's Voices Of The Bay Community Fisheries Education Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation highlights the implementation of the NOAA VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum at a two-year college. The VOICES OF THE BAY curriculum provides students with an understanding of the marine ecology, economy, and culture of fisheries through three interdisciplinary modules that use hands-on activities while meeting a wide range of science, math, social science, and communications standards. In the BALANCE IN THE BAY module, students use critical-thinking skills and apply principles of ecosystem-based management to analyze data, debate and discuss their findings, and make decisions that recognize the complex dynamics associated with maintaining a balance in fisheries. Through role-playing, teamwork, and a little fate, the FROM OCEAN TO TABLE module provides students with an opportunity to get an insider’s view of what it takes to be an active stakeholder in a commercial fishery. In the CAPTURING THE VOICES OF THE BAY module, students research, plan, and conduct personal interviews with citizens of the local fishing community and explore the multiple dimensions of fisheries and how they inter-connect through the lives of those who live and work in the region. The VOICES OF THE BAY modules were introduced into the curriculum at Los Angeles Valley College during the Fall 2009 semester and are currently being used in the introductory Oceanography lecture, introductory Oceanography laboratory, and Environmental Science laboratory courses. Examples of curriculum materials being used (power point presentations, module worksheets and simulated fishing activities) will be presented. In addition, samples of completed student worksheets for the three interdisciplinary modules are provided. Students commented that their overall awareness and knowledge of the issues involved in sustainable fishing and managing fishery resources increased following completion of the VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum. Students enrolled in the laboratory sections commented that the lab was more enjoyable than the typical lab exercises and the hands-on nature of the activity made the concept of sustainable fishing more real to them. The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary sponsor professional development workshops to selected faculty to introduce the VOICES OF THE BAY fisheries education curriculum and assist with implementation in the classroom. Classroom materials are also available on the website http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/education/voicesofthebay.html or by contacting voicesofthebay@noaa.gov.

Hams, J. E.; Uttal, L.; Hunter-Thomson, K.; Nachbar, S.

2010-12-01

362

Marine Mechanical Engineer Full Time Position Wanted: Marine Mechanical Engineer  

E-print Network

Marine Mechanical Engineer Full Time Position Wanted: Marine Mechanical Engineer Boksa Marine Design, Inc. is a growing naval architecture and marine engineering firm specializing in the design in the industry. Qualified candidates should have a BSE or MSE in mechanical engineering or marine engineering

Eustice, Ryan

363

Geo-Marine Letters An International Journal of Marine  

E-print Network

1 23 Geo-Marine Letters An International Journal of Marine Geology ISSN 0276-0460 Volume 32 of Geo-Marine Letters, pre- senting contributions from the 10th International Conference on Gas in Marine recognizing the role he played for the last 20 years or so in the world of marine sciences: "... Misha

Mazzini, Adriano

364

Marine Team: Student-led Investigations in Marine  

E-print Network

Marine Team: Student-led Investigations in Marine Science Brett GallagherBrett Gallagher Scott and WildlifeFisheries and Wildlife #12;IntroductionIntroduction Marine Team is a student effort to examineMarine;ObjectivesObjectives Provide students with handsProvide students with hands--on marine ecology researchon

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

365

Marine Fisheries On the cover. Views of marine  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~W On the cover. Views of marine recreational fisheries. NMFS, NOAA photos. Articles 49(2), 1987 Special Issue: Marine Recreational Fisheries and Fishing Introduction 1 Marine Recreational Fisheries in the Southeastern United States Ronald L. Schmied and Edward E. Burgess 2 Marine

366

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences  

E-print Network

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Graduate Program in Marine Sciences Requirements for Degrees: MS: 30 credits; PhD: 18 thesis credits The marine biology graduate program focuses on the ecology, physiology and biochemistry/molecular biology of marine organisms. Students may pursue either

Hartman, Chris

367

Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae, and invertebrates). Keystone groups were prevalent in estuarine or small/shallow systems, and in systems with reduced fishing pressure. Changes to the abundance of key functional groups might have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems and should be avoided through management. Conclusion/significance Our results provide additional understanding of patterns of structural and functional indicators in different ecosystems. Ecosystem traits such as type, size, depth, and location need to be accounted for when setting reference levels as these affect absolute values of ecological indicators. Therefore, establishing absolute reference values for ecosystem indicators may not be suitable to the ecosystem-based, precautionary approach. Reference levels for ecosystem indicators should be developed for individual ecosystems or ecosystems with the same typologies (similar location, ecosystem type, etc.) and not benchmarked against all other ecosystems. PMID:24763610

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

2014-01-01

368

Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

2014-01-01

369

78 FR 49287 - Environmental Assessment for Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management [Docket No. BOEM-2013-0007...Potential Lease Issuance and Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

2013-08-13

370

76 FR 2347 - Availability of Seats for the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Alternate seat and (1) Maritime Heritage Member and (1) Maritime Heritage Alternate seat. Applicants...regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and...public participation in the management of the Sanctuary. The...

2011-01-13

371

MARINE ORNAMENTALS 2001 Industry Survey  

E-print Network

MARINE ORNAMENTALS 2001 Industry Survey RESULTS #12;Introduction to Marine Ornamentals 2001 Survey Results 1.0 Survey Purpose Marine Ornamentals 2001 (MO 01) Conference and its predecessor, Marine and environmentally sustainable future for all stakeholders in the marine ornamentals industry. As with the previous

Watson, Craig A.

372

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre University College Cork Annual Report 2008 #12;Contents Director's Statement 1 Introduction 2 Marine Geomatics 3 Marine Ecology 4 Coastal and Marine Governance 5 for the Coastal & Marine Resources Centre (CMRC). The year started extremely positively with the construction

Schellekens, Michel P.

373

Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations  

PubMed Central

Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n?=?47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

2013-01-01

374

Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.  

PubMed

Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

2013-01-01

375

Management  

E-print Network

Research has indicated that, depending upon driver and passenger characteristics, passengers can have either a positive or negative influence upon driver behaviour. In conclusion to a recent study investigating the roles that passengers can play to influence, positively and negatively, driver behaviour, Regan and Mitsopoulos (2001) recommended, among other things, that the principles of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training may increase passengers ’ ability to positively influence driver behaviour and also drivers ’ ability to accept constructive feedback. The present study investigated the potential application of CRM training within young driver training in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). This involved a literature review, an analysis of the differences between the driving and aviation domains, an analysis of the team-based activities and the knowledge, skills and attitudes required during driving to perform those activities, consultation with CRM experts from the aviation and medicine domains and the conduct of six focus groups involving young learner drivers, provisional licence drivers and course teachers. The findings indicate that CRM training as part of young driver training in the ACT is a viable concept to pursue. The application of CRM training within young driver training has potential to significantly enhance the positive and reduce the negative effects of passengers on young driver behaviour, and thus the safety of young drivers and passengers alike. The outcomes of this study formed the basis for a set of recommendations for the development of a young driver CRM training program in the ACT.

Young Drivers; Eve Mitsopoulos; Michael Regan; Janet Anderson; Paul Salmon; Jessica Edquist; Ii Report Documentation Page

2005-01-01

376

Marine systems analysis and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanography and marine ecology have a considerable history in the use of computers for modeling both physical and ecological processes. With increasing stress on the marine environment due to human activities such as fisheries and numerous forms of pollution, the analysis of marine problems must increasingly and jointly consider physical, ecological and socio-economic aspects in a broader systems framework that transcends more traditional disciplinary boundaries. This often introduces difficult-to-quantify, “soft” elements, such as values and perceptions, into formal analysis. Thus, the problem domain combines a solid foundation in the physical sciences, with strong elements of ecological, socio-economic and political considerations. At the same time, the domain is also characterized by both a very large volume of some data, and an extremely datapoor situation for other variables, as well as a very high degree of uncertainty, partly due to the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the marine environment. Consequently, marine systems analysis and management require tools that can integrate these diverse aspects into efficient information systems that can support research as well as planning and also policy- and decisionmaking processes. Supporting scientific research, as well as decision-making processes and the diverse groups and actors involved, requires better access and direct understanding of the information basis as well as easy-to-use, but powerful tools for analysis. Advanced information technology provides the tools to design and implement smart software where, in a broad sense, the emphasis is on the man-machine interface. Symbolic and analogous, graphical interaction, visual representation of problems, integrated data sources, and built-in domain knowledge can effectively support users of complex and complicated software systems. Integration, interaction, visualization and intelligence are key concepts that are discussed in detail, using an operational software example of a coastal water quality model. The model comprises components of a geographical information and mapping system, data bases, dynamic simulation models, and an integrated expert system. An interactive graphical user interface, dynamic visualization of model results, and a hyper-text-based help-and-explain system illustrate some of the features of new and powerful software tools for marine systems analysis and modeling.

Fedra, K.

1995-03-01

377

Integrated Environmental Management: lessons from the Trinity Inlet Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated environmental management (IEM) promotes a holistic and interconnective approach to managing environmental systems through a goal-oriented, strategic process. The literature asserts that interaction is the key to this process, but how interaction is translated into practice is less clear. In North Queensland, Australia, the Trinity Inlet Management Program has been designed to integrate the management of a marine estuary.

Richard D. Margerum

1999-01-01

378

18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

379

Sea Grant Marine Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.

2010-08-20

380

Discovery Collection: Marine Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Lisa Breslof

381

The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia (SOMER): process, findings and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOMER, the first comprehensive description of Australia's marine environment, human uses and impacts, and management, was produced for Australia's government to provide information for a national marine conservation plan. SOMER was based on 90 commissioned reports by 140 scientists. It consists of three Technical Annexes (31 papers); a Technical Summary intended for environmental managers; an overview of the major findings;

Leon P. Zann

1996-01-01

382

Biological control of marine invasive species: cautionary tales and land-based lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control (biocontrol) has successfully regulated pest populations in terrestrial agroecosystems, but it has also caused negative unintended consequences for native species. Marine biologists and resource managers have recently published a growing number of proposals to include biocontrol in integrated pest management programs in oceans, seas and estuaries. Here, I review six ecologically and taxonomically diverse case studies of marine

David Secord

2003-01-01

383

The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal currents and water properties (Moorings, Ocean Gliders and HF Radar) and three for coastal ecosystems (Acoustic Tagging and Tracking, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and a biophysical sensor network on the Great Barrier Reef). The value from this infrastructure investment lies in the coordinated deployment of a wide range of equipment aimed at deriving critical data sets that serve multiple applications. Additional information on IMOS is available at the website (http://www.imos.org.au). The IMOS Operators are Australian Institute of Marine Science, James Cook University, Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Geoscience Australia, Bureau of Meteorology, South Australia Research and Development Institute, University of Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Tasmania.

Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

2008-12-01

384

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers For Environmental Prediction, National O.

385

National Marine Fisheries Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service announces it's home page. The server includes links to the NOAA home page as well as links to National Marine Fisheries Science Centers and NMFS related sites. In addition, the books Our Living Oceans Annual Report 1993 and Index for Fisheries of the U.S -1992 are available online. There are also home pages for certain NMFS office including The Office of Protected Resources which contains a brochure called Protecting the Nation's Marine Species which gives a listing of endangered and threatened species. This page also has various marine sounds and mpeg movies.

386

Scaling Up to Networks of Marine Protected Areas in the Philippines: Biophysical, Legal, Institutional, and Social Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally represents an increasing interest in marine conservation and fisheries management and the potential of planned and managed MPA networks as a way of strengthening local management. This study documents the development of MPA networks in the Philippines and identifies critical success factors and issues. Methods were field observation by participation in

G. K. Lowry; A. T. White; P. Christie

2009-01-01

387

A review of initial investigations to utilize ERTS-1 data in determining the availability and distribution of living marine resources. [fish harvesting and management in Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was initiated in July 1972 to determine the reliability of satellite and high altitude sensors to provide data about oceanographic parameters in coastal waters; demonstrate the use of remotely sensed oceanographic information to predict the distribution and abundance of adult menhaden; and, demonstrate the potential of using satellite acquired information for improving the harvest and management of a fishery resource. The study focused on coastal are as in the north central portion of the Gulf of Mexico including parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The area used in the final analysis was limited to the Mississippi Sound, which is approximately 145 kilometers (90 miles) long and 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide, has an average water depth of about 3.7 meters (12 feet), and in general characterizes an estuarine environment.

Stevenson, W. H.; Kemmerer, A. J.; Atwell, B. H.; Maughan, P. M.

1974-01-01

388

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Undergraduate Program The University of Michigan #12;2 The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Educational Objectives The Educational Objectives knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering within naval architecture and marine engineering

Eustice, Ryan

389

76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...15510] RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle...scientific research on marine mammal parts....

2011-05-04

390

SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study  

E-print Network

oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Biology; M.S. degree in Marine Policy; Dual M.S. degree in Marine Policy and either Oceanography or Marine Biology; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Bio

Thomas, Andrew

391

Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

2014-08-01

392

Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1997-01-01

393

A General Business Model for Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

2013-01-01

394

Understanding Marine Customers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts.

COMET

2006-11-02

395

Marine Environmental Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is an introduction to the aspects of marine geology and oceanography that affect the environment and marine resources. Service-learning is an essential component of how students learn about the earth. We deliver part of the content of this course by arranging for students to solve a problem with a local community partner.

Course taught by Prof. Ed Laine, Bowdoin College (edlaine@bowdoin.edu) and Cathryn Field, Lab Instructor (cfield@bowdoin.edu). Example compiled by Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center (ssavanic@carleton.edu).

396

MARINE AND ESTUARINE POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This literature review summarizes current data on the effects of pesticides and metals on marine organisms, aquatic environmental research methods, bioaccumulation of pollutants by estuarine and marine organisms and in water/sediment residues and biota. Results of studies of the ...

397

MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT  

EPA Science Inventory

WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

398

Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

399

Marine environmental acoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Marine Environmental Acoustics Program of the Marine Physical Laboratory can be best typified as one with an experimental emphasis, addressing the acoustic, hydrodynamic, magnetic environments of the ocean. In particular we are concerned with understanding the interaction of the environment with the Navy's needs in undersea detection, localization and communication.

K. M. Watson; V. C. Anderson

1983-01-01

400

Texas Marine Education Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site features information on the Texas Marine Education Association, a conglomerate of educators from Texas and adjoining states whose goals include promoting awareness and education for the marine environment. Includes links to educator resources (Texas-specific and general), tidal information, and access to Dolphin Talk, the groups monthly newsletter. Also information on student and teacher grants and workshops.

2011-10-27

401

Marine Mammal Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1972 under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, the Marine Mammal Commission (MMC) is primarily concerned with "the protection and conservation of marine mammals." Visitors to the site can learn more about the MMC's work, read pending and recent pieces of legislation related to the protection of marine mammals, and also look over testimony proffered to Congress by members of the MMC. Most visitors will want to look over the "Species" section as it contains information on those particular mammals that are currently covered under the Protection Act. Researchers and policy analysts will most likely want to look at the "Reports" area as well. Here they will find annual reports, workshop reports, and timely publication like February 2008's "The Biological Viability of the Most Endangered Marine Mammals and the Cost-effectiveness of Protection Programs".

402

Barriers to Implementing Common Principles of Interagency Collaboration. Lessons Learned from the Marin City Families First Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marin City Families First (MCFF) provides advocacy and case management for 25 residents of Marin City (Marin County, California) with young children as it works to develop service and decision-making links among community agencies and networks. In this report, principles that relate to the successful delivery of comprehensive community-based child…

Scott, Bonnie L.; And Others

403

Gradients of abundance and biomass across reserve boundaries in six Mediterranean marine protected areas: Evidence of fish spillover?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered as an effective tool in marine coastal management, and considered able to enhance local fisheries through adult fish spillover. Indirect evidence of fish spillover could be obtained by horizontal gradients in fish abundance. To address this question, the existence of gradients of fish abundance and biomass across marine reserve boundaries was assessed in six

Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; José Antonio García-Charton; Denis Ody; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Olga Reńones; Pablo Sánchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

2008-01-01

404

Marine Biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand  

PubMed Central

The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to M?ori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30° of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine diversity in the EEZ may be expected to equal that in the ERMS region. This equivalence invites testable hypotheses to explain it. There are 177 naturalized alien species in New Zealand coastal waters, mostly in ports and harbours. Marine-taxonomic expertise in New Zealand covers a broad number of taxa but is, proportionately, at or near its lowest level since the Second World War. Nevertheless, collections are well supported by funding and are continually added to. Threats and protection measures concerning New Zealand's marine biodiversity are commented on, along with potential and priorities for future research. PMID:20689846

Gordon, Dennis P.; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A.; Ahyong, Shane T.

2010-01-01

405

Zoning—lessons from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is bigger than the United Kingdom, Holland and Switzerland combined. Over the last 25 years a range of management ‘tools’, including zoning plans, permits, education, and more recently management plans, have been applied to regulate access and to control and mitigate impacts associated with human use of the GBRMP. A multiple-use zoning approach

Jon C. Day

2002-01-01

406

HBOI, USDA/ARS BUILDING MARINE FISH HATCHERY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of marine fish aquaculture in the US is challenged by a number of complex issues such as political and regulatory constraints, marketing and market competition, health management and biosecurity, and water quality and waste management. However, the most commonly cited constraint to ...

407

NOAA'S National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Alaska Region  

E-print Network

under Fishery Management Plans, including landings data, is confidential. NOAA Administrative Order (NAO and the overage was treated as a violation. In this report fishery landing data from crab years 09/10 through 2011NOAA'S National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Alaska Region Restricted Access Management (RAM

408

Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?  

PubMed Central

Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo?Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation. PMID:16794088

Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

2006-01-01

409

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network  

E-print Network

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network Autonomous Robotic Fish as Mobile Sensor Platforms: Challenges and Potential Solutions Xiaobo Tan. Marine Technology, and is not to be distributed in any format. The Marine Technology Society is a not-for-profit, international, professional

Tan, Xiaobo

410

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, **(*): ****** (*** 2014) 2014 Society for Marine Mammalogy  

E-print Network

Notes MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, **(*): ***­*** (*** 2014) © 2014 Society for Marine Mammalogy DOI: 10 of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilming- ton, North Carolina 28403, U.S.A.; MISTY NIEMEYER, Marine Mammal Rescue and Research, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port

411

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, **(*): ****** (*** 2013) 2013 Society for Marine Mammalogy  

E-print Network

MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, **(*): ***­*** (*** 2013) © 2013 Society for Marine Mammalogy DOI: 10 dimensions. For marine animals, the third dimension is an important aspect of spa- tial ecology. We used dive provide some insight into the third dimension of habitat use in marine animals. The capacity to predict

Thomas, Len

412

Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement. PMID:18402586

Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

2008-04-01

413

Marine Magnetic Data Holdings of World Data Center-a for Marine Geology and Geophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The World Data Center-A for Marine Geology and Geophysics is co-located with the Marine Geology & Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO. Fifteen million digital marine magnetic trackline measurements are managed within the GEOphysical DAta System (GEODAS). The bulk of these data were collected with proton precision magnetometers under Transit Satellite navigational control. Along-track sampling averages about 1 sample per kilometer, while spatial density, a function of ship's track and survey pattern, range from 4 to 0.02 data points/sq. km. In the near future, the entire geophysical data set will be available on CD-ROM. The Marine Geology and Geophysics Division (World Data Center-A for MGG), of the National Geophysical Data Center, handles a broad spectrum of marine geophysical data, including measurements of bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, seismic reflection subbottom profiles, and side-scan images acquired by ships throughout the world's oceans. Digital data encompass the first three, while the latter two are in analog form, recorded on 35mm microfilm. The marine geophysical digital trackline data are contained in the GEODAS data base which includes 11.6 million nautical miles of cruise trackline coverage contributed by more than 70 organizations worldwide. The inventory includes data from 3206 cruises with 33 million digital records and indexing to 5.3 million track miles of analog data on microfilm.

Sharman, George F.; Metzger, Dan

1992-01-01

414

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~\\!M On the cover: Predation on the spiny lobster is discussed in the article, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart The Marine Marine Fisheries Serv- ice, NOAA, 7fiYJ Sand Point Way N.E., Bin C15700 Seattle, WA 98115. Single copies

415

Marine Fisheries On the cover  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: A spring chinook gillnetter on the Columbia River at Astoria, Macrobrachium rosenbergii Departments NOAA/NMFS Developments Foreign Fishery Developments Index Papers in Marine For Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service Editor: W. Hobart Marine Fisheries Review (USPS 090-080) is pub

416

Marine bioacoustics and technology: The new world of marine acoustic ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine animals use sound for communication, navigation, predator avoidance, and prey detection. Thus the rise in acoustic energy associated with increasing human activity in the ocean has potential to impact the lives of marine animals. Thirty years ago marine bioacoustics primarily focused on evaluating effects of human-generated sound on hearing and behavior by testing captive animals and visually observing wild animals. Since that time rapidly changing electronic and computing technologies have yielded three tools that revolutionized how bioacousticians study marine animals. These tools are (1) portable systems for measuring electrophysiological auditory evoked potentials, (2) miniaturized tags equipped with positioning sensors and acoustic recording devices for continuous short-term acoustical observation rather than intermittent visual observation, and (3) passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) systems for remote long-term acoustic observations at specific locations. The beauty of these breakthroughs is their direct applicability to wild animals in natural habitats rather than only to animals held in captivity. Hearing capabilities of many wild species including polar bears, beaked whales, and reef fishes have now been assessed by measuring their auditory evoked potentials. Miniaturized acoustic tags temporarily attached to an animal to record its movements and acoustic environment have revealed the acoustic foraging behavior of sperm and beaked whales. Now tags are being adapted to fishes in effort to understand their behavior in the presence of noise. Moving and static PAM systems automatically detect and characterize biological and physical features of an ocean area without adding any acoustic energy to the environment. PAM is becoming a powerful technique for understanding and managing marine habitats. This paper will review the influence of these transformative tools on the knowledge base of marine bioacoustics and elucidation of relationships between marine animals and their acoustic environment, leading to a new, rapidly growing field of marine acoustic ecology.

Hastings, Mardi C.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2012-11-01

417

Continental shelf GIS for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A marine sanctuary is an environment where the interests of science and society meet. Land and marine managers need access to the best scientific data available that describe the environment and environmental processes in sanctuaries. The sidescan sonar imagery, bathymetry, sample analyses and other data discussed in the papers in this volume have been made available as a U.S. Geological Survey CDROM publication. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Wong, F.L.; Eittreim, S.L.

2002-01-01

418

What Are Marine Bioinvaders?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains what marine bioinvaders are, how they get to New England, where they are, and their impact on ecosystems. There are maps of introduced and cryptogenic species along the Massachusetts coast. Fact sheets and general information are provided on exotic species, sources of bioinvasion, ballast water, aquaculture, New England marine bioinvaders, and Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Educational materials are available for loan for a small fee. There are also marine bioinvaders references, conference information, and information on a program to recruit the public to locate additional sightings of exotic species.

419

CSIRO Marine Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), CSIRO Marine Research Web site contains multiple levels of valuable information. The organization's mission is to "understand its oceans by conducting research in the sustainable use of Australia's marine resources, the ocean's role in climate, and the effective conservation of the marine ecosystem integrity." Visitors will find current news articles, research material including free modeling software, and various data and related products such as remote sensing information and publications. The strength of the site lies in the adaptability of its offerings to research and researchers around the world.

1998-01-01

420

European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

2014-05-01

421

Marine Natural Products Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

Chang, Clifford W. J.

1978-01-01

422

Mariner-Venus 1967  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

1971-01-01

423

Undergraduate Marine Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science and nonscience majors work together in a remote field setting on authentic marine research projects supervised by faculty from multiple disciplines and institutions. In the process, they learn science by doing science, gain research and logistical

Greengrove, Cheryl; Secord, David

2003-02-01

424

Marine medicinal glycomics  

PubMed Central

Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

Pomin, Vitor H.

2014-01-01

425

Marine Life Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

1988-01-01

426

Marine & hydrokinetic technology development.  

SciTech Connect

The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine and hydrokinetic devices. In 2008, the program funded projects to develop and test point absorber, oscillating wave column, and tidal turbine technologies. The program also funds component design, such as techniques for manufacturing and installing coldwater pipes critical for ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Rigorous device testing is necessary to validate and optimize prototypes before beginning full-scale demonstration and deployment. The program supports device testing by providing technology developers with information on testing facilities. Technology developers require access to facilities capable of simulating open-water conditions in order to refine and validate device operability. The program has identified more than 20 tank testing operators in the United States with capabilities suited to the marine and hydrokinetic technology industry. This information is available to the public in the program's Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Database. The program also supports the development of open-water, grid-connected testing facilities, as well as resource assessments that will improve simulations done in dry-dock and closed-water testing facilities. The program has established two university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers to be used for device testing. These centers are located on coasts and will have open-water testing berths, allowing researchers to investigate marine and estuary conditions. Optimal array design, development, modeling and testing are needed to maximize efficiency and electricity generation at marine and hydrokinetic power plants while mitigating nearby and distant impacts. Activities may include laboratory and computational modeling of mooring design or research on device spacing. The geographies, resources, technologies, and even nomenclature of the U.S. marine and hydrokinetic technology industry have yet to be fully understood or defined. The program characterizes and assesses marine and hydrokinetic devices, and then organizes the collected information into a comprehensive and searchable Web-based database, the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. The database, which reflects intergovernmental and international collaboration, provides industry with one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date public resources on marine and hydrokinetic devices.

LiVecchi, Al (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Jepsen, Richard Alan

2010-06-01

427

NOAA Marine Debris Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Marine Debris Program (MDP) supports national and international efforts to research, prevent, and reduce the impacts of marine debris. The MDP serves as a centralized capability within NOAA, coordinating and supporting activities within NOAA and with other federal agencies, as well as using partnerships to support projects carried out by state and local agencies, tribes, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry. Educational materials include activity books, curriculum, & crafts for all ages.

428

Oceanography - Marine Geological Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first year course in oceanography with extensive Internet resources. Topics covered include: principles of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, continuum mechanics, and time-series analysis applied to marine geological and geophysical data; applications to transport of marine sediments; Pleistocene sedimentation and global climate change; and the thermal balance of the oceanic lithosphere. The link to the lecture schedule provides detailed supporting materials.

Mcduff, Russell

429

Competition in Marine Invasions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition is a negative interaction between two or more species that utilize the same shared, limiting resource (Connell\\u000a 1983). Although competition can have large local, immediate effects, (e.g. on demography, resource use, etc.), competition\\u000a in many marine systems is often assumed to have minimal effect on population persistence, primarily due to characteristics\\u000a of the dominant life histories of marine organisms.

James E. Byers

430

Primary Productivity: Marine Adaptation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to give students a better understanding of the concept of primary productivity and to have them use one or more methods to calculate primary productivity. Students will have also been introduced to the concepts of marine primary productivity, net productivity vs. gross productivity, and the importance of comparing dry weight versus wet weight. Marine primary producers are usually not plants as we typically think about them, but rather seaweeds or single cell algae. The classic example of a marine primary producer is a marine diatom. In this experiment students use marine diatoms to measure primary productivity. Real-time data from several sources may be used to increase understanding of this topic. Students will discover that although often ignored in the classroom, the marine environment produces 32 percent of the world's primary productivity on 71 percent of the Earth's surface area. Although this is far less than the 68 percent from the continental surfaces (29 percent of the Earth's surface area), this productivity is still very important.

Angela Morrow

431

Marine Biological Laboratory's Marine Organisms Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Learn why studying squid and horseshoe crabs are so important to learning about human sight and how sea urchins are shedding new light on human birth defects. All this and a searchable photo database. Site also includes resources for purchasing specimens for laboratory or display purposes.

432

Fisheries Abundance Cycles in Ecosystem and Economic Management of California Fish and Invertebrate Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for fishery scientists and ecosystem-based fishery managers to recognize that there may be apparent persistence\\u000a in an ecosystem followed by ecosystem changes corresponding to different ecological states and different levels of fisheries\\u000a output; revenues paid to California fishers have varied more than fivefold in inflation adjusted dollars during the 75-year\\u000a period of our study. Empirical orthogonal function

Jerrold G. Norton; Samuel F. Herrick; Janet E. Mason

433

Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.  

PubMed

The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. PMID:18254857

Tallis, Heather; Ferdańa, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

2008-02-01

434

Collaborative Research: An Effective Way to Collect Data for Stock Assessments and Evaluate Marine Protected Areas in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative fisheries research (in contrast to cooperative research) is based on the intellectual partnership between scientists and fishermen and is an effective way to collect data for stock assessments and to evaluate marine protected areas. Collaborative fisheries research is discussed in the context of co-management of marine resources and how it contributes to a more democratic form of fisheries management.

Dean E. Wendt; Richard M. Starr

2009-01-01

435

Perceptions of Rule-Breaking Related to Marine Ecosystem Health  

PubMed Central

Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing) and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t?=?3.5, df?=?297, p<0.01). Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying “some” (32% of responses) or “most” (15% of responses) people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z?=??3.44, p<0.001) in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas), policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities. PMID:24586558

Slater, Matthew J.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Stead, Selina M.

2014-01-01

436

Perceptions of rule-breaking related to marine ecosystem health.  

PubMed

Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing) and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t?=?3.5, df?=?297, p<0.01). Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying "some" (32% of responses) or "most" (15% of responses) people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z=?-3.44, p<0.001) in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas), policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities. PMID:24586558

Slater, Matthew J; Mgaya, Yunus D; Stead, Selina M

2014-01-01

437

Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages  

E-print Network

marine ecosystems. Keywords Coastal marine ecosystems, diversity, ecological functions, fish assemblages (Hughes 1994). Unexpected consequences of biodiversity loss for marine ecosystem functioning highlightLETTER Low functional redundancy in coastal marine assemblages Fiorenza Micheli1, * and Benjamin S

Halpern, Benjamin S.

438

A place meaning scale for tropical marine settings.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, most of the worldwide hectares set aside for environmental protection have been added to marine protected areas. Moreover, these areas are under tremendous pressure from negative anthropogenic impacts. Given this growth and pressure, there is a need to increase the understanding of the connection between people and marine environments in order to better manage the resource. One construct that researchers have used to understand human-environment connections is place meanings. Place meanings reflect the value and significance of a setting to individuals. Most investigations of place meanings have been confined to terrestrial settings. Moreover, most studies have had small sample sizes or have used place attachment scales as a proxy to gage the meanings individuals ascribe to a setting. Hence, it has become necessary to develop a place meaning scale for use with large samples and for use by those who are concerned about the management of marine environments. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to develop a scale to measure the importance people associate with the meanings they ascribe to tropical marine settings and empirically test the scale using two independent samples; that is, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary stakeholders. PMID:25260561

Wynveen, Christopher J; Kyle, Gerard T

2015-01-01

439

A Place Meaning Scale for Tropical Marine Settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 20 years, most of the worldwide hectares set aside for environmental protection have been added to marine protected areas. Moreover, these areas are under tremendous pressure from negative anthropogenic impacts. Given this growth and pressure, there is a need to increase the understanding of the connection between people and marine environments in order to better manage the resource. One construct that researchers have used to understand human-environment connections is place meanings. Place meanings reflect the value and significance of a setting to individuals. Most investigations of place meanings have been confined to terrestrial settings. Moreover, most studies have had small sample sizes or have used place attachment scales as a proxy to gage the meanings individuals ascribe to a setting. Hence, it has become necessary to develop a place meaning scale for use with large samples and for use by those who are concerned about the management of marine environments. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to develop a scale to measure the importance people associate with the meanings they ascribe to tropical marine settings and empirically test the scale using two independent samples; that is, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary stakeholders.

Wynveen, Christopher J.; Kyle, Gerard T.

2015-01-01

440

Prioritizing marine spatial planning efforts with the assets, threats and solvability framework  

EPA Science Inventory

The application of marine zoning and spatial planning methods has seen a worldwide increase to stem unsustainable use of coastal seas. However, prioritizing marine regions for focused management efforts and protection can be a difficult process. Uncertainties from the provision o...

441

Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

McDonnell, Janice D.

442

Toward an Improved U.S. Merchant Marine: A Recommended Program of Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the development and current status of the U.S. Merchant Marine with special emphasis on the influences of government, management, labor, and users. The report describes a wide spectrum of maritime activities, including the roles of various government agencies, the organization and effectiveness of U.S. Merchant Marine

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

443

Beyond Marine Reserves: Exploring the Approach of Selecting Areas where Fishing Is Permitted, Rather than Prohibited  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMarine populations have been declining at a worrying rate, due in large part to fishing pressures. The challenge is to secure a future for marine life while minimizing impacts on fishers and fishing communities.Methods and Principal FindingsRather than selecting areas where fishing is banned – as is usually the case with spatial management – we assess the concept of designating

Natalie C. Ban; Amanda C. J. Vincent; Ross Thompson

2009-01-01

444

Incorporating commercial fishery information into the design of marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are becoming a favoured management strategy for the conservation of marine biodiversity. We present an analysis of how fishery data from a trawl fishery in northern Australia can contribute to the process of developing a system of candidate MPAs. We investigate ways of using fishing grounds, bioregion and depth information as a means of classifying ecosystems,

Fiona J. Manson; David J. Die

2001-01-01

445

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west along Marine Barracks Way at rear of Marine Corps Officers' Housing, with carports on left and duplex on right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Corps Officers' Duplex Quarters, Salvor Street & Russell Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

446

New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

Allen, Betty, Comp.

1989-01-01

447

Toward a Dynamic Metacommunity Approach to Marine Reserve Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience about marine reserve design and the need for long-term monitoring programs. Coastal habitats have recently received much attention from policymakers, but marine reserve theory still needs to integrate across scales, from local dynamics of communities to biogeographic patterns of species distribution, recognizing coastal ecosystems as complex adaptive systems in which local processes and anthropogenic disturbances can result in large-scale biological changes. We present a theoretical framework that provides a new perspective on the science underlying the design of marine reserve networks. Coastal marine systems may be usefully considered as metacommunities in which propagules are exchanged among components, and in which the persistence of one species depends on that of others. Our results suggest that the large-scale distribution of marine species can be dynamic and can result from local ecological processes. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for marine reserve design and the need for long-term monitoring programs to validate predictions from metacommunity models. Only through an integrated and dynamic global perspective can scientists and managers achieve the underlying goals of marine conservation.

FRĂ?DĂ?RIC GUICHARD, SIMON A. LEVIN, ALAN HASTINGS, and DAVID SIEGEL (; )

2004-11-01

448

Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.  

PubMed

The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed. PMID:21160025

Bossart, G D

2011-05-01

449

Marine Biological Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1888, the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) was started in Woods Hole, and since then it has served as a place for world-class biologists and ecologists to gather and work together. Their ambitions are very broad and admirable, and visitors should start by reading through the introduction in the "About MBL" section before looking around further. Most visitors will then want to go to the "Education" area. Here they will find such resources as a marine organism database, a number of full-text classic works on marine organisms, and several image databases. Moving on, visitors might also want to look at the "Research" area, which contains materials on their laboratories, research opportunities at the MBL, and an overview of their current research projects.

450

The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries  

PubMed Central

Many fishery management tools currently in use have conservation value. They are designed to maintain stocks of commercially important species above target levels. However, their limitations are evident from continuing declines in fish stocks throughout the world. We make the case that to reverse fishery declines, safeguard marine life and sustain ecosystem processes, extensive marine reserves that are off limits to fishing must become part of the management strategy. Marine reserves should be incorporated into modern fishery management because they can achieve many things that conventional tools cannot. Only complete and permanent protection from fishing can protect the most sensitive habitats and vulnerable species. Only reserves will allow the development of natural, extended age structures of target species, maintain their genetic variability and prevent deleterious evolutionary change from the effects of fishing. Species with natural age structures will sustain higher rates of reproduction and will be more resilient to environmental variability. Higher stock levels maintained by reserves will provide insurance against management failure, including risk-prone quota setting, provided the broader conservation role of reserves is firmly established and legislatively protected. Fishery management measures outside protected areas are necessary to complement the protection offered by marine reserves, but cannot substitute for it. PMID:15713592

Roberts, Callum M.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Gell, Fiona R.

2005-01-01

451

Marine Ecomechanics Mark W. Denny1  

E-print Network

Marine Ecomechanics Mark W. Denny1 and Brian Gaylord2 1 Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950; email: mwdenny@stanford.edu 2 Bodega Marine Laboratory and Department The Annual Review of Marine Science is online at marine.annualreviews.org This article's doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine

Denny, Mark

452

HISTORY OF THE GRICE MARINE LABORATORY  

E-print Network

in marine biology of the College of Charleston. Grice Marine Laboratory Walking Tour Grice Marine LaboratoryHISTORY OF THE GRICE MARINE LABORATORY The George D. Grice Marine Laboratory, named in honor, faculty offices, an aquarium room, and a research collection of marine invertebrates and fishes. It has

Young, Paul Thomas

453

Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide  

E-print Network

. Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ B.A.M.A MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ B areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Biology Marine biologists studyUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2012-2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

Miami, University of

454

Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide  

E-print Network

. Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ BAMA MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ BSMAS areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Science/Biology Marine biologistsUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2013-2014 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

Miami, University of

455

Marine mammals and ocean noise: future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada.  

PubMed

Marine mammals are ecologically and culturally important species, and various countries have specific legislation to protect the welfare of individual marine mammals and the conservation of their populations. Anthropogenic noise represents a particular challenge for conservation and management. There is a large and growing body of research to support the conclusion that anthropogenic noise can affect marine mammal behavior, energetics, and physiology. The legal, policy, and management issues surrounding marine mammals and noise are similarly complex. Our objective is twofold. First, we discuss how policy and legal frameworks in Canada have some important differences from other jurisdictions covered in previous reviews, and provide a useful general case study. Secondly, we highlight some priority research areas that will improve marine mammal conservation and management. Our examples focus on the research needed to meet stated conservation objectives for marine mammal species in waters under Canadian jurisdiction. PMID:25087130

Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; Blight, Louise; Jasny, Michael; Nowlan, Linda

2014-09-15

456

Marine cable location system  

SciTech Connect

An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

Zachariadis, R.G.

1984-05-01

457

Marine Scientists Directory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Sciences Board of the National Academy of Sciences is distributing questionnaires to oceanographers, in preparation for the next edition of the U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists. The questionnaires are being sent to heads of oceanography activities in academia, government, and industry for further distribution to their ocean science staff members. EOS readers in the U.S. who consider themselves marine scientists but who do not receive a questionnaire before October 24 should write directly to Richard C. Vetter, Ocean Sciences Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.

458

Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to chapters from an online book (PDF format), which reflects many of the recent developments in marine microbiology. Published by the National Institute of Oceanography in India, it is geared towards ocean scientists, environmentalists, aqua-culturists and seafood processing technologists. The book provides recent literature, newer analytical approaches, and an overall summary of the present understanding of marine microbiology in tropical waters. Chapters include subjects such as heterotrophic bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and the sulfur cycle, hypersaline microorganisms, symbiosis, the role of fungi in detrital process, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, microbial diseases in shrimp, microzooplankton, biofilms, and more. Links are provided to each chapter in PDF format.

Ramaiah, Nagappa

459

Alkaloids in Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

2010-01-01

460

Mariner 9 navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

1973-01-01

461

Marine Science Building Dedicated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

2003-01-01

462

Hellenic Centre for Marine Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at several site in Greece, the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research was set up as a single institution in order to integrate government-funded marine science research in Greece. The Centre consists of five institutes: oceanography, aquaculture, marine biological resources, inland waters, and marine biology and genetics. The website includes information on services it provides, the center library, current research initiatives, and the center's two aquaria.

2011-06-06