Sample records for marine ecosystem-based management

  1. New technology for Ecosystem-Based Management: Marine monitoring with the ORCA Kilroy Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Thosteson; E. A. Widder; C. A. Cimaglia; J. W. Taylor; B. C. Burns; K. J. Paglen

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) requires marine monitoring in real time with high temporal frequency and high spatial density. It also requires sensors that can provide direct measurements of biological processes and the means to track water movement and evaluate water quality. These requirements can not realistically be met using huge amalgamations of the independent instruments traditionally used for marine monitoring. To

  2. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Robert J.; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Baums, Iliana B.; Bird, Christopher E.; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Daly-Engel, Toby S.; Eble, Jeff A.; Faucci, Anuschka; Gaither, Michelle R.; Iacchei, Matthew; Puritz, Jonathan B.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Skillings, Derek J.; Timmers, Molly A.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM) has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch) that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions. PMID:25505913

  3. Comparative analysis of European wide marine ecosystem shifts: a large-scale approach for developing the basis for ecosystem-based management

    PubMed Central

    Möllmann, Christian; Conversi, Alessandra; Edwards, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abrupt and rapid ecosystem shifts (where major reorganizations of food-web and community structures occur), commonly termed regime shifts, are changes between contrasting and persisting states of ecosystem structure and function. These shifts have been increasingly reported for exploited marine ecosystems around the world from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms leading to marine ecosystem shifts is crucial in developing adaptive management strategies to achieve sustainable exploitation of marine ecosystems. An international workshop on a comparative approach to analysing these marine ecosystem shifts was held at Hamburg University, Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany on 1–3 November 2010. Twenty-seven scientists from 14 countries attended the meeting, representing specialists from seven marine regions, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Barents Sea, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Bay of Biscay and the Scotian Shelf off the Canadian East coast. The goal of the workshop was to conduct the first large-scale comparison of marine ecosystem regime shifts across multiple regional areas, in order to support the development of ecosystem-based management strategies. PMID:21270025

  4. Accounting for indirect effects and non-commensurate values in ecosystem based fishery management (EBFM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Richerson; Phillip S. Levin; Marc Mangel

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM) requires taking account of indirect effects (such as habitat destruction, incidental mortality, and competition between the fishery and marine mammals or birds) and dealing with non-commensurate values (such as yield from the fishery and production of offspring by the birds or mammals competing for the same resource). The perspective of EBFM requires that the rate of

  5. The importance of data discovery and management in advancing ecosystem-based management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Carollo; Dave J. Reed; John C. Ogden; David Palandro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Geospatial Assessment of Marine Ecosystems (GAME) project is to develop an inventory of habitat-related data within the Gulf of Mexico and East coast of Florida. This will serve as a foundation to develop a spatial framework for ecosystem-based management associated with regulatory and planning programs and areas of governmental coordination.The data inventory will have both a

  6. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management.

    PubMed

    Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Kappel, Carrie V; Reed, Denise J; Stoms, David M; Koch, Evamaria W; Kennedy, Chris J; Cramer, Lori A; Hacker, Sally D; Barbier, Edward B; Aswani, Shankar; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Silliman, Brian R; Muthiga, Nyawira; Bael, David; Wolanski, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Ecosystem-based management is logistically and politically challenging because ecosystems are inherently complex and management decisions affect a multitude of groups. Coastal ecosystems, which lie at the interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and provide an array of ecosystem services to different groups, aptly illustrate these challenges. Successful ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems requires incorporating scientific information and the knowledge and views of interested parties into the decision-making process. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services under alternative management schemes offers a systematic way to incorporate biogeophysical and socioeconomic information and the views of individuals and groups in the policy and management process. Employing ecosystem services as a common language to improve the process of ecosystem-based management presents both benefits and difficulties. Benefits include a transparent method for assessing trade-offs associated with management alternatives, a common set of facts and common currency on which to base negotiations, and improved communication among groups with competing interests or differing worldviews. Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human interventions will affect ecosystems, how such changes will affect the provision of ecosystem services, and how changes in service provision will affect the welfare of different groups in society. In a case study from Puget Sound, Washington, we illustrate the potential of applying ecosystem services as a common language for ecosystem-based management. PMID:19906066

  7. DECISION-MAKING AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    ELSEVIER FEATURES DECISION-MAKING AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: APPLYING THE VROOM-YETTON MODEL TO PUBLIC PARTICIPATION STRATEGY Steven E. Daniels Oregon State University Rick L. Lawrence Oregon State of choosing among public involvement mechanisms, the Vroom- Yetton model for selecting decision process

  8. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the ecosystem-based approach - pitfalls and solutions.

    PubMed

    Berg, Torsten; Fürhaupter, Karin; Teixeira, Heliana; Uusitalo, Laura; Zampoukas, Nikolaos

    2015-07-15

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims at good environmental status (GES) in marine waters, following an ecosystem-based approach, focused on 11 descriptors related to ecosystem features, human drivers and pressures. Furthermore, 29 subordinate criteria and 56 attributes are detailed in an EU Commission Decision. The analysis of the Decision and the associated operational indicators revealed ambiguity in the use of terms, such as indicator, impact and habitat and considerable overlap of indicators assigned to various descriptors and criteria. We suggest re-arrangement and elimination of redundant criteria and attributes avoiding double counting in the subsequent indicator synthesis, a clear distinction between pressure and state descriptors and addition of criteria on ecosystem services and functioning. Moreover, we suggest the precautionary principle should be followed for the management of pressures and an evidence-based approach for monitoring state as well as reaching and maintaining GES. PMID:25956437

  9. Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Hughes, Terry P.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the strategies and actions that enable transitions toward ecosystem-based management using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park as a case study. The interplay among individual actors, organizations, and institutions at multiple levels is central in such transitions. A flexible organization, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, was crucial in initiating the transition to ecosystem-based management. This agency was also instrumental in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime and provided leadership throughout the process. Strategies involved internal reorganization and management innovation, leading to an ability to coordinate the scientific community, to increase public awareness of environmental issues and problems, to involve a broader set of stakeholders, and to maneuver the political system for support at critical times. The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef (from terrestrial runoff, overharvesting, and global warming) that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges. The focus of governance shifted from protection of selected individual reefs to stewardship of the larger-scale seascape. The study emphasizes the significance of stewardship that can change patterns of interactions among key actors and allow for new forms of management and governance to emerge in response to environmental change. This example illustrates that enabling legislations or other social bounds are essential, but not sufficient for shifting governance toward adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems. PMID:18621698

  10. Baltic Sea ecosystem-based management under climate change: Synthesis and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Österblom, Henrik; Larsson, Per; Andersson, Agneta; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as the generally agreed strategy for managing ecosystems, with humans as integral parts of the managed system. Human activities have substantial effects on marine ecosystems, through overfishing, eutrophication, toxic pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change. It is important to advance the scientific knowledge of the cumulative, integrative, and interacting effects of these diverse activities, to support effective implementation of EBM. Based on contributions to this special issue of AMBIO, we synthesize the scientific findings into four components: pollution and legal frameworks, ecosystem processes, scale-dependent effects, and innovative tools and methods. We conclude with challenges for the future, and identify the next steps needed for successful implementation of EBM in general and specifically for the Baltic Sea. PMID:26022332

  11. Size matters: How single-species management can contribute to ecosystem-based fisheries management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Froese; Amanda Stern-Pirlot; Henning Winker; Didier Gascuel

    2008-01-01

    In this study we show how substantial gains towards the goals of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) can be achieved by different single-species management. We show that fishing has much less impact on stocks if fish are caught after they have reached the size (Lopt) where growth rate and cohort biomass are maximum. To demonstrate our point we compare the impact

  12. Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcada, J.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management.

  13. Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcada, J.; Malone, D.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90-125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12-16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the "escapement" due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Managing Fisheries Resources in Danajon Bank, Bohol, Philippines: An Ecosystem-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nygiel Armada; Alan T. White; Patrick Christie

    2009-01-01

    The Danajon Bank double barrier reef, located off northern Bohol Island of central Philippines, is the focus of this case study on ecosystem-based management (EBM). Fisheries management is relatively new in the area, particularly the aspect of managing fish stocks with wide distribution patterns crossing jurisdictional boundaries. Nevertheless, stakeholders are taking bold steps toward improving fisheries management. The impetus to

  15. Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires a change to the selective fishing philosophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shijie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Punt, André E.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Mark; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Pascoe, Sean; Bulman, Catherine; Bayliss, Peter; Sainsbury, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Globally, many fish species are overexploited, and many stocks have collapsed. This crisis, along with increasing concerns over flow-on effects on ecosystems, has caused a reevaluation of traditional fisheries management practices, and a new ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) paradigm has emerged. As part of this approach, selective fishing is widely encouraged in the belief that nonselective fishing has many adverse impacts. In particular, incidental bycatch is seen as wasteful and a negative feature of fishing, and methods to reduce bycatch are implemented in many fisheries. However, recent advances in fishery science and ecology suggest that a selective approach may also result in undesirable impacts both to fisheries and marine ecosystems. Selective fishing applies one or more of the “6-S” selections: species, stock, size, sex, season, and space. However, selective fishing alters biodiversity, which in turn changes ecosystem functioning and may affect fisheries production, hindering rather than helping achieve the goals of EBFM. We argue here that a “balanced exploitation” approach might alleviate many of the ecological effects of fishing by avoiding intensive removal of particular components of the ecosystem, while still supporting sustainable fisheries. This concept may require reducing exploitation rates on certain target species or groups to protect vulnerable components of the ecosystem. Benefits to society could be maintained or even increased because a greater proportion of the entire suite of harvested species is used. PMID:20435916

  16. Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management: A Critical Review of Concepts and Ecological Economic Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanh Viet Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    An ecosystem approach means different things to different people. As a result the concept of ecosystem-based fishery management is evolving and it has no universal definition or consistent application. As regards ecosystem modeling, most economic models of fishery ignore the linkages to lower trophic levels. In particular, environmental data and other bottom-up information is widely disregarded. The objective of this

  17. Ecosystem-Based Management in the Lodgepole Pine Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart

    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstra- tion activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine forests in the interior West. First, at the

  18. Towards Automated Ecosystem-based Management: A case study of Northern Gulf of Mexico Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Allee, R.; Gould, R.; Ko, D.

    2012-12-01

    The vast and dynamic nature of large systems limit the feasibility of the frequent in situ sampling needed to establish a robust long-term database. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative to in situ sampling and is possibly the best solution to address the data collection needs at a regional scale. In this context, we have used an unsupervised machine learning (ML) technique, called a self-organizing map (SOM), to objectively provide a classification of the US Gulf of Mexico water using a suite of ocean data products. The input data that we used in this study were the sea surface temperature, the surface chlorophyll concentration, the sea surface salinity, the euphotic depth and the temperature difference between the sea surface and the sea floor. The SOM method uses the multivariate signature of the data records to classify the data into a specified number of classes. The output of the analysis is essentially a comprehensive two-dimensional map of the Gulf of Mexico. We analyzed the individual SOM classes over a five-year period from 2005 to 2009. We then used the machine learning results to established a correspondence between the SOM classification and the completely independent Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), which accommodates the physical, biological, and chemical information to collectively characterize marine and coastal ecosystems. The CMECS water column component information is then fused with fish count data from the Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) to produce an interactive map. The results can be used in providing online decision-support system, and tools for Ecosystem-based management.Figures shows the fish count distribution with respect to the SOM classes. The fish preference can be inferred from the plot. This information can be used to construct an online decision-support system for conservation as well as commercial purposes.

  19. What model suits ecosystem-based fisheries management? A plea for a structured modeling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Espinoza-Tenorio; Matthias Wolff; Marc H. Taylor; Ileana Espejel

    As tools within ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), a wide range of Ecosystem Models (EMs) have been designed to\\u000a represent ecosystem complexity, but it is not always clear how the outputs of these models can be applied. We address this\\u000a debate in a literature review to illustrate how a better understanding of ecosystem modeling within the EBFM framework could\\u000a facilitate the

  20. Legal prerequisites for ecosystem-based management in the Baltic Sea area: The example of eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Annika K; Bohman, Brita

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of law in the management of the Baltic Sea, with focus on eutrophication. It aims to identify legal instruments or structures realizing an ecosystem approach. This also includes a discussion of the prerequisites of law as contributor to ecosystem-based management (EBM), as well as evaluation of current legal instruments. While ecosystem approach to environmental management is central to contemporary environmental management policy, it is still unclear what such an approach entails in concrete legal terms. The scope of the analysis stretches from international and EU legal regimes, to implementation and regulation within the national legal systems. A conclusion is that the management structures need further development to properly realize EBM, for example, through concretization of management measures, and clarification of duties and responsibilities for their realization. PMID:26022320

  1. Development of an integrated economic and ecological framework for ecosystem-based fisheries management in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Dalton, T. M.; Thunberg, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present an integrated economic-ecological framework designed to help assess the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) in New England. We develop the framework by linking a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of a coastal economy to an end-to-end (E2E) model of a marine food web for Georges Bank. We focus on the New England region using coastal county economic data for a restricted set of industry sectors and marine ecological data for three top level trophic feeding guilds: planktivores, benthivores, and piscivores. We undertake numerical simulations to model the welfare effects of changes in alternative combinations of yields from feeding guilds and alternative manifestations of biological productivity. We estimate the economic and distributional effects of these alternative simulations across a range of consumer income levels. This framework could be used to extend existing methodologies for assessing the impacts on human communities of groundfish stock rebuilding strategies, such as those expected through the implementation of the sector management program in the US northeast fishery. We discuss other possible applications of and modifications and limitations to the framework.

  2. Assessing social--ecological trade-offs to advance ecosystem-based fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F; Schmidt, Jörn O; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

  3. Decision-making for ecosystem-based management: evaluating options for a krill fishery with an ecosystem dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Watters, G M; Hill, S L; Hinke, J T; Matthews, J; Reid, K

    2013-06-01

    Decision-makers charged with implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) rely on scientists to predict the consequences of decisions relating to multiple, potentially conflicting, objectives. Such predictions are inherently uncertain, and this can be a barrier to decision-making. The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources requires managers of Southern Ocean fisheries to sustain the productivity of target stocks, the health and resilience of the ecosystem, and the performance of the fisheries themselves. The managers of the Antarctic krill fishery in the Scotia Sea and southern Drake Passage have requested advice on candidate management measures consisting of a regional catch limit and options for subdividing this among smaller areas. We developed a spatially resolved model that simulates krill-predator-fishery interactions and reproduces a plausible representation of past dynamics. We worked with experts and stakeholders to identify (1) key uncertainties affecting our ability to predict ecosystem state; (2) illustrative reference points that represent the management objectives; and (3) a clear and simple way of conveying our results to decision-makers. We developed four scenarios that bracket the key uncertainties and evaluated candidate management measures in each of these scenarios using multiple stochastic simulations. The model emphasizes uncertainty and simulates multiple ecosystem components relating to diverse objectives. We summarize the potentially complex results as estimates of the risk that each illustrative objective will not be achieved (i.e., of the state being outside the range specified by the reference point). This approach allows direct comparisons between objectives. It also demonstrates that a candid appraisal of uncertainty, in the form of risk estimates, can be an aid, rather than a barrier, to understanding and using ecosystem model predictions. Management measures that reduce coastal fishing, relative to oceanic fishing, apparently reduce risks to both the fishery and the ecosystem. However, alternative reference points could alter the perceived risks, so further stakeholder involvement is needed to identify risk metrics that appropriately represent their objectives. PMID:23865224

  4. Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

    2014-05-01

    Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ń over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to estimate water demand and calculate water use balance in 2015, 2021. The result of the water balance estimation shows that water consumption-use will be increased 3 times in the river basin by 2021. As the water consumption-use source, surface water - 6.4 % and groundwater is 93.6 percent. The current consumption of the mining sector is shares 71 percent of the total users; it would be 82 percent in 2021. However, the livestock water consumption-use is 27 percent of the current demand; it would be decrease up to 16 percent in 2021. Ecosystem based approach IWRM plan would be efficient to the local resident to adapt the climate change situation. Thus, the results of the research study on the river basin ecosystem services and values are the base of the planning.

  5. Elements for Building a Participatory, Ecosystem-Based Marine Reserve Network

    E-print Network

    peer-reviewed papers, gray literature reports from Belize and other Caribbean nations, remotely sensed is offered as a successful example. Key Words: Belize, ecosystem, marine reserves, participation, spawning organizations. The Government of Belize offered duty-free fuel for field expeditions. All local nongovernmental

  6. Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services. Mixed measures are expected to have cumulative benefits which are likely to outweigh disbenefits and packages of actions are recommended rather than individual or localised actions for an integrated catchment management approach. NFM measures have the potential to provide significant environmental gains, however the time lags between the moment these measures are set in place until they become effective must be considered especially in flood vulnerable communities where there is already a stakeholders demand to decrease the risk of flooding even for the current level of exposure.

  7. A comparison of community and trophic structure in five marine ecosystems based on energy budgets and system metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaichas, Sarah; Skaret, Georg; Falk-Petersen, Jannike; Link, Jason S.; Overholtz, William; Megrey, Bernard A.; Gjřsćter, Harald; Stockhausen, William T.; Dommasnes, Are; Friedland, Kevin D.; Aydin, Kerim

    2009-04-01

    Energy budget models for five marine ecosystems were compared to identify differences and similarities in trophic and community structure. We examined the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the combined Norwegian/Barents Seas in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Comparable energy budgets were constructed for each ecosystem by aggregating information for similar species groups into consistent functional groups. Several ecosystem indices (e.g., functional group production, consumption and biomass ratios, cumulative biomass, food web macrodescriptors, and network metrics) were compared for each ecosystem. The comparative approach clearly identified data gaps for each ecosystem, an important outcome of this work. Commonalities across the ecosystems included overall high primary production and energy flow at low trophic levels, high production and consumption by carnivorous zooplankton, and similar proportions of apex predator to lower trophic level biomass. Major differences included distinct biomass ratios of pelagic to demersal fish, ranging from highest in the combined Norwegian/Barents ecosystem to lowest in the Alaskan systems, and notable differences in primary production per unit area, highest in the Alaskan and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine ecosystems, and lowest in the Norwegian ecosystems. While comparing a disparate group of organisms across a wide range of marine ecosystems is challenging, this work demonstrates that standardized metrics both elucidate properties common to marine ecosystems and identify key distinctions useful for fisheries management.

  8. Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

  9. The Coastal Temperate Rainforests of Canada: The need for Ecosystem-Based Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Moola; D. Martin; B. Wareham; J. Calof; C. Burda; P. Grames

    2004-01-01

    The Central and North Coast and Haida Gwaii\\/Queen Charlotte Islands regions of British Columbia (B.C.) contain the world's largest remaining areas of intact coastal temperate rainforest. The region has been the focus of intense conflict among environmentalists, forestry companies, First Nations and other interests over the management of these high conservation value old growth forests. Recently completed land use planning

  10. Issues of ecosystem-based management of forage fisheries in “open” non-stationary ecosystems: the example of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Bakun; Elizabeth A. Babcock; Salvador E. Lluch-Cota; Christine Santora; Christian J. Salvadeo

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf of California system presents major challenges to the still developing frameworks for ecosystem-based management\\u000a (EBM). It is very much an open system and is intermittently subject to important influxes of migratory visitors, including large pelagic predatory fishes and small\\u000a pelagic forage fishes. These migrants include the more tropical species from the coastal ecosystems to the south and perhaps

  11. Data Base Design with GIS in Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management in Artvin, Turkey: A Case Study in Balc? Forest Management Planning Unit

    PubMed Central

    Yolas??maz, Hac? Ahmet; Kele?, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, the understanding of planning focused on timber production has given its place on Multiple Use Management (MUM). Because the whole infrastructure of forestry with inventory system leading the way depends on timber production, some cases of bottle neck are expected during the transition period. Database design, probably the most important stage during the transition to MUM, together with the digital basic maps making up the basis of this infrastructure constitute the main point of this article. Firstly, the forest management philosophy of Turkey in the past was shortly touched upon in the article. Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management (EBMUFM) approaches was briefly introduced. The second stage of the process of EBMUFM, database design was described by examining the classical planning infrastructure and the coverage to be produced and consumed were suggested in the form of lists. At the application stage, two different geographical databases were established with GIS in Balc? Planning Unit of the years 1984 and 2006. Following that the related basic maps are produced. Timely diversity of the planning unit of 20 years is put forward comparatively with regard to the stand parameters such as tree types, age class, development stage, canopy closure, mixture, volume and increment. PMID:22573978

  12. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Gregr; Karin M. Bodtker

    2007-01-01

    The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based

  13. Marine Planning Benefits the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

  14. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  15. Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft

    E-print Network

    Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: Spatial Hart, PhD Abstract: Informed management of marine resources often depends on knowledge of genetic. We discuss the implications of the results for the biology and management of surfclam populations

  16. Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications 

    E-print Network

    Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based energy management system for marine applications is presented. The problem of fuel-management for large diesel engines on board ship is discussed. The design of the computer hardware and software are presented including...

  17. ICM training for marine pollution prevention and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huming Yu; Chua Thia-Eng

    1998-01-01

    The GEF\\/UNDP\\/IMO Regional Programme on Marine Pollution Prevention and Management in the East Asian Seas (MPP-EAS) conducts annually a regional training course on the application of the integrated coastal management (ICM) system for addressing marine pollution problems. The training initiative is unique in that: (a) the training curriculum is tailored for strengthening environmental protection and management capacity in the developing

  18. Options for Managing Invasive Marine Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Thresher; Armand M. Kuris

    2004-01-01

    Marine biological invasions are increasingly recognised as a threat to biodiversity and coastal industry, including fisheries. Globally, efforts are underway to contain, if not eradicate, several high-impact marine invasive species. However, working in a marine environment places unique social, political and technical constraints on options for pest control, which we explored in a series of stakeholder workshops. Results suggest that

  19. Innovative Trends in Marine Management: Hawaii's Manganese Crust Work Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Wiltshire

    1984-01-01

    In spite of tight funding, Hawaii has been the location of a number of innovative ocean technologies. These have been facilitated by the coordination of university researchers, industry representatives, Federal agencies, and State officials. An excellent example of this new trend in marine management is the recently formed Joint State-Federal Manganese Crust Work Group. Funded by the U.S. Department of

  20. Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Camilo; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J.; Sumaila, Rashid U.; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J.; Worm, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

  1. BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):159160. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1091

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):159­160. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1091 159Bulletin of Marine, and ecosystem-based management. Bull mar sci. 87:213­234. doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1063 Bednarek a, cooper a in marince conservation and what to do about it. Bull mar sci. 87:177­195. doi:10.5343/bms.2010

  2. Trophic structure of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in 2000-2006: Insights on the effects of management scenarios for the hake fishery using the IBM trophic model Osmose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzloff, Martin; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Tam, Jorge; Travers, Morgane; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    The individual-based trophic model Osmose is applied to the upwelling marine ecosystem off the coast of Peru. The dynamics and life cycle of eight major species of the Peruvian marine ecosystem are explicitly considered in the model. Reference simulations provide an overview of the trophic structure of the Peruvian ecosystem during the period 2000-2006. Results of model calibration and simulations are discussed in the light of current empirical knowledge on the trophic functioning of the Peruvian ecosystem and are compared to outputs obtained recently using the trophic model Ecopath. The impacts on the ecosystem of restoration plans for the depleted hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) population are explored through two management scenarios: a) a long term reduction of fishing effort targeting hake and b) a moratorium on the hake fishery. The simulations help better understand the recent failure of a 20 month hake moratorium and provide long-term strategic support to ecosystem-based management. Limits of our approach are discussed and recommendations are detailed for future developments of the Osmose model and ecosystem approach to fishery management in the Peruvian context.

  3. 33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

  4. 33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

  5. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

  6. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4 Section...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE SYSTEM REGULATIONS General...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a) The...

  7. From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems, with case studies from temperate Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey

    Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of Ecosystem Based Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We

  8. INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT (CASE STUDY ON THE SLOVENIAN MEDITERRANEAN) CELOVITO UPRAVLJANJE OBALNEGA OBMO?JA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitja BRICELJ; Irena REJEC BRANCELJ

    A small percentage of Slovenia's surface area belongs to the Mediterranean basin, yet the undersea, marine and coastal area is an exceptionally important natural landscape. This region has an opportunity to actively integrate a relatively well conserved and biologically extremely diversified ecosystem into development planning. Ecosystem-based management is increasingly being used to establish links between the processes of integrated coastal

  9. Marine biodiversity conservation based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)—A case study in Quanzhou Bay, Fujian, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Bin; Huang Hao; Yu Weiwei; Zheng Senlin; Wang Jinkeng; Jiang Jinlong

    2009-01-01

    Marine biodiversity conservation is a common issue in the world. Due to rapid economic development in coastal area in China, marine biodiversity conservation faces great pressure. In this paper, the idea of the integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) was applied as a framework in marine biodiversity conservation. At first, the relationship between integrated coastal zone management and the marine biodiversity

  10. A fuzzy logic approach to marine spatial management.

    PubMed

    Teh, Lydia C L; Teh, Louise S L

    2011-04-01

    Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection. PMID:21359523

  11. A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Marine Spatial Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Lydia C. L.; Teh, Louise S. L.

    2011-04-01

    Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection.

  12. MANAGING MULTIPLE VECTORS for MARINE INVASIONS in an1 INCREASINGLY CONNECTED WORLD2

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    D, is a professor and benthic marine ecologist who works on the45 science and management of biological invasions 1 MANAGING MULTIPLE VECTORS for MARINE INVASIONS in an1 INCREASINGLY CONNECTED WORLD2 3 Susan L of Environmental Science and25 Policy, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.26 27 Keywords: invasive

  13. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed. PMID:23307198

  14. End-To-End Models for the Analysis of Marine Ecosystems: Challenges, Issues, and Next Steps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Rose; J. Icarus Allen; Yuri Artioli; Manuel Barange; Jerry Blackford; François Carlotti; Roger Cropp; Ute Daewel; Karen Edwards; Kevin Flynn; Simeon L. Hill; Reinier HilleRisLambers; Geir Huse; Steven Mackinson; Bernard Megrey; Andreas Moll; Richard Rivkin; Baris Salihoglu; Corinna Schrum; Lynne Shannon; Yunne-Jai Shin; S. Lan Smith; Chris Smith; Cosimo Solidoro; Michael St. John; Meng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in models of marine ecosystems that deal with the effects of climate change through the higher trophic levels. Such end-to-end models combine physicochemical oceanographic descriptors and organisms ranging from microbes to higher-trophic-level (HTL) organisms, including humans, in a single modeling framework. The demand for such approaches arises from the need for quantitative tools for ecosystem-based management,

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of Marine Ecosystem Indicator Performance Using Food Web Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jameal F. Samhouri; Phillip S. Levin; Chris J. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Successful ecosystem-based management requires the selection and use of informative indicators of ecosystem status. We analyzed\\u000a seven marine food web models to evaluate the performance of candidate indicators of ecosystem structure and function. The\\u000a basic approach involved simulating fishing perturbations to each model, measuring the response of ecosystem attributes and\\u000a candidate indicators to the perturbations, and testing the ability of

  16. Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

  17. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  18. An Integrated Data Management System for Marine Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chayes, D. N.; Ryan, W. B.; Haxby, W. F.; Lehnert, K. A.; O'Hara, S.

    2004-12-01

    The National Science Foundation is currently supporting dedicated databases for the Ridge 2000, MARGINS, and U.S. Antarctic Programs. We are developing an integrated Marine Geoscience Data Management System (MG-DMS; www.marine-geo.org) which supports the full range of data types for all of these programs. Construction of a single system allows us to consolidate our hardware, software, and system administration infrastructure; work more efficiently; and focus greater resources on developing a unified metadata schema, controlled vocabularies, and interoperability with other databases. We have developed a Web-based client which offers forms-based search and download capability, and a JavaTM application (GeoMapApp; www.geomapapp.org) which offers map-based exploration of multiple data sets and the capability to create custom grids and images. The MG-DMS supports data from a wide variety of disciplines (biological, geological, and physical/chemical oceanographic); types (both physical samples and sensor data); spatial and temporal resolutions; and processing grades (from raw field data through derived products). Metadata records and controlled vocabularies are maintained locally in a central catalog, while the data files themselves are referenced as URLs and may reside in any partner repository. Our hierarchical metadata schema consists of Entries (typically a cruise, flight, or traverse); Dives (deployments of a daughter platform); Lines (survey transects); Stations (discrete survey locations, typically where physical samples are collected); Parameters (data types); and Arbitrary Digital Objects (data files). We are also developing a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-based authentication system for proprietary data access and user profile management. We are pursuing data interoperability with partner repositories including the Ocean Floor Petrology Database (PetDB) at LDEO, Seismic Processed Data Center (SDC) at UTIG, Ocean Drilling Program Database (Janus) at TAMU, National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) at WHOI, Geological Data Center (GDC) at SIO, and National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Levels of interoperability range from URL referencing of remote data files (basic) to exchange of XML metadata records (intermediate) to Web Feature and Coverage Services (advanced).

  19. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Bodtker, Karin M.

    2007-03-01

    The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based management. We present an adaptive ecosystem classification that begins to address these challenges. To demonstrate the approach, we quantitatively bounded distinct, biologically meaningful marine regions in the North Pacific Ocean based on physical oceanography. We identified the regions by applying image classification algorithms to a comprehensive description of the ocean's surface, derived from an oceanographic circulation model. Our resulting maps illustrate 15 distinct marine regions. The size and location of these regions related well to previously described water masses in the North Pacific. We investigated seasonal and long-term changes in the pattern of regions and their boundaries by dividing the oceanographic data into four seasons and two 10-year time periods, one on either side of the 1976-1977 North Pacific Ocean climate regime shift. We compared our results for each season across the regime shift and for sequential seasons within regimes using the Kappa Index of Agreement and the index of Average Mutual Information. Seasonal patterns were more similar between regimes than from one season to the next within a regime, while the magnitude of seasonal transitions appeared to differ before and after the regime shift. We assessed the biological relevance of the identified regions using seasonal maps derived from remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentrations ([chl-a]). We used Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to evaluate the correspondence between the [chl-a] maps and our post-regime shift regions. There was a significant difference in [chl-a] among the regions in all seasons. We found that the number of regions with distinct chlorophyll signatures, and the associations between different regions, varied by season. The overall pattern of association between the regions was suggestive of observed, broad-scale patterns in the seasonal development and distribution of primary production in the North Pacific. This demonstrated that regions with different biological properties can be delineated using only physical variables. The flexibility of our approach will enable researchers to visualize the geographic extents of regions with similar physical conditions, providing insight into ocean dynamics and changes in marine ecosystems. It will also provide resource managers with a powerful tool for broad application in ecosystem-based management and conservation of marine resources.

  20. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2009-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

  1. Ecosystem-Based Management in the Whitebark Pine Zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart

    Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating white- bark pine forests. Preliminary results indicate these restoration treatments are successfully restoring the fire processes at a small scale,

  2. Marine Strategy 20142019 1 Marine Strategy 20142019

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    as marine reserve management, air-sea rescue, fisheries management, marine transport, naval defence, coastal the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization, the Convention on International Civil Aviation

  3. An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

    2003-10-14

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.

  4. Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications

    E-print Network

    Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

    1982-01-01

    the practical constraints and specifications. The design criterion used to create hardware suitable for the marine environment is discussed. The various specifications for computer hardware, software, sensors, and various measurement devices are presented...

  5. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through…

  6. A hierarchical framework for classifying seabed biodiversity with application to planning and managing Australia’s marine biological resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Last; Vincent D. Lyne; Alan Williams; Campbell R. Davies; Alan J. Butler; Gordon K. Yearsley

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual hierarchical framework for classifying marine biodiversity on the sea floor, used successfully for continental-scale bioregionalisation and adopted to guide marine resource planning and management in Australia, has wider application at a global scale. It differs from existing schemes for classifying marine biota by explicitly recognizing the overarching influence of large-scale biodiversity patterns at realm (ocean basin and tectonic),

  7. Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

    2014-09-15

    The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

  8. A Bioeconomic Analysis of Marine Reserves for Paua (Abalone) Management at Stewart Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktoria Kahui; William Robert James Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Traditional fisheries management relies on the imposition of gear and\\/or effort restrictions. In spite of much experience\\u000a with such techniques, the danger of fishery collapse is ever present. Biologists have advocated an alternative strategy, the\\u000a establishment of marine reserves. However, it is possible that the benefits of marine reserve creation can be overstated if\\u000a economic behaviour is ignored. In spite

  9. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P

    2014-01-01

    In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

  10. Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

    2014-01-01

    In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

  11. New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

    2009-01-01

    Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

  12. Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair Birtles; Peter Valentine; Michael Cuthill

    1997-01-01

    The whale shark is the largest fish in the ocean. A tourism industry based on interacting with whale sharks has developed recently in Ningaloo Marine Park, off the coast of Western Australia. This is the only known, accessible place in the world where whale sharks congregate in significant numbers. Results from surveys of participants in the ‘whale shark experience’ are

  13. Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis W. Botsford; Daniel R. Brumbaugh; Churchill Grimes; Julie B. Kellner; John Largier; Michael R. O’Farrell; Stephen Ralston; Elaine Soulanille; Vidar Wespestad

    2009-01-01

    A substantial shift toward use of marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation and fisheries management is currently underway.\\u000a This shift to explicit spatial management presents new challenges and uncertainties for ecologists and resource managers.\\u000a In particular, the potential for MPAs to change population sustainability, fishery yield, and ecosystem properties depends\\u000a on the poorly understood consequences of three critical forms of

  14. Marine governance in the English Channel (La Manche): Linking science and management.

    PubMed

    Glegg, G; Jefferson, R; Fletcher, S

    2015-06-30

    The English Channel is one of the world's busiest sea areas with intense shipping and port activity juxtaposed with recreation, communications and important conservation areas. Opportunities for marine renewable energy vie with existing activities for space. The current governance of the English Channel is reviewed and found to lack integration between countries, sectors, legislation and scientific research. Recent developments within the EU's marine management frameworks are significantly altering our approach to marine governance and this paper explores the implications of these new approaches to management of the English Channel. Existing mechanisms for cross-Channel science and potential benefits of an English Channel scale perspective are considered. In conclusion, current management practices are considered against the 12 Malawi Principles of the ecosystem approach resulting in proposals for enhancing governance of the region through science at the scale of the English Channel. PMID:25819447

  15. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is complying with all relevant legislation and policies. Further research is required to confirm compliance and conclude that military activities have good accord with environmental management objectives.

  16. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Assess the Status of a Mediterranean Ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica Seagrass Meadow

    PubMed Central

    Personnic, Sébastien; Boudouresque, Charles F.; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jérémy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

  17. An ecosystem-based approach to assess the status of a Mediterranean ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Sébastien; Boudouresque, Charles F; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jérémy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

  18. SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. • SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. • European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. • Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

  19. On ecosystem-based regions in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojaveer, Evald; Kalejs, Margers

    2008-11-01

    Maintenance of diversity of life in the sea and supporting sustainable use of marine resources require an ecosystem approach. The principles of differentiation of large geographical units on the ecosystem basis that could be applied in research and for the assessment and management of ecosystems and resources in the Baltic Sea have not been satisfactorily formulated up to now. Long-term data series collected by the authors and literature sources were used to subdivide the Baltic Sea into regional ecosystem units. Ten regions (Kattegat, Belts and the Sound, Arkona, Southwest, Eastern and Northwest of the Baltic Proper, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Finland, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay) were differentiated, some of them including sub-regions. They were grouped into three macroregions (the Transition Area, Baltic Proper and Large Gulfs). Hydrodynamic and geomorphological characters and the areas of local populations of organisms developed as a result of adaptation of species to their habitats constituted the main basis of the division. Circular cyclonic density-dependent currents in the deeps facilitate levelling of the conditions and integrate ecosystems in the regions. They are also responsible for the establishment of the regional depots of nutrients. The nutrients for the biological production are supplied mainly via the zones of intense vertical mixing (high-energy zones) to the euphotic layer. The regions differ in essential environmental conditions. In the process of adaptation to their habitats fishes (herring Clupea harengus membras, sprat Sprattus sprattus balticus, cod Gadus morhua callarias, flounder Platichthys flesus trachurus etc.) and other organisms have developed infraspecific units. The ecosystems and infraspecific units of exploited species should be assessed and managed separately if their vital parameters significantly differ from one another.

  20. LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    LIFE HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE FISHES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PETER B. ADAMS1 ABSTRACT Natural selection operates at the life history level to maximize the number ofsurviving offspring. Life history characteristics will vary in consistent patterns to meet this constraint. When

  1. MARINE TURTLE POPULATIONS OF PULAU REDANG : THEIR STATUS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    MARINE TURTLE POPULATIONS OF PULAU REDANG : THEIR STATUS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT By JEANNE A . MORTIMER A Report Submitted to the Turtle Sanctuary Advisory Council of Terengganu Produced EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 5 SECTION 1 . INTRODUCTION 6 1 .1 Importance of the Island as Turtle

  2. Interactions between poaching and management policy affect marine reserves as conservation tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh A. Sethi; Ray Hilborn

    2008-01-01

    To explore the effects of poaching within marine reserve boundaries under three different management policies this analysis uses a simple age-structured reserve model based on yield maximization or reproductive thresholds of Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Departures from the traditional assumptions of full compliance to reserve boundaries alter the conclusions of prior modeling work that demonstrate yield equivalence to no-reserve effort

  3. ?Ocean biodiversity informatics?: a new era in marine biology research and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Costello; Edward Vanden Berghe

    2006-01-01

    Ocean biodiversity informatics (OBI) is the use of computer technologies to manage marine biodiversity information, including data capture, storage, search, retrieval, visualisation, mapping, modelling, analysis and publication. The latest information systems are open-access, making data and\\/or information publicly available over the Internet. This ranges from primary data on species occurrences, such as in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), to

  4. A Coastal and Marine National Park for Scotland in partnership with Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selina M. Stead; Derek J. McGlashan

    2006-01-01

    Potential benefits and constraints of a Coastal and Marine National Park (CMNP) for the entire Scottish coastline have yet to be fully debated. This paper recommends using Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) as a process to develop a CMNP. Converting the principles of ICZM into practice could be strengthened using the National Parks (Scotland) Act 2000. This Act provides the

  5. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loďc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. PMID:25704365

  6. Trade-offs between conservation and socio-economic objectives in managing a tropical marine ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. L. Cheung; U. Rashid Sumaila

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the trade-off relationships between ecological, economic and social objectives is important in designing policies to manage or restore ecosystems. Using the northern South China Sea (NSCS) as a case study, we explore the trade-offs between conservation and socio-economic objectives in managing fisheries in tropical marine ecosystems. Using a numerical optimization routine and ecosystem modelling (Ecopath with Ecosim), the study

  7. SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

    2007-12-01

    SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

  8. 76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...OSHA-2011-0066] Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management...Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917). The collection...transporting vertically coupled containers in a terminal. DATES: Comments must be...

  9. An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

    2015-02-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. PMID:25461028

  10. Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontecorvo, Guilio

    In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

  11. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  12. Muddy waters: Conservation discourse and the politics of power in marine park co-management in Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara C Goetze

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the complex local---national---global power dynamics that are a part of marine protected area (MPA) co-management in Belize, using Friends of Nature (FON) a local NGO that manages two MPAs along the southern coast, as an example. The first part of the thesis consists of a description and evaluation of marine conservation in Belize and the Friends of

  13. THE RENAISSANCE OF COMMUNITY-BASED MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN OCEANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Johannes

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Twenty-five years ago, the centuries-old Pacific Island practice of community-based marine resource management (CBMRM) was in decline, the vic- tim of various impacts of westernization. During the past two decades, however, this decline has reversed in various island countries. Today CBMRM continues to grow, refuting the claim that traditional non-Western attitudes toward nature cannot provide a sound foundation

  14. Management of marine construction works using ecological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, H. K.; Jensen, K.; Lyngby, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    A system of bridges and tunnels between Denmark and Sweden is being constructed. The environmental management of the dredging and reclamation work includes planning using a mathematical model which can forecast the effect of different spill scenarios in order to minimize adverse effects on eelgrass beds. To develop the model, plots of eelgrass beds (4 m 2) were covered with nets excluding 30, 60 and 90% of the light. Shoot density, leaf and root/rhizome biomass, and soluble carbohydrates in roots and rhizomes were observed in order to determine the response of the plants to shading. In selected plots, all aboveground biomass was harvested to assess the re-growth potential. The minimum level of soluble carbohydrates necessary for securing re-growth was 60-90 mg g -1. The inclusion of the subsediment parts of the eelgrass permits model runs beyond one growth season, and the prediction of re-growth after subsequent shading and winter dormancy. The model has been satisfyingly calibrated and validated. A feedback monitoring system has been developed based on field studies of eelgrass variables, a set of pre-fixed environmental criteria and forecasting of the effects of the construction works. The system facilitates planning and management of the dredging and reclamation operations, and mitigating actions during the progression of the work.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of ecosystem based on remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandlerskiy, Robert; Puzachenko, Yurii

    2010-05-01

    key words: ecosystem thermodynamic, energy balance, exergy, Transformation of matter and energy in plant associations and their relationship with other parts of the ecosystem are being determined by the physiological processes in plants. Accordingly, to identify general patterns of ecosystem energy transformation, assessment of an energy balance components reflecting the nature of physiological processes: photosynthesis, transpiration (of which carbon balance is evaluated), water and minerals exchange, is required. Assessment of the main energy variables for ecosystems is possible on the basis of information-thermodynamic approach in which the ecosystem - is an open system, producing yield for self-maintenance on its structure through the conversion of solar energy. In doing so, the distribution of energy absorbed by balance components depends on the structure of the system that determines the nonequilibrium energy conversion. In the information-thermodynamic approach essential component in the transformation of solar energy is exergy - the maximum work that a thermodynamic system may commit during its transition from the current state to the state of equilibrium with the environment. Exergy sometimes called system yield, it is the function of the distance between the current state of the system and thermodynamic equilibrium. Relating to ecosystems, exergy - part of absorbed solar energy, spend on biological productivity and evapotranspiration (exergy of solar radiation). The rest goes into the bound energy - energy transition in the heat flow and entropy, and in increment of internal energy - system energy accumulation wich in its turn spend on maintenance of intercomponent and interspecific interactions, local cycles. Get estimation of energy balance for the entire set of ecosystems based on ground-based measurements is virtually impossible. Such assessments are possible on the basis of remote sensing data, which show the energetic state of the Earth's surface at the time of shooting in different spectral bands. Satellite measurements of reflected solar energy in relation to the solar constant allow the calculation of solar radiation absorbed per unit surface. Heat channel allows to calculate the heat flow from the surface and its temperature. The development of remote sensing and instrument base allows to measure a wide range of ecosystems characteristics: measurements are preformed directly in the field on transects with the regular testing step, and through remote sensing and digital models of different relief. Ultimately, the combination of complex ground and remote measurements in the study of energy balance should promote understanding of the interaction mechanism between relief, soil, vegetation and atmosphere at various hierarchical levels of the landscape cover and create a basis for the development of models describing mesoclimate, as a result of landscape functioning and self-evolution.

  16. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G

    2014-06-15

    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. PMID:24768172

  17. Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2013-04-01

    An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

  18. Ecosystemic zonification as a management tool for marine protected areas in the coastal zone: Applications for the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Park, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ortiz-Lozano; A. Granados-Barba; I. Espejel

    2009-01-01

    Protected marine areas management depends mainly on the zonification schemes applied. The aim of the present work is to propose a zonification scheme for protected marine areas in the coastal zone, based on the ecosystem features. This ecosystemic zonification is based on structural and functional elements of marine ecosystems, and allows the incorporation of the main environmental characteristics into the

  19. Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review.

    PubMed

    Naser, Humood A

    2013-07-15

    The Arabian Gulf is considered among the highest anthropogenically impacted regions in the world. Heavy metals contamination in coastal and marine environments is becoming an increasingly serious threat to both the naturally stressed marine ecosystems and humans that rely on marine resources for food, industry and recreation. Heavy metals are introduced to coastal and marine environments through a variety of sources and activities including sewage and industrial effluents, brine discharges, coastal modifications and oil pollution. The present paper reviews heavy metal contamination in a variety of marine organisms, and sediments, and suggests measures for environmental management of heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. Most of the reviewed literature confirmed that heavy metal concentrations in marine organisms were generally within allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health. Likewise, studies suggested that levels of heavy metals in marine sediments are similar or lower compared to other regions. However, localized hotspots of chronic metal pollution in areas influenced by industrial facilities, desalination plants, and oil refineries have been reported. Holistic spatial and temporal monitoring and comprehensive national and regional strategies are critical to combat and manage heavy metal pollution in the Arabian Gulf. PMID:23711845

  20. Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60–99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems. PMID:24324585

  1. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    of marine ecosystems to further impacts from climate change.of marine ecosystems in the face of climate change impacts.Climate change Á Coral reef ecosystems Introduction Human impacts have degraded marine ecosystems

  2. 77 FR 24990 - Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...Docket No. OSHA-2012-0016] Marine Terminals and Longshoring Standards; Extension...contained in the Standards on Marine Terminals (29 CFR part 1917) and Longshoring...C. 657). The Standards on Marine Terminals and Longshoring contain a number of...

  3. KDMI Interdisciplinary Data Management for Marine Sciences at Kiel University, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirnick, C.; Fleischer, D.; Mehrtens, H.; Springer, P.

    2009-12-01

    Three large scale projects Cluster of Excellence - 'The Future Ocean', SFB574 - 'Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones', SFB754 - 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' and the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences IFM-GEOMAR seek for a joined data management infrastructure for Kiel marine sciences with approximately 1000 researchers from various scientific disciplines. The Kiel Data Management Infrastructure (KDMI) emerges from this large interdisciplinary community, but its concept focusses on the individual scientist and its work. This individual data management approach instead of the classic project based practice avoids redundancy in data management efforts and facilitates interdisciplinary collaboration. The web-based KDMI portal is a starting point of a virtual research platform as an efficient access for all users of the centralized data management. It integrates customized personal and project communities and provides web 2.0 enabled technologies like calendars, wikis and forums supporting daily project activities. Incorporation of essential project infrastructure with a data management system emphasizes data management as part of daily scientific routines instead of different downstream operations per project. Extracting the similarities in observational sciences leads to a process oriented data management approach. Treating the emergence of data even of completely different disciplines like field observations and experimental sciences as a process allows us to store the data in a single consistent data model. The quality of data and meta data is crucial to reusability in future projects. Accordingly the KDMI approach includes peer revision as a quality assurance step within a scientific workflow definition. Utilizing a community working platform for daily scientific work results in increasing efforts put into quality assurance of data and metadata (e.g. CARINA project). Recording the data creation process itself instead of literature references is a novelty in the field of scientific documentation and a possibility to provide complete information for a future quality reassessment. This process fosters the reuse of KDMI datasets. The infrastructure of World Data Centers (WDC) and their cooperation with the Open Archive Initiative (OAI) is the aspired final publication platform for the KDMI data. An essential issue of the KDMI concept is the publication of data in a WDC either as supplement of peer reviewed journal articles or as dataset publication on their own warranting access to the data for the global scientific community.

  4. Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

  5. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen

    2015-04-01

    Marine research is rapidly moving away from traditional discipline specific science to a wider ecosystem level approach. This more multidisciplinary approach to ocean science requires large amounts of good quality, interoperable data to be readily available for use in an increasing range of new and complex applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are already available throughout the world as a result of e-infrastructures being established at a regional level to manage and deliver marine data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. Establishing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale necessitates that there is interoperability across these existing data infrastructures and active collaboration between the organisations responsible for their management. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project is promoting co-ordination between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures including SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach the ODIP project partners are currently working together to develop several prototypes to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities between the individual regional marine data infrastructures. However, many of the issues being addressed by the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform are not specific to marine science. For this reason many of the outcomes of this international collaborative effort are equally relevant and transferable to other domains.

  6. Use of population viability analysis to evaluate CITES trade-management options for threatened marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Janelle M R; Vincent, Amanda C J

    2008-10-01

    Achieving multiple conservation objectives can be challenging, particularly under high uncertainty. Having agreed to limit seahorse (Hippocampus) exports to sustainable levels, signatories to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) were offered the option of a single 10-cm minimum size limit (MSL) as an interim management measure for all Hippocampus species (> or =34). Although diverse stakeholders supported the recommended MSL, its biological and socioeconomic implications were not assessed quantitatively. We combined population viability analysis, model sensitivity analysis, and economic information to evaluate the trade-off between conservation threat to and long-term cumulative income from these exploited marine fishes of high conservation concern. We used the European long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) as a representative species to compare the performance of MSLs set at alternative biological reference points. Our sensitivity analyses showed that in most of our scenarios, setting the MSL just above size at maturity (9.7 cm in H. guttulatus) would not prevent exploited populations from becoming listed as vulnerable. By contrast, the relative risk of decline and extinction were almost halved--at a cost of only a 5.6% reduction in long-term catches--by increasing the MSL to the size reached after at least one full reproductive season. On the basis of our analysis, a precautionary increase in the MSL could be compatible with sustaining fishers' livelihoods and international trade. Such management tactics that aid species conservation and have minimal effects on long term catch trends may help bolster the case for CITES trade management of other valuable marine fishes. PMID:18680503

  7. Marine Data Management within the EMODNet Chemistry project: data aggregation, quality control and products preparation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona, Athanasia Sissy; Karagevrekis, Pelopidas; Balopoulou, Stavroula; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    The European Commission in response to the EU Green Paper for an integrated maritime policy has initiated the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to improve Europe's marine data infrastructure, increase the availability of high quality data and assemble them under a common framework. In 2009, six service contracts were launched by DG-MARE for creating the pilot components of the network and setting up thematic web portals covering selected marine basins. In 2012, a second call was opened by DG-MARE to continue the further expand the pilot portals in terms of geographical coverage and range of products and concluded in seven service contracts for: bathymetry, geology, physical habitats, chemistry, biology, physics and human activities. Supporting activities are also foreseen to examine how the portals meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists, to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. The second EMODNet Chemistry proposal has been prepared and submitted by the SeaDataNet consortium which is the leading data management network in Europe, covering all sea basins in European waters with data input from almost all coastal states. It is the same consortium that had been awarded the first call for the preparatory actions and has been extended with new partners. EMODnet Chemistry (www.emodnet-chemistry.eu/) is focusing on measurement data for groups of chemical variables in water, sediments and biota with relevance to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Five regional groups corresponding to the five MSFD regions are performing quality control and aggregation on the data gathered from many distributed data providers of the SeaDataNet infrastructure in order to generate regional harmonized, aggregated and validated data sets for selected groups of chemicals variables. Then these data sets are used to prepare interpolated maps of chemical variables per region over time and graphics of station time series. Quality control and quality assurance guidelines have been created and followed by all regional groups in order to ensure that the data and their derived products are of uniform quality and reliability. The Hellenic National Oceanographic Data Centre (HNODC) is the Regional Coordinator for the Mediterranean Sea products preparation. During the first one and a half year of the project, almost 90000 chemical datasets covering the four Mediterranean MSFD regions were harvested, processed, quality controlled, validated and analyzed. In this presentation, the work carried out by HNODC and the first data products will be described.

  8. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): Developing a Common Framework for Marine Data Management on a Global Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, H. M.; Schaap, D.

    2014-12-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as Geo-Seas and SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and IMOS in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these regional initiatives has been developed to address their own requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale these is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives.Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  9. Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae to Global Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; van Belzen, Jim; van Dalen, Jeroen; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations) can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines) to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature), which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata) along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats. PMID:25807516

  10. Management of local stressors can improve the resilience of marine canopy algae to global stressors.

    PubMed

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; van Belzen, Jim; van Dalen, Jeroen; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Airoldi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations) can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines) to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature), which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata) along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats. PMID:25807516

  11. 33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Inspections § 140.101 Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or...

  12. Rapid warming of Large Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.

    2009-04-01

    The need to understand local effects of global climate change is most urgent in the Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) since marine ecosystem-based management requires information on the LME scale. Reported here is a study of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the World Ocean LMEs in 1957-2006 that revealed strong regional variations in the rate of SST change. The rapid warming in 1982-2006 was confined to the Subarctic Gyre, European Seas, and East Asian Seas. These LMEs warmed at rates 2-4 times the global mean rate. The most rapid warming was observed in the land-locked or semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas (Baltic Sea, North Sea, Black Sea, Japan Sea/East Sea, and East China Sea) and also over the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf. The Indian Ocean LMEs’ warming was slow, while two major upwelling areas - California and Humboldt Currents - experienced a slight cooling. The Subarctic Gyre warming was likely caused by natural variability related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The extremely rapid surface warming in the enclosed and semi-enclosed European and East Asian Seas surrounded by major industrial/population agglomerations may have resulted from the observed terrestrial warming directly affecting the adjacent coastal seas. Regions of freshwater influence in the European and East Asian Seas seem to play a special role in modulating and exacerbating global warming effects on the regional scale.

  13. Marine Stingers: Review of an Under-Recognized Global Coastal Management Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa-Ann Gershwin; Monica De Nardi; Kenneth D. Winkel; Peter J. Fenner

    2010-01-01

    Dangerous marine stingers (jellyfish) are an emotive issue in tropical Australia, where they are widely regarded as the number one marine health threat. However, numerous severe and fatal stings have been reported throughout the tropical and temperate seas of the world, indicating that marine stingers are a global health problem. Further, life-threatening jellyfish stings are more frequently reported globally now

  14. The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

  15. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, M.; Baglee, D.

    2012-05-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

  16. Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

  17. Achieving a paradigm shift in environmental and living resources management in the Gulf of Guinea: the large marine ecosystem approach.

    PubMed

    Ukwe, C N; Ibe, C A; Alo, B I; Yumkella, K K

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea is situated in the narrow protrusion of eastern Equatorial Atlantic between latitudes 2 degrees S and 5 degrees N and longitudes 8 degrees W to 12 degrees E, spanning a coastline length of approximately 130 nautical miles. The dominant feature of this shallow ocean off the coast of countries in Western Africa is the Guinea Current. The distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophodynamics of this shallow ocean qualify it as a large marine ecosystem (LME) and is indeed recognized as the number 28 of the 64 delineated LMEs globally. This area is one of the world's productive marine areas that is rich in fishery resources, oil and gas reserves, precious minerals and an important global reservoir of marine biological diversity. Unfortunately, pollution from residential and industrial sources has affected the waters of the Gulf of Guinea resulting in habitat degradation, loss of biological diversity and productivity, and degenerating human health. In reversing this trend of marine environmental degradation, the countries of the region adopted an integrated and holistic approach using the LME concept to sustainably manage the environmental and living resources of the region. The concept is predicated on the fact that marine environmental pollution and living resources respect no political or geographical boundaries and so require a holistic and regional approach for its management. The Gulf of Guinea countries through the Global Environment facility funded regional/communal project on water pollution control and biodiversity conservation achieved a paradigm shift in living resources and environmental management in the region using the LME concept. PMID:12787623

  18. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common framework for marine data management on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    As marine research becomes increasingly multidisciplinary in its approach there has been a corresponding rise in the demand for large quantities of high quality interoperable data. A number of regional initiatives are already addressing this requirement through the establishment of e-infrastructures to improve the discovery and access of marine data. Projects such as SeaDataNet in Europe, Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) in Australia have implemented local infrastructures to facilitate the exchange of standardised marine datasets. However, each of these systems has been developed to address local requirements and created in isolation from those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale there is a need to develop interoperability solutions that can be implemented across these initiatives. Through a series of workshops attended by the relevant domain specialists, the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) project has identified areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures and used these as the foundation for the development of three prototype interoperability solutions addressing: 1. the use of brokering services for the purposes of providing access to the data available in the regional data discovery and access services including via the GEOSS portal 2. the development of interoperability between cruise summary reporting systems in Europe, the USA and Australia for routine harvesting of cruise data for delivery via the Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO) portal 3. the establishment of a Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for selected sensors installed on vessels and in real-time monitoring systems using sensor web enablement (SWE) These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common global approach to the management of marine data which can be promoted to the wider marine research community. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia but which is seeking to expand this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures.

  19. Baltic Sea management: Successes and failures.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, Ragnar; Blenckner, Thorsten; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Severe environmental problems documented in the Baltic Sea in the 1960s led to the 1974 creation of the Helsinki Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area. We introduce this special issue by briefly summarizing successes and failures of Baltic environmental management in the following 40 years. The loads of many polluting substances have been greatly reduced, but legacy pollution slows recovery. Top predator populations have recovered, and human exposure to potential toxins has been reduced. The cod stock has partially recovered. Nutrient loads are decreasing, but deep-water anoxia and cyanobacterial blooms remain extensive, and climate change threatens the advances made. Ecosystem-based management is the agreed principle, but in practice the various environmental problems are still handled separately, since we still lack both basic ecological knowledge and appropriate governance structures for managing them together, in a true ecosystem approach. PMID:26022317

  20. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Caihong; Large, Scott; Knight, Ben; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bundy, Alida; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Boldt, Jennifer; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Torres, Maria A.; Sobrino, Ignacio; Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Piroddi, Chiara; Diallo, Ibrahima; Jouffre, Didier; Mendes, Hugo; Borges, Maria Fatima; Lynam, Christopher P.; Coll, Marta; Shannon, Lynne J.; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisheries independent survey data (survey-based) for 12 marine ecosystems using a partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM). We linked these ecological indicators to the total biomass of the ecosystem. Although the effects of exploitation and environmental conditions differed across the ecosystems, some general results can be drawn from the comparative approach. Interestingly, the PLS-PM analyses showed that survey-based indicators were less tightly associated with each other than the catch-based ones. The analyses also showed that the effects of environmental conditions on the ecological indicators were predominantly significant, and tended to be negative, suggesting that in the recent period, indicators accounted for changes in environmental conditions and the changes were more likely to be adverse. Total biomass was associated with fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions; however its association with the ecological indicators was weak across the ecosystems. Knowledge of the relative influence of exploitation and environmental pressures on the dynamics within exploited ecosystems will help us to move towards ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PLS-PM proved to be a useful approach to quantify the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions and suggest it could be used more widely in fisheries oceanography.

  1. CURRICULUM VITAE Starting August 2013: Current address

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    (Territorial User Rights Fisheries; TURFs). Marine Ecosystem Management - Evaluation and design of optimal Management of Coastal Marine Ecosystems MAIN RESEARCH INTERESTS Spatial Marine Ecology - Larval dispersal objectives. - Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) of marine ecosystem services. - Marine Spatial Planning (MSP

  2. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  3. Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment process

    E-print Network

    Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment: Ecosystem-based management Integrated ecosystem assessment Public policy process Ocean resource management and developed appropriate modeling tools in support of an ecosystem-based approach to natural resource manage

  4. The northeast US application of ATLANTIS: A full system model exploring marine ecosystem dynamics in a living marine resource management context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason S. Link; Elizabeth A. Fulton; Robert J. Gamble

    2010-01-01

    Understanding marine ecosystem dynamics is a key challenge and opportunity facing us. One of the ways we can continue to unravel and understand marine ecosystem dynamics is via ecosystem modeling. We used one such model, ATLANTIS, to help explore the dynamics of the Northeast United States (NEUS) Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). We have parameterized ATLANTIS for the NEUS

  5. Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me?

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me? If you have an interest in learning about life in the sea then Marine Biology may be a good option for you. You will need good time management skills a marine biology degree are wide-ranging and provide a good basis for employment in almost any sector

  6. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  7. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study.

    PubMed

    Robards, Martin D; Burns, John J; Meek, Chanda L; Watson, Annette

    2009-10-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in the MMPA, particularly when the Arctic environment is rapidly changing. We describe the MMPA's ecosystem-based management goals, and why managers have bypassed these goals in favor of an approach that depends upon numerical population assessment. We then revisit the statute's primary goals in light of current knowledge about the Pacific walrus ecosystem and new developments in environmental governance. We argue that to monitor and respond to changes in the walrus ecosystem, decision rules should be based on scientific criteria that depend less on the currently-impractical goal of accurately enumerating population size and trends, or removals from that population. Rather, managers should base decisions on ecological needs and observed ecological changes. To implement this approach would require an amendment to the MMPA that supports filling the gap in management with achievable decision rules. Alternatively, walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds will remain largely unmanaged during a period of profound environmental change. PMID:19783356

  8. Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): supporting the development of a common global framework for marine data management through international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaves, Helen; Schaap, Dick; Arko, Robert; Proctor, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of those in other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports an ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. The Ocean Data Interoperability (ODIP) project is creating a co-ordination platform to support collaboration between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and also the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts are coming together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first two ODIP workshops. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential interoperability solutions have been identified and work has now begun to implement these solutions within three prototype development tasks which will be outlined as part of this presentation. ODIP is a community led project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies in each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from six European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 (FP7) programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

  9. 76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ...outlet channel management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment...

  10. 77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

  11. 76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

  12. 78 FR 14985 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment operators...to estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and...

  13. 77 FR 15722 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment operators...to estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and...

  14. 78 FR 23746 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

  15. Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Engeman; R. Erik Martin; Bernice Constantin; Ryan Noel; John Woolard

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental conservation focus for Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge (HSNWR), Florida is to provide protected nesting habitat for three threatened or endangered marine turtle species. Turtle nesting and hatching spans from early spring to fall each year. Left unchecked, nest predation by raccoons and armadillos would destroy most turtle nests. Predators are removed to protect nests, primarily with a

  16. Scientific Evaluation in Women's Participatory Management: Monitoring Marine Invertebrate Refugia in the Solomon Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar Aswani; Pam Weiant

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a women's community-based marine protected area that has been successful in sustaining invertebrate biological resources and in promoting strong community support. We outline the project and the associated biological results, describe the processes involved in attaining a committed level of community participation, and review the lessons learned during the project's implementation. We attribute the

  17. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Knowles; D Baglee

    2012-01-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for

  18. An evaluation of a management saga: The Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. D. Hughey

    2000-01-01

    The Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary, Canterbury, New Zealand, was established in 1988 to protect the Hector's dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori from accidental entanglement in set nets (gill nets). Sanctuary establishment was strongly supported by environmental groups but has continued to be strongly opposed by both commercial and recreational fishers. This paper evaluates the issues surrounding sanctuary establishment, the process of

  19. Traditional community-based coastal marine fisheries management in Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Ruddle

    1998-01-01

    Despite more than a century of colonial occupation, radical political and administrative change, and more recent motorization of fleets and gear introductions, there remains in Viet Nam a still functioning tradition of local stakeholder organizations (van chai) by which marine fishing communities historically regulated the fishery and ensured mutual assistance for their membership. Such systems remain strong in many coastal

  20. Marine and terrestrial protected areas in Mexico: Importance of their functional connectivity in conservation management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ortiz-Lozano; A. L. Gutiérrez-Velázquez; A. Granados-Barba

    2009-01-01

    In coastal zones, natural protected areas have been created without considering the relationship between the two environments they involve. This is currently a crucial challenge for conservation efforts, because the protection initiatives taken in coastal watersheds need to be integrated with the marine component. With the aim of contributing to increase the knowledge in this issue, the present work analyzes

  1. Engagement in co-management of marine benthic resources influences environmental perceptions of artisanal fishers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN G ELCICH

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The perceptions of resource users towards any conservation policy can be a major determinant of its success. While co-management policy can enhance the management of fisheries, to date there have been few reports concerning how engagement in co-management regimes may affect fishers' perceptions. This paper assesses the determinants of fishers' environmental perceptions within a co- management regime in Chile.

  2. EXPERIENCE WITH COASTAL AND MARINE PROTECTED AREA PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan T. White; Albert Salamanca; Catherine A. Courtney

    1. Perspective on coastal management in the Philippines Coastal management has been practiced in the Philippines over the last two decades to try to stem the increasing tide of destruction to coastal habitats and the decline of fisheries. Unfortunately, after 20 years of practice, coastal resources continue to decline and deteriorate at alarming rates. While numerous experiments in coastal management

  3. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  4. A review of marine mammal, sea turtle and seabird bycatch in USA fisheries and the role of policy in shaping management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey E. Moore; Bryan P. Wallace; Rebecca L. Lewison; Ramúnas Žydelis; Tara M. Cox; Larry B. Crowder

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the available information (observer programs, estimates, statutes, regulations) for bycatch of marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds in fisheries of the United States. Goals of the review were to evaluate the state of knowledge of bycatch and the role of existing protective legislation in shaping bycatch management for different taxa. Pressing issues are identified, as well as

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  6. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina A. D. Semeniuk; Ben Speers-Roesch; Kristina D. Rothley

    2007-01-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although\\u000a management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed\\u000a free-ranging Southern Stingrays (Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease

  7. Quantifying Patterns of Change in Marine Ecosystem Response to Multiple Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Large, Scott I.; Fay, Gavin; Friedland, Kevin D.; Link, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to understand and ultimately predict ecosystem response to multiple pressures is paramount to successfully implement ecosystem-based management. Thresholds shifts and nonlinear patterns in ecosystem responses can be used to determine reference points that identify levels of a pressure that may drastically alter ecosystem status, which can inform management action. However, quantifying ecosystem reference points has proven elusive due in large part to the multi-dimensional nature of both ecosystem pressures and ecosystem responses. We used ecological indicators, synthetic measures of ecosystem status and functioning, to enumerate important ecosystem attributes and to reduce the complexity of the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES LME). Random forests were used to quantify the importance of four environmental and four anthropogenic pressure variables to the value of ecological indicators, and to quantify shifts in aggregate ecological indicator response along pressure gradients. Anthropogenic pressure variables were critical defining features and were able to predict an average of 8-13% (up to 25-66% for individual ecological indicators) of the variation in ecological indicator values, whereas environmental pressures were able to predict an average of 1-5 % (up to 9-26% for individual ecological indicators) of ecological indicator variation. Each pressure variable predicted a different suite of ecological indicator’s variation and the shapes of ecological indicator responses along pressure gradients were generally nonlinear. Threshold shifts in ecosystem response to exploitation, the most important pressure variable, occurred when commercial landings were 20 and 60% of total surveyed biomass. Although present, threshold shifts in ecosystem response to environmental pressures were much less important, which suggests that anthropogenic pressures have significantly altered the ecosystem structure and functioning of the NES LME. Gradient response curves provide ecologically informed transformations of pressure variables to explain patterns of ecosystem structure and functioning. By concurrently identifying thresholds for a suite of ecological indicator responses to multiple pressures, we demonstrate that ecosystem reference points can be evaluated and used to support ecosystem-based management. PMID:25781166

  8. Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

  9. States in a free state of nature: aboriginal criteria for 21st-century marine minerals resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores principles of international law for managing nonsovereign marine minerals under conditions of severe chronic global shortage - which herein is defined as existing whenever exploitation consistently exceeds natural rates of renewal restoration. The main data source lies in how man has managed shortage in the past, where the most fertile ground is found in the ways of the natural societies of pre-Neolithic man and contemporary hunter-gatherer bands. The result has a broader compass than the original goal namely the means (a) to restore ecological balance to man's relationship to his resource environment, and (b) to achieve universal fairness of individual access to the global patrimony. These goals may be realized without sudden disruption of the international community of sovereign States or its economic system of laissez-faire capitalism. The means to these ends posit the readoption of aboriginal Ethics to order the adaptive relationship of man to man and of man to Nature, including the revitalization of the original social compact of reciprocal rights and obligations among all individuals. The turn to aboriginal Ethics suggests a series of proposals for managing global shortage implemented by economic incentives and penalties which are compatible with the ways of contemporary international society.

  10. Implementation of marine spatial planning in shellfish aquaculture management: modeling studies in a Norwegian fjord.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Ramon; Grant, Jon; Strand, Řivind

    2014-06-01

    Shellfish carrying capacity is determined by the interaction of a cultured species with its ecosystem, which is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics. Water circulation controls the exchange of matter between farms and the adjacent areas, which in turn establishes the nutrient supply that supports phytoplankton populations. The complexity of water circulation makes necessary the use of hydrodynamic models with detailed spatial resolution in carrying capacity estimations. This detailed spatial resolution also allows for the study of processes that depend on specific spatial arrangements, e.g., the most suitable location to place farms, which is crucial for marine spatial planning, and consequently for decision support systems. In the present study, a fully spatial physical-biogeochemical model has been combined with scenario building and optimization techniques as a proof of concept of the use of ecosystem modeling as an objective tool to inform marine spatial planning. The object of this exercise was to generate objective knowledge based on an ecosystem approach to establish new mussel aquaculture areas in a Norwegian fjord. Scenario building was used to determine the best location of a pump that can be used to bring nutrient-rich deep waters to the euphotic layer, increasing primary production, and consequently, carrying capacity for mussel cultivation. In addition, an optimization tool, parameter estimation (PEST), was applied to the optimal location and mussel standing stock biomass that maximize production, according to a preestablished carrying capacity criterion. Optimization tools allow us to make rational and transparent decisions to solve a well-defined question, decisions that are essential for policy makers. The outcomes of combining ecosystem models with scenario building and optimization facilitate planning based on an ecosystem approach, highlighting the capabilities of ecosystem modeling as a tool for marine spatial planning. PMID:24988780

  11. Modeling catchment nutrients and sediment loads to inform regional management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems: a comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Wilkinson, Scott N; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Kool, Johnathan; Brodie, Jon

    2014-12-15

    Human-induced changes in flows of water, nutrients, and sediments have impacts on marine ecosystems. Quantifying these changes to systematically allocate management actions is a priority for many areas worldwide. Modeling nutrient and sediment loads and contributions from subcatchments can inform prioritization of management interventions to mitigate the impacts of land-based pollution on marine ecosystems. Among the catchment models appropriate for large-scale applications, N-SPECT and SedNet have been used to prioritize areas for management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems. However, an assessment of their relative performance, parameterization, and utility for regional-scale planning is needed. We examined how these considerations can influence the choice between the two models and the areas identified as priorities for management actions. We assessed their application in selected catchments of the Gulf of California, where managing land-based threats to marine ecosystems is a priority. We found important differences in performance between models. SedNet consistently estimated spatial variations in runoff with higher accuracy than N-SPECT and modeled suspended sediment (TSS) loads mostly within the range of variation in observed loads. N-SPECT overestimated TSS loads by orders of magnitude when using the spatially-distributed sediment delivery ratio (SDR), but outperformed SedNet when using a calibrated SDR. Differences in subcatchments' contribution to pollutant loads were principally due to explicit representation of sediment sinks and particulate nutrients by SedNet. Improving the floodplain extent model, and constraining erosion estimates by local data including gully erosion in SedNet, would improve results of this model and help identify effective management responses. Differences between models in the patterns of modeled pollutant supply were modest, but significantly influenced the prioritization of subcatchments for management. PMID:25173725

  12. National Marine Fisheries Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NMFS is the federal agency responsible for the stewardship of the nation's living marine resources and their habitat. NOAA Fisheries is responsible for the management, conservation and protection of living marine resources within the United States' Exclusive Economic Zone (water three to 200 mile offshore). Site includes information on the organization of NMFS and features information on many marine science topics, including aquaculture, bycatch, legislation, permits, strandings, and grants.

  13. The role of geomatics engineering in establishing the marine information system for maritime management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Yau-Wah Lam; Tsz Leung Yip

    2008-01-01

    Maritime management encompasses the employment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources that relate to the sea, maritime navigation, shipping, port development and coastal protection. It contributes to the economic growth, price stability, transportation of cargoes and passengers, and business activities of shipping organizations. The efficient management of resources, operations and activities relies on a

  14. The Adult Student Learning Experience: A Mixed-Methods Investigation in a Marine Corps Program from a Knowledge Management Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Jennifer Gray

    2010-01-01

    On one Marine Corps base, a minimum of 5% of adult enlisted Marines per year lack certain competencies and seek admittance into a high school competency remediation program. The lack of these competencies impedes qualification for many military occupational specialties, the ability to convert from an enlisted Marine to a Warrant Officer, or…

  15. Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Zaffino, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

  16. Hobart Marine Laboratories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at five sites throughout Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research's work encompasses the assessment of atmospheric and earth systems and the prediction of climate, weather and ocean processes; and research to integrate coastal management and ensure marine resources and industries are sustainable. Site includes information on facilities, partnerships, publications, and news and upcoming events. Research section features extensive information on the current projects.

  17. Proceedings of a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Workshop for the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; Hirsch, Derrick; Helweg, David; Dhanju, Amardeep; Barmenski, Joan; Ferrero, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific and ocean policy assessments demonstrate that a fundamental change in our current management system is required to achieve the long-term health of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes in order to sustain the services and benefits they provide to society. The present (2011) species- and sector-centric way we manage these ecosystems cannot account properly for cumulative effects, sustaining multiple ecosystem services, and holistically and explicitly evaluating the tradeoffs associated with proposed alternative and multiple human uses. A transition to an ecosystem-based approach to management and conservation of coastal and marine resources is needed. Competing uses and activities such as commerce, recreation, cultural practices, energy development, conservation, and national security are increasing pressure for new and expanded resource usage in coastal marine ecosystems. Current management efforts use a sector-by-sector approach that mostly focuses on a limited range of tools and outcomes [for example, oil and gas leases, fishery management plans, and Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)]. A comprehensive, ecosystem-based, and proactive approach to planning and managing these uses and activities is needed. Further, scientific understanding and information are essential to achieve an integrated decision-making process that includes knowledge of ecosystem services, existing and possible future conditions, and potential consequences of natural and anthropogenic events. Because no single government agency has executive authority for coastal or ocean resources, conflicting objectives around competing uses abound. In recent years, regional- and state-level initiatives in Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) have emerged to coordinate management activities. In some respects, the components and steps of the overall CMSP process are similar to how existing ocean resources are regulated and managed. For example, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) uses spatial planning exercises in State Renewable Energy Task Force meetings to identify competing and conflicting ocean uses, and to delineate areas suitable for renewable energy development. Similarly terrestrial areas such as in national parks and national wildlife refuges managed by the Department of the Interior (DOI) prepare management plans for preservation and restoration of species and habitats of concern, some of which are protected by law. The analogy to CMSP is clear - multiple users and multiple expectations, resulting in the requirement to establish spatial plans for management of different resources and different ecosystem services. A two-day workshop on December 1-2, 2010, was convened for DOI representatives and several key non-DOI participants with roles in CMSP as a step toward clarifying national perspectives and consequences of the National Ocean Policy for the West (appendix 1). Discussions helped to develop an understanding of CMSP from the federal perspective and to identify regional priorities. An overarching theme was to promote a better understanding of current and future science needs. The workshop format included briefings by key Federal agencies on their understanding of the national focus followed by discussion of regional issues, including the needs for scientific information and coordination. The workshop also explored potential science contributions by Federal agencies and others; utilizing current capabilities, data, and information systems; and provided a foundation for possible future regional workshops focusing in turn on the West Coast Region (California, Oregon, and Washington), Pacific Islands (sometimes referred to as Oceania) and Alaska. Participants were asked to share information in the following areas, recognizing that the purpose would be to learn more about the national perspective (see appendixes 2-4): Explore how the Western U.S. (Alaska, Pacific Islands, and West Coast Region) migh

  18. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species. PMID:24735126

  19. A fifty-year production and economic assessment of common property-based management of marine living common resources: A case study for the women divers communities in Jeju, South Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Young Ko; Glenn A. Jones; Moon-Soo Heo; Young-Su Kang; Sang-Hyuck Kang

    2010-01-01

    We examined the conditions of successful common property-based management for coastal marine living resources, using a case of historically and anthropologically well established women divers communities on Jeju Island, South Korea, focusing on their decentralized work rules and production records. Due to their tight social network and work rule, the women divers have harvested coastal marine living resources with limited

  20. 20 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction

    E-print Network

    on the location and extent of bycatch of marine mammals and seabirds. These measures provide manag- ers of the groundfish fisheries off Alaska on marine mammals and seabirds, while continuing to provide economic op with the groundfish fisheries. Area closures limit disturbance to marine mammals at rookeries and haulouts, protect

  1. SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

    2009-04-01

    SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

  2. Building an ecosystem model using mismatched and fragmented data: A probabilistic network of early marine survival for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres Araujo, H.; Holt, Carrie; Curtis, Janelle M. R.; Perry, R. I.; Irvine, James R.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of biophysical conditions and hatchery production on the early marine survival of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Due to a paucity of balanced multivariate ecosystem data, we developed a probabilistic network that integrated physical and ecological data and information from literature, expert opinion, oceanographic models, and in situ observations. This approach allowed us to evaluate alternate hypotheses about drivers of early marine survival while accounting for uncertainties in relationships among variables. Probabilistic networks allow users to explore multiple environmental settings and evaluate the consequences of management decisions under current and projected future states. We found that the zooplankton biomass anomaly, calanoid copepod biomass, and herring biomass were the best indicators of early marine survival. It also appears that concentrating hatchery supplementation during periods of negative PDO and ENSO (Pacific Decadal and El Nińo Southern Oscillation respectively), indicative of generally favorable ocean conditions for salmon, tends to increase survival of hatchery coho salmon while minimizing negative impacts on the survival of wild juveniles. Scientists and managers can benefit from the approach presented here by exploring multiple scenarios, providing a basis for open and repeatable ecosystem-based risk assessments when data are limited.

  3. Management of contaminated marine marketable resources after oil and HNS spills in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Isabel; Neuparth, Teresa; Moreira, Susana; Santos, Miguel M; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda

    2014-03-15

    Different risk evaluation approaches have been used to face oil and hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) spills all over the world. To minimize health risks and mitigate economic losses due to a long term ban on the sale of sea products after a spill, it is essential to preemptively set risk evaluation criteria and standard methodologies based on previous experience and appropriate scientifically sound criteria. Standard methodologies are analyzed and proposed in order to improve the definition of criteria for reintegrating previously contaminated marine marketable resources into the commercialization chain in Europe. The criteria used in former spills for the closing of and lifting of bans on fisheries and harvesting are analyzed. European legislation was identified regarding food sampling, food chemical analysis and maximum levels of contaminants allowed in seafood, which ought to be incorporated in the standard methodologies for the evaluation of the decision criteria defined for oil and HNS spills in Europe. A decision flowchart is proposed that opens the current decision criteria to new material that may be incorporated in the decision process. Decision criteria are discussed and compared among countries and incidents. An a priori definition of risk criteria and an elaboration of action plans are proposed to speed up actions that will lead to prompt final decisions. These decisions, based on the best available scientific data and conducing to lift or ban economic activity, will tend to be better understood and respected by citizens. PMID:24508845

  4. 75 FR 36064 - Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Final Revised Management Plan: Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...involvement. The plan is available for download on the Web site: http://stellwagen.noaa.gov. For a hard copy or data CD of the plan contact the sanctuary office at the contact number identified below. DATES: The final revised management plan...

  5. Hawaiian Islands Marine Ecosystem Case Study: Ecosystem and Community-Based Management in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian N. Tissot; William J. Walsh; Mark A. Hixon

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands comprise a large and isolated archipelago that includes the largest reef area in the United States. Managing nearshore fisheries in this archipelago is a major challenge compounded by the difficulty of coordinating multiple agencies to provide governance across a broad series of islands with substantial social and political differences. There has been interest in, and progress toward,

  6. 78 FR 10606 - Final Management Plan and Environmental Assessment for Monitor National Marine Sanctuary: Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...protects the wreck of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best known for its battle with the Confederate ironclad, CSS Virginia in Hampton Roads, VA, on March 9, 1862. NOAA began to review the management plan for MNMS in December 2008...

  7. 78 FR 23539 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); May 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...2013 and adjourn by 5:30 p.m. or when business is complete. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Mayflower Renaissance Hotel, 1127 Connecticut Avenue NW., Washington DC 20036. The Pacific Council address is Pacific Fishery Management...

  8. Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses

    PubMed Central

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2013-01-01

    Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

  9. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  10. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt...Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary ...appendix are unprojected (Geographic Coordinate System)...

  11. 75 FR 70904 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Spiny Lobster Committee, Personnel Committee (Closed Session), King and Spanish Mackerel Committee, Ecosystem-Based Management Committee, Golden Crab Committee, Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

  12. Integrating the provision of ecosystem services and trawl fisheries for the management of the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Muntadas, Alba; de Juan, Silvia; Demestre, Montserrat

    2015-02-15

    The species interaction and their biological traits (BT) determine the function of benthic communities and, hence, the delivery of ecosystem services. Therefore, disturbance of benthic communities by trawling may compromise ecosystem service delivery, including fisheries' catches. In this work, we explore 1) the impact of trawling activities on benthic functional components (after the BTA approach) and 2) how trawling impact may affect the ecosystem services delivered by benthic communities. To this aim, we assessed the provision of ecosystem services by adopting the concept of Ecosystem Service Providers (ESP), i.e. ecological units that perform ecosystem functions that will ultimately deliver ecosystem services. We studied thirteen sites subjected to different levels of fishing effort in the Mediterranean. From a range of environmental variables included in the study, we found ESPs to be mainly affected by fishing effort and grain size. Our results suggested that habitat type has significant effects on the distribution of ESPs and this natural variability influences ESP response to trawling at a specific site. In order to summarize the complex relationships between human uses, ecosystem components and the demand for ecosystem services in trawling grounds, we adapted a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response) framework to the study area, emphasizing the role of society as Drivers of change and actors demanding management Responses. This integrative framework aims to inform managers about the interactions between all the elements involved in the management of trawling grounds, highlighting the need for an integrated approach in order to ensure ecosystem service provision. PMID:25433378

  13. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist for interdisciplinary integration with best practices in: (i) water-energy nexus infrastructure; (ii) responsible tourism; and (iii) open data innovations.

  14. Quantifying alosine prey in the diets of marine piscivores in the Gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    McDermott, S P; Bransome, N C; Sutton, S E; Smith, B E; Link, J S; Miller, T J

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of the occurrence of anadromous fishes (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, blueback herring Alosa aestivalis and American shad Alosa sapidissima) in the stomachs of demersal fishes in coastal waters of the north-west Atlantic Ocean. Results show that anadromous fishes were detectable and quantifiable in the diets of common marine piscivores for every season sampled. Even though anadromous fishes were not the most abundant prey, they accounted for c. 5-10% of the diet by mass for several marine piscivores. Statistical comparisons of these data with fish diet data from a broad-scale survey of the north-west Atlantic Ocean indicate that the frequency of this trophic interaction was significantly higher within spatially and temporally focused sampling areas of this study than in the broad-scale survey. Odds ratios of anadromous predation were as much as 460 times higher in the targeted sampling as compared with the broad-scale sampling. Analyses indicate that anadromous prey consumption was more concentrated in the near-coastal waters compared with consumption of a similar, but more widely distributed species, the Atlantic herring Clupea harengus. In the context of ecosystem-based fisheries management, the results suggest that even low-frequency feeding events may be locally important, and should be incorporated into ecosystem models. PMID:25943427

  15. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

  16. 76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee; King and Spanish Mackerel Committee; Golden Crab Committee...on ecosystem activities. 8. King and Spanish Mackerel Committee: June 13, 2011...will receive a report from the King and Spanish Mackerel Committee, consider...

  17. A continental-scale ocean observation system to gather biological and oceanographic data for marine resource management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tsang; M. C. Melynchuk; D. W. Welch

    2005-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking project (POST), one of the Census of Marine Life field projects, is a seabed acoustic array for tracking marine animals. Field trials in 2004 and 2005 involved the deployment of 6 major listening lines, each about 20 km long, laid out to track the migration and survival of salmon smolts along the west coast of

  18. How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people. PMID:24912580

  19. How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

  20. Selecting Indicator Portfolios for Marine Species and Food Webs: A Puget Sound Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F.; James, C. Andrew; Levin, Phillip S.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States – Puget Sound, Washington – where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system. PMID:21991305

  1. Use of Environmental Satellite Data for the Monitoring of Living Marine Resource Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on the employment of ecosystem-based management towards the stewardship of living marine resources. This inherently includes a requirement for the accessibility of timely descriptions of the aspects of marine environment that are relevant to a given ecosystem. In the past decade there has been a proliferation of publicly available oceanographic data sets derived from a variety of platforms and sensors. National, Provincial, and Municipal researchers and managers who are not necessarily expert in the production and distribution of oceanographic satellite data often face a bewildering, and seemingly contradictory, array of options when choosing data for use in their applications. The standards, data products, and data access tools stemming from the international components of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) serve to increase the accessibility of such products while also both quantifying and improving the quality of the data delivered to the end user. The continual improvement of data sets that integrate information from multiple sensors has elevated the roll of satellite-derived environmental products such as sea surface temperature in dynamic management processes. We offer examples of applications, including several client-side tools designed to extract environmental data within in the spatial-temporal locus of a given animal track, and to then import this data directly into the working environment with which a given researcher is comfortable. Additionally, we present sample applications employed along the North American Pacific Coast in the support of management of both fisheries and protected species that utilize highly-derived products, integrating remotely sensed and in situ data.

  2. This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, J.F.; Seijo, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of ‘enlightened self interest’ underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

  3. This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries.

    PubMed

    Caddy, J F; Seijo, J C

    2005-01-29

    The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of "enlightened self interest" underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

  4. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. PMID:25463580

  5. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.6 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for an active role in the data management component of the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. Starting 2009 EMODnet pilot portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are being expanded to all European sea regions as part of EMODnet Phase 2, which started mid 2013. EMODnet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODnet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy between SeaDataNet and EMODnet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place as part of phase 2. The presentation will highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II and give further details and views on the new EMODNet Digital Bathymetry for European seas as to be released early 2015.

  6. SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

  7. Management relevance of benthic biogeography at multiple scales in coastal waters of the northeast U.S.

    PubMed

    Hale, Stephen S; Coté, Melville P; Tedesco, Mark A; Searfoss, Renee

    2013-04-01

    Continuing pressures from human activities have harmed the health of ocean ecosystems, particularly those near the coast. Current management practices that operate on one sector at a time have not resulted in healthy oceans that can sustainably provide the ecosystem services humans want and need. Now, adoption of ecosystem-based management (EBM) and coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States should result in a more holistic approach. Recent marine biogeographical studies and benthic habitat mapping using satellite imagery, large-scale monitoring programs, ocean observation systems, acoustic and video techniques, landscape ecology, geographic information systems, integrated databases, and ecological modeling provide information that can support EBM, make CMSP ecologically meaningful, and contribute to planning for marine biodiversity conservation. Examples from coastal waters along the northeast coast of the United States from Delaware Bay to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, illustrate how benthic biogeography and bottom seascape diversity information is a useful lens through which to view EBM and CMSP in nearshore waters. The focus is on benthic communities, which are widely used in monitoring programs and are sensitive to many stresses from human activities. PMID:23224036

  8. Management Relevance of Benthic Biogeography at Multiple Scales in Coastal Waters of the Northeast U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Stephen S.; Coté, Melville P.; Tedesco, Mark A.; Searfoss, Renee

    2013-04-01

    Continuing pressures from human activities have harmed the health of ocean ecosystems, particularly those near the coast. Current management practices that operate on one sector at a time have not resulted in healthy oceans that can sustainably provide the ecosystem services humans want and need. Now, adoption of ecosystem-based management (EBM) and coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States should result in a more holistic approach. Recent marine biogeographical studies and benthic habitat mapping using satellite imagery, large-scale monitoring programs, ocean observation systems, acoustic and video techniques, landscape ecology, geographic information systems, integrated databases, and ecological modeling provide information that can support EBM, make CMSP ecologically meaningful, and contribute to planning for marine biodiversity conservation. Examples from coastal waters along the northeast coast of the United States from Delaware Bay to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, illustrate how benthic biogeography and bottom seascape diversity information is a useful lens through which to view EBM and CMSP in nearshore waters. The focus is on benthic communities, which are widely used in monitoring programs and are sensitive to many stresses from human activities.

  9. Population Connectivity Shifts at High Frequency within an Open-Coast Marine Protected Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Geoffrey S.; Parnell, P. Ed; Levin, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50–84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions. PMID:25077486

  10. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    PubMed

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  11. Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

  12. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  13. Australian Institute of Marine Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located near Townsville, North Queensland, AIMS researchers collect and analyze data to improve our understanding of the marine world, and to find science-based management practices that ensure long-term sustainable use and development of marine resources. Site features information on facilities, faculty, current projects, open house and other events, and employment opportunities. Also features the Mariner's Journal, a log from several AIMS research cruises.

  14. Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the management of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Vincent; Dubois, Mélodie; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe properly larval dispersal and marine connectivity since they structure marine populations and are thus crucial criteria to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents in the entire Mediterranean Sea, I present a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and Network Theory tools to characterize broad-scale connectivity of marine populations. The Mediterranean basin is subdivided into an ensemble of sub-regions that are interconnected through oceanic transport. Passive larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are advected in a simulated surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. First, the global analysis of the transport network using a community detection algorithm enables the extraction of hydrodynamical provinces which are delimited by frontiers matching multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We also analyze novel connectivity metrics for the existing marine reserves and we discussed our results in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design. Secondly, we studied the local properties of the network with the computation of proxies commonly used in population ecology to measure local retention, self-recruitment and larval sources/sinks. Our results confirmed that retention processes are favored along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic conditions while they are weak in the open ocean. Moreover, we found that divergent (convergent) oceanic zones resulting from Ekman theory are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks). Finally, although these proxies are often studied separately in the literature, we suggest they are inter-related under certain conditions. Their integrated interpretation leads to a better understanding of population dynamics and persistence, informing both genetic and demographic connectivities. Our basin-scale results have also managerial implications, especially considering the growing interests for offshore MPAs, as they are useful to evaluate existing MPAs and to implement futures ones.

  15. 77 FR 65364 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ...objectives and strategies initially drafted on October 15 and 16, 2012. They will complete an abridged analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats on science and data and ecosystem based fishery management. No formal actions...

  16. The sea, stingers, and surgeons: The surgeon's role in prevention, first aid, and management of marine envenomations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Pearn

    1995-01-01

    Marine envenomations are the statistical price that humankind pays for intruding into the aquatic domain. Individual risk can be reduced by knowledge and prudence. If envenomations do occur, lives can be saved, complications prevented, and convalescence facilitated by knowledge of and interest in these fascinating creatures of the sea.

  17. Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Katherine W.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is described. (15…

  18. Adaptive governance and the human dimensions of marine mammal management: Implications for policy in a changing North

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Riku Varjopuro; Martha Dowsley; Aaron T. Dale

    2011-01-01

    As climate change has driven dramatic changes in Northern sea ice regimes, marine mammals have gained iconic status around the world reflecting the perils of global warming. There is a tension between policies that have international support like a ban on seal hunting or whaling, and the adoption of adaptive, flexible rules that are likely to work in Northern places.

  19. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. (Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo, CSIC, Barcelona (ES))

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  20. Marine biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. V. Thurman; H. H. Webber

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began

  1. Developing a landscape- and ecosystem-based framework for monitoring and management of grazinglands in the northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvement of grazinglands can contribute to increased farm profitability and ecosystem sustainability by reducing machinery requirements, time needed and fuel costs for harvesting forages, applying fertilizers, and distributing manure. Site type is effectively fixed (e.g. climate and landscape pos...

  2. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  3. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

  4. Regional Management Units for Marine Turtles: A Novel Framework for Prioritizing Conservation and Research across Multiple Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan P. Wallace; Andrew D. DiMatteo; Brendan J. Hurley; Elena M. Finkbeiner; Alan B. Bolten; Milani Y. Chaloupka; Brian J. Hutchinson; F. Alberto Abreu-Grobois; Diego Amorocho; Karen A. Bjorndal; Jerome Bourjea; Brian W. Bowen; Raquel Briseńo Dueńas; Paolo Casale; B. C. Choudhury; Alice Costa; Peter H. Dutton; Alejandro Fallabrino; Alexandre Girard; Marc Girondot; Matthew H. Godfrey; Mark Hamann; Milagros López-Mendilaharsu; Maria Angela Marcovaldi; Jeanne A. Mortimer; John A. Musick; Ronel Nel; Nicolas J. Pilcher; Jeffrey A. Seminoff; Sebastian Troëng; Blair Witherington; Roderic B. Mast

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundResolving threats to widely distributed marine megafauna requires definition of the geographic distributions of both the threats as well as the population unit(s) of interest. In turn, because individual threats can operate on varying spatial scales, their impacts can affect different segments of a population of the same species. Therefore, integration of multiple tools and techniques — including site-based monitoring,

  5. Maryland Marine Notes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

  6. Maryland Marine Notes Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

  7. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit II. Ocean Management: Who Owns the Sea? =Humedo y Salvaje. Segund Unidad. El Manejo de los Oceanos: Quien Es el Dueno de los Mares?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to ocean management are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into four sections (labeled A through D). The first three sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or 4-6)…

  8. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic biocenosis to provide excellent information on ecological processes from which ecosystem benefits arise.

  9. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Pt...Part 922—Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...Appendix are unprojected (Geographic Coordinate System)...

  10. 77 FR 60677 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...Collection; Comment Request; Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation and Management...on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (Convention) established the...for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). CCAMLR meets...

  11. A review of marine mammal, sea turtle and seabird bycatch in USA fisheries and the role of policy in shaping management

    E-print Network

    Lewison, Rebecca

    A review of marine mammal, sea turtle and seabird bycatch in USA fisheries and the role of policy September 2008 Accepted 26 September 2008 Keywords: Bycatch Fisheries Legislation Marine mammals Seabirds, statutes, regulations) for bycatch of marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds in fisheries of the United

  12. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  13. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical management actions for their wildlife attraction.

  15. A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

  16. Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model: The case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavelli, Lysel; Kaplan, David Michael; Colas, François; Stotz, Wolfgang; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named “loco”, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23°S and 29°S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.

  17. The Use of a Predictive Habitat Model and a Fuzzy Logic Approach for Marine Management and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Chérif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc’h, François

    2013-01-01

    Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as ‘high’. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study. PMID:24146867

  18. The use of a predictive habitat model and a fuzzy logic approach for marine management and planning.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Chérif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc'h, François

    2013-01-01

    Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as 'high'. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study. PMID:24146867

  19. A framework of lessons learned from community-based marine reserves and its effectiveness in guiding a new coastal management initiative in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Beger, Maria; Harborne, Alastair R; Dacles, Terence P; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Ledesma, Gerardo L

    2004-12-01

    Community-based coastal resource management has been widely applied within the Philippines. However, small-scale community-based reserves are often inefficient owing to management inadequacies arising because of a lack of local support or enforcement or poor design. Because there are many potential pitfalls during the establishment of even small community-based reserves, it is important for coastal managers, communities, and facilitating institutions to have access to a summary of the key factors for success. Reviewing relevant literature, we present a framework of "lessons learned" during the establishment of protected areas, mainly in the Philippines. The framework contains summary guidance on the importance of (1) an island location, (2) small community population size, (3) minimal effect of land-based development, (4) application of a bottom-up approach, (5) an external facilitating institution, (6) acquisition of title, (7) use of a scientific information database, (8) stakeholder involvement, (9) the establishment of legislation, (10) community empowerment, (11) alternative livelihood schemes, (12) surveillance, (13) tangible management results, (14) continued involvement of external groups after reserve establishment, and (15) small-scale project expansion.These framework components guided the establishment of a community-based protected area at Danjugan Island, Negros Occidental, Philippines. This case study showed that the framework was a useful guide that led to establishing and implementing a community-based marine reserve. Evaluation of the reserve using standard criteria developed for the Philippines shows that the Danjugan Island protected area can be considered successful and sustainable. At Danjugan Island, all of the lessons synthesized in the framework were important and should be considered elsewhere, even for relatively small projects. As shown in previous projects in the Philippines, local involvement and stewardship of the protected area appeared particularly important for its successful implementation. The involvement of external organizations also seemed to have a key role in the success of the Danjugan Island project by guiding local decision-makers in the sociobiological principles of establishing protected areas. However, the relative importance of each component of the framework will vary between coastal management initiatives both within the Philippines and across the wider Asian region. PMID:15633043

  20. Marine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, O.

    1981-12-08

    A marine structure is described having a base and a foundation means projecting downwardly from the base for pressing into the sea bed. The foundation comprises a wall system with pile means on both sides of the wall(s).

  1. Development of a systematic classification scheme of marine habitats to facilitate regional management and mapping of Caribbean coral reefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Mumby; Alastair R. Harborne

    1999-01-01

    Most coastal habitat mapping is conducted on an ad hoc basis with little consistency in terminology and ambiguous documentation. These limitations obstruct interpretation and integration of maps for coral reef science and management, particularly at regional (international) scales where standardisation is urgently required. This paper advocates an objective, systematic approach to habitat classification which couples coastal geomorphology and benthic cover.

  2. Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism: Development, Impacts and Management (1998).

    E-print Network

    1998-01-01

    : Development, Impacts and Management (1998). Mark Orams Centre for Tourism Research Massey University Albany, Australia. Since 1992 a group of wild bottlenose dolphins have been regular visitors to the beach adjacent in shallow water beside the resort 's pier. This opportunity has been promoted as an attraction and it has

  3. Use of focal species in marine conser7ation and management: ar e7iew and critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK A. ZACHARIAS; JOHN C. ROFF

    Focal species (i.e. indicators, keystones, umbrellas, and flagships) have been advocated for the management and conservation of natural environments. 2. The assumption has been that the presence or abundance of a focal species is a means to understanding the composition and:or state of the more complex community. 3. We review the characteristics of focal species, and evaluate their appropriateness and

  4. Marine Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine ecosystem that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.

  5. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable, systemic and cost-effective tools for soil conservation, in order to improve the environmental resilience of the site.

  6. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart H of... - Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...Appendix are unprojected (Geographic) and based on the North...

  7. The Relative Impact of Warming and Removing Top Predators on the Northeast US Large Marine Biotic Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based fisheries management necessitates that we take a more holistic view of the many factors affecting ecosystems. All too often, perturbations to fisheries ecosystems are studied in isolation even though there may be important interactions among them that yield unexpe...

  8. Surveillance and Poaching on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. F. DAVIS; G. R. RUSS; D. H. WILLIAMSON; R. D. EVANS

    2004-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, is managed under the GBR Marine Park Act (1975) and is seen as a shining example of marine resource management. The principle tool of management is zoning for multiple use. We examined surveillance and illegal fishing around two inshore islands (Magnetic and Orpheus) of the GBR Marine Park in 2000\\/2001. Both islands are near

  9. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Hynes, Wayne L.

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology Volume 2011, Article ID 396982, 14 pages and Implications for Marine Management Kent E. Carpenter,1 Paul H. Barber,2 Eric D. Crandall,3 Ma. Carmen A. Ablan-Me~nez,8 Mudjekeewis D. Santos,9 Craig J. Starger,2 and Abdul Hamid A. Toha10 1Biological Sciences

  10. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    developing management approaches for designing offshore marine conservation areas. KEY WORDS: Seabird (penguins) were responsible for over 54% of the overall food consumption. Seabird foraging distribution maps

  11. Marine antimalarials.

    PubMed

    Fattorusso, Ernesto; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease causing at least 1 million deaths per year, and, unfortunately, the chemical entities available to treat malaria are still too limited. In this review we highlight the contribution of marine chemistry in the field of antimalarial research by reporting the most important results obtained until the beginning of 2009, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries. About 60 secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms have been grouped into three structural types and discussed in terms of their reported antimalarial activities. The major groups of metabolites include isonitrile derivatives, alkaloids and endoperoxide derivatives. The following discussion evidences that antimalarial marine molecules can efficiently integrate the panel of lead compounds isolated from terrestrial sources with new chemical backbones and, sometimes, with unique functional groups. PMID:19597577

  12. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  13. BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):251274. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1089

    E-print Network

    and fisheries management--i.e., marine conservation biology, marine ecology, fisheries science, economicsBULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(2):251­274. 2011 doi:10.5343/bms.2010.1089 251Bulletin of Marine Science © 2011 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami Bridging

  14. Scaling issues in local productivity hotspots in marine ecosystems using remote sensing data: A case study in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribera, M.; Gopal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Productivity hotspots are traditionally defined as concentrations of relatively high biomass compared to global reference values. These hotspots often signal atypical processes occurring in a location, and identifying them is a great first step at understanding the complexity inherent in the system. However, identifying local hotspots can be difficult when an overarching global pattern (i.e. spatial autocorrelation) already exists. This problem is particularly apparent in marine ecosystems because values of productivity in near-shore areas are consistently higher than those of the open ocean due to oceanographic processes such as upwelling. In such cases, if the global reference layer used to detect hotspots is too wide, hotspots may be only identified near the coast while missing known concentrations of organisms in offshore waters. On the other hand, if the global reference layer is too small, every single location may be considered a hotspot. We applied spatial and traditional statistics to remote sensing data to determine the optimal reference global spatial scale for identifying marine productivity hotspots in the Gulf of Maine. Our iterative process measured Getis and Ord's local G* statistic at different global scales until the variance of each hotspot was maximized. We tested this process with different full resolution MERIS chlorophyll layers (300m spatial resolution) for the whole Gulf of Maine. We concluded that the optimal global scale depends on the time of the year the remote sensing data was collected, particularly when coinciding with known seasonal phytoplankton blooms. The hotspots found through this process were also spatially heterogeneous in size, with bigger hotspots in areas offshore than in locations inshore. These results may be instructive for both managers and fisheries researchers as they adapt their fisheries management policies and methods to an ecosystem based approach (EBM).

  15. Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

  16. Marine Fisheries On the cover: The queen

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: The queen conch, Strombus gigas. Il- lustration by Harold L. Spiess. Articles July 1981, 43(7) The Biology, Fisheries, and Management of the Queen Conch, Strombus

  17. Marine Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barker, William

    Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one lesson within a much larger set hosted by Duke University.

  18. Marine Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barker, William

    Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  19. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  20. The Intergovernmental Marine Bioenergy and Carbon Sequestration Protocol: Environmental and Political Risk Reduction of Global Carbon Management (The IMBECS Protocol Draft)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The IMBECS Protocol concept employs large cultivation and biorefinery installations, within the five Subtropical Convergence Zones (STCZs), to support the production of commodities such as carbon negative biofuels, seafood, organic fertilizer, polymers and freshwater, as a flexible and cost effective means of Global Warming Mitigation (GWM) with the primary objective being the global scale replacement of fossil fuels (FF). This governance approach is categorically distinct from all other large scale GWM governance concepts. Yet, many of the current marine related GWM technologies are adaptable to this proposals. The IMBECS technology would be managed by an intergovernmentally sanctioned non-profit foundation which would have the following functions/mission: Synthesises relevant treaty language Performs R&D activities and purchases relevant patents Under intergovernmental commission, functions as the primary responsible international actorfor environmental standards, production quotas and operational integrity Licence technology to for-profit actors under strict production/environmental standards Enforce production and environmental standards along with production quotas Provide a high level of transparency to all stakeholders Provide legal defence The IMBECS Protocol is conceptually related to the work found in the following documents/links. This list is not exhaustive: Climate Change Geoengineering The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A guide to the debate IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation DoE Roadmap for Algae Biofuels PodEnergy Ocean Agronomy development leaders and progenitor of this proposal. Artificial Upwelling of Deep Seawater Using the Perpetual Salt Fountain for Cultivation of Ocean Desert NASAs' OMEGA study. Cool Planet; Land based version of a carbon negative biofuel concept. Cellana; Leading developer of algae based bioproducts. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture Mariculture: A global analysis of production trends since 1950 BECCS /Biochar/ Olivine UNFCCC/IMO/CBD The President's Climate Action Plan The conclusion of this analysis calls for funding of an investigational deployment of the relevant technologies for an open evaluation at the intergovernmental level.

  1. An Ecosystem Service Evaluation Tool to Support Ridge-to-Reef Management and Conservation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, K.; Callender, T.; Delevaux, J. M. S.; Falinski, K. A.; Htun, H.; Jin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Faced with increasing anthropogenic stressors and diverse stakeholders, local managers are adopting a ridge-to-reef and multi-objective management approach to restore declining coral reef health state. An ecosystem services framework, which integrates ecological indicators and stakeholder values, can foster more applied and integrated research, data collection, and modeling, and thus better inform the decision-making process and realize decision outcomes grounded in stakeholders' values. Here, we describe a research program that (i) leverages remotely sensed and empirical data to build an ecosystem services-based decision-support tool geared towards ridge-to-reef management; and (ii) applies it as part of a structured, value-based decision-making process to inform management in west Maui, a NOAA coral reef conservation priority site. The tool links terrestrial and marine biophysical models in a spatially explicit manner to quantify and map changes in ecosystem services delivery resulting from management actions, projected climate change impacts, and adaptive responses. We couple model outputs with localized valuation studies to translate ecosystem service outcomes into benefits and their associated socio-cultural and/or economic values. Managers can use this tool to run scenarios during their deliberations to evaluate trade-offs, cost-effectiveness, and equity implications of proposed policies. Ultimately, this research program aims at improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity outcomes of ecosystem-based management. This presentation will describe our approach, summarize initial results from the terrestrial modeling and economic valuations for west Maui, and highlight how this decision support tool benefits managers in west Maui.

  2. Marine Program Annual Report 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

    This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

  3. National Data Program for the Marine Environment. Final Report, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    A national data program for the marine environment is recommended. Volume 1 includes: (1) description of the current marine data network, (2) analysis of current and future requirements, (3) delineation of priority marine data and products, (4) requirements and impact of technological change on marine data management, (5) evaluation of…

  4. 75 FR 35330 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): The FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

  5. 75 FR 14548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): The FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

  6. 75 FR 9864 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): the FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

  7. Economic valuation for the conservation of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, N J; Austen, M C; Mangi, S C; Townsend, M

    2008-03-01

    Policy makers are increasingly recognising the role of environmental valuation to guide and support the management and conservation of biodiversity. This paper presents a goods and services approach to determine the economic value of marine biodiversity in the UK, with the aim of clarifying the role of valuation in the management of marine biodiversity. The goods and services resulting from UK marine biodiversity are detailed, and 8 of the 13 services are valued in monetary terms. It is found that a decline in UK marine biodiversity could result in a varying, and at present unpredictable, change in the provision of goods and services, including reduced resilience and resistance to change, declining marine environmental health, reduced fisheries potential, and loss of recreational opportunities. The results suggest that this approach can facilitate biodiversity management by enabling the optimal allocation of limited management resources and through raising awareness of the importance of marine biodiversity. PMID:18191954

  8. Marine Seismic Data Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.

  9. Mariners' Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariners' Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

  10. Mariners' Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

  11. Marine Sanctuaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-06-10

    In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

  12. 50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

  13. 50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

  14. 50 CFR 654.28 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.28 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities are prohibited...

  15. 50 CFR 640.26 - Tortugas marine reserves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.26 Tortugas marine reserves. The following activities...

  16. Understanding and Protecting Marine Vertebrates Using Electronic Tracking Tags

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Daniel Costa (University of California at Santa Cruz; )

    2011-03-15

    Advances in satellite telemetry and electronic tags allow researchers and managers to follow the distribution, movement, and behavior of large marine animals, gather oceanographic data in areas that were previously inaccessible, and make better-informed marine conservation and management decisions.

  17. Research Article A Customization of the Arc Marine Data

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    improvement of scientific methods and information resources among the researchers of the marine community, the marine community must develop standard methods of data management and analysis, which provide rapid Satellite Telemetry Brett K Lord-Castillo Office of Emergency Management St. Louis County Police Bruce R

  18. Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles

    E-print Network

    Prestwich, Ken

    of Females 2 2 Turtle Ranching and Headstarting 2 2 Closed Season 2 3 Temporary Moratorium 2 4 LimitedMarine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project 1809 (1981 Wildlife Fund #12;Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project

  19. Uncertainties in projected impacts of climate change on European agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems based on scenarios from regional climate models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Olesen; T. R. Carter; C. H. Díaz-Ambrona; S. Fronzek; T. Heidmann; T. Hickler; T. Holt; M. I. Minguez; P. Morales; J. P. Palutikof; M. Quemada; M. Ruiz-Ramos; G. H. Rubćk; F. Sau; B. Smith; M. T. Sykes

    2007-01-01

    The uncertainties and sources of variation in projected impacts of climate change on agriculture and terrestrial ecosystems\\u000a depend not only on the emission scenarios and climate models used for projecting future climates, but also on the impact models\\u000a used, and the local soil and climatic conditions of the managed or unmanaged ecosystems under study. We addressed these uncertainties\\u000a by applying

  20. Marine Iguana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they can’t see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scanner…the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

  1. An evaluative framework for assessing information management in watershed management: The case of the Grand River Conservation Authority (Ontario)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Scott Brown

    2004-01-01

    Watershed management has been rapidly evolving over the last 50 years. The current focus has been adaptive and ecosystem-based approaches to watershed management, rede?ning roles, responsibilities, and relationships of watershed organizations. While entire management models need to be heavily scrutinized, the practices and policies surrounding information are fundamentally important. Information forms the understanding and knowledge for watershed decision-making. Watershed organizations

  2. Management of a marine protected area for sustainability and conflict resolution: Lessons from Loreto Bay National Park (Baja California Sur, Mexico)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Stamieszkin; Jeffrey Wielgus; Leah R. Gerber

    2009-01-01

    The Loreto Bay National Park was established to protect the area's ecosystems from habitat destruction and overexploitation. However, the park has not met two of its primary goals: recovery of commercially valuable fish populations and their sustainable use by stakeholders. Based on evidence from the literature, dialogue with stakeholders, a literature review on using recreational fees for marine protected area

  3. Developing the options for managing marine pests: specificity trials on the parasitic castrator, Sacculina carcini, against the European crab, Carcinus maenas, and related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E Thresher; M Werner; J. T Hřeg; I Svane; H Glenner; N. E Murphy; C Wittwer

    2000-01-01

    The impacts of introduced marine pests are becoming increasingly apparent, prompting interest in the possibility of their biological control. We undertook laboratory and field experiments on host selection of one potential control agent (the endoparasitic barnacle, Sacculina carcini) against its natural host (the widely invasive European shore crab, Carcinus maenas) and several confamilial and more distantly related crustaceans. For comparison,

  4. A Case Management and Family Support Handbook: Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Marin City Families First, an Early Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; And Others

    Families First, an early intervention program implemented in Marin City, California, was designed to integrate and coordinate the provision of a wide range of services to families of children in a low-income, mostly African-American community, from the third trimester of pregnancy to 8 years of age. The program is intended to enhance the…

  5. Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology

    E-print Network

    Howie, Jim

    Centre for Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology No one knows how many species live in the sea Biodiversity & Biotechnology. The CMBB was established in 1999 to tackle the challenges of understanding marine biodiversity, unlock the biotechnological potential of marine organisms and understand how marine life can cope

  6. Marine Ornithology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether one has a love of great seabirds or just an interest in the lives of these magnificent creatures, the website of the journal Marine Ornithology is well worth a visit. Started in 1976 by John Cooper, the journal is operated by an editorial board, under the direction of the Pacific Seabird Group, along with other related organizations. Visitors who may wish to contribute a piece to this peer-reviewed journal may want to take a look at their submission requirements and then proceed to the contents of the most recent issue. Some of the more recent articles in the latest issue deal with such topics as parasites and diseases of the auks and aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo penguin. For those looking for back issues, the full-text of every past issue dating back to 1988 is also available on the site.

  7. Proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (University of Hawaii, Manoa Campus, January 13, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…

  8. Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cotta-Schönberg

    2000-01-01

    The area of management is a naturally fertile ground for theory making, development of models and ... fads! Moreover, gurus, consultant firms, and publishers alike have vested interests in keeping the management mill going. Finally, our political lords and masters regularly come up with new trendy demands on public managers. So, it is no wonder that library managers may sometimes

  9. Marine Biology Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Biology Web, created by veteran marine biologist Dr. Jeff Levinton of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is a great educational resource for both curious students and prospective marine biologists. The Becoming a Marine Biologist page gives students frank advice, and a realistic sense of what marine biology is and what marine biologists do. This website contains a sizeable list of hyperlinked marine labs, institutes, graduate programs, and undergraduate programs. A nice list of marine biology-related internships and courses are included as well. The website also features the useful MBREFâ??-A Reference Source for Marine Biology Student Research. The site even links to a system that allows visitors â??to obtain tidal predictions computed by CO-OPS for more than 3000 water level stations.â?ť

  10. Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management

    E-print Network

    Ekstrom, Julia A.

    2008-01-01

    ocean acidification) impacts kelp gametophytes Acidification (reduced pH) impacts calcification required for making calcium carbonate shells.ocean acidification impacts the fitness of calcifying plankton in two major mechanisms – decreased availability of carbonate for producing shells

  11. Protecting a marine wonderland.

    PubMed

    Wells, S

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on the condition of the Belize reef system and how the government takes the initiative to protect its wondrous beauty. The Belize reef system is located along the coast between Belize City and Punta Gorda, which is considered to be the largest barrier reef in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the appearance of a remarkably empty coastline, a glance to the Maya Mountains in the west will show that most of the development is taking place in the coastal areas. The earliest attempts to protect Belizeżs reefs focused on the establishment of protected areas and from this resulted in a remarkably ambitious marine protection program. Based on an integrated coastal zone management, a Coastal Zone Management Unit was established in 1990. This program encouraged the sharing of information, contribution to the creation of feasible government policies, plans and programs, identification of technical problems and provision of advice on a variety of issues. In addition, a steering committee was established in 1993, which is responsible for overseeing the implementation of the program and ensuring inter-ministerial coordination. Furthermore, public participation is also taking place in more direct ways, particularly with fishermen and dive operators. In order to achieve self-sufficiency, the program requires financial sustainability, a sufficient national capacity for management and political will, and public support. PMID:12295812

  12. Predictive Habitat Modelling as a Tool to Assess the Change in Distribution and Extent of an OSPAR Priority Habitat under an Increased Ocean Temperature Scenario: Consequences for Marine Protected Area Networks and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gormley, Kate S. G.; Porter, Joanne S.; Bell, Michael C.; Hull, Angela D.; Sanderson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in “future-proofing” conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as ‘good’ to ‘excellent’ on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of “most suitable”, “less suitable” and “unsuitable” habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of “most suitable” habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible “conservation management tool”. PMID:23894298

  13. Predictive habitat modelling as a tool to assess the change in distribution and extent of an OSPAR priority habitat under an increased ocean temperature scenario: consequences for marine protected area networks and management.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Kate S G; Porter, Joanne S; Bell, Michael C; Hull, Angela D; Sanderson, William G

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in "future-proofing" conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as 'good' to 'excellent' on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of "most suitable", "less suitable" and "unsuitable" habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of "most suitable" habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible "conservation management tool". PMID:23894298

  14. Shoreline Armoring, Risk Management, and Coastal Resilience Under Rising Seas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Kittinger; Adam L. Ayers

    2010-01-01

    The land–sea interface is a complex social–ecological system characterized by natural ecological processes and human-induced changes. Holistic management of the shoreline is a critical element of an ecosystem-based approach to the land–sea interface in coastal zone management (CZM) programs. Anthropogenic alteration of shoreline environments has resulted in significant loss of sandy beach ecosystems and eroded the resilience of these systems

  15. Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

  16. RETURN TO THE RIVER -2000 Chapter 10 Marine Environment

    E-print Network

    RETURN TO THE RIVER - 2000 Chapter 10 Marine Environment 367367 Return to Table of Contents Go to Next Chapter CHAPTER 10. THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT "Some might be tempted to attribute all changes that environment allows, management interventions are more important when the ocean environment reduces natural

  17. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    on the impacts of marine protected areas. Ecosystems 2:539­554 Numerical assessment in the front seat, ecologyMARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 208: 299­313, 2000 Published December 8 cases for inclusion in the development of fisheries ecology, and in stock management prac- tices

  18. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  19. Lower trophic levels and detrital biomass control the Bay of Biscay continental shelf food web: Implications for ecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassalle, G.; Lobry, J.; Le Loc'h, F.; Bustamante, P.; Certain, G.; Delmas, D.; Dupuy, C.; Hily, C.; Labry, C.; Le Pape, O.; Marquis, E.; Petitgas, P.; Pusineri, C.; Ridoux, V.; Spitz, J.; Niquil, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Bay of Biscay (North-East Atlantic) has long been subjected to intense direct and indirect human activities that lead to the excessive degradation and sometimes overexploitation of natural resources. Fisheries management is gradually moving away from single-species assessments to more holistic, multi-species approaches that better respond to the reality of ecosystem processes. Quantitative modelling methods such as Ecopath with Ecosim can be useful tools for planning, implementing and evaluating ecosystem-based fisheries management strategies. The aim of this study was therefore to model the energy fluxes within the food web of this highly pressured ecosystem and to extract practical information required in the diagnosis of ecosystem state/health. A well-described model comprising 30 living and two non-living compartments was successfully constructed with data of local origin, for the Bay of Biscay continental shelf. The same level of aggregation was applied to primary producers, mid-trophic-levels and top-predators boxes. The model was even more general as it encompassed the entire continuum of marine habitats, from benthic to pelagic domains. Output values for most ecosystem attributes indicated a relatively mature and stable ecosystem, with a large proportion of its energy flow originating from detritus. Ecological network analysis also provided evidence that bottom-up processes play a significant role in the population dynamics of upper-trophic-levels and in the global structuring of this marine ecosystem. Finally, a novel metric based on ecosystem production depicted an ecosystem not far from being overexploited. This finding being not entirely consistent over indicators, further analyses based on dynamic simulations are required.

  20. Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

  1. Marine corrosion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1985-04-24

    This report is a review of marine corrosion of metals and alloys which is to be included in the new Handbook of Ocean Engineering, to be published by Academic Press in 1985. The report describes marine environments, the types of marine corrosion encountered, cathodic protection and alloys used in marine applications. Emphasis is placed on describing the types of corrosion generally found and the preventative measures employed.

  2. Environmental quality assessment of the marine reserves of the Tuscan Archipelago, Central Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monia Renzi; Guido Perra; Arianna Lobianco; Elena Mari; Cristiana Guerranti; Antonietta Specchiulli; Milva Pepi; Silvano Focardi

    2010-01-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in the number of Marine Protected Areas and marine reserves over the last decade. In these areas, the protection measures adopted are related to specific management goals; nevertheless, actual knowledge of the effectiveness of the restrictions is far from exhaustive. This article aims to contribute to knowledge of the environmental quality of the marine

  3. Marine Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  4. Marine & hydrokinetic technology development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al LiVecchi; Richard Alan Jepsen

    2010-01-01

    The Wind and Water Power Program supports the development of marine and hydrokinetic devices, which capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, the natural flow of water in rivers, and marine thermal gradients, without building new dams or diversions. The program works closely with industry and the Department of Energy's national laboratories to advance the development and testing of marine

  5. Naval Architecture Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2014-2015 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

  6. Naval Architecture Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2011-2012 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

  7. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  8. Marine Conservation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  9. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  10. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415

  11. ABOUT THE JOURNAL Marine Resource Economics publishes creative and scholarly

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    ocean energy sources, marine transportation, coastal land use and climate adaptation, and management Spring Dec 1 Jan 2 Summer Mar 1 April 1 Fall Jun 1 Jul 1 Winter Sep 1 Oct 1 Color Options: Color ad space

  12. 76 FR 26253 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...Ecosystem Restoration Task Force; National Ocean Policy, coastal and marine spatial planning, ocean energy and climate change adaptation; fisheries management; quota re-allocation policy; and aquaculture policy implementation. Updates...

  13. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  14. Mariner Venus/Mercury '73 - A strategy of cost control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggs, J. R.; Downhower, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Mariner Venus/Mercury '73 project kept within its originally established goals for schedule, performance, and cost. Underlying this development success was the availability of the Mariner technology. But meeting the goals demanded management determination, planning, and discipline to make optimum use of state-of-the-art technology. The present work points out management approaches and techniques that kept schedules and controlled costs, the intent being to stimulate thought about how to do the same with future spacecraft and payloads.

  15. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jaime S.; Stewart, Heather A.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of ‘listed’ habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311–1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747–791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099–1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  16. Benthic Assemblages of the Anton Dohrn Seamount (NE Atlantic): Defining Deep-Sea Biotopes to Support Habitat Mapping and Management Efforts with a Focus on Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jaime S; Stewart, Heather A; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Jacobs, Colin; Spicer, John; Golding, Neil; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    In 2009 the NW and SE flanks of Anton Dohrn Seamount were surveyed using multibeam echosounder and video ground-truthing to characterise megabenthic biological assemblages (biotopes) and assess those which clearly adhere to the definition of Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, for use in habitat mapping. A combination of multivariate analysis of still imagery and video ground-truthing defined 13 comprehensive descriptions of biotopes that function as mapping units in an applied context. The data reveals that the NW and SE sides of Anton Dohrn Seamount (ADS) are topographically complex and harbour diverse biological assemblages, some of which agree with current definitions of 'listed' habitats of conservation concern. Ten of these biotopes could easily be considered Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems; three coral gardens, four cold-water coral reefs, two xenophyophore communities and one sponge dominated community, with remaining biotopes requiring more detailed assessment. Coral gardens were only found on positive geomorphic features, namely parasitic cones and radial ridges, found both sides of the seamount over a depth of 1311-1740 m. Two cold-water coral reefs (equivalent to summit reef) were mapped on the NW side of the seamount; Lophelia pertusa reef associated with the cliff top mounds at a depth of 747-791 m and Solenosmilia variabilis reef on a radial ridge at a depth of 1318-1351 m. Xenophyophore communities were mapped from both sides of the seamount at a depth of 1099-1770 m and were either associated with geomorphic features or were in close proximity (< 100 m) to them. The sponge dominated community was found on the steep escarpment either side of the seamount over at a depth of 854-1345 m. Multivariate diversity revealed the xenophyophore biotopes to be the least diverse, and a hard substratum biotope characterised by serpulids and the sessile holothurian, Psolus squamatus, as the most diverse. PMID:25992572

  17. A multi-attribute trade-off approach for advancing the management of marine wildlife tourism: a quantitative assessment of heterogeneous visitor preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina A. D. Semeniuk; Wolfgang Haider; Ben Beardmore; Kristina D. Rothley

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. Wildlife tourism can be prone to unmitigated,development,to promote,visitor satisfaction that is all too often progressed at the cost of ecological integrity. A manager,is thus faced with the dual task of enhancing,the tourist experience and protecting the wildlife species. Accordingly, this mandate requires research into how tourists would,respond,to proposed,wildlife-management plans. 2. This study examines,the heterogeneity,of tourist preferences for wildlife

  18. Automated data quality assurance for marine observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Koziana; J. Olson; T. Anselmo; W. Lu

    2008-01-01

    The ocean monitoring community requires high quality data that is Data Management and Communications (DMAC)-compliant for both near real time and climate data records. The authors describe a flexible and cost effective automated data quality assurance (ADQA) system that can be used to assess the quality of marine observations and provide quality controlled data to a wide variety of end

  19. Recovery of marine animal populations and ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    have reported strong declines in marine animal populations and the degradation of ocean ecosystems over past decades and centuries around the world [1­7], leading to a widespread perception of empty oceans and ecosystem degradation by implementing management and conservation measures. Some of these have been

  20. Delivering the evidence for marine policy

    E-print Network

    science to support conservation, environmental protection, fishing and coastal management objectives and monitoring that have helped us to understand how the marine environment works, the risks posed by human and available for copyright-free use. Movie: a short video presentation setting out the work

  1. Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology General Goals of the Minor in Marine Biology About who choose the Minor in Marine Biology will learn about the biology, evolution and ecology of organisms that inhabit these environments and the ecological processes linking them. Marine biology draws

  2. MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences

    E-print Network

    Hartman, Chris

    MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Graduate Program in Marine Sciences Requirements for Degrees: MS: 30 credits; PhD: 18 thesis credits The marine biology graduate program focuses on the ecology, physiology and biochemistry/molecular biology of marine organisms. Students may pursue either

  3. Genetic Perspectives on Marine Biological Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Jonathan B.; Darling, John A.; Carlton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  4. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n?=?47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

  5. Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae, and invertebrates). Keystone groups were prevalent in estuarine or small/shallow systems, and in systems with reduced fishing pressure. Changes to the abundance of key functional groups might have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems and should be avoided through management. Conclusion/significance Our results provide additional understanding of patterns of structural and functional indicators in different ecosystems. Ecosystem traits such as type, size, depth, and location need to be accounted for when setting reference levels as these affect absolute values of ecological indicators. Therefore, establishing absolute reference values for ecosystem indicators may not be suitable to the ecosystem-based, precautionary approach. Reference levels for ecosystem indicators should be developed for individual ecosystems or ecosystems with the same typologies (similar location, ecosystem type, etc.) and not benchmarked against all other ecosystems. PMID:24763610

  6. Discovery Collection: Marine Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  7. Sea Grant Marine Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.

  8. Biological control of marine invasive species: cautionary tales and land-based lessons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Secord

    2003-01-01

    Biological control (biocontrol) has successfully regulated pest populations in terrestrial agroecosystems, but it has also caused negative unintended consequences for native species. Marine biologists and resource managers have recently published a growing number of proposals to include biocontrol in integrated pest management programs in oceans, seas and estuaries. Here, I review six ecologically and taxonomically diverse case studies of marine

  9. Marine Modeling and Analysis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Centers for Environmental Prediction, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

  10. Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Undergraduate Program The University of Michigan #12;2 The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Educational Objectives The Educational Objectives knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering within naval architecture and marine engineering

  11. SCHOOL OF MARINE SCIENCES Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    oceanography; aquaculture; marine biology; marine geology; marine resource development and policy; seafloor; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Biology; M.S. degree in Marine Policy; Dual M.S. degree in Marine Policy and either Oceanography or Marine Biology; M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Bio

  12. Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

    1994-01-01

    An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

  13. Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

    2012-07-01

    The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10 g) were sprayed with 2.0 ml of 1,600 AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18 °C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4 °C to >21 days as against <14 days observed in the untreated samples. The total count of spoilage bacteria was reduced by 2.5 logarithmic units in the treated sample during the 14th day of storage as against the control. Chemical analysis revealed a significant change (P?

  14. Decadal regime shift linkage between global marine fish landings and atmospheric planetary wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, J.

    2014-08-01

    This investigation focuses on a global forcing mechanism for decadal regime shifts and their subsequent impacts. The proposed global forcing mechanism is the global atmospheric planetary waves that can lead to changes in the global surface air-sea conditions and subsequently fishery changes. In this study, the five decadal regime shifts (1956-1957, 1964-1965, 1977-1978, 1988-1989, and 1998-1999) in the recent 59 years (1950-2008) have been identified based on student t tests and their association with global marine ecosystem change has been discussed. Changes in the three major oceanic (Pacific, Atlantic and Indian) ecosystems will be explored with the goal of demonstrating the linkage between stratospheric planetary waves and the ocean surface forcing that leads to fisheries impacts. Due to the multidisciplinary audience, the global forcing mechanism is described from a top-down approach to help the multidisciplinary audience follow the analysis. Following previous work, this analysis addresses how changes in the atmospheric planetary waves may influence the vertical wind structure, surface wind stress, and their connection with the global ocean ecosystems based on a coupling of the atmospheric regime shifts with the decadal regime shifts determined from marine life changes. The multiple decadal regime shifts related to changes in marine life are discussed using the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) global fish capture data (catch/stock). Analyses are performed to demonstrate the interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, and fisheries are a plausible approach to explaining decadal climate change in the global marine ecosystems and its impacts. The results show a consistent mechanism, ocean wind stress, responsible for marine shifts in the three major ocean basins. Changes in the planetary wave pattern affect the ocean wind stress patterns. A change in the ocean surface wind pattern from long wave (relatively smooth and less complex) to shorter wave (more convoluted and more complex) ocean surface wind stress creates changes in the ocean marine fisheries.

  15. A General Business Model for Marine Reserves

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Enric; Costello, Christopher; Dougherty, Dawn; Heal, Geoffrey; Kelleher, Kieran; Murray, Jason H.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sumaila, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Marine reserves are an effective tool for protecting biodiversity locally, with potential economic benefits including enhancement of local fisheries, increased tourism, and maintenance of ecosystem services. However, fishing communities often fear short-term income losses associated with closures, and thus may oppose marine reserves. Here we review empirical data and develop bioeconomic models to show that the value of marine reserves (enhanced adjacent fishing + tourism) may often exceed the pre-reserve value, and that economic benefits can offset the costs in as little as five years. These results suggest the need for a new business model for creating and managing reserves, which could pay for themselves and turn a profit for stakeholder groups. Our model could be expanded to include ecosystem services and other benefits, and it provides a general framework to estimate costs and benefits of reserves and to develop such business models. PMID:23573192

  16. Instructors Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Instructors Marine Biology Location: Charleston Closes: 30-Nov-2012 The University of Oregon's Institute of Marine Biology maintains a pool of applicants for temporary instructional positions during the Institute's summer session. For summer 2012 we are interested in applicants to teach an eight week biology

  17. MarineLink

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MarineLink.com is an online source for news, events, and information in maritime fields. On the site, visitors will find access to news and updates on contracts, workboats, and maritime security in addition to the site's two magazines: Maritime Technology Reporter and Marine News. There is also information about upcoming events.

  18. Understanding Marine Customers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2006-11-02

    This webcast introduces the different marine forecast customers and discusses what forecast information they need to know and why they need to know it. A better understanding of the needs of the marine forecast customer will lead to better daily forecasts.

  19. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  20. Shannon Point Marine Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the SPMC is to increase understanding of the coastal marine environment and resources of the Puget Sound basin through research and education. Research projects target estuarine processes and traditional studies of marine biology and ecology. Site features information on the local environment, SPMC faculty, research, facilities, graduate program, undergraduate opportunities, and much more. Also includes the latest SPMC news and activities.

  1. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Carlson; Zhiqun Deng; Joshua R. Myers; Shari Matzner; Andrea E. Copping

    2011-01-01

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals

  4. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  5. Is hot water immersion an effective treatment for marine envenomation?

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, P R T; Boyle, A; Hartin, D; McAuley, D

    2006-01-01

    Envenomation by marine creatures is common. As more people dive and snorkel for leisure, the incidence of envenomation injuries presenting to emergency departments has increased. Although most serious envenomations occur in the temperate or tropical waters of the Indo?Pacific region, North American and European waters also provide a habitat for many stinging creatures. Marine envenomations can be classified as either surface stings or puncture wounds. Antivenom is available for a limited number of specific marine creatures. Various other treatments such as vinegar, fig juice, boiled cactus, heated stones, hot urine, hot water, and ice have been proposed, although many have little scientific basis. The use of heat therapies, previously reserved for penetrating fish spine injuries, has been suggested as treatment for an increasing variety of marine envenomation. This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of hot water immersion (HWI) and other heat therapies in the management of patients presenting with pain due to marine envenomation. PMID:16794088

  6. Marine Policy Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    ) Challenges in developing China's marine protected area system. Marine Policy 33(4): 599-605. doi:10.1016/j.marpol protected area system. Marine Policy 33(4): 599-605. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2008.12.005 1. Introduction Marine

  7. Complementarity of no-take marine reserves and individual transferable catch quotas for managing the line fishery of the great barrier reef.

    PubMed

    Little, L R; Grafton, R Q; Kompas, T; Smith, A D M; Punt, A E; Mapstone, B D

    2011-04-01

    Changes in the management of the fin fish fishery of the Great Barrier Reef motivated us to investigate the combined effects on economic returns and fish biomass of no-take areas and regulated total allowable catch allocated in the form of individual transferable quotas (such quotas apportion the total allowable catch as fishing rights and permits the buying and selling of these rights among fishers). We built a spatially explicit biological and economic model of the fishery to analyze the trade-offs between maintaining given levels of fish biomass and the net financial returns from fishing under different management regimes. Results of the scenarios we modeled suggested that a decrease in total allowable catch at high levels of harvest either increased net returns or lowered them only slightly, but increased biomass by up to 10% for a wide range of reserve sizes and an increase in the reserve area from none to 16% did not greatly change net returns at any catch level. Thus, catch shares and no-take reserves can be complementary and when these methods are used jointly they promote lower total allowable catches when harvest is relatively high and encourage larger no-take areas when they are small. PMID:20964713

  8. Economic growth and marine biodiversity: influence of human social structure on decline of marine trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Rebecca; York, Richard

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of economic growth, urbanization, and human population size on marine biodiversity. We used the mean trophic level (MTL) of marine catch as an indicator of marine biodiversity and conducted cross-national time-series analyses (1960-2003) of 102 nations to investigate human social influences on fish catch and trends in MTL. We constructed path models to examine direct and indirect effects relating to marine catch and MTL. Nations' MTLs declined with increased economic growth, increased urbanization, and increased population size, in part because of associated increased catch. These findings contradict the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, which claims that economic modernization will reduce human impact on the environment. To make informed decisions on issues of marine resource management, policy makers, nonprofit entities, and professional societies must recognize the need to include social analyses in overall conservation-research strategies. The challenge is to utilize the socioeconomic and ecological research in the service of a comprehensive marine-conservation movement. PMID:18402586

  9. NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Fisheries Information System (FIS)

    E-print Network

    s NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Fisheries Information System (FIS) Program Management Plan.Valentin@noaa.gov Release Date: February 9, 2006 Release Number: 1.1 Release Number Release Date Description 1.0 01/31/2006 Initial release 1.1 02/09/2006 Updated section 4.5, Risk Management #12;Contributors · David Ackley

  10. A review of initial investigations to utilize ERTS-1 data in determining the availability and distribution of living marine resources. [fish harvesting and management in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H.; Kemmerer, A. J.; Atwell, B. H.; Maughan, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    This study was initiated in July 1972 to determine the reliability of satellite and high altitude sensors to provide data about oceanographic parameters in coastal waters; demonstrate the use of remotely sensed oceanographic information to predict the distribution and abundance of adult menhaden; and, demonstrate the potential of using satellite acquired information for improving the harvest and management of a fishery resource. The study focused on coastal are as in the north central portion of the Gulf of Mexico including parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The area used in the final analysis was limited to the Mississippi Sound, which is approximately 145 kilometers (90 miles) long and 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide, has an average water depth of about 3.7 meters (12 feet), and in general characterizes an estuarine environment.

  11. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  12. MTS 94: Challenges and opportunities in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Technology Society 1994 conference was held in Washington, D.C., September 7-9, 1994. Titled Challenges and Opportunities in the Marine Environment, the conference offered a wide variety of presentations. State-of-the-art technology, government policies and regulations, and environmental concerns were addressed. Offshore mining, coastal zone management, marine engineering, oceanographic research, educational issues, and global climate change were also well represented in the presentations. The conference proceedings are organized around the daily sessions and roughly 70% of the papers are included.

  13. What Are Marine Bioinvaders?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site explains what marine bioinvaders are, how they get to New England, where they are, and their impact on ecosystems. There are maps of introduced and cryptogenic species along the Massachusetts coast. Fact sheets and general information are provided on exotic species, sources of bioinvasion, ballast water, aquaculture, New England marine bioinvaders, and Hemigrapsus sanguineus. Educational materials are available for loan for a small fee. There are also marine bioinvaders references, conference information, and information on a program to recruit the public to locate additional sightings of exotic species.

  14. The Marine Mammal Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from San Francisco's Marine Mammal Center (MMC) offers a look at current research at the facility. Research focuses primarily on marine mammal health issues, with the goal of improving the rehabilitation process for stranded animals. Visitors to this site can read brief descriptions of current projects in three areas -- Disease Studies; Clinical Technique Studies, which investigates ways to improve diagnostic tests and clinical procedures for stranded marine mammals; and Tagging Studies, intended to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation. The site also provides a comprehensive bibliography of publications and conference presentations by MMC researchers.

  15. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  16. Marine medicinal glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Glycomics is an international initiative aimed to understand the structure and function of the glycans from a given type of cell, tissue, organism, kingdom or even environment, as found under certain conditions. Glycomics is one of the latest areas of intense biological research. Glycans of marine sources are unique in terms of structure and function. They differ considerably from those of terrestrial origin. This review discusses the most known marine glycans of potential therapeutic properties. They are chitin, chitosan, and sulfated polysaccharides named glycosaminoglycans, sulfated fucans, and sulfated galactans. Their medical actions are very broad. When certain structural requirements are found, these glycans can exhibit beneficial effects in inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, cancer growth/metastasis, and vascular biology. Both structure and therapeutic mechanisms of action of these marine glycans are discussed here in straight context with the current glycomic age through a project suggestively named marine medicinal glycomics. PMID:24524028

  17. Marine riser base system

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, B.F.

    1986-12-30

    A marine riser base system is described comprising: a fluid-tight hull positioned on the marine bottom; a support member comprising; a platform; means for securing the platform above the hull; means on the platform adapted for securing the lower end of a marine riser to the platform; flowline connector means on the platform adapted to be connected to the lower end of a flowline carrier by the marine riser; and a means for fluidly connecting the flowline connector means on the platform to the interior of the hull through a point on the lower side of the hull; the means comprising: a length of rigid pipe having a circularly-curved portion conforming substantially to the surface of the hull and spaced therefrom. The pipe has one end fixed to the platform and has the flowline connector means thereon. Its other end is fixed to the lower side of the hull where the other end penetrates the hull.

  18. Marine Engineering Geological Exploration Information System (MEGEIS): A GIS-based application to marine resources exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Tianyun; Liu, Baohua; Zhai, Shikui; Liang, Ruicai; Zheng, Yanpeng

    2007-07-01

    Based on the ArcGIS geographic information system and the ORACLE database management system, this paper reports our studies on the technology of Marine Engineering Geological Exploration Information System (MEGEIS). By analyzing system structure, designing function modules and discussing data management, this paper systematically proposes a framework of technology to integrate, manage, and analyze the seabed information comprehensively. Then, the technology is applied to the design and development of the Bohai Sea Oilfield Paradigm Area Information System. The system can not only meet the practical demands of marine resources exploration and exploitation in the Bohai Sea oilfield, but also serve as a preparatory work in theory and technology for the realization of the ‘Digital Seabed’.

  19. Marine Environmental Research Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Maine-based research facility studies pollutant impacts on marine mammals, water quality monitoring, and coastal impacts. Also maintains a seal stranding response and rescue center. Public outreach programs feature speakers, lending library, and Ocean Aquarium Room with regional marine life. Experiential education programs including onsite visits and ecological cruises are offered for schools and the community, fees apply. Summer internships available for undergraduate and graduate students.

  20. Ask a Marine Scientist

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is dedicated to ocean education. You will find all kinds of interesting information about things like: the biggest sea animals, marine biology careers, answers to common ocean and animal questions, and more. Check the Answer Archive for answers to your marine science questions, and if you do not find your answer, ask one of their scientists. This site also includes ocean news, world records, and information on summer camps.

  1. Hatfield Marine Science Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Newport, Oregon, Hatfield Marine Science Center plays an integral role in programs of marine and estuarine research and instruction, as a laboratory facility serving resident scientists, as a base for far-ranging oceanographic studies, and as a classroom for students. Site features information on courses, seminars, facilities, and current research. Education Programs section includes teacher and student resources. Resources applicable to local and distant educators.

  2. Marine Mammal Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A non-profit hospital located in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area near Sausalito, California that rescues and rehabilitates marine mammals. Site contains information on education, research, and adopt-a-seal; features a photo gallery and FAQs. Volunteer, membership, and donation opportunities available. Information on what to do when finding a stranded marine mammal and stay current with the Center's patients. Education programs available at the Center or at your location (fees associated).

  3. 15 CFR 922.192 - Joint Management Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint Management Committee. 922.192 Section 922...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Underwater Preserve § 922.192 Joint Management Committee. (a) A...

  4. Estuarine recruitment of a marine goby reconstructed with an isotopic clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jef Guelinckx; Joachim Maes; Bram Geysen; Frans Ollevier

    2008-01-01

    Information on movement patterns of marine fishes between estuarine populations and stocks at sea is fundamental to understanding\\u000a their population dynamics, life history tactics and behavior. Furthermore, understanding estuarine habitat use by marine fishes\\u000a is crucial for their effective conservation and integrated estuarine management. Although large numbers of young marine fish\\u000a make use of temperate estuaries in highly predictable abundance

  5. GLERL Research: An Ecosystem-based Approach GLERL researchers possess a wide range of scientific disciplines and expertise, allowing them to

    E-print Network

    · 2 computer labs · 14 storage areas · 10,000 square foot outdoor wareyard The GLERL Ann Arbor, instrumentation, and observation platforms to further our understanding of ecosystem processes, validate forecast models, and provide decision support for resource managers. Observation systems provide long-term data

  6. Perceptions of Rule-Breaking Related to Marine Ecosystem Health

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Matthew J.; Mgaya, Yunus D.; Stead, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing) and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t?=?3.5, df?=?297, p<0.01). Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying “some” (32% of responses) or “most” (15% of responses) people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z?=??3.44, p<0.001) in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas), policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities. PMID:24586558

  7. Perceptions of rule-breaking related to marine ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Slater, Matthew J; Mgaya, Yunus D; Stead, Selina M

    2014-01-01

    Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing) and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t?=?3.5, df?=?297, p<0.01). Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying "some" (32% of responses) or "most" (15% of responses) people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z=?-3.44, p<0.001) in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas), policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities. PMID:24586558

  8. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  9. POLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas

    E-print Network

    Gerber, Leah R.

    visitors who dive in MPAs of develop- ing countries are frequently willing to pay diving fees, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Keywords Coral reefs; diving; economics; financing; management; marine The recreational use of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a potential source of funding for MPAs in developing

  10. The impact of marine reserves on nekton diversity and community composition in subtropical eastern Australia

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    Australia Suzanne Pillansa,b, *, Juan-Carlos Ortizb , Richard D. Pillansc , Hugh P. Possinghamd a CRC for Coastal Zone, Estuary and Waterway Management, Australia b Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia c CSIRO Marine Research, P.O. Box 120, Cleveland, Brisbane

  11. Providing scientific stewardship of marine data and information NOAA's Ocean Data Archive

    E-print Network

    Providing scientific stewardship of marine data and information NOAA's Ocean Data Archive Have you with unmatched expertise in the scientific stewardship of marine data and information. NODC's unique blend stewardship by providing access to the Nation's ocean and coastal data resources. NODC leads data management

  12. Incidental catch of marine mammals in the southwest Indian Ocean: a preliminary review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy J. KISZKA; Catharine E. MUIR; Omar A. AMIR; Violaine DROUOT-DULAU

    Incidental catch in fishing gears is a serious threat to marine megafauna (sea turtles, sharks and marine mammals) at the global scale. In order to manage this threat, it is critical to assess its extent, both spatially and quantitatively. In the southwest Indian Ocean (from 0 to 25°S, from eastern Africa to 60°E), there is a paucity of information on

  13. P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide

    E-print Network

    P a g e | 1 SFU Marine Vessel Registration, Insurance & Operations Guide Table of Contents Last...................................................................................................................................... 8 #12;P a g e | 2 Operation of SFU marine vessels ...........................................................................10 #12;P a g e | 3 This document was last updated March 2012. Please advise Risk Management of any

  14. New Waves in Marine Science Symposium: Marine Animal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Betty, Comp.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are the abstracts from three research projects on marine social systems which were a part of a marine science symposium. Five sets of activities on marine animal communication are included, one each for grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8 and 9-12, and informal education. (CW)

  15. Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    . Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ BAMA MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ BSMAS areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Science/Biology Marine biologistsUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2013-2014 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

  16. Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    . Introduction 2. Degree Programs and Sample Curricula MARINE AFFAIRS ­ B.A.M.A MARINE SCIENCE / BIOLOGY ­ B areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Biology Marine biologists studyUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2012-2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

  17. Hellenic Centre for Marine Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at several site in Greece, the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research was set up as a single institution in order to integrate government-funded marine science research in Greece. The Centre consists of five institutes: oceanography, aquaculture, marine biological resources, inland waters, and marine biology and genetics. The website includes information on services it provides, the center library, current research initiatives, and the center's two aquaria.

  18. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michčle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  19. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michčle R

    2013-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

  20. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michčle R

    2012-02-01

    Covering: 2010. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28, 196. This review covers the literature published in 2010 for marine natural products, with 895 citations (590 for the period January to December 2010) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1003 for 2010), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:22193773

  1. Alkaloids in marine algae.

    PubMed

    Güven, Kasim Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  2. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  3. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, D.J. (US Environmental Protection Agency, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Newport, OR (US)); Duedall, I.W. (Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (US))

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods.

  4. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  5. 3, 15871629, 2006 Marine phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp discussion forum of Biogeosciences The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C #12;BGD 3, 1587­1629, 2006 Marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation C. P. Slomp

  6. NITROGEN IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    #12;NITROGEN IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 2nd Edition #12;This page intentionally left blank #12;NITROGEN IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT 2nd Edition DOUGLAS G CAPONE DEBORAH A BRONK MARGARET R MULHOLLAND. The Marine Nitrogen Cycle: Overview and Challenges 1 Nicolas Gruber 1. Introduction 1 2. Overview of Forms

  7. Hellenic Center for Marine Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at several site in Greece, the HCMR was set up as a single institution in order to integrate government-funded marine science research in Greece. The Center consists of five institutes: oceanography, aquaculture, marine biological resources, inland waters, and marine biology and genetics. Site includes information on services it provides, the center library, current research initiatives, and the center's two aquaria.

  8. Marine Mammal Center Youth Volunteering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Sausalito, California, the Marine Mammal Center offers a variety of programs to introduce students 14 to 18 years of age to marine science related careers and to get involved in marine mammal conservation. Site features information on job shadowing, volunteering, and Center internships. Also links to adult volunteer opportunities, as well as the research, rehabilitation, and educational programs that the Center runs.

  9. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (editor); Cornillon, P. (editor); Aubrey, D. A. (editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  10. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  11. 78 FR 14271 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  12. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  13. 75 FR 42379 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  14. 77 FR 64796 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  15. 78 FR 4390 - Availability of Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  16. 76 FR 6119 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Point Arena State Marine Reserve, Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion Cove State Marine Conservation Area, Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area, Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve, Stewarts Point State Marine Reserve, Salt...

  17. Oceans and Human Health (OHH): a European perspective from the Marine Board of the European Science Foundation (Marine Board-ESF).

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Depledge, Michael H; Fleming, Lora; Hess, Philipp; Lees, David; Leonard, Paul; Madsen, Lise; Owen, Richard; Pirlet, Hans; Seys, Jan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Viarengo, Aldo

    2013-05-01

    The oceans and coastal seas provide mankind with many benefits including food for around a third of the global population, the air that we breathe and our climate system which enables habitation of much of the planet. However, the converse is that generation of natural events (such as hurricanes, severe storms and tsunamis) can have devastating impacts on coastal populations, while pollution of the seas by pathogens and toxic waste can cause illness and death in humans and animals. Harmful effects from biogenic toxins produced by algal blooms (HABs) and from the pathogens associated with microbial pollution are also a health hazard in seafood and from direct contact with water. The overall global burden of human disease caused by sewage pollution of coastal waters has been estimated at 4 million lost person-years annually. Finally, the impacts of all of these issues will be exacerbated by climate change. A holistic systems approach is needed. It must consider whole ecosystems, and their sustainability, such as integrated coastal zone management, is necessary to address the highly interconnected scientific challenges of increased human population pressure, pollution and over-exploitation of food (and other) resources as drivers of adverse ecological, social and economic impacts. There is also an urgent and critical requirement for effective and integrated public health solutions to be developed through the formulation of politically and environmentally meaningful policies. The research community required to address "Oceans & Human Health" in Europe is currently very fragmented, and recognition by policy makers of some of the problems, outlined in the list of challenges above, is limited. Nevertheless, relevant key policy issues for governments worldwide include the reduction of the burden of disease (including the early detection of emerging pathogens and other threats) and improving the quality of the global environment. Failure to effectively address these issues will impact adversely on efforts to alleviate poverty, sustain the availability of environmental goods and services and improve health and social and economic stability; and thus, will impinge on many policy decisions, both nationally and internationally. Knowledge exchange (KE) will be a key element of any ensuing research. KE will facilitate the integration of biological, medical, epidemiological, social and economic disciplines, as well as the emergence of synergies between seemingly unconnected areas of science and socio-economic issues, and will help to leverage knowledge transfer across the European Union (EU) and beyond. An integrated interdisciplinary systems approach is an effective way to bring together the appropriate groups of scientists, social scientists, economists, industry and other stakeholders with the policy formulators in order to address the complexities of interfacial problems in the area of environment and human health. The Marine Board of the European Science Foundation Working Group on "Oceans and Human Health" has been charged with developing a position paper on this topic with a view to identifying the scientific, social and economic challenges and making recommendations to the EU on policy-relevant research and development activities in this arena. This paper includes the background to health-related issues linked to the coastal environment and highlights the main arguments for an ecosystem-based whole systems approach. PMID:23503989

  18. Bodega Marine Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Bodega Bay, California, BML mission is to lead the way to the multi-disciplinary scientific understanding required to solve complex environmental problems on the marine and terrestrial sides of the tideline in northern California. Site includes information on faculty, facilities, current research, news and events, and a wealth of real-time and archived data and maps.

  19. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  20. Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation

    E-print Network

    'target species impact Non'target species: Bycatch · Gill net# pelagic: % N Pacific squid# tuna: ·!&! million % Bluefin tunas# Southern Ocean · )!& million hooks in peak year )1*& · Wandering albatrosses declined for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna -ICCAT. % But Bluefin tuna down 1$+ since )10$ Marine conservation laws

  1. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  2. Properties of marine bdellovibrios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marbach; Mazal Varon; M. Shilo

    1975-01-01

    Marine bdellovibrio isolates from the Israeli littoral of the Mediterranean Sea were screened and characterized in terms of host range, temperature and salinity ranges, cation requirement, mutation frequency, and G + C% mole content. Ten types of isolates were distinguished on the basis of these parameters.

  3. Biogeography of Marine Algae

    E-print Network

    Biogeography of Marine Algae David J Garbary, St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia and vicariance in establishing distributions and as factors associated with speciation. Since eukaryotic algae. There are many species that are virtually cosmopolitan (e.g. the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, the red

  4. New marine harmonic standards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Hoevenaars; Ian Evans; Andy Lawson

    2010-01-01

    To address concerns associated with electrical power system harmonic distortion on ships and offshore oil rigs and platforms, marine regulating bodies have introduced strict new harmonic standards. These standards define the acceptable level of harmonic voltage distortion allowed on the vessels they certify. High-harmonic distortion levels are appearing as a result of the increased use of power-electronic drive converters for

  5. Marine Biological Laboratory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research, education, and training in biology, biomedicine, and ecology. Site features the latest news and research developments from MBL. Explore all the latest research, education information, including graduate admissions and teacher workshops, and a glimpse at MBL history, facilities, and more. Current news and links to all kinds of additional MBL resources are also available.

  6. Marine Microbial Ecology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Australian Antarctic Division

    This image-rich website from the Australian Antarctic Division's Biology program describes its research in marine microbial ecology. It includes an introduction of microbial ecology and microbial processes, followed by information about the research project. Field sampling, microscopy, flow cytometry, pigment analysis, flourometry, HPLC, culturing, feeding experiments, and the research staff are each discussed using vivid imagery. Links are provided to related websites.

  7. COMMERCIAL TRUCKS MARINE MODES

    E-print Network

    COMMERCIAL TRUCKS AVIATION MARINE MODES RAILROADS PIPELINES OFF-ROAD EQUIPMENT Potential for Energy, and policy alternatives. In addition to the DOE and its Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, TEF@adonis.osti Available for sale to the public, in paper form, from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical

  8. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An introduction to MLML, including course and faculty information. Includes guidance for prospective students and donors. Information also available on MLML academic programs, affiliates, and resources, including marine operations, diving, library, and graphic design center. Information on seminars, workshops, and thesis and dissertation defenses.

  9. Marine fog: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kora?in, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  10. Marine Protected Areas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Educational resources focusing on understanding of Marine Protected Areas (MPA), their functions, themes and messages. Materials include bibliographies, MPA posters, fact sheets and worksheets. Regional workshops promote MPA issues and concepts. Information exchange options to promote collaboration include: MPA newsletter archives and workshop PowerPoint presentations; announcements for conferences, grants, internships and professional development opportunities.

  11. Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus Cristatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Hollis

    From their blunt nose and razor sharp 3-cusped teeth that allow them to scrape 1 cm high algae from rocks to their long sharp claws that grip rocks from the buffeting of waves, marine iguanas are exquisitely adapted for their environment. Their mostly black skin absorbs the sun's rays helping to regain body temperature from dives in which they can

  12. Marine Biotoxins Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research

    This web page features NOAA's Marine Toxins Program, which targets its research and services at issues related to algal toxins and the organisms responsible for their production. The page includes an overview of the program and provides links to the research portfolio and service capabilities. Services include the Analytical Response Team (ART), Southeast Phytoplankton Monitoring Network, and Technology Transfer.

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE STUDIES USED TO DETECT IMPACTS TO MARINE

    E-print Network

    Commission Prepared By: Dr. Michael Foster Moss Landing Marine Laboratories ConsultantReport (Draft) February Landing, California Contract No. 700-02-004 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Richard Anderson Contract Manager Richard York Project Manager Paul Richins Manager ENVIRONMENAL PROTECTION OFFICE Terrence

  14. The role of sustained observations in tracking impacts of environmental change on marine biodiversity and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, N; Sugden, H; Firth, L B; Hawkins, S J

    2014-09-28

    Marine biodiversity currently faces unprecedented threats from multiple pressures arising from human activities. Global drivers such as climate change and ocean acidification interact with regional eutrophication, exploitation of commercial fish stocks and localized pressures including pollution, coastal development and the extraction of aggregates and fuel, causing alteration and degradation of habitats and communities. Segregating natural from anthropogenically induced change in marine ecosystems requires long-term, sustained observations of marine biota. In this review, we outline the history of biological recording in the coastal and shelf seas of the UK and Ireland and highlight where sustained observations have contributed new understanding of how anthropogenic activities have impacted on marine biodiversity. The contributions of sustained observations, from those collected at observatories, single station platforms and multiple-site programmes to the emergent field of multiple stressor impacts research, are discussed, along with implications for management and sustainable governance of marine resources in an era of unprecedented use of the marine environment. PMID:25157190

  15. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  16. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Training in the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex § 218.37 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of...

  17. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.187 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of...

  18. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.187 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of...

  19. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.187 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of...

  20. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.187 Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. (a) A Letter of...

  1. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  2. MIT marine-related research directory, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents: aeronautics and astronautics; biological sciences; chemical engineering and science; civil and environmental engineering; earth, atmospheric, and planetary sciences; electrical engineering and computer science; energy; management and economics; manufacturing and mechanical technology; marine studies and ocean engineering; materials science and engineering; physics and mathematics.

  3. A Case Study Approach to Marine and Aquatic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snively, Gloria

    1993-01-01

    Suggests using case studies of resource management conflict involving marine and aquatic resource issues to increase student involvement in decision-making processes. Provides information for a potential case involving oyster farms and six steps to help students explore problems and make decisions. (MDH)

  4. Providing scientific stewardship of marine data and information National Oceanographic

    E-print Network

    of oceanographers, computer scientists, data managers, and librarians, know that good decisions are based on good practices for the scientific stewardship of ocean data. Authoritative Records: NODC is a recognized sourceProviding scientific stewardship of marine data and information National Oceanographic Data Center

  5. University of Georgia Marine Institute Procedures and Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    University of Georgia Marine Institute Procedures and Guidelines I want to bring a class or do. Mary manages boat reservations, collection permits and all regulatory operating procedures, as well this year, http://www.uga.edu/ugami, the procedures to gain access to Sapelo and UGAMI will become easier

  6. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    Mangel, Marc

    for human consumption, increases (Nicol et al. 2000). The Southern Ocean krill fishery is managed by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which has adopted an ecosystem and penguins (Croxall & Nicol 2004). As a result, there is a potential for conflict between the fishery

  7. POACHING, ENFORCEMENT, AND THE EFFICACY OF MARINE RESERVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Byers; Erik G. Noonburg

    2007-01-01

    Marine reserves are promoted as an effective supplement to traditional fishery management techniques of harvest quotas and effort limitation. However, quantitative fishery models have ignored the impact of noncompliance (poaching). Here we link a model of a harvested fish population to a game-theoretic representation of fisherman behavior to quantify the effect of poaching on fishery yield and the enforcement effort

  8. Marine kelp: Energy resource in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschard, R. L.; Haven, K. F.

    1980-11-01

    The relationship on the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans is discussed. An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a decription of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries and other legal/institutional impacts.

  9. Concerns related to chronic stress in marine mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew John Wright; Terrence Deak; E. C. M. Parsons

    The management of marine mammals traditionally focuses on lethal takes, such as in bycatch, vessel collisions and strandings. However, we are beginning to realise that non-lethal impacts of human disturbance can also have serious conservation implications, indicating that mortality counts only reveal a fraction of the picture. Possibly the most important of non-lethal (at least, not immediately lethal) impacts arises

  10. Coastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    exacerbating coastal erosion and hazards · Poor water quality that impacts on aquatic lifeCoastal Marine Research & Services Researching and monitoring New Zealand's marine and estauarine resources Coastal Marine Group Environmental Research Institute University ofWaikato #12;Coastal Marine

  11. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals incidental to a marine...intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment....

  12. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research...for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting...not intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who...

  13. 76 FR 46753 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to permitting...not intentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who...

  14. MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 22(2): 276298 (April 2006) C 2006 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy

    E-print Network

    Aberdeen, University of

    ' ecology and evolution. As such, knowledge of this structuring is critical for the conservation and management of natural populations. Among marine mammals, many examples exist of species that enjoy a broad km on Little Bahama Bank in the north- ern Bahamas. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation

  15. Undergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    areas, coastal and ocean law, and marine cultural resources Marine Science/Biology Marine biologists interested in these latter areas should also consider Marine Science/Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUndergraduate Marine Science Program Student Advising Guide 2014-2015 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1

  16. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevi?ien?, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  17. Marine Technology: Training & Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video from Pathways to Technology, learn about the field of marine technology. The ocean is crucial to human life, so it is important to understand the ocean and the challenges it faces today. From mapping the ocean floor to tracking fish populations to monitoring pollution, marine technicians help generate and gather information about whatâ??s happening in the ocean for the benefit of those back on land and the organisms that live in the sea.The video runs 1:21 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  18. An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Habitat Restoration Projects with Emphasis on Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary, 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Thom, R.; Whiting, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-11-01

    Habitat restoration in the Columbia River estuary (CRE) is an important off-site mitigation action in the 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), an operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The CRE, defined as the tidally influenced stretch of river from the mouth to Bonneville Dam 146 miles upstream, is part of the migration pathway for anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin, including salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Salmon in various stages of life, from fry to adults, use tidal channels and wetlands in the CRE to feed, find refuge from predators, and transition physiologically from freshwater to saltwater. Over the last 100 years, however, the area of some wetland habitats has decreased by as much as 70% because of dike and levee building, flow regulation, and other activities. In response to the decline in available habitat, the BiOp's Reasonable and Prudent Alternative (RPA) included mandates to 'develop a plan addressing the habitat needs of juvenile salmon and steelhead in the estuary' (RPA Action 159) and 'develop and implement an estuary restoration program with a goal of protecting and enhancing 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats' (RPA Action 160). To meet Action 159 and support Action 160, this document develops a science-based approach designed to improve ecosystem functions through habitat restoration activities in the CRE. The CRE habitat restoration program's goal and principles focus on habitat restoration projects in an ecosystem context. Since restoration of an entire ecosystem is not generally practical, individual habitat restoration projects have the greatest likelihood of success when they are implemented with an ecosystem perspective. The program's goal is: Implementation of well-coordinated, scientifically sound projects designed to enhance, protect, conserve, restore, and create 10,000 acres of tidal wetlands and other key habitats to aid rebuilding of ESA-listed salmon populations and native species using the CRE. The program's underlying principles are: (1) projects are founded on the best available ecological restoration science, implemented in an ecosystem context, and developed with the intent to restore relevant ecological processes; (2) projects incorporate adaptive management practices with testable hypotheses to track ecological responses to a given restoration effort; and (3) projects are implemented in a coordinated, open process and scientific results from monitoring and evaluation are communicated widely and readily accessible. With this goal and these principles in mind, we developed an approach for CRE habitat restoration. The intent of this document is to provide a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. The stepwise approach to CRE habitat restoration outlined is somewhat general and broad because the available scientific information is incomplete, e.g., juvenile salmon usage of various CRE wetland habitats. As new data become available, a more specific, detailed plan than was possible here can be produced as an outgrowth of this document. In conclusion, this document provides a scientific basis and implementation guidelines for a habitat restoration program designed to improve ecosystem functions and enhance juvenile salmonid survival in the CRE. As more experience is gained with CRE habitat restoration and scientific uncertainties are resolved, this document should be used as a basis for a detailed habitat restoration plan that specifically addresses (1) which habitat types offer the greatest ecological benefit to salmon, (2) the location of potential sites that if restored would likely provide these habitat types, and (3) how and when the restoration work should be done. This document supports the use of adaptive management so that all elements of salmonid habitat restoration actions in the CRE are under continual evaluation and revision at both the project and program levels. Lessons learned from curre

  19. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100?km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action. PMID:22869798

  20. Genomics of Marine Algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana M. Coelho; Svenja Heesch; Nigel Grimsley; Hervé Moreau; J. Mark Cock

    \\u000a The algae are an extremely diverse group of organisms from several different perspectives; including their phylogeny, their\\u000a basic biology and biochemistry, the range of complexity they exhibit and their adaptation to a large number of different habitats.\\u000a As a result, algal research touches on a broad spectrum of questions ranging from the importance of algae as key species in\\u000a marine

  1. Multiyear predictability of tropical marine productivity

    PubMed Central

    Séférian, Roland; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Servonnat, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of decadal predictability simulations, research toward forecasting variations of the climate system now covers a large range of timescales. However, assessment of the capacity to predict natural variations of relevant biogeochemical variables like carbon fluxes, pH, or marine primary productivity remains unexplored. Among these, the net primary productivity (NPP) is of particular relevance in a forecasting perspective. Indeed, in regions like the tropical Pacific (30°N–30°S), NPP exhibits natural fluctuations at interannual to decadal timescales that have large impacts on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Here, we investigate predictions of NPP variations over the last decades (i.e., from 1997 to 2011) with an Earth system model within the tropical Pacific. Results suggest a predictive skill for NPP of 3 y, which is higher than that of sea surface temperature (1 y). We attribute the higher predictability of NPP to the poleward advection of nutrient anomalies (nitrate and iron), which sustain fluctuations in phytoplankton productivity over several years. These results open previously unidentified perspectives to the development of science-based management approaches to marine resources relying on integrated physical-biogeochemical forecasting systems. PMID:25071174

  2. [Marine life envenomations: example in New Caledonia].

    PubMed

    Rual, F

    1999-01-01

    Marine life in the waters of New Caledonia is extraordinarily rich. However some of the animals inhabiting this wonderland are dangerous including a number of venomous species. A retrospective study conducted at the Territorial Hospital in Noumea for the three-year period between 1995 and 1998 showed that nearly 200 people/year were victims of envenomation by marine animals. Findings also indicated that the incidence of envenomation was rising as the practice of marine activities by the local population and tourists increased. Venomous species can be classified into 4 categories according to the mechanism of envenomation, i.e., biting animals such as sea snakes, cephalopoda, and eels; stinging animals including not only fish such as scorpion fish (Pterois, stonefish), sting-rays, saltwater catfish, surgeon fish, and flatfish but also cones and crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci); animals with contact venoms such as cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, sea anemones, and men-of-war), glaucus, sea cucumbers (holothurioidae), and sponges; and animals with more than one envenomation apparatus such as sea urchins and sea worms which can bite and sting. Study focused on the characteristics of each species including biology, envenomation apparatus, and chemical composition and action of the venom; pharmacological and clinical aspects of envenomation; and management and prevention of accidents. PMID:10701210

  3. Multiyear predictability of tropical marine productivity.

    PubMed

    Séférian, Roland; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Swingedouw, Didier; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Servonnat, Jérôme

    2014-08-12

    With the emergence of decadal predictability simulations, research toward forecasting variations of the climate system now covers a large range of timescales. However, assessment of the capacity to predict natural variations of relevant biogeochemical variables like carbon fluxes, pH, or marine primary productivity remains unexplored. Among these, the net primary productivity (NPP) is of particular relevance in a forecasting perspective. Indeed, in regions like the tropical Pacific (30°N-30°S), NPP exhibits natural fluctuations at interannual to decadal timescales that have large impacts on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Here, we investigate predictions of NPP variations over the last decades (i.e., from 1997 to 2011) with an Earth system model within the tropical Pacific. Results suggest a predictive skill for NPP of 3 y, which is higher than that of sea surface temperature (1 y). We attribute the higher predictability of NPP to the poleward advection of nutrient anomalies (nitrate and iron), which sustain fluctuations in phytoplankton productivity over several years. These results open previously unidentified perspectives to the development of science-based management approaches to marine resources relying on integrated physical-biogeochemical forecasting systems. PMID:25071174

  4. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection. PMID:21673890

  6. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  7. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of two commercial fatty acid supplements (EfaVet and DVM Derm Caps), evening primrose oil, and cold water marine fish oil in the management of allergic pruritus in dogs: a double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W; Miller, W H; Decker, G A; Wellington, J R

    1992-07-01

    Twenty dogs with atopy or idiopathic pruritus were treated in a double-blinded clinical trial with computer-randomized and computer-generated sequences of 4 fatty acid-containing products: evening primrose oil, cold water marine fish oil, DVM Derm Caps, and EfaVet. Each dog received each product for a 2-week period. Five of 20 dogs (25%) had a good-to-excellent reduction in their level of pruritus with at least 1 of the products: evening primrose oil (2 dogs), DVM Derm Caps (1), EfaVet (1), DVM Derm Caps and cold water marine fish oil (1). Only 1 dog experienced a side effect (loose stools). Clinical response to fatty acid supplements appeared to be quite individualized, and independent of age, breed, sex, weight, duration of disease, specific diagnosis, or number of positive intradermal test reactions. PMID:1643883

  8. Is the Cape Roux marine protected area (Saint-Raphaël, Mediterranean Sea) an efficient tool to sustain artisanal fisheries? First indications from visual censuses and trammel net sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Seytre; Patrice Francoura

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, marine reserves have been established either to protect ecosystem structure and biolog- ical diversity or to serve as management tools to counter the overexploitation of fish stocks. The Cape Roux marine protected area (MPA), in the Mediterranean Sea, was established in December 2003 for the management of artisanal fisheries and enhancement target fish stocks. Monitoring of littoral

  9. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and related databases.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W; Poore, Gary C B; van Soest, Rob W M; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim; Appeltans, Ward

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the scientific community, and anticipate increased taxonomic efficiency and quality control in marine biodiversity research and management. PMID:23505408

  10. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the scientific community, and anticipate increased taxonomic efficiency and quality control in marine biodiversity research and management. PMID:23505408

  11. NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology

    E-print Network

    NOAAINMFS Developments National Registry of Marine Pathology Opens, Seeks Fish Disease Information Registry of Marine Pathology makes available to marine and estuarine biologists and patholo- gists- ment facility consists of slidecollections illustrating pathology, parasitism, or anomalies in species

  12. 50 CFR 403.06 - Monitoring and review of State management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Monitoring and review of State management program. 403.06 Section 403...SUBCHAPTER A TRANSFER OF MARINE MAMMAL MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY TO STATES § 403.06 Monitoring and review of State management program. (a) The Service...

  13. 50 CFR 403.03 - Review and approval of State request for management authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...and approval of State request for management authority. 403.03 Section...A TRANSFER OF MARINE MAMMAL MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY TO STATES § 403...approval of State request for management authority. (a) Any...

  14. 50 CFR 403.07 - Revocation and return of State management authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Revocation and return of State management authority. 403.07 Section...SUBCHAPTER A TRANSFER OF MARINE MAMMAL MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY TO STATES § 403.07 Revocation and return of State management authority. (a) Revocation...

  15. Water resources management in a homogenizing world: Averting the Growth and Underinvestment trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirchi, Ali; Watkins, David W.; Huckins, Casey J.; Madani, Kaveh; Hjorth, Peder

    2014-09-01

    Biotic homogenization, a de facto symptom of a global biodiversity crisis, underscores the urgency of reforming water resources management to focus on the health and viability of ecosystems. Global population and economic growth, coupled with inadequate investment in maintenance of ecological systems, threaten to degrade environmental integrity and ecosystem services that support the global socioeconomic system, indicative of a system governed by the Growth and Underinvestment (G&U) archetype. Water resources management is linked to biotic homogenization and degradation of system integrity through alteration of water systems, ecosystem dynamics, and composition of the biota. Consistent with the G&U archetype, water resources planning primarily treats ecological considerations as exogenous constraints rather than integral, dynamic, and responsive parts of the system. It is essential that the ecological considerations be made objectives of water resources development plans to facilitate the analysis of feedbacks and potential trade-offs between socioeconomic gains and ecological losses. We call for expediting a shift to ecosystem-based management of water resources, which requires a better understanding of the dynamics and links between water resources management actions, ecological side-effects, and associated long-term ramifications for sustainability. To address existing knowledge gaps, models that include dynamics and estimated thresholds for regime shifts or ecosystem degradation need to be developed. Policy levers for implementation of ecosystem-based water resources management include shifting away from growth-oriented supply management, better demand management, increased public awareness, and institutional reform that promotes adaptive and transdisciplinary management approaches.

  16. Jones PJS (2006) The Marine Bill: Cornucopia or Pandora's Box? ECOS: A Review of Conservation 27(1), 1-6 (Editorial of special issue on the Marine Bill of the journal of the British Association of Nature

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    2006-01-01

    1 Citation Jones PJS (2006) The Marine Bill: Cornucopia or Pandora's Box? ECOS: A Review Association of Nature Conservationists). P.J.Jones@ucl.ac.uk; www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~ucfwpej/ The Marine, during which we must adaptively learn how to better manage and conserve our seas. PETER J.S. JONES

  17. 78 FR 31402 - Safety Zones and Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...Marine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...annual marine events in the Sector Long Island Sound Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone...Management Division at Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound, telephone 203-468- 4559,...

  18. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems. PMID:26017777

  19. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2015-01-01

    There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae. PMID:25988519

  20. Transnational Corporations as ‘Keystone Actors’ in Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Crona, Beatrice; Troell, Max; Merrie, Andrew; Rockström, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems. PMID:26017777

  1. Marine Wave Model Matrix

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2006-05-16

    The Marine Wave Model Matrix provides information on the formulation of wave models developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and other modeling centers, including how these models forecast the generation, propagation, and dissipation of ocean waves using NWP model forecasts for winds and near-surface temperature and stability. Additionally, information is provided on data assimilation, post-processing of data, and verfication of wave models currently in operation. Within the post-processing pages are links to forecast output both in graphical and raw form, including links for data downloads. Links to COMET training on wave processes are also provided.

  2. Hopkins Marine Station: Career Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page is a portal with around 80 links to universities, zoos, aquariums, organizations, private parks, and research institutions. The purpose is to provide advice for those interested in a career in the marine or aquatic sciences. The page contains a compilation of links to postings for jobs, post docs, traineeships, and internships specific to the marine and aquatic sciences.

  3. Biotic interactions of marine algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Potin; Kamal Bouarab; Jean-Pierre Salaün; Georg Pohnert; Bernard Kloareg

    2002-01-01

    Marine algae encompass lineages that diverged about one billion years ago. Recent results suggest that they feature natural immunity traits that are conserved, as well as others that appear to be phylum- or environment-specific. In particular, marine plants resemble terrestrial plants and animals in their basic mechanisms for pathogen recognition and signaling, suggesting that these essential cell functions arose in

  4. Marine Renewable Energy and Cetaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Dolman; Mick Green; Mark P. Simmonds

    There is an ongoing development of offshore renewable energy projects worldwide. Marine wind power technology is the most advanced and tidal and wave power projects are creating increasing interest. Marine renewable energy projects to date have been focused in northern Europe, yet developments are also planned and underway in other parts of the world. Whilst these offshore renewable energy developments

  5. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  6. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  7. South Carolina Marine Educators Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Homepage of the South Carolina Marine Educators Association (SCMEA), the SC chapter of the National Marine Educators Association (NMEA). Access information on upcoming conferences, teacher awards, scholarships, and grants, as well as becoming a member. The "Links for Teachers" section includes external links for teacher resources around the country.

  8. Southeastern New England Marine Educators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Regional chapter of National Marine Educators Association (NMEA) representing teachers in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Shares information on marine and aquatic science education and issues in Southeastern New England, provides opportunities for educators to communicate, encourages professional growth through workshops and conferences.

  9. Uncorrected Modeling Marine Invasions: Current

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Mark

    been and could be useful in understanding marine biological invasions. Mathematical models have long into biological processes in general, and invasion dynamics in particular. The mathematical tools associated of small populations, and have G. Rilov, J.A. Crooks (eds.) Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems. 71

  10. Ecological Genomics of Marine Roseobacters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Moran; R. Belas; M. A. Schell; J. M. Gonzalez; F. Sun; S. Sun; B. J. Binder; J. Edmonds; W. Ye; B. Orcutt; E. C. Howard; C. Meile; W. Palefsky; A. Goesmann; Q. Ren; I. Paulsen; L. E. Ulrich; L. S. Thompson; E. Saunders; A. Buchan

    2007-01-01

    Bacterioplankton of the marine Roseobacter clade have genomes that reflect a dynamic environment and diverse interactions with marine plankton. Comparative genome sequence analysis of three cultured repre- sentatives suggests that cellular requirements for nitrogen are largely provided by regenerated ammonium and organic compounds (polyamines, allophanate, and urea), while typical sources of carbon include amino acids, glyoxylate, and aromatic metabolites. An

  11. Linking marine biology and biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocky de Nys; Peter D Steinberg

    2002-01-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of

  12. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  13. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Special Feature: Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Andy; Failler, Pierre; Bavinck, J. Maarten

    2011-04-01

    The number of MPAs has increased sharply, from just 118 in 1970 to well over 6,300 today. This growth in numbers has also been accompanied by a voluminous growth in the academic literature on the theme, with writers employing ecologic, economic and governance lenses (or a combination thereof) to both support the case for MPA creation, and to evaluate just how successfully (or not) existing MPAs match up to their promises. Research suggests effective management of such protected areas is vital if desired outcomes are to be achieved within the allotted time period. This Special Feature on MPAs therefore seeks to address two key questions derived from the management effectiveness framework of Hockings and others (2000), namely: `How appropriate are the management systems and processes in place?' and `Were the desired Objectives achieved—and if so, why?' Fourteen articles, drawing on different disciplinary perspectives relating to MPA experiences from across the globe, offers insights into these questions by considering, inter alia, how: are MPA sites selected?; is `buy-in' to the process from the various stakeholders achieved?; are these stakeholder's views reflected in the management systems that evolve?, and what monitoring and evaluation mechanisms are in place? Bringing these perspectives and approaches together through the medium of this Special Feature is thus intended to further our understanding of the different issues that may confront both planners and managers of Marine Protected Areas.

  14. The Potential Impact of Labor Choices on the Efficacy of Marine Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Zachary D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Gerber, Leah R.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of marine resources is critical to the wellbeing of human communities. Coastal artisanal fishing communities are particularly reliant on marine resources for food and for their livelihoods. Management actions aimed at marine conservation may lead to unanticipated changes in human behavior that influence the ability of conservation programs to achieve their goals. We examine how marine conservation strategies may impact labor decisions that influence both the ecosystem and human livelihoods using simulation modeling. We consider two conservation strategies in the model: direct action through fisheries regulation enforcement, and indirect action through land conservation. Our results indicate that both strategies can increase the abundance of fish, and thus contribute to the maintenance of marine resources. However, our results also show that marine fisheries enforcement may negatively impact the livelihoods of human communities. Land conservation, on the other hand, potentially enhances the livelihood of the human populations. Thus, depending on management objectives, indirect or a combination of direct and indirect conservation strategies may be effective at achieving conservation and sustainability goals. These results highlight the importance of accounting for changes in human behavior resulting from management actions in conservation and management. PMID:21887306

  15. Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Rick, Torben C.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary study of coastal archaeological sites provides a wealth of information on the ecology and evolution of ancient marine animal populations, the structure of past marine ecosystems, and the history of human impacts on coastal fisheries. In this paper, we review recent methodological developments in the archaeology and historical ecology of coastal regions around the world. Using two case studies, we examine (a) a deep history of anthropogenic effects on the marine ecosystems of California's Channel Islands through the past 12,000 years and (b) geographic variation in the effects of human fishing on Pacific Island peoples who spread through Oceania during the late Holocene. These case studies—the first focused on hunter-gatherers, the second on maritime horticulturalists—provide evidence for shifting baselines and timelines, documenting a much deeper anthropogenic influence on many coastal ecosystems and fisheries than considered by most ecologists, conservation biologists, and fisheries managers.

  16. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  17. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics to Elucidate Functions in Marine Organisms and Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Goulitquer, Sophie; Potin, Philippe; Tonon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Marine systems are very diverse and recognized as being sources of a wide range of biomolecules. This review provides an overview of metabolite profiling based on mass spectrometry (MS) approaches in marine organisms and their environments, focusing on recent advances in the field. We also point out some of the technical challenges that need to be overcome in order to increase applications of metabolomics in marine systems, including extraction of chemical compounds from different matrices and data management. Metabolites being important links between genotype and phenotype, we describe added value provided by integration of data from metabolite profiling with other layers of omics, as well as their importance for the development of systems biology approaches in marine systems to study several biological processes, and to analyze interactions between organisms within communities. The growing importance of MS-based metabolomics in chemical ecology studies in marine ecosystems is also illustrated. PMID:22690147

  18. The Future of the Oceans Past: Towards a Global Marine Historical Research Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtner Máńez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the “History of Marine Animal Populations” project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists. PMID:24988080

  19. 78 FR 20093 - Extension of Application Period for Seats for the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources...matters concerning research, education, conservation and human use. The working groups are composed of experts from the...

  20. National Marine Fisheries Service October 1997 SFA U p d a t e

    E-print Network

    National Marine Fisheries Service October 1997 SFA U p d a t e On October 11, 1996, the Sustainable Fisheries Act (SFA) became law. It amended the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act (renamed the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act). The SFA includes numerous provisions

  1. Side scan sonar in oyster management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Diaz; K. Cuevas; M. Buchanan; S. Gordon; W. S. Perret

    2002-01-01

    Oyster harvest from Mississippi reefs provide jobs for numerous fishermen and contribute substantially to the economy. Proper management of these reefs is vital for continued harvest. Enhancement management techniques (i.e. cultch planting and\\/or cultivation) should helps to ensure even greater future production. Cultch planting is a key component of management measures conducted by the Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (MDMR).

  2. Federal management of US Atlantic shark fisheries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Stone; C. Michael Bailey; Sarah A. McLaughlin; Pamela M. Mace; Margo B. Schulze

    1998-01-01

    The Highly Migratory Species Management Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is responsible for managing 39 species of Atlantic sharks throughout their range in the US exclusive economic zones of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Through the implementation of a Fishery Management Plan, the US harvest of Atlantic sharks is regulated by commercial quotas

  3. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  4. Ecology and Management of the Bull Kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana: A Synthesis with Recommendations for Future Research

    E-print Network

    Carr, Mark H.

    marine ecosystems 13 III. HUMAN ACTIVITIES AND MANAGEMENT Harvest 17 Pollution 28 Human modification themselves are extracted for human consumption, pharmaceutical industries, and as food for the commercial

  5. MARINE AEROSOL, SEA-SALT, AND THE MARINE SULPHUR CYCLE: A SHORT REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    COLIN D. O'DOWD; MICHAEL H. SMITH; IAN E. CONSTERDINE; JASON A. LOWE

    1997-01-01

    Abstract-A short review of the marine aerosol size distribution and the contribution of sea-salt to this distribution is presented. The potential role of sea salt in the marine,boundary,layer sulphur cycle is highlighted. Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd Key word index: Marine aerosol, sea-salt, marine sulphur cycle THE MARINE AEROSOL SIZE DISTRIBUTION

  6. DECLARING A MARINE BIOLOGY PREMAJOR AND ADMISSION TO THE MARINE BIOLOGY MAJOR

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    DECLARING A MARINE BIOLOGY PREMAJOR AND ADMISSION TO THE MARINE BIOLOGY MAJOR A student may declare Marine Biology as a premajor at any time after admission to the university. Advancement from premajor of Marine Biology. Before applying for admission to the marine biology major, a student must complete either

  7. Marine Biology on the Oregon Coast Oregon Institute of Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    LIVEIT! Marine Biology on the Oregon Coast Oregon Institute of Marine Biology SUMMER 2013 #12;T he Oregon Institute of Marine Biology (OIMB) has offered a variety of exciting courses in marine biology of leaving the docks. Within eight miles of the marine biology laboratory, sea lions, elephant seals

  8. ATTENTION FINAL YEAR MARINE HONOURS STUDENTS Vemco Scholarship in Marine Biology

    E-print Network

    Adl, Sina

    ATTENTION FINAL YEAR MARINE HONOURS STUDENTS Vemco Scholarship in Marine Biology Deadline a scholarship to a student entering the final year of Marine Biology. Students can be in Marine Co-op as well achievement. This will be determined from students' GPAs in their upper level (>1000) Biology/Marine classes

  9. Antimicrobial activities of extracts from tropical Atlantic marine plants against marine pathogens and saprophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Engel; Melany P. Puglisi; Paul R. Jensen; William Fenical

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating disease resistance in marine plants have indicated that secondary metabolites may have important defensive functions against harmful marine microorganisms. The goal of this study was to systematically screen extracts from marine plants for antimicrobial effects against marine pathogens and saprophytes. Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from species of 49 marine algae and 3 seagrasses collected in the tropical Atlantic

  10. UNIVERSITY CURRICULA IN THE MARINE SCIENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FROSCH, ROBERT A.

    REPORTED IS A COMPILATION OF MARINE SCIENCE COURSES OFFERED AT AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. THE INFORMATION IS PROVIDED TO ASSIST STUDENTS PLANNING A CAREER IN MARINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. THREE CURRICULUM AREAS ARE INCLUDED--(1) MARINE SCIENCES, (2) OCEAN ENGINEERING, AND (3) MARINE TECHNOLOGY. LISTED FOR EACH COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY ARE…

  11. MARINE BIO-RESOURCES Program of Study

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    MARINE BIO-RESOURCES Program of Study Research Facilities Applying Correspondence The Program leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Marine Bio-Resources is a cooperative offering of Animal in Marine Bio-Resources is designed to train professionals for a career in aquaculture and marine

  12. UF in Belize Marine Ecology and Conservation

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    UF in Belize Marine Ecology and Conservation Summer A: May 25 - June 1, 2015 Understand Marine to the Tropics of Belize. Compare and Contrast Marine Ecology, Habitat, and Conservation Principles and Practices as they Relate to the Tropics of Belize. Contribute to Long-Term Marine Science Research in the Tropics of Belize

  13. UF in Belize Marine Ecology and Conservation

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    UF in Belize Marine Ecology and Conservation Spring Extended: May 26-June 2, 2014 Understand Marine to the Tropics of Belize. Compare and Contrast Marine Ecology, Habitat, and Conservation Principles and Practices as they Relate to the Tropics of Belize. Contribute to Long-Term Marine Science Research in the Tropics of Belize

  14. Marine Biology 111, 175-181 (1991)

    E-print Network

    1991-01-01

    Marine Biology 111, 175-181 (1991) Marine ::~~ Biology© Springer-Verlag 1991 Uptake of dissolved organics by marine bacteria as a function of fluid motion B. E. Logan 1 and D. L. Kirchman 2 1, USA 2 College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewes, Deleware 19958, USA Date of final

  15. College of Marine Science Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    College: Marine Science EDUCATION Institution Field of Study Degree Date University of California Biology for Biological Bulletin, Limnology and Oceanography, Marine Biology, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Deep-Sea Research, Journal of Experimental Biology, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Polar

  16. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories ANNUAL OPEN HOUSE

    E-print Network

    McPhee-Shaw, Erika

    , the biology of marine birds, sea turtles, sharks and rays, marine mammals, plankton, kelp and invertebratesMoss Landing Marine Laboratories ANNUAL OPEN HOUSE SATURDAY & SUNDAY APRIL 20TH & 21ST 9:00 am ­ 5:00 pm LIVE TOUCH TANKS BEHIND THE SCENES TOURS OF OUR RESEARCH FACILITIES MARINE ADVENTURE PUPPET SHOW

  17. Faculty of Science Marine Science Handbook

    E-print Network

    Sun, Jing

    Faculty of Science Marine Science Handbook 2011 #12;| 2011 Marine Science Handbook2 | 2011 Marine Science Handbook Cover photo: Bronze whaler shark at the Poor Knights - Kendall Clements Contents Campus maps 41 #12;2011 Marine Science Handbook | 3 As a nation, we have the world's 5th largest coastal

  18. Limitations of an optimum sustainable population or potential biological removal approach for conserving marine mammals: Pacific walrus case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin D. Robards; John J. Burns; Chanda L. Meek; Annette Watson

    2009-01-01

    Decision rules are the agreed-upon points at which specific management interventions are initiated. For marine mammal management under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), decision rules are usually based on either a numeric population or biological-removal approach. However, for walrus and other ice-associated pinnipeds, the inability to reliably assess population numbers or biological removals highlights a significant gap in

  19. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef Survey and Management

  20. Population impacts of collecting sea anemones and anemonefish for the marine aquarium trade in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Shuman; Gregor Hodgson; Richard F. Ambrose

    2005-01-01

    Tropical marine ornamentals comprise an increasingly important fishery worldwide. Although the potential for overexploitation\\u000a of marine ornamentals is great, few studies have addressed the population-level impacts of ornamental exploitation and few\\u000a ornamental fisheries are managed. Analysis of catch records obtained from collectors over a four-month period in the vicinity\\u000a of Cebu, Philippines, showed that anemonefish and anemones comprised close to

  1. A Spinoff from Mariner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Among the technologies incorporated into the later Mariner missions was a dry film lubricant which offered exceptional lubrication quality for reduced friction and extended wear-life of mating parts in harsh interplanetary environments. Micro Surface Corporation acquired this technology, and currently market it as WS2 modified tungsten disulfide coating. A pressurized refrigerated air application process impinges a dry metallic WS2 coating without heat, curing, binders or adhesives. The coating binds instantly to metal or resin substrates with a 20 millionths of an inch thickness. Performance has been excellent in a variety of industries, particularly in plastics where in some operations, the coating increases production by reducing drag between tool steel and resin. Other advantages include product quality improvement, extension of equipment service life and maintenance elimination or reduction.

  2. Marine Animal Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Students are introduced to the ideas and implications of animal tracking, which is useful within scientific and commercial industries. For instance, when planning coastal area development, it is important to take into consideration animal presence and movement. Students are engaged in an activity to monitor animal foraging behavior on a spatial scale by working in groups to track each others' movements as they travel a pre-determined course. They record their results individually and collaboratively in an attempt to understand animal movement regarding foraging behavior. Students also engage in a creative design activity, focusing on how they would design a tag for a marine animal of their choice. To conclude, students are questioned about data interpretation and how spatial information is important in relation to commercial, conservation and scientific research decisions.

  3. Penguins as Marine Sentinels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    P. Dee Boersma (University of Washington; )

    2008-08-01

    From the tropics to Antarctica, penguins depend on predictable regions of high ocean productivity where their prey aggregate. Increases in precipitation and reductions in sea ice associated with climate warming are affecting penguins. The largest breeding colony of Patagonian (Magellanic) penguins, at Punta Tombo, Argentina, had approximately 200,000 breeding pairs in October 2006a decline of 22% since 1987. In the 1980s and 1990s, petroleum pollution was a major source of Patagonian penguin mortality. In 1994, tanker lanes were moved 40 kilometers (km) farther off the coast of Chubut, and the dumping of ballast water and the oiling of penguins are now rare. However, penguins are swimming 60 km farther north from their nests during incubation than they did a decade ago, very likely reflecting shifts in prey in response to climate change and reductions in prey abundance caused by commercial fishing. These temperate penguin species, marine sentinels for southern oceans, demonstrate that new challenges are confronting their populations.

  4. Bioethics of the Sea:Bioethics of the Sea:Bioethics of the Sea: Responsible Management of FisheriesResponsible Management of FisheriesResponsible Management of Fisheries

    E-print Network

    Charles, Anthony

    Bioethics of the Sea:Bioethics of the Sea:Bioethics of the Sea: Responsible Management of FisheriesResponsible Management of FisheriesResponsible Management of Fisheries Anthony Charles Pew Fellow in Marine Conservation Saint Mary's University Halifax Canada #12;Rationale for Fisheries ManagementRationale for Fisheries

  5. Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. (MESA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Australian organization supports educators interested in coastal and marine environments, identifies best practices in marine education, provides a forum to facilitate the development of environmental education and interpretation programs, and promotes sustainable use of natural resources through education. Programs include: a national awareness campaign; member training, workshops and conferences; a marine educator online discussion board; teaching ideas and resources. Site offers information sheets on marine topics, audio files, marine-related news, online newsletter, recommended websites.

  6. University of Maine School of Marine Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Orono, Maine, the SMS is the largest concentration of marine expertise in Maine, and offers one of the largest research and educational programs in the Northeast. Research activities of faculty and students range from aquaculture, marine biology, marine biotechnology, oceanography, and marine geology, to public policy and marine archeology. Site offers information on graduate and undergraduate programs, current research, school news, upcoming events, and outreach initiatives.

  7. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    PubMed

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. PMID:25678662

  8. The Florida State University Department of Biological Science and The Florida State University Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine Resource Ecology is designed for

    E-print Network

    Bass, Hank W.

    Coastal & Marine Laboratory The Undergraduate Research Program in Marine Biology and Living Marine's potential for a career in marine biological research. Name of Reference THE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAM IN MARINE BIOLOGY & LIVING MARINE RESOURCE ECOLOGY HTTP

  9. 76 FR 4093 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...RIN 0648-XA157 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Exploration Drilling...Authorizations (IHAs) for the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, by Shell...

  10. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals for a period of 1 year...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Except...incidental harassment of small numbers of marine mammals resulting from the...

  11. 78 FR 20800 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...not intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who engage...upon voluntary approach by small marine mammals (i.e., delphinids...mammals, except in cases where small marine mammals (i.e.,...

  12. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...California, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental...intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population...incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals shall be granted if...

  13. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Except...incidental take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B...

  14. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental...Level B harassment only, small numbers of marine mammals during the aforementioned...incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals shall be granted if...

  15. 75 FR 53672 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Level B harassment only, small numbers of marine mammals during operation of an...taking by harassment of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment....

  16. 77 FR 67797 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ...allowing the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment...intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by U.S. citizens who...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment....

  17. 76 FR 20325 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...University, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment...intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population...incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals shall be granted if...

  18. 78 FR 18965 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an Exploration...ConocoPhillips Company (COP) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental...of an IHA to COP to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment,...

  19. 78 FR 69049 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals for a period of 1 year...to incidentally take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment, provided...incidental harassment of small numbers of marine mammals resulting from the...

  20. 75 FR 60173 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...USGS) for the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment...intentional, taking of small numbers of marine mammals by United States (U...incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals shall be granted if...