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1

Improving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: The Galapagos Marine Reserve  

E-print Network

in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) at the end of the 1990s with the adoption of marine zoning. The latterImproving fisheries co-management through ecosystem-based spatial management: The Galapagos Marine Reserve Mauricio Castrejo´n a,b,n , Anthony Charles c a Interdisciplinary PhD program, Dalhousie

Charles, Anthony

2

Marine Ecosystem-based Management in Practice: Scientific and Governance Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience looks at the principles of ecosystem-based management and applies them to real world examples. Ecosystem-based management (EBM) in the ocean is a relatively new approach, and existing applications are evolving from more traditional management of portions of ecosystems. Because comprehensive examples of EBM in the marine environment do not yet exist, we first summarize EBM principles that emerge from the fisheries and marine social and ecological literature. We then apply those principles to four cases in which large parts of marine ecosystems are being managed, and ask how including additional components of an EBM approach might improve the prospects for those ecosystems. The case studies provide examples of how additional elements of EBM approaches, if applied, could improve ecosystem function. In particular, two promising next steps for applying EBM are to identify management objectives for the ecosystem, including natural and human goals, and to ensure that the governance structure matches with the scale over which ecosystem elements are measured and managed.

MARY RUCKELSHAUS (NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center; )

2008-01-01

3

A global estimate of benefits from ecosystem-based marine recreation: potential impacts and implications for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participation in ecosystem-based marine recreational activities (MRAs) has increased around the world, adding a new dimension\\u000a to human use of the marine ecosystem and another good reason to strengthen effective management measures. A first step in\\u000a studying the effects of MRAs at a global scale is to estimate their socioeconomic benefits, which are captured here by three\\u000a indicators: the amount

Andrés M. Cisneros-Montemayor; U. Rashid Sumaila

2010-01-01

4

Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM) has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch) that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions. PMID:25505913

Toonen, Robert J.; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Baums, Iliana B.; Bird, Christopher E.; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Daly-Engel, Toby S.; Eble, Jeff A.; Faucci, Anuschka; Gaither, Michelle R.; Iacchei, Matthew; Puritz, Jonathan B.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Skillings, Derek J.; Timmers, Molly A.; Bowen, Brian W.

2014-01-01

5

Marine Reserves as a Tool for Ecosystem-Based Management: The Potential Importance of Megafauna  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the role of marine reserves. Marine predators attract significant attention in ocean conservation planning and are therefore often used politically to promote reserve designation. We discuss whether their ecology and life history can help provide a rigorous ecological foundation for marine reserve design. In general, we find that reserves can benefit marine megafauna, and that megafauna can help establish target areas and boundaries for ecosystem reserves. However, the spatial nature of the interplay between potential threats and predator life histories requires careful consideration for the establishment of effective reserves. Modeling tools such as demographic sensitivity analysis will aid in establishing protection for different life stages and distributional ranges. The need for pelagic marine reserves is becoming increasingly apparent, and it is in this venue that marine predators may be most effectively used as indicator species of underlying prey distribution and ecosystem processes.

SASCHA K. HOOKER and LEAH R. GERBER (; )

2004-01-01

6

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

EXPLORING ABORIGINAL FORESTRY AND ECOSYSTEM-BASED MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF COWICHAN TRIBES of Resource Management Title of Research Project: Exploring Aboriginal Forestry and Ecosystem-based Management their objectives, and suit the characteristics of their land-bases and communities. Ecosystem-based management (EBM

7

Lab 3: Oh What a Tangled Web: Ecosystem-Based Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students begin this investigation by reading about the basic premises of Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM). They then watch a short animation about how the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) project of the Census of Marine Life (CoML) endeavor will track and monitor ocean life with implanted tags and underwater listening lines. In Part B of the investigation, students play the Australian Fisheries Management Authority's Great Australian Fisheries Challenge game, in which helps students learn about managing a marine ecosystem in a sustainable way by assuming the role of a fishery manager.

8

Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-based management is logistically and politically challenging because ecosystems are inherently complex and management decisions affect a multitude of groups. Coastal ecosystems, which lie at the interface between marine and terrestrial ecosystems and provide an array of ecosystem services to different groups, aptly illustrate these challenges. Successful ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems requires incorporating scientific information and the knowledge and views of interested parties into the decision-making process. Estimating the provision of ecosystem services under alternative management schemes offers a systematic way to incorporate biogeophysical and socioeconomic information and the views of individuals and groups in the policy and management process. Employing ecosystem services as a common language to improve the process of ecosystem-based management presents both benefits and difficulties. Benefits include a transparent method for assessing trade-offs associated with management alternatives, a common set of facts and common currency on which to base negotiations, and improved communication among groups with competing interests or differing worldviews. Yet challenges to this approach remain, including predicting how human interventions will affect ecosystems, how such changes will affect the provision of ecosystem services, and how changes in service provision will affect the welfare of different groups in society. In a case study from Puget Sound, Washington, we illustrate the potential of applying ecosystem services as a common language for ecosystem-based management. PMID:19906066

Granek, Elise F; Polasky, Stephen; Kappel, Carrie V; Reed, Denise J; Stoms, David M; Koch, Evamaria W; Kennedy, Chris J; Cramer, Lori A; Hacker, Sally D; Barbier, Edward B; Aswani, Shankar; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Perillo, Gerardo M E; Silliman, Brian R; Muthiga, Nyawira; Bael, David; Wolanski, Eric

2010-02-01

9

Navigating the transition to ecosystem-based management of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

PubMed Central

We analyze the strategies and actions that enable transitions toward ecosystem-based management using the recent governance changes of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park as a case study. The interplay among individual actors, organizations, and institutions at multiple levels is central in such transitions. A flexible organization, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, was crucial in initiating the transition to ecosystem-based management. This agency was also instrumental in the subsequent transformation of the governance regime and provided leadership throughout the process. Strategies involved internal reorganization and management innovation, leading to an ability to coordinate the scientific community, to increase public awareness of environmental issues and problems, to involve a broader set of stakeholders, and to maneuver the political system for support at critical times. The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef (from terrestrial runoff, overharvesting, and global warming) that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges. The focus of governance shifted from protection of selected individual reefs to stewardship of the larger-scale seascape. The study emphasizes the significance of stewardship that can change patterns of interactions among key actors and allow for new forms of management and governance to emerge in response to environmental change. This example illustrates that enabling legislations or other social bounds are essential, but not sufficient for shifting governance toward adaptive comanagement of complex marine ecosystems. PMID:18621698

Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Hughes, Terry P.

2008-01-01

10

Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management KALEV JO~ GISTE1  

E-print Network

, money or effort. The management style that best integrates natural processes encounters less resistancePREFACE Disturbance dynamics and ecosystem-based forest management KALEV JO~ GISTE1 , W. KEITH and Analysis Program, St Paul, Minnesota, USA Ecosystem-based management is intended to bal- ance ecological

11

Ecological Engineering 26 (2006) 626 Scientific requirements for ecosystem-based management  

E-print Network

Ecological Engineering 26 (2006) 6­26 Scientific requirements for ecosystem-based management March 2005; accepted 26 September 2005 Abstract Ecosystem-based management requires integration underway or in planning to restore and manage two major coastal ecosystems, the Chesapeake Bay (Chesapeake

12

Preventing the collapse of the Baltic cod stock through an ecosystem-based management approach.  

PubMed

Worldwide a number of fish stocks have collapsed because of overfishing and climate-induced ecosystem changes. Developing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) to prevent these catastrophic events in the future requires ecological models incorporating both internal food-web dynamics and external drivers such as fishing and climate. Using a stochastic food-web model for a large marine ecosystem (i.e., the Baltic Sea) hosting a commercially important cod stock, we were able to reconstruct the history of the stock. Moreover we demonstrate that in hindsight the collapse could only have been avoidable by adapting fishing pressure to environmental conditions and food-web interactions. The modeling approach presented here represents a significant advance for EBFM, the application of which is important for sustainable resource management in the future. PMID:19706557

Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders; Stenseth, Nils C

2009-08-25

13

Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90?125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12?16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the ?escapement? due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management.

Forcada, J.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

2009-01-01

14

Modelling predation by transient leopard seals for an ecosystem-based management of Southern Ocean fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Correctly quantifying the impacts of rare apex marine predators is essential to ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, where harvesting must be sustainable for targeted species and their dependent predators. This requires modelling the uncertainty in such processes as predator life history, seasonal abundance and movement, size-based predation, energetic requirements, and prey vulnerability. We combined these uncertainties to evaluate the predatory impact of transient leopard seals on a community of mesopredators (seals and penguins) and their prey at South Georgia, and assess the implications for an ecosystem-based management. The mesopredators are highly dependent on Antarctic krill and icefish, which are targeted by regional fisheries. We used a state-space formulation to combine (1) a mark-recapture open-population model and individual identification data to assess seasonally variable leopard seal arrival and departure dates, numbers, and residency times; (2) a size-based bioenergetic model; and (3) a size-based prey choice model from a diet analysis. Our models indicated that prey choice and consumption reflected seasonal changes in leopard seal population size and structure, size-selective predation and prey vulnerability. A population of 104 (90-125) leopard seals, of which 64% were juveniles, consumed less than 2% of the Antarctic fur seal pup production of the area (50% of total ingested energy, IE), but ca. 12-16% of the local gentoo penguin population (20% IE). Antarctic krill (28% IE) were the only observed food of leopard seal pups and supplemented the diet of older individuals. Direct impacts on krill and fish were negligible, but the "escapement" due to leopard seal predation on fur seal pups and penguins could be significant for the mackerel icefish fishery at South Georgia. These results suggest that: (1) rare apex predators like leopard seals may control, and may depend on, populations of mesopredators dependent on prey species targeted by fisheries; and (2) predatory impacts and community control may vary throughout the predator's geographic range, and differ across ecosystems and management areas, depending on the seasonal abundance of the prey and the predator's dispersal movements. This understanding is important to integrate the predator needs as natural mortality of its prey in models to set prey catch limits for fisheries. Reliable estimates of the variability of these needs are essential for a precautionary interpretation in the context of an ecosystem-based management. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Forcada, J.; Malone, D.; Royle, J.A.; Staniland, I.J.

2009-01-01

15

Scientific requirements for ecosystem-based management in the restoration of Chesapeake Bay and Coastal Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem-based management requires integration of multiple system components and uses, identifying and striving for sustainable outcomes, precaution in avoiding deleterious actions, and adaptation based on experience to achieve effective solutions. Efforts underway or in planning to restore and manage two major coastal ecosystems, the Chesapeake Bay (Chesapeake Bay Program) and coastal Louisiana (Louisiana Coastal Area Plan and Gulf Hypoxia Action

Donald F. Boesch

2006-01-01

16

Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires a change to the selective fishing philosophy  

PubMed Central

Globally, many fish species are overexploited, and many stocks have collapsed. This crisis, along with increasing concerns over flow-on effects on ecosystems, has caused a reevaluation of traditional fisheries management practices, and a new ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) paradigm has emerged. As part of this approach, selective fishing is widely encouraged in the belief that nonselective fishing has many adverse impacts. In particular, incidental bycatch is seen as wasteful and a negative feature of fishing, and methods to reduce bycatch are implemented in many fisheries. However, recent advances in fishery science and ecology suggest that a selective approach may also result in undesirable impacts both to fisheries and marine ecosystems. Selective fishing applies one or more of the “6-S” selections: species, stock, size, sex, season, and space. However, selective fishing alters biodiversity, which in turn changes ecosystem functioning and may affect fisheries production, hindering rather than helping achieve the goals of EBFM. We argue here that a “balanced exploitation” approach might alleviate many of the ecological effects of fishing by avoiding intensive removal of particular components of the ecosystem, while still supporting sustainable fisheries. This concept may require reducing exploitation rates on certain target species or groups to protect vulnerable components of the ecosystem. Benefits to society could be maintained or even increased because a greater proportion of the entire suite of harvested species is used. PMID:20435916

Zhou, Shijie; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Punt, André E.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Gibbs, Mark; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Pascoe, Sean; Bulman, Catherine; Bayliss, Peter; Sainsbury, Keith

2010-01-01

17

Ecosystem-based management in the Wadden Sea: Principles for the governance of knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The governance of the Wadden Sea has to contend with a complex interplay of social and ecological systems. Social systems tend to be characterized by pluralism of - often conflicting - norms and values, and ecological systems are characterized by high complexity and natural and human-induced variability, leading to unpredictable and nonlinear behavior. This highly volatile situation challenges traditional forms of management as well as traditional ways of organizing knowledge for decision-making processes. Ecosystem-based management approaches have been developed to find more effective, holistic, and evidence-based strategies to deal with the challenges of complex socio-ecological systems. They also require another way of dealing with (scientific) knowledge, the way it is produced and applied. In this paper, from the perspective of ecosystem-based management, we define the specific principles that apply to the way knowledge is mobilized and applied within decision-making processes. We illuminate these principles by examining three empirical cases of ecosystem-based management within, or related to, the Wadden Sea area. Finally, we reflect upon our findings and elaborate on the extent to which our theoretical framework is capable of describing and assessing the interaction between knowledge and decision making within ecosystem-based management approaches.

Giebels, Diana; van Buuren, Arwin; Edelenbos, Jurian

2013-09-01

18

Ecosystem-Based Analysis of a Marine Protected Area Where Fisheries and Protected Species Coexist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of California Biosphere Reserve (UGC&CRDBR) is a Marine Protected Area that was established in 1993 with the aim of preserving biodiversity and remediating environmental impacts. Because remaining vigilant is hard and because regulatory measures are difficult to enforce, harvesting has been allowed to diminish poaching. Useful management strategies have not been implemented, however, and conflicts remain between conservation legislation and the fisheries. We developed a transdisciplinary methodological scheme (pressure-state-response, loop analysis, and Geographic Information System) that includes both protected species and fisheries modeled together in a spatially represented marine ecosystem. We analyzed the response of this marine ecosystem supposing that conservation strategies were successful and that the abundance of protected species had increased. The final aim of this study was to identify ecosystem-level management alternatives capable of diminishing the conflict between conservation measures and fisheries. This methodological integration aimed to understand the functioning of the UGC&CRDBR community as well as to identify implications of conservation strategies such as the recovery of protected species. Our results suggest research hypotheses related to key species that should be protected within the ecosystem, and they point out the importance of considering spatial management strategies. Counterintuitive findings underline the importance of understanding how the community responds to disturbances and the effect of indirect pathways on the abundance of ecosystem constituents. Insights from this research are valuable in defining policies in marine reserves where fisheries and protected species coexist.

Espinoza-Tenorio, Alejandro; Montańo-Moctezuma, Gabriela; Espejel, Ileana

2010-04-01

19

Development of an integrated economic and ecological framework for ecosystem-based fisheries management in New England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an integrated economic-ecological framework designed to help assess the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) in New England. We develop the framework by linking a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of a coastal economy to an end-to-end (E2E) model of a marine food web for Georges Bank. We focus on the New England region using coastal county economic data for a restricted set of industry sectors and marine ecological data for three top level trophic feeding guilds: planktivores, benthivores, and piscivores. We undertake numerical simulations to model the welfare effects of changes in alternative combinations of yields from feeding guilds and alternative manifestations of biological productivity. We estimate the economic and distributional effects of these alternative simulations across a range of consumer income levels. This framework could be used to extend existing methodologies for assessing the impacts on human communities of groundfish stock rebuilding strategies, such as those expected through the implementation of the sector management program in the US northeast fishery. We discuss other possible applications of and modifications and limitations to the framework.

Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Dalton, T. M.; Thunberg, E. M.

2012-09-01

20

Assessing Social – Ecological Trade-Offs to Advance Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management  

PubMed Central

Modern resource management faces trade-offs in the provision of various ecosystem goods and services to humanity. For fisheries management to develop into an ecosystem-based approach, the goal is not only to maximize economic profits, but to consider equally important conservation and social equity goals. We introduce such a triple-bottom line approach to the management of multi-species fisheries using the Baltic Sea as a case study. We apply a coupled ecological-economic optimization model to address the actual fisheries management challenge of trading-off the recovery of collapsed cod stocks versus the health of ecologically important forage fish populations. Management strategies based on profit maximization would rebuild the cod stock to high levels but may cause the risk of stock collapse for forage species with low market value, such as Baltic sprat (Fig. 1A). Economically efficient conservation efforts to protect sprat would be borne almost exclusively by the forage fishery as sprat fishing effort and profits would strongly be reduced. Unless compensation is paid, this would challenge equity between fishing sectors (Fig. 1B). Optimizing equity while respecting sprat biomass precautionary levels would reduce potential profits of the overall Baltic fishery, but may offer an acceptable balance between overall profits, species conservation and social equity (Fig. 1C). Our case study shows a practical example of how an ecosystem-based fisheries management will be able to offer society options to solve common conflicts between different resource uses. Adding equity considerations to the traditional trade-off between economy and ecology will greatly enhance credibility and hence compliance to management decisions, a further footstep towards healthy fish stocks and sustainable fisheries in the world ocean. PMID:25268117

Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Tahvonen, Olli; Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian

2014-01-01

21

Ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries, as a complemen-  

E-print Network

- holtz et al., 2008). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) play a vital ecological role in estuarine, Atlantic menhaden comprised between 27.0% to 30.5% of the total U.S. commercial landings in the Atlantic, there is much con- troversy over the Atlantic menhaden fishery and whether or not it should be reduced or shut

22

Ecosystem based river basin management planning in critical water catchment in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing the ecosystem based adaptation strategies to maintain water security in critical water catchments in Mongolia would be very significant. It will be base by reducing the vulnerability. "Ecosystem Based adaptation" is quite a new term in Mongolia and the ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. To strengthen equitable economic development, food security, climate resilience and protection of the environment, the implementation of sustainable river basin management in critical water catchments is challenging in Mongolia. The Ulz river basin is considered one of the critical water catchments due to the temperature has increased by in average 1.30Ń over the period 1976 to 2011. It is more intense than the global warming rate (0.740C/100 years) and a bit higher than the warming rate over whole Mongolia as well. From long-term observations and measurements it is clear that Ulz River has low water in a period of 1970-1980 and since the end of 1980s and middle of 1990s there were dominated years of the flood. However, under the influence of the global warming, climate changes of Mongolia and continuation of drought years with low water since the end of 1990s until today river water was sharply fallen and dried up. For the last ten years rivers are dried up and annual mean run-off is less by 3-5 times from long term mean value. The Ulz is the transboundary river basin and taking its origin from Ikh and Baga Burd springs on territory of Norovlin soum of Khentii province that flows through Khentii and Dornod provinces to the northeast, crossing the state border it flows in Baruun Tari located in Tari Lake concavity in Russia. Based on the integrative baseline study on the 'The Ulz River Basin Environmental and Socioeconomic condition', ecosystem based river basin management was planned. 'Water demand Calculator 3' (WDC) software was used to estimate water demand and calculate water use balance in 2015, 2021. The result of the water balance estimation shows that water consumption-use will be increased 3 times in the river basin by 2021. As the water consumption-use source, surface water - 6.4 % and groundwater is 93.6 percent. The current consumption of the mining sector is shares 71 percent of the total users; it would be 82 percent in 2021. However, the livestock water consumption-use is 27 percent of the current demand; it would be decrease up to 16 percent in 2021. Ecosystem based approach IWRM plan would be efficient to the local resident to adapt the climate change situation. Thus, the results of the research study on the river basin ecosystem services and values are the base of the planning.

Tugjamba, Navchaa; Sereeter, Erdenetuul; Gonchigjav, Sarantuya

2014-05-01

23

Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services. Mixed measures are expected to have cumulative benefits which are likely to outweigh disbenefits and packages of actions are recommended rather than individual or localised actions for an integrated catchment management approach. NFM measures have the potential to provide significant environmental gains, however the time lags between the moment these measures are set in place until they become effective must be considered especially in flood vulnerable communities where there is already a stakeholders demand to decrease the risk of flooding even for the current level of exposure.

Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

2014-05-01

24

An Integrated Approach Is Needed for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management: Insights from Ecosystem-Level Management Strategy Evaluation  

PubMed Central

An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.; Johnson, Penelope

2014-01-01

25

A comparison of community and trophic structure in five marine ecosystems based on energy budgets and system metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy budget models for five marine ecosystems were compared to identify differences and similarities in trophic and community structure. We examined the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, the combined Norwegian/Barents Seas in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, and the eastern Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Comparable energy budgets were constructed for each ecosystem by aggregating information for similar species groups into consistent functional groups. Several ecosystem indices (e.g., functional group production, consumption and biomass ratios, cumulative biomass, food web macrodescriptors, and network metrics) were compared for each ecosystem. The comparative approach clearly identified data gaps for each ecosystem, an important outcome of this work. Commonalities across the ecosystems included overall high primary production and energy flow at low trophic levels, high production and consumption by carnivorous zooplankton, and similar proportions of apex predator to lower trophic level biomass. Major differences included distinct biomass ratios of pelagic to demersal fish, ranging from highest in the combined Norwegian/Barents ecosystem to lowest in the Alaskan systems, and notable differences in primary production per unit area, highest in the Alaskan and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine ecosystems, and lowest in the Norwegian ecosystems. While comparing a disparate group of organisms across a wide range of marine ecosystems is challenging, this work demonstrates that standardized metrics both elucidate properties common to marine ecosystems and identify key distinctions useful for fisheries management.

Gaichas, Sarah; Skaret, Georg; Falk-Petersen, Jannike; Link, Jason S.; Overholtz, William; Megrey, Bernard A.; Gjřsćter, Harald; Stockhausen, William T.; Dommasnes, Are; Friedland, Kevin D.; Aydin, Kerim

2009-04-01

26

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish  

PubMed Central

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics - herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Stier, Adrian C.; Levin, Philip S.

2014-01-01

27

Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish.  

PubMed

Twenty-first century conservation is centered on negotiating trade-offs between the diverse needs of people and the needs of the other species constituting coupled human-natural ecosystems. Marine forage fishes, such as sardines, anchovies, and herring, are a nexus for such trade-offs because they are both central nodes in marine food webs and targeted by fisheries. An important example is Pacific herring, Clupea pallisii in the Northeast Pacific. Herring populations are subject to two distinct fisheries: one that harvests adults and one that harvests spawned eggs. We develop stochastic, age-structured models to assess the interaction between fisheries, herring populations, and the persistence of predators reliant on herring populations. We show that egg- and adult-fishing have asymmetric effects on herring population dynamics--herring stocks can withstand higher levels of egg harvest before becoming depleted. Second, ecosystem thresholds proposed to ensure the persistence of herring predators do not necessarily pose more stringent constraints on fisheries than conventional, fishery driven harvest guidelines. Our approach provides a general template to evaluate ecosystem trade-offs between stage-specific harvest practices in relation to environmental variability, the risk of fishery closures, and the risk of exceeding ecosystem thresholds intended to ensure conservation goals are met. PMID:25407879

Shelton, Andrew Olaf; Samhouri, Jameal F; Stier, Adrian C; Levin, Philip S

2014-01-01

28

Evaluating ecosystem-based management options: Effects of trawling in Torres Strait, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A suite of management options for a prawn trawl fishery in Torres Strait, Australia was assessed for impacts on the benthic fauna using a dynamic management strategy evaluation approach. The specification of the management options was gained through consultation with stakeholders. Data for the model was drawn from several sources: the fleet data from fishery logbooks and satellite vessel monitoring systems, benthic depletion rates from trawl-down experiments, benthic recovery rates from post-experiment recovery monitoring studies, and benthic distribution from large-scale benthic surveys. Although there were large uncertainties in the resulting indicators, robust measures relevant to management were obtained by taking ratios relative to the status quo. The management control with the biggest effect was total effort; reducing trawl effort always led to increases in benthic faunal density of up to 10%. Spatial closures had a smaller benefit of up to 2%. The effect of closing a set of buffer zones around reefs to trawling was indistinguishable from the status quo option. Closing a larger area, however, was largely beneficial especially for sea cucumbers. When the spatial distributions of fauna prior to fishing were accounted for, fauna with distributions positively correlated with effort improved relative to those negatively correlated. The reduction in prawn catch under effort reduction scenarios could be ameliorated by introducing temporal closures over the full-moon period.

Ellis, Nick; Pantus, Francis; Welna, Andrzej; Butler, Alan

2008-09-01

29

Critical thresholds and tangible targets for ecosystem-based management of coral reef fisheries.  

PubMed

Sustainably managing ecosystems is challenging, especially for complex systems such as coral reefs. This study develops critical reference points for sustainable management by using a large empirical dataset on the coral reefs of the western Indian Ocean to investigate associations between levels of target fish biomass (as an indicator of fishing intensity) and eight metrics of ecosystem state. These eight ecological metrics each exhibited specific thresholds along a continuum of fishable biomass ranging from heavily fished sites to old fisheries closures. Three thresholds lay above and five below a hypothesized window of fishable biomass expected to produce a maximum multispecies sustainable yield (B(MMSY)). Evaluating three management systems in nine countries, we found that unregulated fisheries often operate below the B(MMSY), whereas fisheries closures and, less frequently, gear-restricted fisheries were within or above this window. These findings provide tangible management targets for multispecies coral reef fisheries and highlight key tradeoffs required to achieve different fisheries and conservation goals. PMID:21949381

McClanahan, Tim R; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Muthiga, Nyawira A; Cinner, Joshua E; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Wilson, Shaun K

2011-10-11

30

Natural Hazards in a Changing World: A Case for Ecosystem-Based Management  

PubMed Central

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1?100 year flood event to a 1?80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1?100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L.; Le Maitre, David C.; Nel, Deon C.; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W.; Forsyth, Greg G.; Theron, Andre K.; O’Farrell, Patrick J.; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A.; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

31

Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.  

PubMed

Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events. PMID:24806527

Nel, Jeanne L; Le Maitre, David C; Nel, Deon C; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W; Forsyth, Greg G; Theron, Andre K; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie

2014-01-01

32

Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.  

PubMed

Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besňs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. PMID:24880221

Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

2014-10-01

33

Ecosystem-based management of predator-prey relationships: piscivorous birds and salmonids.  

PubMed

Predator-prey relationships are often altered as a result of human activities. Where prey are legally protected, conservation action may include lethal predator control. In the Columbia River basin (Pacific Northwest, USA and Canada), piscivorous predators have been implicated in contributing to a lack of recovery of several endangered anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), and lethal and nonlethal control programs have been instituted against both piscine and avian species. To determine the consequences of avian predation, we used a bioenergetics approach to estimate the consumption of salmonid smolts by waterbirds (Common Merganser, California and Ring-billed Gull, Caspian Tern, Double-crested Cormorant) found in the mid-Columbia River from April through August, 2002-2004. We used our model to explore several predator-prey scenarios, including the impact of historical bird abundance, and the effect of preserving vs. removing birds, on smolt abundance. Each year, <1% of the estimated available salmonid smolts (interannual range: 44,830-109,209; 95% CI = 38,000-137,000) were consumed, 85-98% away from dams. Current diet data combined with historical gull abundance at dams suggests that past smolt consumption may have been 1.5-3 times current numbers, depending on the assumed distribution of gulls along the reaches. After the majority (80%) of salmonid smolts have left the study area, birds switch their diet to predominantly juvenile northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis), which as adults are significant native salmonid predators in the Columbia River. Our models suggest that one consequence of removing birds from the system may be increased pikeminnow abundance, which--even assuming 80% compensatory mortality in juvenile pikeminnow survival--would theoretically result in an annual average savings of just over 180,000 smolts, calculated over a decade. Practically, this suggests that smolt survival could be maximized by deterring birds from the river when smolts are present, allowing bird presence after the diet switch to act as a tool for salmonid-predator control, and conducting adult-pikeminnow control throughout. Our analysis demonstrates that identifying the strength of ecosystem interactions represents a top priority when attempting to manage the abundance of a particular ecosystem constituent, and that the consequences of a single-species view may be counterintuitive, and potentially counterproductive. PMID:18488627

Wiese, Francis K; Parrish, Julia K; Thompson, Christopher W; Maranto, Christina

2008-04-01

34

Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

2009-04-01

35

Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

36

Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.  

PubMed

Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093

Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

2015-04-01

37

Marine Reserves and Fisheries Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional methods of regulating commercial fisheries restrict catch by limiting either the quantity or efficiency of fishing effort, or by putting direct limits on catch. These regulatory practices are neither feasible nor desir- able for many fisheries, and have failed to conserve fishery stocks in other fisheries. Marine reserves may be an effective alternative management strategy for some fisheries. Here

DANIEL S. HOLLAND; RICHARD J. BRAZEE

2002-01-01

38

Obstacles to bottom-up implementation of marine ecosystem management.  

PubMed

Ecosystem management (EM) offers a means to address multiple threats to marine resources. Despite recognition of the importance of stakeholder involvement, most efforts to implement EM in marine systems are the product of top-down regulatory control. We describe a rare, stakeholder-driven attempt to implement EM from the bottom up in San Juan County, Washington (U.S.A.). A citizens advisory group led a 2-year, highly participatory effort to develop an ecosystem-based management plan, guided by a preexisting conservation-planning framework. A key innovation was to incorporate social dimensions by designating both sociocultural and biodiversity targets in the planning process. Multiple obstacles hindered implementation of EM in this setting. Despite using a surrogate scheme, the information-related transaction costs of planning were substantial: information deficits prevented assessment of some biodiversity targets and insufficient resources combined with information deficits prevented scientific assessment of the sociocultural targets. Substantial uncertainty, practical constraints to stakeholder involvement, and the existence of multiple, potentially conflicting, objectives increased negotiation-related costs. Although information deficits and uncertainty, coupled with underinvestment in the transaction costs of planning, could reduce the long-term effectiveness of the plan itself, the social capital and momentum developed through the planning process could yield unforeseeable future gains in protection of marine resources. The obstacles we identified here will require early and sustained attention in efforts to implement ecosystem management in other grassroots settings. PMID:18954339

Evans, Kirsten E; Klinger, Terrie

2008-10-01

39

Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based

Edward J. Gregr; Karin M. Bodtker

2007-01-01

40

When can marine reserves improve fisheries management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are a promising tool for fisheries management and conservation of biodiversity, but they are not a panacea for fisheries management problems. For fisheries that target highly mobile single species with little or no by-catch or habitat impact, marine reserves provide few benefits compared to conventional fishery management tools. For fisheries that are multi-species or on more sedentary stocks,

Ray Hilborn; Kevin Stokes; Jean-Jacques Maguire; Tony Smith; Louis W Botsford; Marc Mangel; José Orensanz; Ana Parma; Jake Rice; Johann Bell; Kevern L Cochrane; Serge Garcia; Stephen J Hall; G. P. Kirkwood; Keith Sainsbury; Gunnar Stefansson; Carl Walters

2004-01-01

41

Marine Planning Benefits the Environment  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are management approaches that allow sustainable coastal and ocean planning. The basic unit of management under CMSP is a large region, with the United States coastlines and Great Lakes divided into ...

42

Bringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment process  

E-print Network

depleted marine species and their sustaining ecosystems. EBM is place-based and considers interconnectionsBringing stakeholders, scientists, and managers together through an integrated ecosystem assessment: Ecosystem-based management Integrated ecosystem assessment Public policy process Ocean resource management

43

Introduction to marine managed areas.  

PubMed

No issue in marine conservation and management seems to have generated as much interest, and controversy as marine protected areas (MPAs). In the past 30 years, a substantial scientific literature on the subject has developed, international agreements have set targets for proportion of the sea to be protected, and hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on research and advocacy for MPA establishment. While the objectives of MPAs are diverse, few studies evaluate the success of MPAs against stated objectives. It is clear that well-enforced MPAs will protect enough fish from exploitation that within reserves abundance increases, fish live to be larger, and measures of diversity are higher. What is much more poorly understood is the impacts of reserve establishment on areas outside reserves. Theory suggests that when stocks are seriously overfished outside reserves, the yield and abundance outside the reserves may be increased by spillover from the reserve. When stocks are not overexploited, reserve establishment will likely decrease the total yield. The chapters in this volume explore a broad set of case studies of MPAs, their objectives and their outcomes. PMID:25358296

Hilborn, Ray

2014-01-01

44

Tropical Marine EBM Feasibility: A Synthesis of Case Studies and Comparative Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview compares and synthesizes the articles of this theme issue. It highlights that progress has been made toward the goals of marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) in tropical regions. Four key findings are presented: (1) Tailoring EBM to specific contexts ultimately determines success. (2) Employment of a wide variety of marine management tools is necessary and complementary to spatial management

Patrick Christie; Richard B. Pollnac; David L. Fluharty; Mark A. Hixon; Gordon K. Lowry; Robin Mahon; Diana Pietri; Brian N. Tissot; Alan T. White; Nygiel Armada; Rose-Liza Eisma-Osorio

2009-01-01

45

MARINE RESERVES AND OCEAN NEIGHBORHOODS: The Spatial Scale of Marine Populations and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of individuals defines a spatial neighborhood that can help determine marine management strategies. Here, I briefly review four fields of marine biology that each differentially illuminate the scale of marine neighborhoods: effects of marine reserves, tagging studies, microchemistry, and population genetics. These suggest adult neighborhood sizes for many demersal fish and invertebrates as small as kilometers and up

Stephen R. Palumbi

2004-01-01

46

Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft  

E-print Network

Editorial Manager(tm) for Marine Biology Manuscript Draft Manuscript Number: Title: Spatial Hart, PhD Abstract: Informed management of marine resources often depends on knowledge of genetic. We discuss the implications of the results for the biology and management of surfclam populations

47

Marine pollution and management of shores; Pollutions marines et amenagement des rivages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fourteen chapters of the book are presented in three sections ; entitled description of marine pollution, oceanographic techniques in marine ; pollution studies, and prevention of marine pollution and management of shores. ; The first section discusses thermal, bacterial, radioactive, chemical and organic ; pollution. In the chapter on thermal pollution, emphasis is placed on the ; effects of

M. Aubert; J. Aubert

1973-01-01

48

MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  

E-print Network

1 MARINE PLANT MANAGEMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Prepared for: BC Fisheries and Louis Druehl for sharing their knowledge of marine plants. Disclaimer: The contents of this report and Fisheries. #12;3 Executive Summary British Columbia's diversity and abundance of marine plants

California at Santa Cruz, University of

49

A framework for incorporating climate regime shifts into the management of marine resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to use an ecosystem-based management approach to incorporate knowledge of climate regime impacts on ecosystem productivity to manage fishery resources. To do so, it requires the development of a coherent framework that can be built using existing stock assessment and management activities: ecosystem assessment, risk analyses, adaptive management and reference points. This paper builds such a framework

J. R. KING; G. A. MCFARLANE

2006-01-01

50

Ecosystem Science and the Sustainable Management of Marine Resources: From Rio to Johannesburg  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, nations were asked to adopt new approaches for the protection and sustainable development of marine environments and resources. A decade later, overexploitation continues unabated. Scientists advocate the adoption of ecosystem-based man- agement systems to curtail overexploitation, but we first need to improve our understanding of the functioning

Manuel Barange

2003-01-01

51

Protected marine reserves as fisheries management tools: a bioeconomic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a dynamic computational bioeconomic model with the objective of assessing protected marine reserves as fisheries management tools. Data on the North East Atlantic cod stock are used to determine the bioeconomically optimal size of a marine reserve for the Barents Sea cod fishery, as a function of the net transfer rate between the protected and unprotected areas

Ussif Rashid Sumaila

1998-01-01

52

Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.  

PubMed

This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy. PMID:19692167

Kim, Tae-Goun

2009-10-01

53

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors. 140...Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Minerals Management Service inspectors. ...activities is subject to inspection by the Minerals Management Service (MMS)....

2010-07-01

54

Satellite Tracking of Sympatric Marine Megafauna Can Inform the Biological Basis for Species Co-Management  

PubMed Central

Context Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Methodology/Results Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Conclusions/Significance: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it essential to customize management. This methodology could be applied on a broader scale to include other sympatric and inter-related species. PMID:24893163

Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Limpus, Colin J.; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark

2014-01-01

55

Prospects for co-management in Indonesia's marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the case study of a recently designated marine protected area (MPA) in Indonesia to demonstrate the range of institutional and cultural obstacles which hinder effective resource management and which serve to highlight the suitability of collaborative approaches to management. The study explores the implications of recent constitutional reform in this regard and presents evidence supporting the case

Julian Clifton

2003-01-01

56

Management Response to the Tsunami, Surin Marine National Park, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surin Marine National Park lies northwest of Phuket. Before the 26 December 2004 tsunami, its reputation as the best shallow-water reef in Thailand attracted more than 30000 visitors per year to the 8km2 of fringing reef. Visitor management included fees, permits, specific activities management, a zoning plan and an information centre. Zoning plan exclusion areas included the area of highest

Suchai Worachananant; Marc Hockings; Pasinee Reopanichkul

57

The Management of Inshore Marine Recreational Fishing in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a long history and great popularity, marine recreational fishing in Japan is unmanaged above the local level. Although basic rules govern usage, there is neither exclusive authority nor a recreational fishing right, little monitoring, and weak sanctions. The institutional structure of recreational fishing management and its legal framework are examined, and the current status of management analyzed in terms

Kenneth Ruddle; Shio Segi

2006-01-01

58

Zooarchaeology and Arctic marine mammal biogeography, conservation, and management.  

PubMed

The Holocene zooarchaeological record of the subarctic and Arctic can be used to aid in the conservation and management of marine mammals. A synthesis of selected zooarchaeological data indicates that there have been significant changes in species ranges, that northern marine ecosystems varied temporally and spatially, and that changes in sea ice extent may be accessible through retrospective research. Despite some limitations, the analysis of faunal collections from regionally appropriate coastal prehistoric and historic-era archaeological sites can be used to provide baseline information on marine systems that is less likely than more recent data to be compromised by intensive and extensive human impacts. The long-term time series data derived through zooarchaeology are particularly relevant to marine conservation and management decision-making in the Arctic where climate change scenarios predict accelerated environmental changes in the coming decades. PMID:18494362

Murray, Maribeth S

2008-03-01

59

Habitat damage, marine reserves, and the value of spatial management.  

PubMed

The biological benefits of marine reserves have garnered favor in the conservation community, but "no-take" reserve implementation is complicated by the economic interests of fishery stakeholders. There are now a number of studies examining the conditions under which marine reserves can provide both economic and ecological benefits. A potentially important reality of fishing that these studies overlook is that fishing can damage the habitat of the target stock. Here, we construct an equilibrium bioeconomic model that incorporates this habitat damage and show that the designation of marine reserves, coupled with the implementation of a tax on fishing effort, becomes both biologically and economically favorable as habitat sensitivity increases. We also study the effects of varied degrees of spatial control on fisheries management. Together, our results provide further evidence for the potential monetary and biological value of spatial management, and the possibility of a mutually beneficial resolution to the fisherman-conservationist marine reserve designation dilemma. PMID:23967568

Moeller, Holly V; Neubert, Michael G

2013-07-01

60

Taxonomic Distinctness of Demersal Fishes of the California Current: Moving Beyond Simple Measures of Diversity for Marine Ecosystem-Based Management  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale patterns or trends in species diversity have long interested ecologists. The classic pattern is for diversity (e.g., species richness) to decrease with increasing latitude. Taxonomic distinctness is a diversity measure based on the relatedness of the species within a sample. Here we examined patterns of taxonomic distinctness in relation to latitude (ca. 32–48 °N) and depth (ca. 50–1220 m) for demersal fishes on the continental shelf and slope of the US Pacific coast. Methodology/Principal Findings Both average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD) changed with latitude and depth. AvTD was highest at approximately 500 m and lowest at around 200 m bottom depth. Latitudinal trends in AvTD were somewhat weaker and were depth-specific. AvTD increased with latitude on the shelf (50–150 m) but tended to decrease with latitude at deeper depths. Variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD) was highest around 300 m. As with AvTD, latitudinal trends in VarTD were depth-specific. On the shelf (50–150 m), VarTD increased with latitude, while in deeper areas the patterns were more complex. Closer inspection of the data showed that the number and distribution of species within the class Chondrichthyes were the primary drivers of the overall patterns seen in AvTD and VarTD, while the relatedness and distribution of species in the order Scorpaeniformes appeared to cause the relatively low observed values of AvTD at around 200 m. Conclusions/Significance These trends contrast to some extent the patterns seen in earlier studies for species richness and evenness in demersal fishes along this coast and add to our understanding of diversity of the demersal fishes of the California Current. PMID:20498727

Tolimieri, Nick; Anderson, Marti J.

2010-01-01

61

Marine protected areas and ocean basin management  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT 1. All reserve designs must,be guided,by an understanding,of natural,history and,habitat variability. 2. Differences in scale and predictability set aside highly dynamic,pelagic systems from terrestrial and nearshore ecosystems, where wildlife reserves were first implemented. Yet, as in static systems, many,pelagic species use predictable habitats to breed and forage. Marine protected areas (MPAs) could be designed,to protect these foraging,and,breeding,aggregations. 3. Understanding,the

K. David Hyrenbach; Karin A. Forney; Paul K. Dayton

2000-01-01

62

Competing Interests, Economics, and Marine Fisheries Management: An Educational Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managing fish resources in the ocean, known as marine fisheries management, often involves disagreement among many groups of people: commercial fishers, recreational anglers, national and local conservationists, and several branches of government. While managing marine fisheries in federal waters, the federal government must rebuild marine fish…

Thorson, James T.; Berkson, Jim; Murphy, Brian

2010-01-01

63

Management of Marine Protected Areas for fisheries in the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been established for several decades in the Mediterranean. Most of them focus on nature conservation and incomes derive mainly from tourism. However, there is growing interest in the use of MPAs as fishery management tools. With this in mind more empirical data, gathered with appropriate sampling design, are needed to test the effectiveness

S. Revenga; F. Badalamenti

64

Ten myths concerning ecosystem approaches to marine resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystem approaches to marine resource management (EAM) offer comprehensive decision making based on rationalization of currently fragmented ocean policies and their implementation. However, despite the apparent utility in addressing these problems, EAM has also been criticized as being nonspecific, immature, invalid as a basis for decision making, and not fully supported by science. While it is commonly perceived that a

Steven A. Murawski

2007-01-01

65

‘Whose science?’ Precaution and power-play in European marine environmental decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the science–policy interface in environmental decision-making in the European Community as it moves towards its stated aims of implementing a precautionary and ecosystem-based approach to marine environmental management. Whilst recent EC case law has clarified some questions of Member State responsibilities under international environmental obligations, recent case studies at the crossing point between marine nature conservation and

Elizabeth M. De Santo

2010-01-01

66

Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Marine and Coastal Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already impacting the 50% of humanity that lives along coasts Population densities in coastal regions are about three times higher than the global average, with 23 per cent of the world's population living both within 100 kilometer distance of the coast and less than 100 meters above sea level. Sixty percent of the world's cities with a

Lynne Zeitlin Hale; Imčn Meliane; Sarah Davidson; Trevor Sandwith; Jonathan Hoekstra; Mark Spalding; Steven Murawski; Ned Cyr; Kenric Osgood; Marea Hatziolos; Pieter Van Eijk; Nicholas Davidson; William Eichbaum; Carlos Dreus

2009-01-01

67

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Sanctuary Program (Title III of the Marine Protection, Research and...

2014-01-01

68

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Sanctuary Program (Title III of the Marine Protection, Research and...

2012-01-01

69

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act...Sanctuary Program (Title III of the Marine Protection, Research and...

2013-01-01

70

Management effectiveness of the world's marine fisheries.  

PubMed

Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

Mora, Camilo; Myers, Ransom A; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J; Sumaila, Rashid U; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J; Worm, Boris

2009-06-16

71

Management Effectiveness of the World's Marine Fisheries  

PubMed Central

Ongoing declines in production of the world's fisheries may have serious ecological and socioeconomic consequences. As a result, a number of international efforts have sought to improve management and prevent overexploitation, while helping to maintain biodiversity and a sustainable food supply. Although these initiatives have received broad acceptance, the extent to which corrective measures have been implemented and are effective remains largely unknown. We used a survey approach, validated with empirical data, and enquiries to over 13,000 fisheries experts (of which 1,188 responded) to assess the current effectiveness of fisheries management regimes worldwide; for each of those regimes, we also calculated the probable sustainability of reported catches to determine how management affects fisheries sustainability. Our survey shows that 7% of all coastal states undergo rigorous scientific assessment for the generation of management policies, 1.4% also have a participatory and transparent processes to convert scientific recommendations into policy, and 0.95% also provide for robust mechanisms to ensure the compliance with regulations; none is also free of the effects of excess fishing capacity, subsidies, or access to foreign fishing. A comparison of fisheries management attributes with the sustainability of reported fisheries catches indicated that the conversion of scientific advice into policy, through a participatory and transparent process, is at the core of achieving fisheries sustainability, regardless of other attributes of the fisheries. Our results illustrate the great vulnerability of the world's fisheries and the urgent need to meet well-identified guidelines for sustainable management; they also provide a baseline against which future changes can be quantified. PMID:19547743

Mora, Camilo; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Pitcher, Tony J.; Sumaila, Rashid U.; Zeller, Dirk; Watson, Reg; Gaston, Kevin J.; Worm, Boris

2009-01-01

72

School of Biological and Chemical Sciences University Marine Biological Station MSc Marine Ecology and Environmental Management  

E-print Network

Marine Invertebrate Zoology* Marine Pollution Statistics for the Biosciences Research Project 1 Modules El Sheikh, Red Sea, Egypt) Research Project 2 Marine Microbiology Turtles, Seals, Whales and Dolphins

Chittka, Lars

73

Management histories of Sumilon and Apo Marine Reserves, Philippines, and their influence on national marine resource policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histories of management of the Sumilon and Apo marine reserves in the Philippines provide a stark contrast. Both began\\u000a with marine conservation and education programs at the community level, initiated by the Marine Laboratory of Silliman University\\u000a in 1973 at Sumilon, and in 1976?at Apo. At both islands community support for the “no take” reserve concept evolved gradually,\\u000a via

G. R. Russ; A. C. Alcala

1999-01-01

74

Marine managed areas and associated fisheries in the US Caribbean.  

PubMed

The marine managed areas (MMAs) of the U.S. Caribbean are summarized and specific data-rich cases are examined to determine their impact upon fisheries management in the region. In this region, the productivity and connectivity of benthic habitats such as mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs is essential for many species targeted by fisheries. A minority of the 39 MMAs covering over 4000km(2) serve any detectable management or conservation function due to deficiencies in the design, objectives, compliance or enforcement. Fifty percent of the area within MMA boundaries had no-take regulations in the U.S. Virgin Islands, while Puerto Rico only had 3%. Six case studies are compared and contrasted to better understand the potential of these MMAs for fisheries management. Signs of success were associated with including sufficient areas of essential fish habitat (nursery, spawning and migration corridors), year-round no-take regulations, enforcement and isolation. These criteria have been identified as important in the conservation of marine resources, but little has been done to modify the way MMAs are designated and implemented in the region. Site-specific monitoring to measure the effects of these MMAs is needed to demonstrate the benefits to fisheries and gain local support for a greater use as a fisheries management tool. PMID:25358299

Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle T; Mateos-Molina, Daniel; Appeldoorn, Richard; Bejarano, Ivonne; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A; Nemeth, Richard S; Nemeth, Michael I; Valdés-Pizzini, Manuel; Smith, Tyler B

2014-01-01

75

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2013-07-01

76

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2011-07-01

77

33 CFR 140.101 - Inspection by Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...Coast Guard marine inspectors or Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...subject to inspection by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

2012-07-01

78

Marine management efforts for the Pagerungan gas development  

SciTech Connect

ARCO and Pertamina in Indonesia have developed and are producing from gas reserves in the Pagerungan Field. The substantial commercial gas reserves of Pagerungan Field were discovered 1985. The gas producing facilities were built in 1991-1993 on Pagerungan and were designed for 350 MMSCFD of dry gas and 3,500 bbl/day of condensate. About 9 of the 16 planned wells are producing. The gas and condensate sales commenced on January 1994. In Pagerungan island, the aquatic marine environment plays an important role in sustaining organisms which in turn provide both employment and business opportunities for the local people. The Pagerungan gas development has been completed with a series of environmental studies. The studies point out that the development is likely to have a significant impact on the marine environment. For this reason, the company are responsible for managing and monitoring these possible effects and taking action to mitigate potential or actual problems.

Hamzah, A.; Saleh, A.A.; Budhi, T.S.

1996-12-31

79

Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.  

PubMed

The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently. PMID:25358302

Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

2014-01-01

80

Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure and Management 2 Giuseppe Masetti, Brian Calder and Lee Alexander  

E-print Network

Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure and Management 2 Giuseppe Masetti, Brian Calder and Lee Alexander Developing a GIS-Database and Risk Index for Potentially Polluting Marine Sites CHC 2012-Database and Risk Index for Potentially Polluting Marine Sites Giuseppe MASETTI, Brian CALDER and Lee ALEXANDER, USA

New Hampshire, University of

81

Marine protected areas and artificial reefs: A review of the interactions between management and scientific studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inshore marine areas host key habitats for the biological cycle of many marine populations, but are subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Uses of inshore areas are multiple and often give rise to conflicting interests. In this context, marine protected areas (MPAs) and artificial reefs (ARs) are increasingly regarded as interesting management measures, in that they contribute to ecosystem conservation, fisheries

Joachim Claudet; Dominique Pelletier

2004-01-01

82

Detailed seafloor habitat mapping to enhance marine-resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pictures of the seafloor capture important information about the sediments, exposed geologic features, submerged aquatic vegetation, and animals found in a given habitat. With the emergence of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a favored tactic for preserving coral reef resources, knowledge of essential habitat components is paramount to designing effective management strategies. Surprisingly, detailed information on seafloor habitat components is not available in many areas that are being considered for MPA designation or that are already designated as MPAs. A task of the U.S. Geological Survey Coral Reef Ecosystem STudies (USGS CREST) project is addressing this issue.

Zawada, David G.; Hart, Kristen M.

2010-01-01

83

A fuzzy logic approach to marine spatial management.  

PubMed

Marine spatial planning tends to prioritise biological conservation targets over socio-economic considerations, which may incur lower user compliance and ultimately compromise management success. We argue for more inclusion of human dimensions in spatial management, so that outcomes not only fulfill biodiversity and conservation objectives, but are also acceptable to resource users. We propose a fuzzy logic framework that will facilitate this task- The protected area suitability index (PASI) combines fishers' spatial preferences with biological criteria to assess site suitability for protection from fishing. We apply the PASI in a spatial evaluation of a small-scale reef fishery in Sabah, Malaysia. While our results pertain to fishers specifically, the PASI can also be customized to include the interests of other stakeholders and resource users, as well as incorporate varying levels of protection. PMID:21359523

Teh, Lydia C L; Teh, Louise S L

2011-04-01

84

MANAGING MULTIPLE VECTORS for MARINE INVASIONS in an1 INCREASINGLY CONNECTED WORLD2  

E-print Network

D, is a professor and benthic marine ecologist who works on the45 science and management of biological invasions 1 MANAGING MULTIPLE VECTORS for MARINE INVASIONS in an1 INCREASINGLY CONNECTED WORLD2 3 Susan L of Environmental Science and25 Policy, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.26 27 Keywords: invasive

Ishida, Yuko

85

Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here, we focus on reviewing current knowledge about how the climate drives hostpathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked to other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

Burge, Colleen A.; Eakin, C. Mark; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

86

Climate Change Influences on Marine Infectious Diseases: Implications for Management and Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked for other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

Burge, Colleen A.; Mark Eakin, C.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Hershberger, Paul K.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Petes, Laura E.; Prager, Katherine C.; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette L.; Ford, Susan E.; Harvell, C. Drew

2014-01-01

87

Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective\\u000a actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced\\u000a by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change\\u000a including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising

Brian D. Keller; Daniel F. Gleason; Elizabeth McLeod; Christa M. Woodley; Satie Airamé; Billy D. Causey; Alan M. Friedlander; Rikki Grober-Dunsmore; Johanna E. Johnson; Steven L. Miller; Robert S. Steneck

2009-01-01

88

Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial ecology research group, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Yerseke 4400 AC, the  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem management research group, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2610, Belgium. 2 Spatial Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Yerseke 4400 AB, the Netherlands. 4 Delft of shorelines to keep up with relative sea-level rise (Fig. 1). In recent years, ecosystem-based flood defence

Cai, Long

89

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

90

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

91

Management Auditing. Evaluation of the Marine Corps Task Analysis Program. Technical Report No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The management audit is described for possible application as an extension of the mission of the Office of Manpower Utilization (OMU) of the U.S. Marine Corps. The present mission of OMU is viewed as a manpower research program to conduct task analysis of Marine Corps occupational fields. Purpose of the analyses is to improve the functional areas…

Hemphill, John M., Jr.; Yoder, Dale

92

Application of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management  

E-print Network

modeling, grid power demand, energy storage. I. INTRODUCTION Highly predictable tidal resources and highApplication of Flow Battery in Marine Current Turbine System for Daily Power Management Zhibin Zhou.Benbouzid@univ-brest.fr, thtang@shmtu.edu.cn Abstract--Predictable tidal current resources make marine current turbine (MCT

Brest, Université de

93

Marine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................... 9 2. Sampling and analysis at sewage-sludge disposal sites ............................................................................. 15 4. Standards for sediment metals at sewage-sludge disposal sitesMarine Pollution Monitoring Management Group The Group Co-ordinating Sea Disposal Monitoring

94

Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

95

75 FR 78619 - Shipping Act, Merchant Marine, and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and Individual Fishing Quota Lending Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

2010-12-16

96

75 FR 24549 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act) Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and Individual Fishing Quota Lending Program Regulations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS),...

2010-05-05

97

Marine biosecurity: the importance of awareness, support and cooperation in managing a successful incursion response.  

PubMed

Shipping is almost certainly the most prevalent human-mediated transport vector for non-indigenous species (NIS) within the marine environment. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) has long acknowledged the importance of sound environmental management and in recent years has taken a proactive approach to addressing risks associated with marine biosecurity. primarily as a result of biofouling on Navy vessel returning from overseas operations. This paper describes two case studies that highlight the effectiveness of the RAN marine biosecurity management framework in identifying an unwanted marine species on Navy vessels, and the successful biosecurity management program that ensued. In particular, the early detection and identification of a suspect NIS, the quick response to the discovery and the collaborative approach adopted between the RAN and the Government regulatory agency (Western Australian Department of Fisheries) charged with coordinating the incursion response serves as a model for how future incursion responses should be reported and managed. PMID:22748502

Piola, Richard F; McDonald, Justin I

2012-09-01

98

New Tools to Meet New Challenges: Emerging Technologies for Managing Marine Ecosystems for Resilience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from the January 2008 issue of BioScience provides an overview of current techniques used in evaluating marine ecosystem health. The goal of this article is to highlight evolving tools, recent advances, and emerging techniques that are being used to understand natural variability in marine ecosystems. These technical approaches range from the tagging of large pelagic organisms to the use of genomics to provide insight into the abundance and health of marine organisms. Although these techniques vary dramatically in scale, they share the potential to remove critical impediments to the effective management of marine systems.

GRETCHEN E. HOFMANN (University of California, Santa Barbara; )

2008-01-01

99

How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of marine protected areas (MPAs) requires continuous feedback of information to achieve objectives. In 2000, a collaborative initiative was launched to improve the management of MPAs. The initiative focused on working with managers, planners, and other decision-makers to develop a set of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of MPA use. This initiative was aimed at both enhancing the

Robert S. Pomeroy; Lani M. Watson; John E. Parks; Gonzalo A. Cid

2005-01-01

100

DMSWG-1 Project Report MRIP Data Management Standard (MDMS) Database MARINE RECREATIONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

DMSWG-1 Project Report MRIP Data Management Standard (MDMS) Database MARINE RECREATIONAL INFORMATION PROGRAM MRIP Data Management Standard (MDMS) Database PROJECT REPORT DMSWG-1 Identify, 2008 Page i of 14 #12;DMSWG-1 Project Report MRIP Data Management Standard (MDMS) Database Page ii

101

The case for data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing most marine finfisheries to achieve optimum yields is an unattainable dream. Protecting these resources from serious depletion through precautionary management seems the only practical option. But even this is of limited application if we demand scientific data for each managed fishery. There are too few researchers to do the work and, in any event, such research would usually not

R. E. Johannes

1998-01-01

102

Is feedback control effective for ecosystem-based fisheries management?  

PubMed

We investigate the effects of species interactions on the robustness of feedback control of the harvesting of prey species. We consider the consequences of feedback control of fishing effort. If a prey species is exploited, increasing fishing effort decreases predator abundance more than it does the prey abundance. Feedback control of fishing effort may cause the extinction of the predator, even if the prey population is well controlled. Even when fishing effort is controlled by predator density, it is difficult for the fishery and the predator to coexist, and, if they do so, the system exhibits complex dynamic behaviors. If the predator and fishery coexist, feedback control of fishing effort converges to a stable equilibrium, a synchronous cycle, or an asynchronous cycle. In the last case, the system undergoes more complex cycling with a longer period than that when the fishing effort is kept constant. These analyses suggest that there is no effective strategy that is robust against measurement errors, process errors and complex interactions in ecosystem dynamics. PMID:23792332

Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Abrams, Peter A

2013-12-21

103

Ecosystem-Based Management in the Whitebark Pine Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests have necessitated development of innovative methods to restore these ecologically valuable, high elevation ecosystems. We have began an extensive restoration study using prescribed fire and silvicultural cuttings to return native ecological processes to degenerating white- bark pine forests. Preliminary results indicate these restoration treatments are successfully restoring the fire processes at a small scale,

Robert E. Keane; Stephen F. Arno; Catherine A. Stewart

104

Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more “traditional” stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation.

Keller, Brian D.; Gleason, Daniel F.; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M.; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E.; Miller, Steven L.; Steneck, Robert S.

2009-12-01

105

Climate change, coral reef ecosystems, and management options for marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) provide place-based management of marine ecosystems through various degrees and types of protective actions. Habitats such as coral reefs are especially susceptible to degradation resulting from climate change, as evidenced by mass bleaching events over the past two decades. Marine ecosystems are being altered by direct effects of climate change including ocean warming, ocean acidification, rising sea level, changing circulation patterns, increasing severity of storms, and changing freshwater influxes. As impacts of climate change strengthen they may exacerbate effects of existing stressors and require new or modified management approaches; MPA networks are generally accepted as an improvement over individual MPAs to address multiple threats to the marine environment. While MPA networks are considered a potentially effective management approach for conserving marine biodiversity, they should be established in conjunction with other management strategies, such as fisheries regulations and reductions of nutrients and other forms of land-based pollution. Information about interactions between climate change and more "traditional" stressors is limited. MPA managers are faced with high levels of uncertainty about likely outcomes of management actions because climate change impacts have strong interactions with existing stressors, such as land-based sources of pollution, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, invasive species, and diseases. Management options include ameliorating existing stressors, protecting potentially resilient areas, developing networks of MPAs, and integrating climate change into MPA planning, management, and evaluation. PMID:19636605

Keller, Brian D; Gleason, Daniel F; McLeod, Elizabeth; Woodley, Christa M; Airamé, Satie; Causey, Billy D; Friedlander, Alan M; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Johnson, Johanna E; Miller, Steven L; Steneck, Robert S

2009-12-01

106

76 FR 56742 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States by the Council SSCs in addressing Ecosystems Based Fishery Management (EBFM) issues...National SSC Workshop be convened to address ecosystem considerations in the fishery management...in both traditional single species and ecosystem based fishery management....

2011-09-14

107

Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based management. We present an adaptive ecosystem classification that begins to address these challenges. To demonstrate the approach, we quantitatively bounded distinct, biologically meaningful marine regions in the North Pacific Ocean based on physical oceanography. We identified the regions by applying image classification algorithms to a comprehensive description of the ocean's surface, derived from an oceanographic circulation model. Our resulting maps illustrate 15 distinct marine regions. The size and location of these regions related well to previously described water masses in the North Pacific. We investigated seasonal and long-term changes in the pattern of regions and their boundaries by dividing the oceanographic data into four seasons and two 10-year time periods, one on either side of the 1976-1977 North Pacific Ocean climate regime shift. We compared our results for each season across the regime shift and for sequential seasons within regimes using the Kappa Index of Agreement and the index of Average Mutual Information. Seasonal patterns were more similar between regimes than from one season to the next within a regime, while the magnitude of seasonal transitions appeared to differ before and after the regime shift. We assessed the biological relevance of the identified regions using seasonal maps derived from remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentrations ([chl-a]). We used Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to evaluate the correspondence between the [chl-a] maps and our post-regime shift regions. There was a significant difference in [chl-a] among the regions in all seasons. We found that the number of regions with distinct chlorophyll signatures, and the associations between different regions, varied by season. The overall pattern of association between the regions was suggestive of observed, broad-scale patterns in the seasonal development and distribution of primary production in the North Pacific. This demonstrated that regions with different biological properties can be delineated using only physical variables. The flexibility of our approach will enable researchers to visualize the geographic extents of regions with similar physical conditions, providing insight into ocean dynamics and changes in marine ecosystems. It will also provide resource managers with a powerful tool for broad application in ecosystem-based management and conservation of marine resources.

Gregr, Edward J.; Bodtker, Karin M.

2007-03-01

108

Classification of Non-Indigenous Species Based on Their Impacts: Considerations for Application in Marine Management  

PubMed Central

Assessment of the ecological and economic/societal impacts of the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is one of the primary focus areas of bioinvasion science in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and is considered essential to management. A classification system of NIS, based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts, was recently proposed to assist management. Here, we consider the potential application of this classification scheme to the marine environment, and offer a complementary framework focussing on value sets in order to explicitly address marine management concerns. Since existing data on marine NIS impacts are scarce and successful marine removals are rare, we propose that management of marine NIS adopt a precautionary approach, which not only would emphasise preventing new incursions through pre-border and at-border controls but also should influence the categorisation of impacts. The study of marine invasion impacts requires urgent attention and significant investment, since we lack the luxury of waiting for the knowledge base to be acquired before the window of opportunity closes for feasible management. PMID:25875845

Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Campbell, Marnie L.; Carlton, James T.; Canning-Clode, Joăo; Cook, Elizabeth J.; Davidson, Alisha D.; Hewitt, Chad L.; Jelmert, Anders; Marchini, Agnese; McKenzie, Cynthia H.; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenin, Sergej; Ruiz, Gregory

2015-01-01

109

Classification of non-indigenous species based on their impacts: considerations for application in marine management.  

PubMed

Assessment of the ecological and economic/societal impacts of the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is one of the primary focus areas of bioinvasion science in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and is considered essential to management. A classification system of NIS, based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts, was recently proposed to assist management. Here, we consider the potential application of this classification scheme to the marine environment, and offer a complementary framework focussing on value sets in order to explicitly address marine management concerns. Since existing data on marine NIS impacts are scarce and successful marine removals are rare, we propose that management of marine NIS adopt a precautionary approach, which not only would emphasise preventing new incursions through pre-border and at-border controls but also should influence the categorisation of impacts. The study of marine invasion impacts requires urgent attention and significant investment, since we lack the luxury of waiting for the knowledge base to be acquired before the window of opportunity closes for feasible management. PMID:25875845

Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S; Campbell, Marnie L; Carlton, James T; Canning-Clode, Joăo; Cook, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Alisha D; Hewitt, Chad L; Jelmert, Anders; Marchini, Agnese; McKenzie, Cynthia H; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenin, Sergej; Ruiz, Gregory

2015-04-01

110

The Australian Ocean Data Network as a tool for supporting management of marine biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN) is a rapidly growing distributed data network bringing together marine data collections from Commonwealth Agencies, Universities, State Governments, national programs and private industry. These data are made publicly available through the AODN portal (http://portal.aodn.org.au), an open source information infrastructure itself downloadable from https://github.com/aodn/aodn-portal. Increasingly, the data collections are multi-disciplinary requiring access to multiple layers of information from different sources. This requires rich metadata to enable the appropriate layers to be discovered and integrated. Recently, the Marine Biodiversity Hub of the National Environmental Research Program (NERP), funded by the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, has commited to making its data publicly available through the AODN. The next 3-4 years provide a key opportunity to fundamentally change the way we monitor marine biodiversity throughout Australia. The Hub collaborates with the Department and stakeholders to understand ecosystems and biodiversity especially in Northern Australia. Key outcomes will include better methods for measuring ecosystem health and Marine Protected Area (MPA) performance, more management options, and increased understanding of marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, leading to improved monitoring and management of marine biodiversity and listed species in Australia. The ability to bring together the wide range of data necessary to fulfil the Marine Biodiversity Hub's aims represents a challenge for the AODN. This will be illustrated through a test case based on marine park requirements.

Proctor, Roger; Dunstan, Piers; Hedge, Paul; Atkins, Natalia; Mancini, Sebastien; Bax, Nic

2013-04-01

111

An Ecosystem-Based Restoration Plan with Emphasis on Salmonid Habitats in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), in coordination with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) and NOAA Fisheries, originated this project (BPA Project No. 2002-076; Contract No. DE-AC06-76RL01830, Release No. 652-24). Their intent was to develop a useful habitat restoration plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary to help guide restoration efforts and fulfill Reasonable and Prudent Alternative Action 159 of the 2000 National Marine Fisheries Service Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. This document focuses on salmon habitat, although its ecosystem-based approach necessarily affects other species as well. Salmon habitat restoration is best undertaken within the context of other biota and physical processes using an ecosystem perspective. The anticipated audience for the plan includes entities responsible for, interested in, or affected by habitat restoration in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Timeframes to apply this plan extend from the immediate (2003-2004) to the near-term (2005-2006) to the long-term (2007 and beyond). We anticipate and encourage that the plan be revised as new knowledge and experience are attained. A team comprised of the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) wrote this document. The BPA and the COE, as the responsible Action Agencies, provided technical oversight. The Estuary Partnership's Science Work Group, NOAA Fisheries Habitat Conservation Division, Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) staff, and state and tribal fisheries management agencies reviewed drafts. The Independent Scientific Advisory Board of the NPPC reviewed and commented on the 90% draft. Revisions were incorporated into the final draft document subsequently released for public review. Extensive efforts were made to ensure a sound technical and policy basis and to solicit input from all interested parties.

Johnson, Gary E.; Thom, Ronald M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Sutherland, George B.; Berquam, Taunja J.; Ebberts, Blaine; Ricci, Nicole M.; Southard, John A.; Wilcox, Jessica D.

2003-10-14

112

Marine Protected Areas: A Tool for Coastal Areas Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biodiversity is threatened by human impact. Though few marine species are regarded as being extinct due to Man, many\\u000a species are critically endangered (e.g. the monk seal Monachus monachus), endangered (e.g. the Mediterranean giant limpet\\u000a Patella ferruginea) or vulnerable, i.e. dwindling rapidly, although not threatened with extinction in the immediate future\\u000a (e.g. the large mollusk Pinna nobilis). There are

C. F. Boudouresque; G. Cadiou; L. Diréac'h

113

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through…

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria-Pilar

2012-01-01

114

Towards A Network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region’s locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P.

2014-01-01

115

Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in the Western Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs). We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice. PMID:25054340

Rocliffe, Steve; Peabody, Shawn; Samoilys, Melita; Hawkins, Julie P

2014-01-01

116

Estimation of the annual flow and stock of marine debris in South Korea for management purposes.  

PubMed

The annual flow and stock of marine debris in the Sea of Korea was estimated by summarizing previous survey results and integrating them with other relevant information to underpin the national marine debris management plan. The annual inflow of marine debris was estimated to be 91,195 tons [32,825 tons (36% of the total) from sources on land and 58,370 tons (64%) from ocean sources]. As of the end of 2012, the total stock of marine debris on all South Korean coasts (12,029 tons), the seabed (137,761 tons), and in the water column (2451 tons) was estimated to be 152,241 tons. In 2012, 42,595 tons of marine debris was collected from coasts, seabeds, and the water column. This is a very rare case study that estimated the amount of marine debris at a national level, the results of which provide essential information for the development of efficient marine debris management policies. PMID:25038983

Jang, Yong Chang; Lee, Jongmyoung; Hong, Sunwook; Mok, Jin Yong; Kim, Kyoung Shin; Lee, Yun Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hongmook; Lee, Sukhui

2014-09-15

117

Linking marine protected areas to integrated coastal and ocean management: A review of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

If managed in isolation, coastal and marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to natural resource development and exploitation occurring outside these areas—in particular, overfishing, alteration and destruction of habitats, and water pollution. Thus, protection of coastal and marine areas—of species, habitats, landscapes, and seascapes—should be integrated into spatial development strategies for larger areas, under the umbrella of integrated coastal and

Biliana Cicin-Sain; Stefano Belfiore

2005-01-01

118

New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning.  

PubMed

Increased development pressures on the marine environment and the potential for multiple use conflicts, arising as a result of the current expansion of offshore wind energy, fishing and aquaculture, dredging, mineral extraction, shipping, and the need to meet international and national commitments to biodiversity conservation, have led to increased interest in sea use planning with particular emphasis on marine spatial planning. Several European countries, on their own initiative or driven by the European Union's Marine Strategy and Maritime Policy, the Bergen Declaration of the North Sea Conference, and the EU Recommendation on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, have taken global leadership in implementing marine spatial planning. Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany in the North Sea, and the United Kingdom in the Irish Sea, have already completed preliminary sea use plans and zoning proposals for marine areas within their national jurisdictions. This paper discusses the nature and context of marine spatial planning, the international legal and policy framework, and the increasing need for marine spatial planning in Europe. In addition, the authors review briefly three marine spatial planning initiatives in the North Sea and conclude with some initial lessons learned from these experiences. PMID:18786758

Douvere, Fanny; Ehler, Charles N

2009-01-01

119

Connectivity, sustainability, and yield: bridging the gap between conventional fisheries management and marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial shift toward use of marine protected areas (MPAs) for conservation and fisheries management is currently underway.\\u000a This shift to explicit spatial management presents new challenges and uncertainties for ecologists and resource managers.\\u000a In particular, the potential for MPAs to change population sustainability, fishery yield, and ecosystem properties depends\\u000a on the poorly understood consequences of three critical forms of

Louis W. Botsford; Daniel R. Brumbaugh; Churchill Grimes; Julie B. Kellner; John Largier; Michael R. O’Farrell; Stephen Ralston; Elaine Soulanille; Vidar Wespestad

2009-01-01

120

Whale sharks in Ningaloo Marine Park: managing tourism in an Australian marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whale shark is the largest fish in the ocean. A tourism industry based on interacting with whale sharks has developed recently in Ningaloo Marine Park, off the coast of Western Australia. This is the only known, accessible place in the world where whale sharks congregate in significant numbers. Results from surveys of participants in the ‘whale shark experience’ are

Alastair Birtles; Peter Valentine; Michael Cuthill

1997-01-01

121

Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is complying with all relevant legislation and policies. Further research is required to confirm compliance and conclude that military activities have good accord with environmental management objectives.

Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

2010-05-01

122

Integrating science and management for marine mammal conservation  

E-print Network

can be exposed to loud sounds; and physiological adaptations to deep diving may impose further of a local marine mammal population and the impact of a human activity is often difficult. Implementing impacts, or of the relationships between regulations, enforcement, and human activity. Yet

Pierce, Graham

123

An Ecosystem-Based Approach to Assess the Status of a Mediterranean Ecosystem, the Posidonia oceanica Seagrass Meadow  

PubMed Central

Biotic indices, which reflect the quality of the environment, are widely used in the marine realm. Sometimes, key species or ecosystem engineers are selected for this purpose. This is the case of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, widely used as a biological quality element in the context of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). The good quality of a water body and the apparent health of a species, whether or not an ecosystem engineer such as P. oceanica, is not always indicative of the good structure and functioning of the whole ecosystem. A key point of the recent Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is the ecosystem-based approach. Here, on the basis of a simplified conceptual model of the P. oceanica ecosystem, we have proposed an ecosystem-based index of the quality of its functioning, compliant with the MSFD requirements. This index (EBQI) is based upon a set of representative functional compartments, the weighting of these compartments and the assessment of the quality of each compartment by comparison of a supposed baseline. The index well discriminated 17 sites in the north-western Mediterranean (French Riviera, Provence, Corsica, Catalonia and Balearic Islands) covering a wide range of human pressure levels. The strong points of the EBQI are that it is easy to implement, non-destructive, relatively robust, according to the selection of the compartments and to their weighting, and associated with confidence indices that indicate possible weakness and biases and therefore the need for further field data acquisition. PMID:24933020

Personnic, Sébastien; Boudouresque, Charles F.; Astruch, Patrick; Ballesteros, Enric; Blouet, Sylvain; Bellan-Santini, Denise; Bonhomme, Patrick; Thibault-Botha, Delphine; Feunteun, Eric; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pastor, Jérémy; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Florent; Thibaut, Thierry; Ruitton, Sandrine

2014-01-01

124

SeaDataNet: Pan-European infrastructure for ocean and marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the SeaDataNet project is the upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products originating from data acquisition activities by all engaged coastal states, by setting, adopting and promoting common data management standards and by realising technical and semantic interoperability with other relevant data management systems and initiatives on behalf of science, environmental management, policy making, and economy. SeaDataNet is undertaken by the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs), and marine information services of major research institutes, from 31 coastal states bordering the European seas, and also includes Satellite Data Centres, expert modelling centres and the international organisations IOC, ICES and EU-JRC in its network. Its 40 data centres are highly skilled and have been actively engaged in data management for many years and have the essential capabilities and facilities for data quality control, long term stewardship, retrieval and distribution. SeaDataNet undertakes activities to achieve data access and data products services that meet requirements of end-users and intermediate user communities, such as GMES Marine Core Services (e.g. MyOcean), establishing SeaDataNet as the core data management component of the EMODNet infrastructure and contributing on behalf of Europe to global portal initiatives, such as the IOC/IODE - Ocean Data Portal (ODP), and GEOSS. Moreover it aims to achieve INSPIRE compliance and to contribute to the INSPIRE process for developing implementing rules for oceanography. • As part of the SeaDataNet upgrading and capacity building, training courses will be organised aiming at data managers and technicians at the data centres. For the data managers it is important, that they learn to work with the upgraded common SeaDataNet formats and procedures and software tools for preparing and updating metadata, processing and quality control of data, and presentation of data in viewing services, and for production of data products. • SeaDataNet maintains and operates several discovery services with overviews of marine organisations in Europe and their engagement in marine research projects, managing large datasets, and data acquisition by research vessels and monitoring programmes for the European seas and global oceans: o European Directory of Marine Environmental Data (EDMED) (at present > 4300 entries from more than 600 data holding centres in Europe) is a comprehensive reference to the marine data and sample collections held within Europe providing marine scientists, engineers and policy makers with a simple discovery mechanism. It covers all marine environmental disciplines. This needs regular maintenance. o European Directory of Marine Environmental Research Projects (EDMERP) (at present > 2200 entries from more than 300 organisations in Europe) gives an overview of research projects relating to the marine environment, that are relevant in the context of data sets and data acquisition activities ( cruises, in situ monitoring networks, ..) that are covered in SeaDataNet. This needs regular updating, following activities by dataholding institutes for preparing metadata references for EDMED, EDIOS, CSR and CDI. o Cruise Summary Reports (CSR) directory (at present > 43000 entries) provides a coarse-grained inventory for tracking oceanographic data collected by research vessels. o European Directory of Oceanographic Observing Systems (EDIOS) (at present > 10000 entries) is an initiative of EuroGOOS and gives an overview of the ocean measuring and monitoring systems operated by European countries. • European Directory of Marine Organisations (EDMO) (at present > 2000 entries) contains the contact information and activity profiles for the organisations whose data and activities are described by the discovery services. • Common Vocabularies (at present > 120000

Fichaut, M.; Schaap, D.; Maudire, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.

2012-04-01

125

Testing the utility of abiotic surrogates for marine habitat mapping at scales relevant to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat mapping at the scale at which marine protected areas are designed and managed is essential for assessment of, and design for, representation. Most habitat mapping studies rely solely or in part on abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity. The utility of abiotic variables in predicting biological distributions at the local scale (10 s of km) was tested in a

Tim Stevens; Rod M. Connolly

2004-01-01

126

Interactions between poaching and management policy affect marine reserves as conservation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the effects of poaching within marine reserve boundaries under three different management policies this analysis uses a simple age-structured reserve model based on yield maximization or reproductive thresholds of Black rockfish (Sebastes melanops). Departures from the traditional assumptions of full compliance to reserve boundaries alter the conclusions of prior modeling work that demonstrate yield equivalence to no-reserve effort

Suresh A. Sethi; Ray Hilborn

2008-01-01

127

Abstract Presented at The Marine and Estuarine Shallow Water Science and Management Conference  

E-print Network

Abstract Presented at The Marine and Estuarine Shallow Water Science and Management Conference treatment technologies for the decontamination of dredged material in New York/New Jersey Harbor construction is emphasized as a way of obtaining adequate funding for infrastructure and operating costs during

Brookhaven National Laboratory

128

Designing, implementing and managing marine protected areas: Emerging trends and opportunities for coral reef nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs are in dire need of effective governance, yet the science and planning of coral reef protected areas largely stem from wealthy, developed nations, with very different social, economic, and cultural characteristics than the nations in which most coral reefs occur. Much has been written about coral reefs and the use of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management

Natalie C. Ban; Vanessa M. Adams; Glenn R. Almany; Stephen Ban; Josh E. Cinner; Laurence J. McCook; Morena Mills; Robert L. Pressey; Alan White

129

?Ocean biodiversity informatics?: a new era in marine biology research and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean biodiversity informatics (OBI) is the use of computer technologies to manage marine biodiversity information, including data capture, storage, search, retrieval, visualisation, mapping, modelling, analysis and publication. The latest information systems are open-access, making data and\\/or information publicly available over the Internet. This ranges from primary data on species occurrences, such as in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), to

Mark J. Costello; Edward Vanden Berghe

2006-01-01

130

The role of internships in Marine Policy and Integrated Coastal Management higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyses internship practice in Marine Policy (MP) and Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) higher education within the EU and the US based on a questionnaire survey of relevant institutions and a detailed case study. The industrial internship (placement) is generally acknowledged to be an extremely valuable component of university education, particularly for professional courses. The survey reinforced this view

R. C Ballinger; C. S Lalwani

2000-01-01

131

A conceptual framework for the integral management of marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general conceptual framework for the management of marine protected areas (MPAs) was developed. The driver-pressure-state-impacts-response (DPSIR) framework was used to determine the elements affecting MPAs. The developed evaluation framework helped to select an appropriate suite of indicators to support an ecosystem approach, an assessment of the MPAs functioning and policy decisions. Gaps derived from the management and policy responses

Celia Ojeda-Martínez; Francisca Giménez Casalduero; Just T. Bayle-Sempere; Carmen Barbera Cebrián; Carlos Valle; Jose Luis Sanchez-Lizaso; Aitor Forcada; Pablo Sanchez-Jerez; Pablo Martín-Sosa; Jesús M. Falcón; Fuensanta Salas; Mariagrazia Graziano; Renato Chemello; Ben Stobart; Pedro Cartagena; Angel Pérez-Ruzafa; Fréderic Vandeperre; Elisabeth Rochel; Serge Planes; Alberto Brito

2009-01-01

132

SeaDataNet Pan-European infrastructure for Ocean & Marine Data Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEADATANET is developing a Pan-European data management infrastructure to insure access to a large number of marine environmental data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties), safeguard and long term archiving. Data are derived from many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. SeaDataNet allows to have information on real time and archived marine environmental data collected at a pan-european level, through directories on marine environmental data and projects. SeaDataNet allows the access to the most comprehensive multidisciplinary sets of marine in-situ and remote sensing data, from about 40 laboratories, through user friendly tools. The data selection and access is operated through the Common Data Index (CDI), XML files compliant with ISO standards and unified dictionaries. Technical Developments carried out by SeaDataNet includes: A library of Standards - Meta-data standards, compliant with ISO 19115, for communication and interoperability between the data platforms. Software of interoperable on line system - Interconnection of distributed data centres by interfacing adapted communication technology tools. Off-Line Data Management software - software representing the minimum equipment of all the data centres is developed by AWI "Ocean Data View (ODV)". Training, Education and Capacity Building - Training 'on the job' is carried out by IOC-Unesco in Ostende. SeaDataNet Virtual Educational Centre internet portal provides basic tools for informal education

Manzella, G. M.; Maillard, C.; Maudire, G.; Schaap, D.; Rickards, L.; Nast, F.; Balopoulos, E.; Mikhailov, N.; Vladymyrov, V.; Pissierssens, P.; Schlitzer, R.; Beckers, J. M.; Barale, V.

2007-12-01

133

Regime shifts in marine ecosystems: detection, prediction and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regime shifts are abrupt changes between contrasting, persistent states of any complex system. The potential for their prediction in the ocean and possible management depends upon the characteristics of the regime shifts: their drivers (from anthropogenic to natural), scale (from the local to the basin) and potential for management action (from adaptation to mitigation). We present a conceptual framework that

Brad deYoung; Manuel Barange; Gregory Beaugrand; Roger Harris; R. Ian Perry; Marten Scheffer; Francisco Werner

2008-01-01

134

Data categories for marine planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

2015-01-01

135

Diagnosis and management of injuries from dangerous marine life.  

PubMed

Injuries from marine life encompass a wide spectrum, from mild stings to severe bites. Fortunately most of the injuries are mild, although some may be significant, resulting in death. Most of these injuries can be treated by family physicians with a knowledge of the cause of the pathology. Over the years, there have been many treatment options. Some have actually caused an increase in severity. An important rule in treating these injuries is to inactivate the venom, treat the local reaction or injury, and treat the systemic sequelae. Jellyfish stings are the most common type of marine injury. The tentacles possess nematocysts, which are stinging units that are inactivated by the application of vinegar. Sea urchin and stingray injuries require the removal of the imbedded spines after the wound is soaked in hot water. Coral, sea bathers eruption, and swimmer's itch require thorough scrubbing and irrigation. Sea snakes, cone shells, and venomous fish possess a neurotoxin that requires close monitoring in the event of cardiopulmonary collapse. All of these injuries require tetanus status monitoring and consideration of coverage for infectious sequelae. PMID:16369231

Brown, Thomas P

2005-01-01

136

Trade-off analysis for marine protected area management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an approach to natural resource management that incorporates multiple objectives for protected area management within a decision-making framework. Both regulators and other major stakeholders are directly incorporated into the approach to enhance decision-making processes. We call this approach trade-off analysis. The approach uses a framework based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) but involves stakeholders at all stages. This

Katrina Brown; W. Neil Adger; Emma Tompkins; Peter Bacon; David Shim; Kathy Young

2001-01-01

137

Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists?  

E-print Network

1 Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy-makers, society and scientists B., Martinez C., Imbach P., 2009. Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: what role for policy and livelihoods depend largely on ecosystem services, policies for adaptation to climate change should take

Boyer, Edmond

138

Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

2010-11-01

139

Social and political barriers to the use of Marine Protected Areas for conservation and fishery management in Melanesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the strengths and weaknesses of state-supported Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) systems in two independent Melanesian states (Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) in the context of the management of rapidly intensifying commercial and subsistence fisheries. We focus particularly on the proposed use of permanent no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), which are at present strongly favoured

Simon Foale; Bruno Manele

2004-01-01

140

An integrated environmental risk assessment and management framework for enhancing the sustainability of marine protected areas: the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve case study in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs), such as marine parks and reserves, contain natural resources of immense value to the environment and mankind. Since MPAs may be situated in close proximity to urbanized areas and influenced by anthropogenic activities (e.g. continuous discharges of contaminated waters), the marine organisms contained in such waters are probably at risk. This study aimed at developing an integrated environmental risk assessment and management (IERAM) framework for enhancing the sustainability of such MPAs. The IERAM framework integrates conventional environmental risk assessment methods with a multi-layer-DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual approach, which can simplify the complex issues embraced by environmental management strategies and provide logical and concise management information. The IERAM process can generate a useful database, offer timely update on the status of MPAs, and assist in the prioritization of management options. We use the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve in Hong Kong as an example to illustrate the IERAM framework. A comprehensive set of indicators were selected, aggregated and analyzed using this framework. Effects of management practices and programs were also assessed by comparing the temporal distributions of these indicators over a certain timeframe. Based on the obtained results, we have identified the most significant components for safeguarding the integrity of the marine reserve, and indicated the existing information gaps concerned with the management of the reserve. Apart from assessing the MPA's present condition, a successful implementation of the IERAM framework as evocated here would also facilitate better-informed decision-making and, hence, indirectly enhance the protection and conservation of the MPA's marine biodiversity. PMID:25461028

Xu, Elvis G B; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Morton, Brian; Lee, Joseph H W

2015-02-01

141

Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

Pontecorvo, Guilio

142

Use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems To Support Spatial Management and Conservation of Marine Resources In Tropical Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destructive fishing methods have degraded coral reefs and depleted fisheries in the Philippines and Indonesia. Both countries have passed laws to decentralize management of fisheries and the coastal zone. There is an urgent need to implement ecosystem management strategies. Conservationists and scientists have advocated spatial management involving the implementation of networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). A weakness of many

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand P. Cruz; Tomas V. Jamir

143

Design of a Computerized Energy Management System for Marine Applications  

E-print Network

are designed to facili tate and simplify operating use and understanding. The practical application of the system for signifi cantly reducing the fuel costs of ship operators is presented. INTRODUCTION With increased fuel costs, diesel engine opera tors... be necessary. This can be derived through the use of fuel loading meters. Additional inputs to the system include standard l2-volt dc power and opera tor controlled infonJJation from the front panel of the fuel management system. The output information can...

Russell, B. D.; Perry, L. W.; Gerloff, G. W.; Heller, R. P.; Pankonien, G.

1982-01-01

144

Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP): developing a common approach to marine data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem level marine research necessitates that large amounts of interoperable data are readily available for use in a wide range of new and complex multidisciplinary applications. Significant amounts of marine data and information are available throughout the world due to the implementation of e-infrastructures at a regional level to manage and deliver this data to the end user. However, each of these initiatives has been developed to address specific regional requirements and independently of other regions. To establish a common framework for marine data management on a global scale that supports this ecosystem level approach to marine research there is a need to develop interoperability across these existing data infrastructures. To address these issues, the ODIP project is creating a co-ordination platform between a number of these existing regional e-infrastructures which include Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) in the USA, SeaDataNet and Geo-Seas in Europe, IMOS in Australia and the international IODE initiative. To demonstrate this co-ordinated approach several prototypes will be developed to test and evaluate potential interoperability solutions for solving the incompatibilities identified between the different regional data infrastructures. These prototypes will be used to underpin the development of a common approach to the management of marine data which can also be promoted to the wider marine research community with a view to expanding this framework to include other regional marine data infrastructures. To achieve these objectives relevant domain experts will come together at a series of workshops where areas of commonality between the regional infrastructures will be identified which can then be used as the foundation for the development of the prototype solutions. As a result six topics are currently being addressed by the ODIP project which have been identified and analysed during the first ODIP workshop. These topics are: use of controlled vocabularies, standardised data discovery metadata formats, existing implementations of standards and protocols, sensor web enablement, interoperability between metadata and data exchange mechanisms and data formats. For each of these topics a series of actions and potential prototypes have been identified and work has now begun work to implement these solutions. ODIP is a community lead project that is currently focussed on regional initiatives in Europe, the USA and Australia. It is supported by parallel funding from the responsible agencies from each region. The European component of ODIP includes 10 partners from 6 European countries and is funded by the EU Framework 7 programme. The US participation in the project is being supported through a supplement from the NSF for the R2R project, and the Australian contribution is being sponsored by the Australian government.

Glaves, H.; Schaap, D.

2013-12-01

145

MAPPING OF CORAL REEFS FOR MANAGEMENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN DEVELOPING NATIONS USING REMOTE S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1998, the Australian high commission joined other national efforts, such as the US Coral Reef Task Force, to meet the challenge of developing a remote sensingintegrated management plan to ‘conserve and protect’ coral reef ecosystems. Today, in Australia alone, over 408 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been developed conserving and protecting the country’s reef heritage (www.mpaglobal.org). These MPAs represent

CANDACE M. NEWMAN; ELLSWORTH F. LeDREW; ALAN LIM

146

Synthesis of knowledge on marine biodiversity in European Seas: from census to sustainable management.  

PubMed

The recently completed European Census of Marine Life, conducted within the framework of the global Census of Marine Life programme (2000-2010), markedly enhanced our understanding of marine biodiversity in European Seas, its importance within ecological systems, and the implications for human use. Here we undertake a synthesis of present knowledge of biodiversity in European Seas and identify remaining challenges that prevent sustainable management of marine biodiversity in one of the most exploited continents of the globe. Our analysis demonstrates that changes in faunal standing stock with depth depends on the size of the fauna, with macrofaunal abundance only declining with increasing water depth below 1000 m, whilst there was no obvious decrease in meiofauna with increasing depth. Species richness was highly variable for both deep water macro- and meio- fauna along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Nematode biodiversity decreased from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean whilst latitudinal related biodiversity patterns were similar for both faunal groups investigated, suggesting that the same environmental drivers were influencing the fauna. While climate change and habitat degradation are the most frequently implicated stressors affecting biodiversity throughout European Seas, quantitative understanding, both at individual and cumulative/synergistic level, of their influences are often lacking. Full identification and quantification of species, in even a single marine habitat, remains a distant goal, as we lack integrated data-sets to quantify these. While the importance of safeguarding marine biodiversity is recognised by policy makers, the lack of advanced understanding of species diversity and of a full survey of any single habitat raises huge challenges in quantifying change, and facilitating/prioritising habitat/ecosystem protection. Our study highlights a pressing requirement for more complete biodiversity surveys to be undertaken within contrasting habitats, together with investigations in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning links and identification of separate and synergistic/cumulative human-induced impacts on biodiversity. PMID:23527045

Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E; Coll, Marta; Danovaro, Roberto; Davidson, Keith; Ojaveer, Henn; Renaud, Paul E

2013-01-01

147

Sea-Use Map Of Lazio: GIS Supporting a Sustainable Marine Resources Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italy, with more than 7000 km of densely populated coasts, the continental shelf is always affected by a lot of fundamental anthropic activities. The coastal zone is besides characterised by the simultaneous presence of physical and ecological conditions favourables to the multiple use of natural resources. In addition to the impacts risen from the local uses, it is necessary to add those which are produced by remote uses of other natural resources: in particular, the coastal sea is subject to local and remote trouble, both from the open sea and from the land use. For all these reasons it is necessary to face coastal system problems looking to minimize reciprocal impacts of the uses which are in conflict. This situation generates a conflict between the different use interests and so the most brittle resources and uses suffer and can also be deleted (Marcelli M., 2003 in progress). The necessity of an interdisciplinary approach founds one's statements on these concepts. Oceanography, ecology, geology, biology, meteorology have to be components (Brondi et al, 2008) of an integrated knowledge able to support the decision through GIS and scenario's simulation. The aim of this work is to minimize the conflict between different uses, creating a work instrument able to support the decision, in order to select the best use for a determinate marine area. Present work represents a pilot project for integrated management of coastal and marine zone where all informations, concerning a specific stretch of coast, are gathered inside of a system of management and data improvement. This system integrates environment data, collected by monitoring, socio-economic data, coming from coastal zone uses, simulations of mathematical models and geographic informative platform. It includes some informations which are fundamental for the planning of some activities connected to coastal zone. This work is the design of a Sea-Use Map of an Italian sea area for characterized by different values and uses of marine resources, useful to explore further marine uses, such as suitable sites for energy production, marine culture, etc. For these reasons the creation of an integrated GIS database, in which all the information are conveyed in a Geo-referenced system, is a fundamental tool. The Sea-Use Map (SUM) of Italy is a key database, in which coastal uses are integrated with environmental data (bathymetry, waves, currents, fauna, flora, etc). A further integration between data and numerical model simulations is allowing to define the most promising and environmentally acceptable areas for such resource exploitation. Preliminary results demonstrate that such a Sea-Use Map could make us able to an a sustainable coastal marine resources management.

Marcelli, Marco; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco; Pannocchi, Andrea; Bonamano, Simone

2010-05-01

148

Community change within a Caribbean coral reef Marine Protected Area following two decades of local management.  

PubMed

Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. PMID:23342078

Noble, Mae M; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L; Fulton, Christopher J

2013-01-01

149

Community Change within a Caribbean Coral Reef Marine Protected Area following Two Decades of Local Management  

PubMed Central

Structural change in both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs can provide key insights into the benefits and limitations of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). While MPA zoning effects on particular target species are well reported, we are yet to fully resolve the various affects of spatial management on the structure of coral reef communities over decadal time scales. Here, we document mixed affects of MPA zoning on fish density, biomass and species richness over the 21 years since establishment of the Saba Marine Park (SMP). Although we found significantly greater biomass and species richness of reef-associated fishes within shallow habitats (5 meters depth) closed to fishing, this did not hold for deeper (15 m) habitats, and there was a widespread decline (38% decrease) in live hard coral cover and a 68% loss of carnivorous reef fishes across all zones of the SMP from the 1990s to 2008. Given the importance of live coral for the maintenance and replenishment of reef fishes, and the likely role of chronic disturbance in driving coral decline across the region, we explore how local spatial management can help protect coral reef ecosystems within the context of large-scale environmental pressures and disturbances outside the purview of local MPA management. PMID:23342078

Noble, Mae M.; van Laake, Gregoor; Berumen, Michael L.; Fulton, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

150

Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

2013-04-01

151

GENIES/SimCLIM Tools to Support Climate Change Information and Marine Resource Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will significantly impact the global environment, and the faster the change, the greater the risk of damage. The natural environment will be assaulted by increases in sea surface temperature and changes in the biogeochemical cycles of ocean ecosystems. Marine resource managers have begun to realize that the projected impacts of climate change in coastal and marine environments are full of uncertainties, creating enormous challenges when it comes to climate change response planning. CMIP5 GCMs produced a large amount of climate and ocean biogeochemical data for different climate change scenarios, which can provide indispensable information for marine resource planning and decision making. However, for end users, climate and ocean information needs to be processed to make it usable while applying robust scientific methods to make that processing acceptable. SimCLIM/GENIES software provides a comprehensive climate information, data management, and impact assessment platform. The software system consists of historical data and projections for atmospheric and oceanic variables, including air-temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sea surface temperature, ocean primary production, pH, pCO2, DIO, and DIC, with the potential for other data layers. These data are pre-processed using different downscaling and pattern scaling approaches, and then stored in a compact format with a very high compression ratio, which makes them more transferable. Users can carry out statistical and ensemble analyses with the software in order to better understand uncertainties. Within the software system, historical climate data, a climate change scenario generator, and impact assessment tools are all integrated into a single platform. They are policy-maker and end-user oriented and present climate information in a friendly and easily understandable manner with excellent spatial visualization tools. Moreover, the system provided and released an ArcGIS/marine add-in, which allows ArcGIS users to directly use climate information in their familiar software environment. GENIES is a decision support system built on a system dynamics simulation library with powerful simulation capabilities and great flexibility in simulation architecture, control, construction and integration. GENIES uses a visual coupling tool for data conversion, and dynamic updating of workflows. A user can easily build, extend and revise their own/already existing models when a new domain is explored or new questions arise, even during the runtime. Marine resources management model tools can be either coupled or developed with GENIES in a fast and friendly way. A coral reef impact model is developed as a demonstration.

Li, Y.; Urich, P.; Yin, C.; Kouwenhoven, P.; CLIMsystems Team

2013-05-01

152

Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.  

PubMed

Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada. PMID:24768172

Wells, Peter G

2014-06-15

153

Fisheries management under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Endangered Species Act. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to determine what steps might be taken to ensure that fishery management plans (FMPs) developed under the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA) are ecologically sound and fully consistent with the FCMA and with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The relevant provisions of the three Acts were

Hammond; K. A. G

1980-01-01

154

Management options and effects on a marine ecosystem: assessing the future of the Baltic.  

PubMed

We are using the coupled models in a decision support system, Nest, to evaluate the response of the marine ecosystem to changes in external loads through various management options. The models address all the seven major marine basins and the entire drainage basin of the Baltic Sea. A series of future scenarios have been developed, in close collaboration with the Helsinki Commission, to see the possible effects of improved wastewater treatment and manure handling, phosphorus-free detergents, and less intensive land use and live stocks. Improved wastewater treatment and the use of phosphorus-free detergents in the entire region would drastically decrease phosphorus loads and improve the marine environment, particularly the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms. However, the Baltic Sea will remain eutrophic, and to reduce other effects, a substantial reduction of nitrogen emissions must be implemented. This can only be obtained in these scenarios by drastically changing land use. In a final scenario, we have turned 50% of all agricultural lands into grasslands, together with efficient wastewater treatments and a ban of phosphorus in detergents. This scenario will substantially reduce primary production and the extension of hypoxic bottoms, increase water transparency in the most eutrophied basins, and virtually eliminate extensive cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:17520940

Wulff, Fredrik; Savchuk, Oleg P; Sokolov, Alexander; Humborg, Christoph; Mörth, Carl-Magnus

2007-04-01

155

The IEO Data Center Management System: Tools for quality control, analysis and access marine data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1994 the Data Centre of the Spanish Oceanographic Institute develops system for archiving and quality control of oceanographic data. The work started in the frame of the European Marine Science & Technology Programme (MAST) when a consortium of several Mediterranean Data Centres began to work on the MEDATLAS project. Along the years, old software modules for MS DOS were rewritten, improved and migrated to Windows environment. Oceanographic data quality control includes now not only vertical profiles (mainly CTD and bottles observations) but also time series of currents and sea level observations. New powerful routines for analysis and for graphic visualization were added. Data presented originally in ASCII format were organized recently in an open source MySQL database. Nowadays, the IEO, as part of SeaDataNet Infrastructure, has designed and developed a new information system, consistent with the ISO 19115 and SeaDataNet standards, in order to manage the large and diverse marine data and information originated in Spain by different sources, and to interoperate with SeaDataNet. The system works with data stored in ASCII files (MEDATLAS, ODV) as well as data stored within the relational database. The components of the system are: 1.MEDATLAS Format and Quality Control - QCDAMAR: Quality Control of Marine Data. Main set of tools for working with data presented as text files. Includes extended quality control (searching for duplicated cruises and profiles, checking date, position, ship velocity, constant profiles, spikes, density inversion, sounding, acceptable data, impossible regional values,...) and input/output filters. - QCMareas: A set of procedures for the quality control of tide gauge data according to standard international Sea Level Observing System. These procedures include checking for unexpected anomalies in the time series, interpolation, filtering, computation of basic statistics and residuals. 2. DAMAR: A relational data base (MySql) designed to manage the wide variety of marine information as common vocabularies, Catalogues (CSR & EDIOS), Data and Metadata. 3.Other tools for analysis and data management - Import_DB: Script to import data and metadata from the Medatlas ASCII files into the database. - SelDamar/Selavi: interface with the database for local and web access. Allows selective retrievals applying the criteria introduced by the user, as geographical bounds, data responsible, cruises, platform, time periods, etc. Includes also statistical reference values calculation, plotting of original and mean profiles together with vertical interpolation. - ExtractDAMAR: Script to extract data when they are archived in ASCII files that meet the criteria upon an user request through SelDamar interface and export them in ODV format, making also a unit conversion.

Casas, Antonia; Garcia, Maria Jesus; Nikouline, Andrei

2010-05-01

156

Tropical Marginal Seas: Priority Regions for Managing Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical marginal seas (TMSs) are natural subregions of tropical oceans containing biodiverse ecosystems with conspicuous, valued, and vulnerable biodiversity assets. They are focal points for global marine conservation because they occur in regions where human populations are rapidly expanding. Our review of 11 TMSs focuses on three key ecosystems - coral reefs and emergent atolls, deep benthic systems, and pelagic biomes - and synthesizes, illustrates, and contrasts knowledge of biodiversity, ecosystem function, interaction between adjacent habitats, and anthropogenic pressures. TMSs vary in the extent that they have been subject to human influence - from the nearly pristine Coral Sea to the heavily exploited South China and Caribbean Seas - but we predict that they will all be similarly complex to manage because most span multiple national jurisdictions. We conclude that developing a structured process to identify ecologically and biologically significant areas that uses a set of globally agreed criteria is a tractable first step toward effective multinational and transboundary ecosystem management of TMSs.

McKinnon, A. David; Williams, Alan; Young, Jock; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Dunstan, Piers; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Watson, Reg; Brinkman, Richard; Cappo, Mike; Duggan, Samantha; Kelley, Russell; Ridgway, Ken; Lindsay, Dhugal; Gledhill, Daniel; Hutton, Trevor; Richardson, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

157

Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

2012-01-01

158

Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine Ecosystems: Assessing Current Pressures and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Management of marine ecosystems requires spatial information on current impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement ecosystem-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine ecosystems. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine ecosystems reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60–99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine ecosystems. PMID:24324585

Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.

2013-01-01

159

Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

2011-12-01

160

Understanding and estimating effective population size for practical application in marine species management.  

PubMed

Effective population size (N(e)) determines the strength of genetic drift in a population and has long been recognized as an important parameter for evaluating conservation status and threats to genetic health of populations. Specifically, an estimate of N(e) is crucial to management because it integrates genetic effects with the life history of the species, allowing for predictions of a population's current and future viability. Nevertheless, compared with ecological and demographic parameters, N(e) has had limited influence on species management, beyond its application in very small populations. Recent developments have substantially improved N(e) estimation; however, some obstacles remain for the practical application of N(e) estimates. For example, the need to define the spatial and temporal scale of measurement makes the concept complex and sometimes difficult to interpret. We reviewed approaches to estimation of N(e) over both long-term and contemporary time frames, clarifying their interpretations with respect to local populations and the global metapopulation. We describe multiple experimental factors affecting robustness of contemporary N(e) estimates and suggest that different sampling designs can be combined to compare largely independent measures of N(e) for improved confidence in the result. Large populations with moderate gene flow pose the greatest challenges to robust estimation of contemporary N(e) and require careful consideration of sampling and analysis to minimize estimator bias. We emphasize the practical utility of estimating N(e) by highlighting its relevance to the adaptive potential of a population and describing applications in management of marine populations, where the focus is not always on critically endangered populations. Two cases discussed include the mechanisms generating N(e) estimates many orders of magnitude lower than census N in harvested marine fishes and the predicted reduction in N(e) from hatchery-based population supplementation. PMID:21284731

Hare, Matthew P; Nunney, Leonard; Schwartz, Michael K; Ruzzante, Daniel E; Burford, Martha; Waples, Robin S; Ruegg, Kristen; Palstra, Friso

2011-06-01

161

Case studies of ecosystem-based approaches to remediation  

SciTech Connect

Applications of the ecological sciences to site remediation have becoming increasingly common, as objectives have expanded from surface stabilization and aesthetic improvement to actual ecosystem reconstruction. In the fields of surface mining reclamation, specific techniques are often applied to common problems such as slope instability and erosion. The influence of larger scale physical and biological pressures on a site from the surrounding ecosystem, such as vegetation succession, is usually ignored. These processes affect the success of reclamation techniques, the management effort required to achieve success, the appropriateness of choices where alternative techniques exist, and the long term ecosystem sustainability. We stress a need for design approaches that examine the broad ecological context of site specific projects. Using cases study examples, we discuss cost-effective considerations including successional trajectory, bioregional wildlife and vegetation management criteria, and large scale biodiversity targets. Such considerations are used in establishing goals for site specific projects, and as tools in choosing appropriate techniques. In one example, the rehabilitation design for a limestone quarry in southern Ontario addressed regional aquatic habitat requirements, wildlife and forest community targets, and bioregional populations of internationally significant species, while at the same time minimizing approval and maintenance issues.

Trimble, K.

1996-12-31

162

Community involvement in management for maintaining coral reef resilience and biodiversity in southern Caribbean marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is posing new challenges to conservation because management policies on protected coral reefs are less eVective than they were before the current ecosys- tem degradation. Coral reefs, the most diverse and complex marine ecosystem provide eco- nomic services for millions, but are seriously threatened worldwide because reef-building corals are experiencing bleaching phenomena and a steady decline in abundance.

Carolina Camargo; Jorge H. Maldonado; Elvira Alvarado; Rocío Moreno-Sánchez; Sandra Mendoza; Nelson Manrique; Andrés Mogollón; Juan D. Osorio; Alejandro Grajales; Juan Armando Sánchez

2008-01-01

163

Overcoming Governance and Institutional Barriers to Integrated Coastal Zone, Marine Protected Area, and Tourism Management in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major barriers to addressing complex social–ecological issues through integrated coastal management (ICM) is a lack of intergovernmental coordination and cooperation (horizontal and vertical fragmentation). This article describes an effort to overcome the barriers to ICM in Sri Lanka by fostering intergovernmental collaboration and initiating adaptive governance to restore one town, Hikkaduwa, and its associated marine protected area

Robert B. Powell; Ariel Cuschnir; Prakash Peiris

2009-01-01

164

Case Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism: Development, Impacts and Management (1998).  

E-print Network

: Development, Impacts and Management (1998). Mark Orams Centre for Tourism Research Massey University AlbanyCase Study: The Dolphins of Tangalooma Case study contained in textbook: Marine Tourism tourism experiences without a structured education component is unlikely to produce changes in tourists

165

The human side of reef management: a case study analysis of the socioeconomic framework of Montego Bay Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study furthers our understanding of the role of socioeconomics in coral reef management by demonstrating the importance,\\u000a as well as means, of incorporating socioeconomic information into coral reef management. A case study analysis was made of\\u000a the socioeconomic context of the three primary user groups in Montego Bay Marine Park, Jamaica: fishers, hoteliers and watersports\\u000a operators. The primary means

L. Bunce; K. Gustavson; J. Williams; M. Miller

1999-01-01

166

Comparative analysis of marine ecosystems: workshop on predator–prey interactions  

PubMed Central

Climate and human influences on marine ecosystems are largely manifested by changes in predator–prey interactions. It follows that ecosystem-based management of the world's oceans requires a better understanding of food web relationships. An international workshop on predator–prey interactions in marine ecosystems was held at the Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA on 16–18 March 2010. The meeting brought together scientists from diverse fields of expertise including theoretical ecology, animal behaviour, fish and seabird ecology, statistics, fisheries science and ecosystem modelling. The goals of the workshop were to critically examine the methods of scaling-up predator–prey interactions from local observations to systems, the role of shifting ecological processes with scale changes, and the complexity and organizational structure in trophic interactions. PMID:20462888

Bailey, Kevin M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Hunsicker, Mary; Rindorf, Anna; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Möllmann, Christian; Guichard, Frederic; Huse, Geir

2010-01-01

167

The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.  

PubMed

Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarŕ, G; Ceccherelli, G

2015-01-15

168

Management of Local Stressors Can Improve the Resilience of Marine Canopy Algae to Global Stressors  

PubMed Central

Coastal systems are increasingly threatened by multiple local anthropogenic and global climatic stressors. With the difficulties in remediating global stressors, management requires alternative approaches that focus on local scales. We used manipulative experiments to test whether reducing local stressors (sediment load and nutrient concentrations) can improve the resilience of foundation species (canopy algae along temperate rocky coastlines) to future projected global climate stressors (high wave exposure, increasing sea surface temperature), which are less amenable to management actions. We focused on Fucoids (Cystoseira barbata) along the north-western Adriatic coast in the Mediterranean Sea because of their ecological relevance, sensitivity to a variety of human impacts, and declared conservation priority. At current levels of sediment and nutrients, C. barbata showed negative responses to the simulated future scenarios of high wave exposure and increased sea surface temperature. However, reducing the sediment load increased the survival of C. barbata recruits by 90.24% at high wave exposure while reducing nutrient concentrations resulted in a 20.14% increase in the survival and enhanced the growth of recruited juveniles at high temperature. We conclude that improving water quality by reducing nutrient concentrations, and particularly the sediment load, would significantly increase the resilience of C. barbata populations to projected increases in climate stressors. Developing and applying appropriate targets for specific local anthropogenic stressors could be an effective management action to halt the severe and ongoing loss of key marine habitats. PMID:25807516

Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; van Belzen, Jim; van Dalen, Jeroen; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Airoldi, Laura

2015-01-01

169

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2  

E-print Network

An E-learning Ecosystem Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2 , Qinghua Zheng1, 2 that an e-learning ecosystem is the next generation e- learning. However, the current models of e-learning ecosystems lack the support of underlying infrastructures, which can dynamically allocate the required

Li, Haifei

170

Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: What scope for payments for environmental services?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in payments for environmental services (PES) for ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA). So far, however, experiences and theoretical analyses of PES specifically for adaptation have not been well documented. This paper addresses this gap by analysing the opportunities and constraints of PES as an instrument for EBA. Specifically, we examine the potential for

Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff; Bruno Locatelli; Sven Wunder; Maria Brockhaus

2011-01-01

171

Managing the Marine Aquarium Trade: Revealing the Data Gaps Using Ornamental Polychaetes  

PubMed Central

The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm “type” whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm “types”. Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site-specific with financial and educational support from NGOs, local governments and industry members. PMID:22235306

Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G.

2012-01-01

172

COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM (CMARIS): A SPATIAL APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE ECOREGIONAL MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sulu-Sulawesi Seas comprise one of the most biologically diverse marine ecoregions in the world. Situated at the center of the coral triangle, the ecoregion hosts at least 450 species of corals, significant populations of marine turtles, critical mangrove and seagrass habitats, marine mammals, including commercially important species collectively supporting multi-billion dollar fishing industries and subsistence livelihoods for a population

A. J. A. Ramos

173

The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2003-01-01

174

Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

Knowles, M.; Baglee, D.

2012-05-01

175

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos 2Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos  

E-print Network

· Propulsion control · Marine automation and power management · Marine operations · Control of marine autonomy and intelligent systems · Sensor fusion · Simulation #12;5Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations

Nřrvĺg, Kjetil

176

Community involvement in management for maintaining coral reef resilience and biodiversity in southern Caribbean marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is posing new challenges to conservation because management policies on protected coral reefs are less effective\\u000a than they were before the current ecosystem degradation. Coral reefs, the most diverse and complex marine ecosystem provide\\u000a economic services for millions, but are seriously threatened worldwide because reef-building corals are experiencing bleaching\\u000a phenomena and a steady decline in abundance. The resources

Carolina Camargo; Jorge H. Maldonado; Elvira Alvarado; Rocío Moreno-Sánchez; Sandra Mendoza; Nelson Manrique; Andrés Mogollón; Juan D. Osorio; Alejandro Grajales; Juan Armando Sánchez

2009-01-01

177

Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.

Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ellis, Peter C.

2010-11-09

178

Marine research in the Iberian Peninsula: A pledge for better times after an economic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “17th Iberian Symposium of Marine Biology Studies” took place in San Sebastian (Spain), in September 2012. This contribution is an introduction to a special issue collating the most challenging papers submitted by Portuguese and Spanish scientists to the symposium. The text was structured as a novel, with the three main parts of a novel: (i) Setup: a historical context, from old times to the 1970's. This part presents the main Iberian scientific contribution to marine science, since the 15th Century, as a precedent to modern scientific research; (ii) Conflict: from the 1970's to the economic crisis. This part presents the evolution of Iberian research production, based upon a bibliometric study, from 1974 to 2012; and (iii) Resolution: what for the future?, which shows the main challenges, proposed by the authors, to the European research initiative 'Horizon 2020', including aspects such as the need of knowledge-base for marine management, the marine research as a potential source of jobs, the ecosystem-based approach, human activities and Marine Spatial Planning, moving from fisheries to aquaculture, or global change issues, among others.

Borja, Angel; Marques, Joao-Carlos; Olabarria, Celia; Quintino, Victor

2013-10-01

179

Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

2014-03-01

180

Evolutionary techniques for sensor networks energy optimization in marine environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sustainable management of coastal and offshore ecosystems, such as for example coral reef environments, requires the collection of accurate data across various temporal and spatial scales. Accordingly, monitoring systems are seen as central tools for ecosystem-based environmental management, helping on one hand to accurately describe the water column and substrate biophysical properties, and on the other hand to correctly steer sustainability policies by providing timely and useful information to decision-makers. A robust and intelligent sensor network that can adjust and be adapted to different and changing environmental or management demands would revolutionize our capacity to wove accurately model, predict, and manage human impacts on our coastal, marine, and other similar environments. In this paper advanced evolutionary techniques are applied to optimize the design of an innovative energy harvesting device for marine applications. The authors implement an enhanced technique in order to exploit in the most effective way the uniqueness and peculiarities of two classical optimization approaches, Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithms. Here, this hybrid procedure is applied to a power buoy designed for marine environmental monitoring applications in order to optimize the recovered energy from sea-wave, by selecting the optimal device configuration.

Grimaccia, Francesco; Johnstone, Ron; Mussetta, Marco; Pirisi, Andrea; Zich, Riccardo E.

2012-10-01

181

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic

Dick M. A. Schaap; Gilbert Maudire

2010-01-01

182

Displaced femoral neck stress fractures in Royal Marine recruits--management and results of operative treatment.  

PubMed

Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSF) represent 3.5%-8% of stress fractures in military recruits; potentially resulting in medical discharge and/or complications. The incidence of displaced FNSF in the British Army has been reported as 1.8 in 10,000 recruits. We aimed to review the incidence and outcome of displaced FNSF in Royal Marine recruits. Retrospective review identified 6 recruits who sustained a displaced FNSF from 2001 to 2011 representing an incidence of 9.3 in 10,000 recruits. All were treated urgently by internal fixation. There were no cases of avascular necrosis, no surgical complications and no further procedures required. All united with a mean time to union of 11 months. 50% had a union time greater than 1 year. These fractures are slow to unite but with urgent surgical intervention and stable fixation 100% union was achieved. Awareness of this guides the management and rehabilitation whilst avoiding the risks of unnecessary secondary surgical interventions. PMID:22970637

Evans, J T; Guyver, P M; Kassam, A M; Hubble, M J W

2012-01-01

183

A review of the world marine gastropod fishery: evolution of catches, management and the Chilean experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine mollusks are among the most importantinvertebrate fisheries in the world. The mainclasses of mollusk fished are Cephalopoda,Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Marine gastropodsrepresent approximately 2% of the mollusksfished in the world. Several species ofgastropods, such as Haliotis spp., Strombus spp., Busycon spp. and Concholepas concholepas, have high economicvalue in international markets and playimportant social roles in small-scale artisanalfisheries. In the past

Germán E. Leiva; Juan C. Castilla

2001-01-01

184

Protected areas in marine resource management: another look at the economics and research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the research to date that relates to the economics of marine protected areas (MPAs). A special effort is made to examine the evidence on the benefits and costs of MPAs in terms of consumptive and nonconsumptive marine resource interests. General observations are made regarding the net effects of MPAs on these two stakeholder categories and the potential

David W. Carter

2003-01-01

185

Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves.  

PubMed

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) provides a globally significant demonstration of the effectiveness of large-scale networks of marine reserves in contributing to integrated, adaptive management. Comprehensive review of available evidence shows major, rapid benefits of no-take areas for targeted fish and sharks, in both reef and nonreef habitats, with potential benefits for fisheries as well as biodiversity conservation. Large, mobile species like sharks benefit less than smaller, site-attached fish. Critically, reserves also appear to benefit overall ecosystem health and resilience: outbreaks of coral-eating, crown-of-thorns starfish appear less frequent on no-take reefs, which consequently have higher abundance of coral, the very foundation of reef ecosystems. Effective marine reserves require regular review of compliance: fish abundances in no-entry zones suggest that even no-take zones may be significantly depleted due to poaching. Spatial analyses comparing zoning with seabed biodiversity or dugong distributions illustrate significant benefits from application of best-practice conservation principles in data-poor situations. Increases in the marine reserve network in 2004 affected fishers, but preliminary economic analysis suggests considerable net benefits, in terms of protecting environmental and tourism values. Relative to the revenue generated by reef tourism, current expenditure on protection is minor. Recent implementation of an Outlook Report provides regular, formal review of environmental condition and management and links to policy responses, key aspects of adaptive management. Given the major threat posed by climate change, the expanded network of marine reserves provides a critical and cost-effective contribution to enhancing the resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:20176947

McCook, Laurence J; Ayling, Tony; Cappo, Mike; Choat, J Howard; Evans, Richard D; De Freitas, Debora M; Heupel, Michelle; Hughes, Terry P; Jones, Geoffrey P; Mapstone, Bruce; Marsh, Helene; Mills, Morena; Molloy, Fergus J; Pitcher, C Roland; Pressey, Robert L; Russ, Garry R; Sutton, Stephen; Sweatman, Hugh; Tobin, Renae; Wachenfeld, David R; Williamson, David H

2010-10-26

186

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geo-Seas - a pan-European infrastructure for the management of marine geological and geophysical data. Helen Glaves1 and Colin Graham2 on behalf of the Geo-Seas consortium The Geo-Seas project will create a network of twenty six European marine geoscience data centres from seventeen coastal countries including six from the Baltic Sea area. This will be achieved through the development of a pan-European infrastructure for the exchange of marine geoscientific data. Researchers will be able to locate and access harmonised and federated marine geological and geophysical datasets and data products held by the data centres through the Geo-Seas data portal, using a common data catalogue. The new infrastructure, an expansion of the exisiting SeaDataNet, will create an infrastructure covering oceanographic and marine geoscientific data. New data products and services will be developed following consultations with users on their current and future research requirements. Common data standards will be implemented across all of the data centres and other geological and geophysical organisations will be encouraged to adopt the protocols, standards and tools which are developed as part of the Geo-Seas project. Oceanographic and marine data include a wide range of variables, an important category of which are the geological and geophysical data sets. This data includes raw observational and analytical data as well as derived data products from seabed sediment samples, boreholes, geophysical surveys (seismic, gravity etc) and sidescan sonar surveys. All of which are essential in order to produce a complete interpretation of seabed geology. Despite there being a large volume of geological and geophysical data available for the marine environment it is currently very difficult to use these datasets in an integrated way between organisations due to different nomenclatures, formats, scales and coordinate systems being used within different organisations and also within different countries. This makes the direct use of primary data in an integrated way very difficult and also hampers use of the data sets in a harmonised way to produce multidisciplinary data products and services. To ensure interoperability with other marine environmental data types Geo-Seas ISO19115 metadata, OGC and GeoSciML standards will be used as the basis for the metadata profiles for the geological and geophysical data. This will be largely achieved by modifying the SeaDataNet metadata standard profile (Common Data Index or CDI), which is itself based upon the ISO19115 standard, to accommodate the requirements of the Geo-Seas project. The overall objective of Geo-Seas project is to build and deploy a unified marine geoscientific data infrastructure within Europe which will in effect provide a data grid for the sharing of marine geological and geophysical data. This will result in a major improvement in the locating, accessing and delivery of federated marine geological and geophysical data and data products from national geological surveys and research institutes across Europe. There is an emphasis on interoperability both with other disciplines as well as with other key framework projects including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODNet) and One Geology - Europe. In addition, a key objective of the Geo-Seas project is to underpin European directives such as INSPIRE as well as recent framework programmes on both the global and European scale, for example Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), all of which are intended to encourage the exchange of data and information. Geo-Seas consortium partners: NERC-BGS (United Kingdom), NERC-BODC (United Kingdom), NERC-NOCS (United Kingdom), MARIS (Netherlands), IFREMER (France), BRGM (France), TNO (Netherlands), BSH (Germany), IGME (Spain), INETI (Portugal), IGME (Greece), GSI (Ireland), BGR (Germany), OGS (Italy), GEUS (Denmark), NGU (Norway), PGI (Poland), EGK (Estonia), LIGG (Lithuania), IO-BAS (Bulgaria), NOA (Greece), CIRIA (United Kingd

Glaves, Helen; Graham, Colin

2010-05-01

187

Problems and pressures, management and measures in a site of marine conservation importance: Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of anthropogenic activities that cause pressure on estuarine wildlife and biodiversity is beset by a wide range of challenges. Some, such as the differing environmental and socio-economic objectives and conflicting views and priorities, are common to many estuaries; others are site specific. The Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries European Marine Site encompasses four estuaries of European wildlife and conservation importance and considerable socio-economic value. The estuaries and their wildlife are subject to a range of pressures and threats and the statutory authorities responsible for management in and adjacent to the Site have developed a management scheme to address these. Preparation of the management scheme included an assessment of human activities known to occur in and adjacent to the Site for their potential to cause a threat to the designated habitats and species features, and identified actions the management authorities need to take to minimise or eliminate pressures and threats. To deliver the scheme the partner authorities need to accept the requirement for management actions and work together to achieve them. The Welsh Government also needs to work with these authorities because it is responsible for management of many of the most important pressure-causing activities. However, the absence of statutory obligations for partnership working has proved an impediment to successful management.

Bullimore, Blaise

2014-10-01

188

Integration at the Round Table: Marine Spatial Planning in Multi-Stakeholder Settings  

PubMed Central

Marine spatial planning (MSP) is often considered as a pragmatic approach to implement an ecosystem based management in order to manage marine space in a sustainable way. This requires the involvement of multiple actors and stakeholders at various governmental and societal levels. Several factors affect how well the integrated management of marine waters will be achieved, such as different governance settings (division of power between central and local governments), economic activities (and related priorities), external drivers, spatial scales, incentives and objectives, varying approaches to legislation and political will. We compared MSP in Belgium, Norway and the US to illustrate how the integration of stakeholders and governmental levels differs among these countries along the factors mentioned above. Horizontal integration (between sectors) is successful in all three countries, achieved through the use of neutral ‘round-table’ meeting places for all actors. Vertical integration between government levels varies, with Belgium and Norway having achieved full integration while the US lacks integration of the legislature due to sharp disagreements among stakeholders and unsuccessful partisan leadership. Success factors include political will and leadership, process transparency and stakeholder participation, and should be considered in all MSP development processes. PMID:25299595

Olsen, Erik; Fluharty, David; Hoel, Alf Hĺkon; Hostens, Kristian; Maes, Frank; Pecceu, Ellen

2014-01-01

189

Implications of spatial heterogeneity for management of marine protected areas (MPAs): examples from assemblages of rocky coasts in the northwest Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly used as a management tool to preserve species and habitats. Testing hypotheses about the effectiveness of MPAs is important for their implementation and to identify informative criteria to support management decisions. This study tested the general proposition that MPAs affected assemblages of algae and invertebrates between 0.0 and 0.5 m above the mean low

L. Benedetti-Cecchi; I. Bertocci; F Micheli; E Maggi; T Fosella; S Vaselli

2003-01-01

190

SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011 and is making good progress. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. Recently the 1st Innovation Cycle has been completed, including upgrading of the CDI Data Discovery and Access service to ISO 19139 and making it fully INSPIRE compliant. The extensive SeaDataNet Vocabularies have been upgraded too and implemented for all SeaDataNet European metadata directories. SeaDataNet is setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has also increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.4 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 90 connected data centres from 30 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for leading the data management component of the EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2014-05-01

191

A Decision Support System for Ecosystem-Based Management of Tropical Coral Reef Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a new collaborative program established between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to augment the NOAA Coral Reef Watch decision-support system. NOAA has developed a Decision Support System (DSS) under the Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program to forecast environmental stress in coral reef ecosystems around the world. This DSS

F. E. Muller-Karger; C. Eakin; L. S. Guild; R. R. Nemani; C. Hu; S. E. Lynds; J. Li; M. Vega-Rodriguez

2010-01-01

192

Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management with Nonlinear Ecological Functions and Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common assumption is that ecosystem services respond linearly to changes in habitat size. This assumption leads frequently to an ``all or none'' choice of either preserving coastal habitats or converting them to human use. However, our survey of wave attenuation data from field studies of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, nearshore coral reefs, and sand dunes reveals that these

Edward B. Barbier; Evamaria W. Koch; Brian R. Silliman; Sally D. Hacker; Eric Wolanski; Jurgenne Primavera; Elise F. Granek; Stephen Polasky; Shankar Aswani; Lori A. Cramer; David M. Stoms; Chris J. Kennedy; David Bael; Carrie V. Kappel; Gerardo M. E. Perillo; Denise J. Reed

2008-01-01

193

Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

194

Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management  

E-print Network

1 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management Research for sustainable management of the Baltic Sea #12;2 Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management, BEAM, is an interdisciplinary research program on ecosystem-based management of the Baltic Sea environment. The program gathers researchers from three Faculties and ten

195

76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...timing of these planning and management processes. To...current MMP/CCP planning process, we...conservation and management regimes for the...refuge. The CCP planning process is a...public to evaluate management goals and...

2011-04-05

196

76 FR 14924 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...outlet channel management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment...

2011-03-18

197

78 FR 23746 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

2013-04-22

198

77 FR 15722 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment operators...to estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and...

2012-03-16

199

78 FR 14985 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period. Monitoring...to estuary management activities...training includes equipment operators...to estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and...

2013-03-08

200

76 FR 23306 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

2011-04-26

201

77 FR 24471 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Russian River Estuary Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SCWA's estuary management activities...use of heavy equipment and increased...outlet channel management events, with...piece of heavy equipment is likely...using heavy equipment for the duration...the lagoon management period....

2012-04-24

202

The effects of freshwater flushing on marine heterotrophic protists--implications for ballast water management.  

PubMed

Survivorship of ballast-entrained marine heterotrophic protists was examined following freshwater flushing. The recovered taxa, including typical marine rhizopods such as Platyamoeba murchelanoi, Labyrinthula spp, Pontifex maximus, Thecamoeba orbis, and the ciliate Condylostoma arenarium, were reared in waters of various salinities. After 2 months, the original salinity subsample retained five protist taxa, the freshwater six, including the amoeba Cochliopodium bilimbosum, the brackish water 22 taxa, and the seawater 19 taxa. Since protists form a major component of marine microbial food webs, their survival may be instrumental in supporting complex ballast-entrained food webs. Our study raises questions as to the reliability of open-ocean exchange (OOE) or freshwater flushing as effective control measures. PMID:11763219

Hülsmann, N; Galil, B S

2001-11-01

203

Marine envenomations.  

PubMed

This article describes the epidemiology and presentation of human envenomation from marine organisms. Venom pathophysiology, envenomation presentation, and treatment options are discussed for sea snake, stingray, spiny fish, jellyfish, octopus, cone snail, sea urchin, and sponge envenomation. The authors describe the management of common exposures that cause morbidity as well as the keys to recognition and treatment of life-threatening exposures. PMID:24275176

Balhara, Kamna S; Stolbach, Andrew

2014-02-01

204

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research...Estuarine Research Reserve System is intended...Estuarine Research Reserve Program will be administered...with the National Marine Sanctuary Program...values. National Marine Sanctuaries and Estuarine Research Reserves may not...

2010-01-01

205

15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research...Estuarine Research Reserve System is intended...Estuarine Research Reserve Program will be administered...with the National Marine Sanctuary Program...values. National Marine Sanctuaries and Estuarine Research Reserves may not...

2011-01-01

206

Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me?  

E-print Network

Marine Biology Is Marine Biology right for me? If you have an interest in learning about life in the sea then Marine Biology may be a good option for you. You will need good time management skills a marine biology degree are wide-ranging and provide a good basis for employment in almost any sector

Harman, Neal.A.

207

Marine Spatial Planning in Reality Outline of and key points from governance research under the MESMA project  

E-print Network

are disconnected from actual decision-making processes (i.e. as is case with many ICZM plans) A very top-down infrastructure development projects in marine spatial planning, the top-down nature of decision-making processes a step-by-step, participative, ecosystem-based marine spatial planning process of the sort recommended

Jones, Peter JS

208

Multiple stressors threatening the future of the Baltic Sea-Kattegat marine ecosystem: implications for policy and management actions.  

PubMed

The paper discusses the combined effects of ocean acidification, eutrophication and climate change on the Baltic Sea and the implications for current management strategies. The scientific basis is built on results gathered in the BONUS+ projects Baltic-C and ECOSUPPORT. Model results indicate that the Baltic Sea is likely to be warmer, more hypoxic and more acidic in the future. At present management strategies are not taking into account temporal trends and potential ecosystem change due to warming and/or acidification, and therefore fulfilling the obligations specified within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, OSPAR and HELCOM conventions and national environmental objectives may become significantly more difficult. The paper aims to provide a basis for a discussion on the effectiveness of current policy instruments and possible strategies for setting practical environmental objectives in a changing climate and with multiple stressors. PMID:25037874

Jutterström, S; Andersson, H C; Omstedt, A; Malmaeus, J M

2014-09-15

209

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea level, chemical, physical and biological properties) collected by many different sensors installed on board of research vessels, satellite and the various platforms of the marine observing system. The SeaDataNet project started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, but its primary objective is the provision of easy data access and generic data products. SeaDataNet is a distributed infrastructure that provides transnational access to marine data, meta-data, products and services through 40 interconnected Trans National Data Access Platforms (TAP) from 35 countries around the Black Sea, Mediterranean, North East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic and Arctic regions. These include: National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODC's) Satellite Data Centres. Furthermore the SeaDataNet consortium comprises a number of expert modelling centres, SME's experts in IT, and 3 international bodies (ICES, IOC and JRC). Planning: The SeaDataNet project is delivering and operating the infrastructure in 3 versions: Version 0: maintenance and further development of the metadata systems developed by the Sea-Search project plus the development of a new metadata system for indexing and accessing to individual data objects managed by the SeaDataNet data centres. This is known as the Common Data Index (CDI) V0 system Version 1: harmonisation and upgrading of the metadatabases through adoption of the ISO 19115 metadata standard and provision of transparent data access and download services from all partner data centres through upgrading the Common Data Index and deployment of a data object delivery service. Version 2: adding data product services and OGC compliant viewing services and further virtualisation of data access. SeaDataNet Version 0: The SeaDataNet portal has been set up at http://www.seadatanet.org and it provides a platform for all SeaDataNet services and standards as well as background information about the project and its partners. It includes discovery services via the following catalogues: CSR - Cruise Summary Reports of research vessels; EDIOS - Locations and details of monitoring stations and networks / programmes; EDMED - High level inventory of Marine Environmental Data sets collected and managed by research institutes and organisations; EDMERP - Marine Environmental Research Projects ; EDMO - Marine Organisations. These catalogues are interrelated, where possible, to facilitate cross searching and context searching. These catalogues connect to the Common Data Index (CDI). Common Data Index (CDI) The CDI gives detailed insight in available datasets at partners databases and paves the way to direct online data access or direct online requests for data access / data delivery. The CDI V0 metadatabase contains more than 340.000 individual data entries from 36 CDI partners from 29 countries across Europe, covering a broad scope and range of data, held by these organisations. For purposes of standardisation and international exchange the ISO19115 metadata standard has been adopted. The CDI format is defined as a dedicated subset of this standard. A CDI XML format supports the exchange between CDI-partners and the central CDI manager, and ensures interoperability with other systems and networks. CDI XML entries are generated by participating data centres, directly from their databases. CDI-partners can make use

Schaap, D. M. A.; Maudire, G.

2009-04-01

210

Tourist perception of recreational environment and management in a marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person's socio-economic status, cultural ties, and past experiences influence how people perceive environmental quality. In the case of tourism, people using protected areas can differ in many ways, including their personal characteristics and perception about the recreation environment. This research addresses the general problem of tourist perception in a marine protected area (MPA), focusing on tourists’ awareness of being

I. Petrosillo; G. Zurlini; M. E. Corlianň; N. Zaccarelli; M. Dadamo

2007-01-01

211

Monitoring predators to optimize their management for marine turtle nest protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental conservation focus for Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge (HSNWR), Florida is to provide protected nesting habitat for three threatened or endangered marine turtle species. Turtle nesting and hatching spans from early spring to fall each year. Left unchecked, nest predation by raccoons and armadillos would destroy most turtle nests. Predators are removed to protect nests, primarily with a

Richard M. Engeman; R. Erik Martin; Bernice Constantin; Ryan Noel; John Woolard

2003-01-01

212

An evaluation of a management saga: The Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Banks Peninsula Marine Mammal Sanctuary, Canterbury, New Zealand, was established in 1988 to protect the Hector's dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori from accidental entanglement in set nets (gill nets). Sanctuary establishment was strongly supported by environmental groups but has continued to be strongly opposed by both commercial and recreational fishers. This paper evaluates the issues surrounding sanctuary establishment, the process of

K. F. D. Hughey

2000-01-01

213

MARINE PROCESSES, THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO POLLUTION AND A FRAMEWORK FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The transport and transformation processes which influence th way in which waste materials are dispersed and incorporated into the marine environment are reviewed and summarized as a preface for appreciation of the technical papers which follow in this volume. n a similar vein th...

214

Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management  

E-print Network

-based approaches, spatial user rights can also affect the distribution of fishing effort (7). These varied tools have all been suggested to improve fish- eries outcomes by changing the spatial pattern of harvesting , Christopher Costellob , and David A. Siegelc,d a Marine Science Institute, b Bren School of Environmental

Siegel, David A.

215

Application of non-market valuation to the Florida Keys marine reserve management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the coral reefs in the Florida Keys is essential to sustain nature-based tourism in the Keys. The recently established marine reserves (MR) are expected to improve the reef environment, particularly coral and fish abundance and diversity. In this paper, a combined model of travel cost and contingent behavior was estimated in order to measure the non-market recreational

Mahadev G. Bhat

2003-01-01

216

The survival of coral reefs requires integrated watershed-based management activities and marine conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

oral reefs are the most diverse of all marine ecosystems, and they are rivaled in biodiversity by few ter- restrial ecosystems. They support peo- ple directly and indirectly by building islands and atolls. They protect shore- lines from coastal erosion, support fish- eries of economic and cultural value, provide diving-related tourism and serve as habitats for organisms that produce natural

Eric Wolanski; Robert Richmond; Laurence McCook; Hugh Sweatman

2003-01-01

217

MARINE FACILITY / SIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURES Title: Prepared By: Revision No: Section  

E-print Network

council adopted a "dry ship" policy in regard to alcohol consumption aboard UNOLS vessels. Adoption report all violations by any persons to the Marine Superintendent. 4.0 CHIEF SCIENTIST'S AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY 4.1 Chief Scientists, whether UC employees or not, are responsible for the behavior of all members

Russell, Lynn

218

Institutional Interplay in Networks of Marine Protected Areas with Community-Based Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Institutional interplay, or the ability of one institution to affect another, is a key feature of multi-level environmental governance that can influence the performance of institutions, such as marine protected areas (MPAs). In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), MPA networks are being created to meet top-down, internationally defined MPA targets, while simultaneously there is a strong regional focus on bottom-up,

Catarina Grilo

2011-01-01

219

Marine Bioinvasions in the Southeastern Pacific: Status, Ecology, Economic Impacts, Conservation and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the status of marine non-indigenous species (NIS) in temperate southeastern Pacific countries (Chile and Peru)\\u000a is incipient. Nevertheless, at least in Chile, the problem has recently been addressed by taxonomists and ecologists (e.g.\\u000a Baez et al. 1998; Gajardo and Laikre 2003; Castilla et al. 2005; Camus 2005). While numerous NIS have been intentionally introduced\\u000a for aquaculture purposes (e.g.

Juan C. Castilla; Paula E. Neill

220

Implications of variability on many time scales for scientific advice on sustainable management of living marine resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual basis for understanding and management of living marine resources is built on three basic ecological principles developed in the first half of the past century: the law of the minimum, competitive exclusion, and succession. This paper highlights aspects of these principles that make them insufficient as a sound foundation for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, points out dangers of continuing to use approaches built on them, and presents alternatives which might be more appropriate and of lower risk. To do this, the paper considers variability of marine ecosystems on annual, medium and long-term time scales, highlighting that these scales correspond to less than, approximately equal to, and much greater than, the generation times of dominant predators in the systems. It also considers how each interval of variability may affect directly ecosystems which are controlled from the bottom up, top down, and middle outward, and how position and duration of forcing affect five types of responses: growth, maturation, recruitment, predation, and competition. Generally these five processes have manifestations at the scale of individuals, populations, and ecosystems, attention is drawn to which manifestations are the most significant for each duration and position of forcing. Effects of some combinations of duration of forcing and position of forcing can be explained reasonably well by conventional ecological theory. For other combinations, particularly forcing at time scales of predator generations on top-down or middle-out ecosystems, theory based on contest competition and equilibria are likely to be misleading. In these systems the major dynamics are transients, when many ecosystems are far from their carrying capacities, so scramble competition dominates, and the carrying capacity is not helpful in explaining the system dynamics. This review clarifies the sorts of questions that we should be asking, in order to begin to understand the transient behaviour of these non-equilibrium ecosystems. The answers to the new classes of questions may lead to great improvements in how ecosystems are managed, as well as how their variation is explained.

Rice, Jake

221

75 FR 63146 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; telephone...ecosystem based fishery management. Various conceptual...of the Deep Horizon oil spill that will directly affect Gulf Council fishery management decisions. Copies...

2010-10-14

222

Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the Pacific Island Region: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of,

Hugh Govan

2009-01-01

223

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

1972-01-01

224

BUILDING A MARINE PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK TO PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES: WHALE CONSERVATION AS A TOOL FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initiative to strengthen the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and endangered species conservation is presented, exploring concepts and parameters that lead to the integration between MPA management and conservation measures for large cetaceans through the establishment of a regional network in South America. Along their history, protected areas (PAs) have evolved through different conservation objectives, a process which is

Mabel Augustowski; José Truda Palazzo

2003-01-01

225

Species-and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management  

E-print Network

Species- and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine ecosystem indicators and provide evidence for distinct management units for hake environmental policies argue for the development of indicators of the ecological status of ecosystems

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Setting limits for acceptable change in sediment particle size composition: testing a new approach to managing marine aggregate dredging.  

PubMed

A baseline dataset from 2005 was used to identify the spatial distribution of macrofaunal assemblages across the eastern English Channel. The range of sediment composition found in association with each assemblage was used to define limits for acceptable change at ten licensed marine aggregate extraction areas. Sediment data acquired in 2010, 4 years after the onset of dredging, were used to assess whether conditions remained within the acceptable limits. Despite the observed changes in sediment composition, the composition of sediments in and around nine extraction areas remained within pre-defined acceptable limits. At the tenth site, some of the observed changes within the licence area were judged to have gone beyond the acceptable limits. Implications of the changes are discussed, and appropriate management measures identified. The approach taken in this study offers a simple, objective and cost-effective method for assessing the significance of change, and could simplify the existing monitoring regime. PMID:23806669

Cooper, Keith M

2013-08-15

227

Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry  

PubMed Central

Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

2012-01-01

228

78 FR 23539 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); May 6...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...results, Endangered Species Act transparency, electronic...Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act (MSRA) of 2006 established...Results Magnuson-Stevens Act Reauthorization and Associated...

2013-04-19

229

The Role of Ocean Exploration and Research in the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decades, the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER), through its programs (Ocean Exploration Program and National Undersea Research Program), and in collaboration with its federal and academic partners, has contributed to the discovery of new ocean features, species, ecosystems, habitats and processes. These new discoveries have led to the development of new policies and management actions. Exploration, research and technology advancement have contributed to the characterization and the designation of marine sanctuaries, reserves, restricted fishing areas, and monuments in US waters. For example, the collaborative efforts of OER and partners from the Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) have resulted in the discovery of new species of deep sea corals on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the South Atlantic Bight. The species of coral found in these deep sea reefs are growing very slowly and provide habitat for many commercially valuable species of fish and other living resources. It is not yet completely clear how these habitats connect with the shallower reefs and habitats and if they could be playing a role of refugia for shallower species. Unfortunately, signs of fishing destruction on these unique and fragile habitats are obvious (e.g., abandoned nets, completely decimated habitats by trawling). OER funded research on mesophotic and deep-sea Lophelia coral reefs off the southeastern US was instrumental in the designation of the deep-water Coral Habitat Area of Particular Concern (CHAPC) that is now protecting these fragile reefs. Other examples of OER's contribution to discoveries leading to the designation of protected areas include the characterization and boundary determination of new designated Marine National Monuments and Marine Sanctuaries in the Pacific Ocean. After designation of a protected area, it is imperative to monitor the resource, improve understanding of its functioning, and thus be in a position to better protect it. While most of the reef fish surveys are conducted in shallow areas (0-20 m), it is recognized that many commercially exploited fish stocks also utilize deeper habitats (50-400m). However, traditional methods (e.g., hook-and-line) for sampling these bottom fish species cannot be used in many areas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve [now a Monument] and other restricted fishing areas. Our ability to assess and monitor ocean living marine resources is important for ecosystem management as well as for determining the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The development and deployment of non-extractive sampling methods such as autonomous camera systems to collect information about the spatial distribution and relative abundance of bottom fish species is one of the preferred methods. In addition, OER and the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab (HURL) were two of the first groups to conduct scientific research in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve after it was established in 2000. Submersible dives (down to 2000 m) or ROV dives into the depths surrounding the remote islands, banks, and atolls have led to dozens of discoveries of new and yet to be identified species.

Valette-Silver, N. J.; Pomponi, S.; Smith, J. R.; Potter, J.

2012-12-01

230

Modeling catchment nutrients and sediment loads to inform regional management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems: a comparison of two approaches.  

PubMed

Human-induced changes in flows of water, nutrients, and sediments have impacts on marine ecosystems. Quantifying these changes to systematically allocate management actions is a priority for many areas worldwide. Modeling nutrient and sediment loads and contributions from subcatchments can inform prioritization of management interventions to mitigate the impacts of land-based pollution on marine ecosystems. Among the catchment models appropriate for large-scale applications, N-SPECT and SedNet have been used to prioritize areas for management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems. However, an assessment of their relative performance, parameterization, and utility for regional-scale planning is needed. We examined how these considerations can influence the choice between the two models and the areas identified as priorities for management actions. We assessed their application in selected catchments of the Gulf of California, where managing land-based threats to marine ecosystems is a priority. We found important differences in performance between models. SedNet consistently estimated spatial variations in runoff with higher accuracy than N-SPECT and modeled suspended sediment (TSS) loads mostly within the range of variation in observed loads. N-SPECT overestimated TSS loads by orders of magnitude when using the spatially-distributed sediment delivery ratio (SDR), but outperformed SedNet when using a calibrated SDR. Differences in subcatchments' contribution to pollutant loads were principally due to explicit representation of sediment sinks and particulate nutrients by SedNet. Improving the floodplain extent model, and constraining erosion estimates by local data including gully erosion in SedNet, would improve results of this model and help identify effective management responses. Differences between models in the patterns of modeled pollutant supply were modest, but significantly influenced the prioritization of subcatchments for management. PMID:25173725

Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Wilkinson, Scott N; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Kool, Johnathan; Brodie, Jon

2014-12-15

231

The role of geomatics engineering in establishing the marine information system for maritime management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maritime management encompasses the employment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources that relate to the sea, maritime navigation, shipping, port development and coastal protection. It contributes to the economic growth, price stability, transportation of cargoes and passengers, and business activities of shipping organizations. The efficient management of resources, operations and activities relies on a

Steve Yau-Wah Lam; Tsz Leung Yip

2008-01-01

232

Marine Jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

1978-01-01

233

Quantifying Patterns of Change in Marine Ecosystem Response to Multiple Pressures  

PubMed Central

The ability to understand and ultimately predict ecosystem response to multiple pressures is paramount to successfully implement ecosystem-based management. Thresholds shifts and nonlinear patterns in ecosystem responses can be used to determine reference points that identify levels of a pressure that may drastically alter ecosystem status, which can inform management action. However, quantifying ecosystem reference points has proven elusive due in large part to the multi-dimensional nature of both ecosystem pressures and ecosystem responses. We used ecological indicators, synthetic measures of ecosystem status and functioning, to enumerate important ecosystem attributes and to reduce the complexity of the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem (NES LME). Random forests were used to quantify the importance of four environmental and four anthropogenic pressure variables to the value of ecological indicators, and to quantify shifts in aggregate ecological indicator response along pressure gradients. Anthropogenic pressure variables were critical defining features and were able to predict an average of 8-13% (up to 25-66% for individual ecological indicators) of the variation in ecological indicator values, whereas environmental pressures were able to predict an average of 1-5 % (up to 9-26% for individual ecological indicators) of ecological indicator variation. Each pressure variable predicted a different suite of ecological indicator’s variation and the shapes of ecological indicator responses along pressure gradients were generally nonlinear. Threshold shifts in ecosystem response to exploitation, the most important pressure variable, occurred when commercial landings were 20 and 60% of total surveyed biomass. Although present, threshold shifts in ecosystem response to environmental pressures were much less important, which suggests that anthropogenic pressures have significantly altered the ecosystem structure and functioning of the NES LME. Gradient response curves provide ecologically informed transformations of pressure variables to explain patterns of ecosystem structure and functioning. By concurrently identifying thresholds for a suite of ecological indicator responses to multiple pressures, we demonstrate that ecosystem reference points can be evaluated and used to support ecosystem-based management. PMID:25781166

Large, Scott I.; Fay, Gavin; Friedland, Kevin D.; Link, Jason S.

2015-01-01

234

The Adult Student Learning Experience: A Mixed-Methods Investigation in a Marine Corps Program from a Knowledge Management Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On one Marine Corps base, a minimum of 5% of adult enlisted Marines per year lack certain competencies and seek admittance into a high school competency remediation program. The lack of these competencies impedes qualification for many military occupational specialties, the ability to convert from an enlisted Marine to a Warrant Officer, or…

Stephens, Jennifer Gray

2010-01-01

235

Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species. PMID:24735126

Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

2014-01-01

236

National Marine Fisheries Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NMFS is the federal agency responsible for the stewardship of the nation's living marine resources and their habitat. NOAA Fisheries is responsible for the management, conservation and protection of living marine resources within the United States' Exclusive Economic Zone (water three to 200 mile offshore). Site includes information on the organization of NMFS and features information on many marine science topics, including aquaculture, bycatch, legislation, permits, strandings, and grants.

237

New marine studies center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temple University has established a Center for Marine Studies with faculty members from four of its colleges. The center will offer courses leading to a certificate in marine studies.Studies will focus on urbanization's impact on the marine environment and will focus on management and economics of waterfront utilization. In addition, faculty members will be constructing an artificial reef off Absecon Inlet to determine if increasing protective environments will permit increased sport fishing.

238

National Marine Sanctuary Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Sanctuary Program identifies, designates and manages areas of the marine environment of special national significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, research, educational, or aesthetic qualities. Access information and pictures of marine sanctuaries all over the U.S. and its territories. Discover ways to get involved with the sanctuary program, no matter where you live. Scientific publications are available for download.

239

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management - Project objectives, structure and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet : Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management Project objectives, structure and components G. Maudire (1), C. Maillard (1), G. Manzella (2), M. Fichaut (1), D.M.A. Schaap (3), E. Iona (4) and the SeaDataNet consortium. (1) IFREMER, Brest, France (Gilbert.Maudire@ifremer.fr), (2) ENEA, La Spezia, Italy, (3) Mariene Informatie Service 'MARIS', Voorburg, The Netherlands, (4) Hellenic Centre for Marine Research-HCMR, Anavyssos, Greece. Since a large part of the earth population lives near the oceans or carries on activities directly or indirectly linked to the seas (fishery and aquaculture, exploitation of sea bottom resources, international shipping, tourism), knowledge of oceans is of primary importance for security and economy. However, observation and monitoring of the oceans remains difficult and expensive even if real improvements have been achieved using research vessels and submersibles, satellites and automatic observatories like buoys, floats and seafloor observatories transmitting directly to the shore using global transmission systems. More than 600 governmental or private organizations are active in observation of seas bordering Europe, but European oceanographic data are fragmented, not always validated and not always easily accessible. That highlights the need of international collaboration to tend toward a comprehensive view of ocean mechanisms, resources and changes. SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in European Union Framework Program 6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation systems and to the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Its major objectives are to: - encourage long-term archiving at national level to secure ocean data taking into account that all the observations made in the variable oceanic environment can never be remade if they are lost; - promote best practices for data management, taking benefits of the development of international initiatives and standards on data quality insurance, data descriptions (metadata and common vocabulary) and interoperability. Software tools are developed or adapted accordingly to support these practices and the adoption of standards; - establish online services to facilitate data discovery, data requests, data visualisation and data download for the users; - process data sets of reference like ocean climatologies at a regional basin scale to provide comprehensive data sets Sustainability of the provided services is researched by a balance between the activities mostly undertaken at National level by the National Oceanographic data centres or some thematic data centres and the effort done at the Pan-European level by the project. The SeaDataNet consortium brings now together a unique group of 49 partners from major oceanographic institutes of 35 countries. Taking in account that valuable work on ocean data management must be done at basin level, most of countries bordering Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North-East Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Artic Sea are part of the project. Capacity building of consortium members is necessary to meet project objectives and a comprehensive training program is conducted both for data management and for IT technologies which are necessary to establish such a distributed system: databases management, XML language, web portal and services, GIS technologies. SeaDataNet Partners: IFREMER (France), MARIS (Netherlands), HCMR/HNODC (Greece), ULg (Belgium), OGS (Italy),NERC/BODC (UK), BSH/DOD (Germany), SMHI (Sweden), IEO (Spain), RIHMI/WDC (Russia), IOC (International), ENEA (Italy), INGV (Italy), METU (Turkey), CLS (France), AWI (Germany), IMR (Norway), NERI (Denmark), ICES (International), EC-DG JRC (International), MI (Ireland), IHPT (Portugal), RIKZ (Netherlands), RBINS/MUMM (Belgium), VLIZ (Belgium), MRI (Iceland), FIMR (Finland ), IMGW (Poland), MSI (Estonia), IAE/UL (Latvia), CMR (Lithuania), SIO/RAS (Russia), MHI/DMIST (Ukraine), IO/BAS (Bulgaria), NIMRD (Romania

Maudire, G.; Maillard, C.; Fichaut, M.; Manzella, G.; Schaap, D. M. A.

2009-04-01

240

Marine Biology  

E-print Network

this  door. ”   Marine  Biology   I  joined  the  military  RIVERSIDE   Marine  Biology   A Thesis submitted in partialBiology                                                                                                                        

Zaffino, Kyle

2013-01-01

241

Hobart Marine Laboratories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at five sites throughout Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research's work encompasses the assessment of atmospheric and earth systems and the prediction of climate, weather and ocean processes; and research to integrate coastal management and ensure marine resources and industries are sustainable. Site includes information on facilities, partnerships, publications, and news and upcoming events. Research section features extensive information on the current projects.

242

Modeling for Policy Change: A Feedback Perspective on Improving the Effectiveness of Coastal and Marine Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those advocating for effective management of the use of coastal areas and ecosystems have long aspired for an approach to governance that includes information systems with the capability to predict the end results of various courses of action, monitor the impacts of decisions and compare results with those predicted by computer models in order to…

Robadue, Donald D., Jr.

2012-01-01

243

78 FR 10606 - Final Management Plan and Environmental Assessment for Monitor National Marine Sanctuary: Notice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...protects the wreck of the famed Civil War ironclad, USS Monitor, best known for its battle with the Confederate ironclad, CSS Virginia in Hampton Roads, VA, on March 9, 1862. NOAA began to review the management plan for MNMS in December 2008...

2013-02-14

244

75 FR 13731 - National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Management Council (Pacific Council); April 9-15, 2010 Pacific Council Meeting...Council and its advisory entities will meet April 9-15, 2010. The Pacific Council meeting will begin on Saturday, April 10, 2010 at 8:00 a.m.,...

2010-03-23

245

Multispecies resource management of economically important marine plant communites of eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual 45,000 t harvest of six marine plant taxa, consisting principally of the alga Chondrus crispus, is worth 5 million annually to maritime fishermen. The harvesting techniques enable capture of associated biota and alter the abiotic structure of the habitat. Methods developed to assess ecological impact include permanent transects which are sampled for vegetation composition and dry biomass. C. crispus represents 80% of the plant biomass in commercial beds; 27 other genera comprise the remainder. Thirty-five associated invertebrate species include only one of direct economic importance, the lobster, Homarus americanus. On commercial Chondrus beds off western Prince Edward Island, lobsters were captured in basket dragrakes up to 5.4 h-1 during 1975 and 1976. Of the total lobster catch, the percentage injured by Chondrus dragrakes was 2.7% in 1975 and 1.3% in 1976. Chondrus dragrakes, as used in southwestern Nova Scotia, disrupt the drumlin substrate. Controlled dragraking for 2-h periods disrupted 0.25% to 1.5% of the bottom area. One month of normal harvest activity displaced 0.5% to 2.9% of the bottom of surveyed sites. A harvest of 1000 t of Laminaria spp. is projected for 1979. Dragrakes harvest entire plants averaging 5.0 ± 2.3 m in length. The residual population averaged 2.3 ± 1.9 m. Indirect effects of kelp harvesting on the benthic community are the subject of ongoing research.

Pringle, J. D.; Sharp, G. J.

1980-03-01

246

Association of bacteria with marine invertebrates: implications for ballast water management.  

PubMed

Bacteria associated with plankton are of importance in marine bioinvasions and the implementation of ship's ballast water treatment technologies. In this study, epibiotic and endobiotic bacteria associated with zooplankton, including barnacle nauplii, veliger larvae, and adults of the copepod Oithona sp., were characterized and quantified. Barnacle nauplius and veliger larva harbored ~4.4 × 10(5)cells ind(-1) whereas Oithona sp. had 8.8 × 10(5)cells ind(-1). Computation of bacterial contribution based on biovolume indicated that despite being the smallest zooplankton tested, veliger larvae harbored the highest number of bacteria, while barnacle nauplii, the largest of the zooplankton, tested in terms of volume contributed the least. Pulverization of zooplankton led to an increase in bacterial numbers; for example, Vibrio cholerae, which was initially 3.5 × 10(3), increased to 5.4 × 10(5)CFU g(-1); Escherichia coli increased from 5.0 × 10(2) to 1.3 × 10(4)CFU g(-1); and Streptococcus faecalis increased from 2.1 × 10(2) to 2.5 × 10(5)CFU g(-1), respectively. Pulverized zooplankton was aged in the dark to assess the contribution of bacteria from decaying debris. Aging of pulverized zooplankton led to emergence of Chromobacterium violaceum, which is an opportunistic pathogen in animals and humans. PMID:23846742

Khandeparker, Lidita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

2013-09-01

247

Selenium/mercury molar ratios in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish from the USA: variation, risk, and health management.  

PubMed

Fish provide healthy protein as well as recreational and cultural benefits, but can also contain mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants that have adverse effects on humans and other organisms, particularly developing fetuses. Recently, some authors have suggested that a molar excess of selenium (Se) [e.g., selenium/mercury (Se/Hg) molar ratio >1] confers protection from Hg toxicity derived from fish consumption. Herein, we review our studies of Hg and Se in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish (mainly marine), examining the following: (1) whether and how Se/Hg molar ratios vary among species; (2) whether and how the molar ratios vary within species; (3) whether the molar ratios differ between freshwater and saltwater fish; (4) whether mean molar ratio values provide a reliable indication of potential risk to fish consumers; and (5) whether mean Se/Hg molar ratios are sufficiently constant (e.g., low variation) to allow for use in risk assessment, risk management, or risk communication. In saltwater fish, mean Se/Hg molar ratios varied from 0.3 in mako shark to 68.1 in whiting. For freshwater fish, the mean ratios varied from 0.68 in bowfin to 20.8 in black crappie. Commercial seafood (mainly saltwater) showed great variation in ratios; shrimp and scallops had very high ratios. There was somewhat less variability in the ratios for freshwater fish compared with the fish from saltwater, but there was no overall predictable difference in variation in Se/Hg molar ratios. For both saltwater and freshwater fish, some species with mean molar ratios above 1 had a significant proportion of individual fish with molar ratios below 1. Overall, this indicates great variation in measures of central tendencies and in measures of dispersion. We suggest that relying on the Se/Hg molar ratio as a method of predicting reduced risk from Hg toxicity is problematic because of the great variation among and within fish species, and the variation is not predictable because Hg varies by season, size of the fish, and location of the fish (which is not available for commercial fish). With the high variation in ratios, and low predictability, the ratios are currently not useful for risk assessment and risk management, and vulnerable individuals cannot rely on mean Se/Hg molar ratios for protection from Hg toxicity. PMID:24192499

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2013-01-01

248

Development of innovative tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good environmental status, within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine natural resources and ecosystem services constitute the natural capital that supports economies, societies and individual well-being. Good governance requires a quantification of the interactions and trade-offs among ecosystem services and understanding of how biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and services across time, scales and sectors. Marine biodiversity is a key descriptor for the assessment within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), approved in 2008, which comprises a total of 11 descriptors. However, the relationships between pressures from human activities and climatic influences and their effects on marine biological diversity are still only partially understood. Hence, these relationships need to be better understood in order to fully achieve a good environmental status (GEnS), as required by the MSFD. This contribution is based upon the FP7 EU project DEVOTES (DEVelopment Of innovative Tools for understanding marine biodiversity and assessing good Environmental Status), which focus on developing innovative conceptual frameworks, methods and coherent, shared protocols to provide consistent datasets and knowledge at different scales, within four regional seas (Black Sea, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic Sea). This project is developing innovative approaches to valuate biodiversity and ecosystem services and to develop public goods and sustainable economic activities from them. The research will benefit sea users and stakeholders, and will contribute to assess and monitor the environmental status of marine waters. The main objectives are: (i) to improve our understanding of the impact of human activities and variations associated to climate on marine biodiversity, (ii) to test indicators (referred in the Commission Decision on GEnS) and develop new ones for assessment at several ecological levels (species, habitat, ecosystems) and for the characterization and status classification of the marine waters, (iii) to develop, test and validate, on the basis of observations, innovative integrative modelling tools in order to further strengthen our understanding of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in space and time. The resultant models are being developed for implementation as operational tools for managers, decision takers and policy makers. The project is contributing (i) to enable the adaptive development of management (ecosystem-based management approach) strategies and management measures as a result of their implementation taking into account the role of industry and relevant stakeholders, (ii) to provide economic assessment of the consequences of management practices, (iii) to identify the barriers (socio-economic and legislative) that prevent the GES to be achieved (e.g. eutrophication), (iv) to provide a set of policy options for the relevant authorities. In addition the project should propose and demonstrate the utility of innovative monitoring systems capable of providing data on a range of parameters, efficiently and effectively, that may be used as indicators of good environmental status. This contribution presents a summary of most of these aspects.

Borja, Angel; Uyarra, María C.

2014-05-01

249

Trade off analysis for participatory coral reef management: lessons learned from Buccoo Reef Marine Park, Tobago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coral reefs provide a range of important functions and services, yet often conflicts exist over coral reef use among multiple users. This paper outlines the trade-off analysis approach to coral reef management where multiple and conflicting objectives for coral reef resources can be identified, assessed and reconciled within a decision-support framework. The paper applies trade-off analysis to the case of

E. Tompkins; K. Brown; W. N. Adger; P. Bacon; K. Young; D. Shim

250

Integrating the provision of ecosystem services and trawl fisheries for the management of the marine environment.  

PubMed

The species interaction and their biological traits (BT) determine the function of benthic communities and, hence, the delivery of ecosystem services. Therefore, disturbance of benthic communities by trawling may compromise ecosystem service delivery, including fisheries' catches. In this work, we explore 1) the impact of trawling activities on benthic functional components (after the BTA approach) and 2) how trawling impact may affect the ecosystem services delivered by benthic communities. To this aim, we assessed the provision of ecosystem services by adopting the concept of Ecosystem Service Providers (ESP), i.e. ecological units that perform ecosystem functions that will ultimately deliver ecosystem services. We studied thirteen sites subjected to different levels of fishing effort in the Mediterranean. From a range of environmental variables included in the study, we found ESPs to be mainly affected by fishing effort and grain size. Our results suggested that habitat type has significant effects on the distribution of ESPs and this natural variability influences ESP response to trawling at a specific site. In order to summarize the complex relationships between human uses, ecosystem components and the demand for ecosystem services in trawling grounds, we adapted a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impact-Response) framework to the study area, emphasizing the role of society as Drivers of change and actors demanding management Responses. This integrative framework aims to inform managers about the interactions between all the elements involved in the management of trawling grounds, highlighting the need for an integrated approach in order to ensure ecosystem service provision. PMID:25433378

Muntadas, Alba; de Juan, Silvia; Demestre, Montserrat

2015-02-15

251

Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

1972-01-01

252

75 FR 70904 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council); Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishery Management Council will hold a meeting of its Spiny Lobster Committee, Personnel Committee (Closed Session), King and Spanish Mackerel Committee, Ecosystem-Based Management Committee, Golden Crab Committee, Southeast Data, Assessment, and...

2010-11-19

253

20 Incorporating Ecosystem Objectives into Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Including 'Best Practice' Reference Points and Use of Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broadening of fisheries management to include ecosystem-related objectives raises a potentially confusing range of possible issues for consideration in management decisions, in reporting and in assess- ing management performance. However, there are methods available and approaches to addressing the issues that are practical, accessible to stakeholder participation and scientifically assessable. Three broad and interrelated elements are described that allow

Keith Sainsbury; Ussif Rashid Sumaila

254

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses  

PubMed Central

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-01-01

255

Rescaling the trophic structure of marine food webs  

PubMed Central

Measures of trophic position (TP) are critical for understanding food web interactions and human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. Nitrogen stable isotopes (?15N) provide a powerful tool to estimate TP but are limited by a pragmatic assumption that isotope discrimination is constant (change in ?15N between predator and prey, ?15N = 3.4‰), resulting in an additive framework that omits known ?15N variation. Through meta-analysis, we determine narrowing discrimination from an empirical linear relationship between experimental ?15N and ?15N values of prey consumed. The resulting scaled ?15N framework estimated reliable TPs of zooplanktivores to tertiary piscivores congruent with known feeding relationships that radically alters the conventional structure of marine food webs. Apex predator TP estimates were markedly higher than currently assumed by whole-ecosystem models, indicating perceived food webs have been truncated and species-interactions over simplified. The scaled ?15N framework will greatly improve the accuracy of trophic estimates widely used in ecosystem-based management. PMID:24308860

Hussey, Nigel E; MacNeil, M Aaron; McMeans, Bailey C; Olin, Jill A; Dudley, Sheldon FJ; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Fennessy, Sean T; Fisk, Aaron T

2014-01-01

256

How is shrimp aquaculture transforming coastal livelihoods and lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua? The need to integrate social-ecological research and ecosystem-based approaches.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people. PMID:24912580

Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

2014-08-01

257

How is Shrimp Aquaculture Transforming Coastal Livelihoods and Lagoons in Estero Real, Nicaragua?: The Need to Integrate Social-Ecological Research and Ecosystem-Based Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem-based approaches to aquaculture integrate environmental concerns into planning. Social-ecological systems research can improve this approach by explicitly relating ecological and social dynamics of change at multiple scales. Doing so requires not only addressing direct effects of aquaculture but also considering indirect factors such as changes in livelihood strategies, governance dynamics, and power relations. We selected the community of Puerto Morazán, Nicaragua as a case study to demonstrate how the introduction of small-scale aquaculture radically transformed another key livelihood activity, lagoon shrimp fishing, and the effects that these changes have had on lagoons and the people that depend on them. We find that shrimp aquaculture played a key role in the collapse, in the 1990s, of an existing lagoon common-property management. Shrimp aquaculture-related capital enabled the adoption of a new fishing technique that not only degraded lagoons but also led to their gradual privatization. The existence of social ties between small-scale shrimp farmers and other community members mitigated the impacts of privatization, illustrating the importance of social capital. Since 2008, community members are seeking to communally manage the lagoons once again, in response to degraded environmental conditions and a consolidation of the shrimp industry at the expense of smaller actors. This research shows that shrimp aquaculture intersects with a complex set of drivers, affecting not only how ecosystems are managed but also how they are perceived and valued. Understanding these social-ecological dynamics is essential to implement realistic policies and management of mangrove ecosystems and address the needs of resource-dependent people.

Benessaiah, Karina; Sengupta, Raja

2014-08-01

258

SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of the major players in informatics in oceanography and collaborative relationships have been created with other EU and non EU projects. In particular SeaDataNet has recognised roles in the continuous serving of common vocabularies, the provision of tools for data management, as well as giving access to metadata, data sets and data products of importance for society. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users not only background information about SeaDataNet and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools, but also a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, and highlight a number of key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

2013-04-01

259

Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris') problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement

Arie Trouwborst

2011-01-01

260

76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee; King and Spanish Mackerel Committee; Golden Crab Committee...on ecosystem activities. 8. King and Spanish Mackerel Committee: June 13, 2011...will receive a report from the King and Spanish Mackerel Committee, consider...

2011-05-27

261

Preventing, controlling, and managing alien species introduction for the health of aquatic and marine ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The introduction and spread of invasive species is an emerging global problem. As economic and ecological impacts continue to grow, there will be an increasing need to develop innovative solutions and global partnerships to combat the increasing rate of invasions and their accompanying impacts. Threats to sustainable fisheries in North America associated with alien species come from many global directions and sources and can be deliberate or the unintended consequence of other actions. Decisions about the role of sustainable fisheries in protecting and restoring the health of aquatic ecosystems become even more complex when economic and social factors are considered along with environmental impacts, because many intentionally introduced species also have associated economic and community costs and benefits. Actions designed to prevent or control alien species in an aquatic ecosystem are often complicated by these nonenvironmental factors as well as public perception and opinion. Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed to varying degrees by alien species, including disease organisms. Prevention is the first and best line of defense. Determining likely pathways and effective countermeasures is more cost-effective than either eradication or control. Our ability to quickly identify new species and their associated risk to ecosystems is critical in designing and implementing effective control and management actions. Lack of infrastructure and necessary resources, clear-cut authority for regulation and action, and scientific information about the biology of alien species and effective control techniques are often limiting factors that prevent the needed action to protect aquatic ecosystems.

Short, C.I.; Gross, S.K.; Wilkinson, D.

2004-01-01

262

Selecting Indicator Portfolios for Marine Species and Food Webs: A Puget Sound Case Study  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States – Puget Sound, Washington – where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system. PMID:21991305

Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F.; James, C. Andrew; Levin, Phillip S.

2011-01-01

263

Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: current status and long-term prospective.  

PubMed

A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding, Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed. PMID:9159892

Becker, P R; Wise, S A; Thorsteinson, L; Koster, B J; Rowles, T

1997-05-01

264

Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

1997-01-01

265

This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries.  

PubMed

The management of marine fisheries needs to undergo dramatic change in the new millennium, in response to the well-documented evidence of global overfishing and the general depletion of commercial fish stocks. The axioms of sustainable development and equilibrium productivity of wild ecosystems are identified as misleading concepts, which nonetheless underlie current approaches to the management of living marine resources. Current trends in marine fisheries landings worldwide provide little evidence of sustainability of marine resources under current management paradigms, where biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries are usually treated as different disciplines. While open-access conditions are less widespread than formerly, except for many straddling and highly migratory resources, fishers usually have access to the resource year-round throughout its range. Despite quotas, the nominal control of capacity and technical measures protecting juveniles, top-down management has generally been unable to prevent stock depletion, particularly of the older spawners that for demersal stocks often support recruitment. An integrated solution to the complexity of managing wild resources seems not to have been achieved. Any new paradigm should assert the basic unpredictability of fisheries at the system level and require a broader range of performance indicators to be incorporated into the decisional framework. This must reflect the non-equilibrium nature of marine systems, and give greater importance to resource (as opposed to harvest) continuity in the face of regime shifts, and promote habitat restoration and conservation of genetic resources. The new management framework requires co-management and collective decision-making to be incorporated within a precautionary and pre-negotiated management framework. This must explicitly recognize that decision-making occurs in conditions of model-based uncertainty and precautionary approaches should be incorporated at all levels, not least of which is to avoid the assumption that all resources can be harvested in a sustainable fashion through time. Redundancy in data inputs to management are needed to avoid the surprises that model-based sampling occasionally leads to, for example, when regime changes reduce productivity in response to climatic fluctuations. Emergency frameworks imposing non-discretionary rules must be invoked when overfishing and/or regime change trigger reference points indicating stock depletion. Non-discretionary recovery plans should then override rights-based systems and persist until fish populations recover to pre-established healthy levels, which may in turn need to await the return of a favourable regime. In fact, some stocks may require periodic rebuilding after regime-induced collapses or because of a combination of ecological or economic impacts, hence a constant harvest policy may not always be possible. It will probably also be necessary to discard the axiom that a stock should be available to harvesting throughout its range and seasonal cycle. Technological advances mean that time- and area-specific access rights are now practical options, through satellite monitoring of vessel operations, even offshore. More fundamentally, the basic axiom of "enlightened self interest" underlying current methods of management will need to be tempered by an increased ethical concern for the fragility of natural ecosystems. PMID:15713588

Caddy, J F; Seijo, J C

2005-01-29

266

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets (www.seadatanet.org)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SeaDataNet is a leading infrastructure in Europe for marine & ocean data management. It is actively operating and further developing a Pan-European infrastructure for managing, indexing and providing access to ocean and marine data sets and data products, acquired via research cruises and other observational activities, in situ and remote sensing. The basis of SeaDataNet is interconnecting 40 National Oceanographic Data Centres and Marine Data Centers from 35 countries around European seas into a distributed network of data resources with common standards for metadata, vocabularies, data transport formats, quality control methods and flags, and access. Thereby most of the NODC's operate and/or are developing national networks to other institutes in their countries to ensure national coverage and long-term stewardship of available data sets. The majority of data managed by SeaDataNet partners concerns physical oceanography, marine chemistry, hydrography, and a substantial volume of marine biology and geology and geophysics. These are partly owned by the partner institutes themselves and for a major part also owned by other organizations from their countries. The SeaDataNet infrastructure is implemented with support of the EU via the EU FP6 SeaDataNet project to provide the Pan-European data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. The SeaDataNet project has a duration of 5 years and started in 2006, but builds upon earlier data management infrastructure projects, undertaken over a period of 20 years by an expanding network of oceanographic data centres from the countries around all European seas. Its predecessor project Sea-Search had a strict focus on metadata. SeaDataNet maintains significant interest in the further development of the metadata infrastructure, extending its services with the provision of easy data access and generic data products. Version 1 of its infrastructure upgrade was launched in April 2008 and is now well underway to include all 40 data centres at V1 level. It comprises the network of 40 interconnected data centres (NODCs) and a central SeaDataNet portal. V1 provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, that are managed at these data centres. The SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure comprises the following middleware services: • Discovery services = Metadata directories and User interfaces • Vocabulary services = Common vocabularies and Governance • Security services = Authentication, Authorization & Accounting • Delivery services = Requesting and Downloading of data sets • Viewing services = Mapping of metadata • Monitoring services = Statistics on system usage and performance and Registration of data requests and transactions • Maintenance services = Entry and updating of metadata by data centres Also good progress is being made with extending the SeaDataNet infrastructure with V2 services: • Viewing services = Quick views and Visualisation of data and data products • Product services = Generic and standard products • Exchange services = transformation of SeaDataNet portal CDI output to INSPIRE compliance As a basis for the V1 services, common standards have been defined for metadata and data formats, common vocabularies, quality flags, and quality control methods, based on international standards, such as ISO 19115, OGC, NetCDF (CF), ODV, best practices from IOC and ICES, and following INSPIRE developments. An important objective of the SeaDataNet V1 infrastructure is to provide transparent access to the distributed data sets via a unique user interface and download service. In the SeaDataNet V1 architecture the Common Data Index (CDI) V1 metadata service provides the link between discovery and delivery of data sets. The CDI user interface enables users to have a detailed insight of the availability and geographical distribution of marine data, archived at the connected data centres.

Schaap, Dick M. A.; Maudire, Gilbert

2010-05-01

267

Delineating ecological regions in marine systems: Integrating physical structure and community composition to inform spatial management in the eastern Bering Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing spatial structure and delineating meaningful spatial boundaries have useful applications to understanding regional dynamics in marine systems, and are integral to ecosystem approaches to fisheries management. Physical structure and drivers combine with biological responses and interactions to organize marine systems in unique ways at multiple scales. We apply multivariate statistical methods to define spatially coherent ecological units or ecoregions in the eastern Bering Sea. We also illustrate a practical approach to integrate data on species distribution, habitat structure and physical forcing mechanisms to distinguish areas with distinct biogeography as one means to define management units in large marine ecosystems. We use random forests to quantify the relative importance of habitat and environmental variables to the distribution of individual species, and to quantify shifts in multispecies assemblages or community composition along environmental gradients. Threshold shifts in community composition are used to identify regions with distinct physical and biological attributes, and to evaluate the relative importance of predictor variables to determining regional boundaries. Depth, bottom temperature and frontal boundaries were dominant factors delineating distinct biological communities in this system, with a latitudinal divide at approximately 60°N. Our results indicate that distinct climatic periods will shift habitat gradients and that dynamic physical variables such as temperature and stratification are important to understanding temporal stability of ecoregion boundaries. We note distinct distribution patterns among functional guilds and also evidence for resource partitioning among individual species within each guild. By integrating physical and biological data to determine spatial patterns in community composition, we partition ecosystems along ecologically significant gradients. This may provide a basis for defining spatial management units or serve as a baseline index for analyses of structural shifts in the physical environment, species abundance and distribution, and community dynamics over time.

Baker, Matthew R.; Hollowed, Anne B.

2014-11-01

268

An artificial productive ecosystem based on a fish\\/bacteria\\/plant association. 2. Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial ecosystem was developed with the aim of associating fish production with a vegetable crop purifying the fish water, in a closed system. The nitrogenous compounds excreted in dissolved form by the fish, and transformed by the bacteria, provide nitrogen for the plants. Previous studies have focused on the system's design and the management of the plant compartment in

I. Quilleré; L. Roux; D. Marie; Y. Roux; F. Gosse; J. F. Morot-Gaudry

1995-01-01

269

Management Relevance of Benthic Biogeography at Multiple Scales in Coastal Waters of the Northeast U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuing pressures from human activities have harmed the health of ocean ecosystems, particularly those near the coast. Current management practices that operate on one sector at a time have not resulted in healthy oceans that can sustainably provide the ecosystem services humans want and need. Now, adoption of ecosystem-based management (EBM) and coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States should result in a more holistic approach. Recent marine biogeographical studies and benthic habitat mapping using satellite imagery, large-scale monitoring programs, ocean observation systems, acoustic and video techniques, landscape ecology, geographic information systems, integrated databases, and ecological modeling provide information that can support EBM, make CMSP ecologically meaningful, and contribute to planning for marine biodiversity conservation. Examples from coastal waters along the northeast coast of the United States from Delaware Bay to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, illustrate how benthic biogeography and bottom seascape diversity information is a useful lens through which to view EBM and CMSP in nearshore waters. The focus is on benthic communities, which are widely used in monitoring programs and are sensitive to many stresses from human activities.

Hale, Stephen S.; Coté, Melville P.; Tedesco, Mark A.; Searfoss, Renee

2013-04-01

270

Management relevance of benthic biogeography at multiple scales in coastal waters of the northeast U.S.  

PubMed

Continuing pressures from human activities have harmed the health of ocean ecosystems, particularly those near the coast. Current management practices that operate on one sector at a time have not resulted in healthy oceans that can sustainably provide the ecosystem services humans want and need. Now, adoption of ecosystem-based management (EBM) and coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States should result in a more holistic approach. Recent marine biogeographical studies and benthic habitat mapping using satellite imagery, large-scale monitoring programs, ocean observation systems, acoustic and video techniques, landscape ecology, geographic information systems, integrated databases, and ecological modeling provide information that can support EBM, make CMSP ecologically meaningful, and contribute to planning for marine biodiversity conservation. Examples from coastal waters along the northeast coast of the United States from Delaware Bay to Passamaquoddy Bay, Maine, illustrate how benthic biogeography and bottom seascape diversity information is a useful lens through which to view EBM and CMSP in nearshore waters. The focus is on benthic communities, which are widely used in monitoring programs and are sensitive to many stresses from human activities. PMID:23224036

Hale, Stephen S; Coté, Melville P; Tedesco, Mark A; Searfoss, Renee

2013-04-01

271

Population Connectivity Shifts at High Frequency within an Open-Coast Marine Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

A complete understanding of population connectivity via larval dispersal is of great value to the effective design and management of marine protected areas (MPA). However empirical estimates of larval dispersal distance, self-recruitment, and within season variability of population connectivity patterns and their influence on metapopulation structure remain rare. We used high-resolution otolith microchemistry data from the temperate reef fish Hypsypops rubicundus to explore biweekly, seasonal, and annual connectivity patterns in an open-coast MPA network. The three MPAs, spanning 46 km along the southern California coastline were connected by larval dispersal, but the magnitude and direction of connections reversed between 2008 and 2009. Self-recruitment, i.e. spawning, dispersal, and settlement to the same location, was observed at two locations, one of which is a MPA. Self-recruitment to this MPA ranged from 50–84%; within the entire 60 km study region, self-recruitment accounted for 45% of all individuals settling to study reefs. On biweekly time scales we observed directional variability in alongshore current data and larval dispersal trajectories; if viewed in isolation these data suggest the system behaves as a source-sink metapopulation. However aggregate biweekly data over two years reveal a reef network in which H. rubicundus behaves more like a well-mixed metapopulation. As one of the few empirical studies of population connectivity within a temperate open coast reef network, this work can inform the MPA design process, implementation of ecosystem based management plans, and facilitate conservation decisions. PMID:25077486

Cook, Geoffrey S.; Parnell, P. Ed; Levin, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

272

Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards  

PubMed Central

Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D.; Adams, Jennifer K.; Chan, Farrah T.; Drake, D. Andrew R.; Bailey, Sarah A.

2015-01-01

273

Relative Invasion Risk for Plankton across Marine and Freshwater Systems: Examining Efficacy of Proposed International Ballast Water Discharge Standards.  

PubMed

Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic), ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine), and timescales (annual and per discharge event) under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS) was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature), and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards). Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic) and recipient (freshwater) ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions. PMID:25763859

Casas-Monroy, Oscar; Linley, Robert D; Adams, Jennifer K; Chan, Farrah T; Drake, D Andrew R; Bailey, Sarah A

2015-01-01

274

Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

2014-12-01

275

Communication, its possible role in marine commercial fisheries management: a pilot observation and interview study of the marine commercial fisheries of Texas  

E-print Network

OVER- F I SHED Yellow-fin Sol e Alaska Pollock Pacific Ocean Perch Pacific Halibut Atlantic Halibut Bering Sea Herring Bering Sea Shrimp Haddock Yellowtail Flounder California Sardine Pacific Mackeral Atlantic Sea Scallop N. W. Atlantic... of the domestic fishery resources, a few specific examples of resource mis- use will further illustrate the need for management. Part 1 - Pacific Sardine Fishery The Pacific sardine fishery is one of the most striking examples of the development and failure...

DeGeorges, Nicolas Jacques

1976-01-01

276

Developing a landscape- and ecosystem-based framework for monitoring and management of grazinglands in the northeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvement of grazinglands can contribute to increased farm profitability and ecosystem sustainability by reducing machinery requirements, time needed and fuel costs for harvesting forages, applying fertilizers, and distributing manure. Site type is effectively fixed (e.g. climate and landscape pos...

277

Australian Institute of Marine Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located near Townsville, North Queensland, AIMS researchers collect and analyze data to improve our understanding of the marine world, and to find science-based management practices that ensure long-term sustainable use and development of marine resources. Site features information on facilities, faculty, current projects, open house and other events, and employment opportunities. Also features the Mariner's Journal, a log from several AIMS research cruises.

278

Building partnership capacity for the collaborative management of marine protected areas in the UK: A preliminary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a preliminary analysis of 15 case studies of inshore marine protected areas in the UK. It draws on the common-pool resource (CPR) literature and is premised on the thesis that building partnership capacity amongst relevant authorities and resource users provides a critical basis for overcoming collective action problems (CAPs), through the development of incentive

Peter J. S. Jones; Jacquelin Burgess

2005-01-01

279

Core Journal Networks and Cocitation Maps in the Marine Sciences: Tools for Information Management in Interdisciplinary Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the interrelationship between two traditionally separate literatures, i.e., marine biology and physical oceanography, and develops a joint core journal list. The use of journal intercitation data from "Journal Citation Reports" for "Science Citation Index" and from SCISEARCH on DIALOG to create a cocitation map is described. (15…

McCain, Katherine W.

1992-01-01

280

Development of ITSASGIS-5D: seeking interoperability between Marine GIS layers and scientific multidimensional data using open source tools and OGC services for multidisciplinary research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2000, an intense effort was conducted in AZTI's Marine Research Division to set up a data management system which could gather all the marine datasets that were being produced by different in-house research projects. For that, a corporative GIS was designed that included a data and metadata repository, a database, a layer catalog & search application and an internet map viewer. Several layers, mostly dealing with physical, chemical and biological in-situ sampling, and basic and thematic cartography including bathymetry, geomorphology, different species habitat maps, and human pressure and activities maps, were successfully gathered in this system. Very soon, it was realised that new marine technologies yielding continuous multidimensional data, sometimes called FES (Fluid Earth System) data, were difficult to handle in this structure. The data affected, mainly included numerical oceanographic and meteorological models, remote sensing data, coastal RADAR data, and some in-situ observational systems such as CTD's casts, moored or lagrangian buoys, etc. A management system for gridded multidimensional data was developed using standardized formats (netcdf using CF conventions) and tools such as THREDDS catalog (UNIDATA/UCAR) providing web services such as OPENDAP, NCSS, and WCS, as well as ncWMS service developed by the Reading e-science Center. At present, a system (ITSASGIS-5D) is being developed, based on OGC standards and open-source tools to allow interoperability between all the data types mentioned before. This system includes, in the server side, postgresql/postgis databases and geoserver for GIS layers, and THREDDS/Opendap and ncWMS services for FES gridded data. Moreover, an on-line client is being developed to allow joint access, user configuration, data visualisation & query and data distribution. This client is using mapfish, ExtJS - GeoEXT, and openlayers libraries. Through this presentation the elements of the first released version of this system will be described and showed, together with the new topics to be developed in new versions that include among others, the integration of geoNetwork libraries and tools for both FES and GIS metadata management, and the use of new OGC Sensor Observation Services (SOS) to integrate non gridded multidimensional data such as time series, depth profiles or trajectories provided by different observational systems. The final aim of this approach is to contribute to the multidisciplinary access and use of marine data for management and research activities, and facilitate the implementation of integrated ecosystem based approaches in the fields of fisheries advice and management, marine spatial planning, or the implementation of the European policies such as the Water Framework Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive or the Habitat Framework Directive.

Sagarminaga, Y.; Galparsoro, I.; Reig, R.; Sánchez, J. A.

2012-04-01

281

Marine protected areas: emerging economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental economics provides one perspective on managing multiple and alternative uses of marine areas. Recent work is identified to suggest substantive research that can better focus benefit-cost analyses on issues specific to marine protected areas. Issues discussed include: the conditions for limited use of an area, determinants of the size of a protected area including species diversity, whether access restrictions

Scott Farrow

1996-01-01

282

DIVISION OF MARINE AFFAIRS AND POLICY  

E-print Network

resource economics, political ecology and marine anthropology, underwater archaeology, weather and climate Preserve: The Division manages an underwater site at Little Salt Spring (LSS), in North Port, Sarasota

Miami, University of

283

Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

284

Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

285

Marine Reserves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ever declining numbers of marine plants and fish are sending ecologists scrambling for better ways to protect the oceans. Some have suggested that marine reserves are the answer. This Science Update looks at the unexpected impact marine reserves have on their surroundings.

Science Update

2001-03-30

286

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas  

E-print Network

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas A Case Study of Parque Nacional del Este 22203, USA Telephone: (703) 841-4860 Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study, Dominican Republic Part 3 of 3 in a Series on Science Tools for Marine Park Management Edited by Mark

Greer, Lisa

287

Depletion, Degradation, and Recovery Potential of Estuaries  

E-print Network

historical baselines and quantitative targets for ecosystem-based management and marine conservation. E). We used paleontologic, archaeological, historical, and ecological records (table S1) to quantify

Myers, Ransom A.

288

Effects of non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism on marine species and prospects for their sustainable management.  

PubMed

Marine non-consumptive wildlife-oriented tourism, whereby tourists observe and/or interact closely with animals, without purposely having a detrimental effect on them, has been growing globally in recent decades. Human-mediated feeding (provisioning) is widely used by tour operators to attract target species, facilitate viewing and interaction with tourists. Although potential effects of such provisioning on terrestrial fauna have been given moderate scientific research attention, equivalent research in the marine environment is limited. Effects of provisioning marine wildlife may include direct habituation, behavioural change, and/or dietary impacts among individuals and species. There may also be disruption to the species associated assemblage. It was found that the literature on the effects of non-consumptive wildlife tourism is fragmented and results from different areas and taxa are frequently contradictory. Most studies appeared to be of a few years duration, at most. This reflects the relative immaturity of the industry - many enterprises studied typically commenced within the 1990 s. Studies (other than fish) tended to focus on a focal species with few addressing the wider implications for the associated assemblage. Supplementary feeding may also have impacts on the health and wellbeing of provisioned animals. It is concluded that such nature tourism is often not benign - focal species and their assemblage are often disrupted. We conclude that funding to better understand the impacts and thus address them is imperative. To supplement funding for the research and monitoring required, an additional charge could incorporated into the fee charged to those engaging in marine wildlife tourism. PMID:25576698

Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

2015-03-15

289

Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web.  

PubMed

Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed to persistent eutrophication, intensive fishing, and one of the world's fastest rates of warming in the last two decades of the 20th century, accelerated climate change including atmospheric warming and changes in precipitation is projected for this region during the 21st century. Here, we used a new multimodel approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. By the end of the 21st century, for example, the combination of intensive cod fishing and high nutrient loads projected a strongly eutrophicated and sprat-dominated ecosystem, whereas low cod fishing in combination with low nutrient loads resulted in a cod-dominated ecosystem with eutrophication levels close to present. Also, nonlinearities were observed in the sensitivity of different trophic groups to nutrient loads or fishing depending on the combination of the two. Finally, many climate variables and species biomasses were projected to levels unseen in the past. Hence, the risk for ecological surprises needs to be addressed, particularly when the results are discussed in the ecosystem-based management context. PMID:23818413

Niiranen, Susa; Yletyinen, Johanna; Tomczak, Maciej T; Blenckner, Thorsten; Hjerne, Olle; Mackenzie, Brian R; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Neumann, Thomas; Meier, H E Markus

2013-11-01

290

Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques  

PubMed Central

Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. PMID:22163212

Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Chen, Jiongfeng; Xu, Yan; Zhao, Jiahu

2011-01-01

291

A Public Sentiment Index for Ecosystem Management  

E-print Network

A Public Sentiment Index for Ecosystem Management Ratana Chuenpagdee,1 * Lisa Liguori,2 Dave ABSTRACT Although ecosystem-based management can lead to sustainable resource use, its successful imple the ecosystems with stakeholders' preferences is therefore needed. We propose here a 'Public Sen- timent Index

Pauly, Daniel

292

Maryland Marine Notes Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online newsletter archive provides back issues, April 1990 to December 2001, of Marine Notes in downloadable PDF format. Articles cover news of research, education and outreach services of Maryland Sea Grant. Topics include: fisheries management, issues and advances; biology of keystone species like blue crabs, oysters, seagrasses, striped bass; coastal zone management; Chesapeake Bay habitats and restoration; seafood; aquaculture; impacts of exotic species; coastal history; and more.

293

Man and the marine environment  

SciTech Connect

Written by marine scientists, this series of essays offers insight to man's interactions with the sea on both technological and human terms. It examines the inherent limits of man's relationship to the complex marine environment. It includes accounts of the ways people encounter the sea: in recreation; in fishing; in diving and work; in managing its coasts and beaches; and in its use for transportation. CONTENTS: Marine Recreation. Fishing Peoples. Shipping in the Great Lakes. Man Undersea. Work in the Sea. Man versus the Sea at the Shore. Coastal Management: an Unfinished Undertaking. Coastal Law. Great Lakes: a Microcosm of the World Ocean. Index.

Ragotzkie, R.A.

1983-01-01

294

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will perform experiments to examine if debris will float, or blow in the wind. They will discover which characteristics of trash affect the likelihood that it will become marine debris. Trash that floats or is easily blown around is more likely to become marine debris. As a result of this activity students will be able to define marine debris and categorize different types of debris.

Bishop Museum

295

The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding

Simon Jennings; Michel J. Kaiser

1998-01-01

296

National Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this resource will find information about U.S. marine sanctuaries - their history and current management, their scientific and educational programs, and their continuing efforts to conserve our nation's ocean and coastal treasures. A national calendar provides information on the many exciting events that take place in the sanctuaries throughout the year. Within the 13 sections of the site, users will discover a vast range of marine creatures, habitats, historical artifacts, and flourishing maritime cultures. These include the breeding and calving grounds of giant humpback whales around Hawaii, the remains of an 18th century shipwreck (the Monitor), and thriving coral reef colonies and kelp forests.

2003-08-29

297

Marine biology  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

1984-01-01

298

Marine cosmeceuticals.  

PubMed

Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed in the cosmetic industry regarding marine-derived cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous beneficial effects on human skin health. Bioactive substances derived from marine resources have diverse functional roles as natural skin care agents, and these properties can be applied to the development of novel cosmetics as well as nutricosmetics (from edible seaweeds and edible marine animals). This contribution focuses on marine-derived cosmeceutical active ingredients and presents an overview of their health beneficial effects on human skin. PMID:24641607

Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-03-01

299

Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical management actions for their wildlife attraction.

Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

2007-10-01

300

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart M of... - Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M,...

2013-01-01

301

15 CFR 922.48 - National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures and issuance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations...Applicability § 922.48 National Marine Sanctuary permits—application...

2011-01-01

302

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marine Conservation Area Boundary C Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2013-01-01

303

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marine Conservation Area Boundary C Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2011-01-01

304

15 CFR 922.48 - National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures and issuance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations...Applicability § 922.48 National Marine Sanctuary permits—application...

2014-01-01

305

15 CFR 922.48 - National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures and issuance criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National Marine Sanctuary permits-application procedures...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Regulations...Applicability § 922.48 National Marine Sanctuary permits—application...

2012-01-01

306

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marine Conservation Area Boundary C Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2010-01-01

307

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marine Conservation Area Boundary C Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2012-01-01

308

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marine Conservation Area Boundary C Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2014-01-01

309

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates A ...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. G,...

2012-01-01

310

A crisis in waste management, economic vitality, and a coastal marine environment: Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge of sewage sludge and effluent from 43 communities in the greater Boston metropolitan area has helped make the harbor one of the most polluted in the nation. As part of a court-mandated plan to end pollution of the harbor, effluent will no longer be discharged into the harbor, but instead, by 1995 it will be discharged into Massachusetts Bay through a record-long 15.34 km tunnel. By the year 2000 all of the sewage is scheduled to recive full secondary treatment. The public is concerned about long-term effects of the new ocean outfall on the environment, including Cape Cod Bay and Stellwagen Bank, which is an important habitat for whales and a newly designated national marine sanctuary. The bay has been additionally stressed by dumping of low-level radioactive and other hazardous wastes during the 1950s and 1960s. -from Authors

Manheim, F. T.; Butman, B.

1994-01-01

311

Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles  

E-print Network

Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project 1809 (1981 Wildlife Fund #12;Marine Turtles in the Republic of the Seychelles Status and Management Report on Project Resources World Wildlife Fund #12;Marine Turtles in the Republic_ of the Seychelles Status and Managemen

Prestwich, Ken

312

Marine Biomedicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

Bang, Frederik B.

1977-01-01

313

Marine Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

1976-01-01

314

Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in

Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stüwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian

2010-01-01

315

University of South Carolina: Marine Science Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USC's program is among the few providing marine/ocean degrees at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Interdisciplinary curricula for Bachelor of Science degrees are offered in biology, chemistry, geology, physical oceanography, coastal resources management/marine affairs. Master of Science and Ph.D. programs are offered in marine biology/biological oceanography, marine chemistry/chemical oceanography, marine geology/geological oceanography, physical oceanography/atmospheric dynamics. Site covers: degree and course requirements; faculty profiles and research facilities; career potential; admissions, application and scholarship information.

316

TRAJECTORIES AND CORRELATES OF COMMUNITY CHANGE IN NO-TAKE MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are a spatial approach to marine management and conser- vation aimed at protecting and restoring multispecies assemblages and the structure and function of marine ecosystems. We used meta-analyses of published data to address the questions of how and over what time frames marine assemblages change within no-take marine reserves as they recover from fishing and other human uses.

Fiorenza Micheli; Benjamin S. Halpern; Louis W. Botsford; Robert R. Warner

2004-01-01

317

Use of focal species in marine conser7ation and management: ar e7iew and critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal species (i.e. indicators, keystones, umbrellas, and flagships) have been advocated for the management and conservation of natural environments. 2. The assumption has been that the presence or abundance of a focal species is a means to understanding the composition and:or state of the more complex community. 3. We review the characteristics of focal species, and evaluate their appropriateness and

MARK A. ZACHARIAS; JOHN C. ROFF

318

COOPERATIVE OR NON COOPERATIVE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT OF STRADDLING STOCKS IN THE PATAGONIAN LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM: AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the poor state of High Seas resources and the international dimension of conflicts between coastal States and distant-water fishing nations, the management of High Seas resources has acquired the status of a severe problem in the last decade. In spite of the efforts made by UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea) and the

Carlos Sebastián Villasante

319

The use of a predictive habitat model and a fuzzy logic approach for marine management and planning.  

PubMed

Bottom trawl survey data are commonly used as a sampling technique to assess the spatial distribution of commercial species. However, this sampling technique does not always correctly detect a species even when it is present, and this can create significant limitations when fitting species distribution models. In this study, we aim to test the relevance of a mixed methodological approach that combines presence-only and presence-absence distribution models. We illustrate this approach using bottom trawl survey data to model the spatial distributions of 27 commercially targeted marine species. We use an environmentally- and geographically-weighted method to simulate pseudo-absence data. The species distributions are modelled using regression kriging, a technique that explicitly incorporates spatial dependence into predictions. Model outputs are then used to identify areas that met the conservation targets for the deployment of artificial anti-trawling reefs. To achieve this, we propose the use of a fuzzy logic framework that accounts for the uncertainty associated with different model predictions. For each species, the predictive accuracy of the model is classified as 'high'. A better result is observed when a large number of occurrences are used to develop the model. The map resulting from the fuzzy overlay shows that three main areas have a high level of agreement with the conservation criteria. These results align with expert opinion, confirming the relevance of the proposed methodology in this study. PMID:24146867

Hattab, Tarek; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Albouy, Camille; Sammari, Chérif; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Cury, Philippe; Leprieur, Fabien; Le Loc'h, François

2013-01-01

320

Marine Debris  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine debris is an environmental problem of global importance, enlisting the concern and action of scientists, policy makers, as well as the general public. This three-lesson kit focuses primarily on plastic marine debris. Students critically examine data and samples and take part in activities that explore the causes, geographical distribution, and biological impacts of marine debris. Each lesson can be completed in about 50-60 minutes, but many of the activities are discrete and can be easily rearranged to fit various curricular objectives and time constraints.

2012-01-01

321

SeaDataNet - Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: Unified access to distributed data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaDataNet is an Integrated research Infrastructure Initiative (I3) in EU FP6 (2006 - 2011) to provide the data management system adapted both to the fragmented observation system and the users need for an integrated access to data, meta-data, products and services. Therefore SeaDataNet insures the long term archiving of the large number of multidisciplinary data (i.e. temperature, salinity current, sea

D. M. A. Schaap; G. Maudire

2009-01-01

322

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

323

Management of exogenous threats to Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic Islands: balancing risks from TBT and non-indigenous marine organisms.  

PubMed

The discovery of high levels of tributyltin compounds in Antarctic marine sediments has prompted managers to consider the banning of such substances in this region. We propose that the banning of antifouling coatings may result in an increase in the risk of non-indigenous species invasions. Our studies show that un-treated vessels carry a more diverse community of fouling organisms than treated hulls on which fouling is restricted to specific untreated niches. Up to 40% of the species recruited to the hulls of Southern Ocean vessels are species with invasive histories. Viable fouling assemblages can survive prolonged voyages to high-latitude coastlines, yet passage through sea-ice may remove fouling communities due to mechanical abrasion reducing the hazard of introductions to ice-bound coastlines. The banning of antifouling compounds may be of particular concern for the ice-free sub-Antarctic islands which represent a common anchorage point for vessels on-route to Antarctica. PMID:15556186

Lewis, Patrick N; Riddle, Martin J; Hewitt, Chad L

2004-12-01

324

A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately, support aquaculture initiatives alongside well managed ornamental fisheries. PMID:25207538

Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

2014-01-01

325

Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAA’s regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed value. However, this cost was minimal when local conservation actions were part of a concerted coast-wide plan. The simulations demonstrate the utility of using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model within NOAA’s Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, by illustrating an end-to-end modeling tool that allows consideration of multiple management alternatives that are relevant to numerous state, federal and private interests.

Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

2012-09-01

326

Communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences  

PubMed Central

As human impacts cause ecosystem-wide changes in the oceans, the need to protect and restore marine resources has led to increasing calls for and establishment of marine reserves. Scientific information about marine reserves has multiplied over the last decade, providing useful knowledge about this tool for resource users, managers, policy makers, and the general public. This information must be conveyed to nonscientists in a nontechnical, credible, and neutral format, but most scientists are not trained to communicate in this style or to develop effective strategies for sharing their scientific knowledge. Here, we present a case study from California, in which communicating scientific information during the process to establish marine reserves in the Channel Islands and along the California mainland coast expanded into an international communication effort. We discuss how to develop a strategy for communicating marine reserve science to diverse audiences and highlight the influence that effective science communication can have in discussions about marine management. PMID:20427745

Grorud-Colvert, Kirsten; Lester, Sarah E.; Airamé, Satie; Neeley, Elizabeth; Gaines, Steven D.

2010-01-01

327

Historical change in marine animal populations and coastal ecosystems in the Caribbean and Florida Keys  

E-print Network

links to coral reef ecosystems and lessons for managementthat considers management regimes for coral reef fisheriesCoral reef ecology Historical ecology Human impacts on marine systems Marine fisheries management

McClenachan, Loren Elizabeth

2009-01-01

328

ALASKA MARINE Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program  

E-print Network

ALASKA MARINE MAMMAL PROGRAM 2012 #12;2012 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Observer Manual Contents Section 1: The Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Marine Mammal Stock Program 1.5 Alaska Marine Mammal Observer Program Section 2: The Southeast Alaska Environment 2

329

Marine chemistry: Marine mercury breakdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotoxin methylmercury accumulates in marine biota and their predators. An analysis of seabird egg shells suggests that sea-ice cover reduces the breakdown of this highly toxic compound in sea water.

Joel D. Blum

2011-01-01

330

Marine chemistry: Marine mercury breakdown  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neurotoxin methylmercury accumulates in marine biota and their predators. An analysis of seabird egg shells suggests that sea-ice cover reduces the breakdown of this highly toxic compound in sea water.

Blum, Joel D.

2011-03-01

331

The effects of prolonged darkness on temperate and tropical marine phytoplankton, and their implications for ballast water risk management.  

PubMed

Phytoplankton assemblages from tropical (Goa) and temperate (UK) locations were exposed to a 28 day dark period, followed by a period of re-exposure to light. During this time phytoplankton survival and changes in nutrient concentrations were mapped. The tropical plankton water samples showed high nutrient levels after the dark period which were utilised by cells during the re-exposure period. UK experiments looked at the effect of three different water types on population recovery after the 28 day dark period, and differences due to seasonal effects. The population growth observed during the re-exposure period in the tropical population was comparable to that of the temperate population. Water type affected recovery and of the three tested media fresh seawater promoted the highest levels of growth. Seasonality had a significant influence on species survival. Understanding the effects of all these factors can aid the development of effective risk assessments in ballast water management. PMID:21489565

Carney, K J; Delany, J E; Sawant, S; Mesbahi, E

2011-06-01

332

15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M,...

2014-01-01

333

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart R of... - Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary Coordinates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve...

2014-01-01

334

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart R of... - Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary Coordinates  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve Boundary...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary and Underwater Preserve...

2010-01-01

335

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Boundary Coordinates for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Research Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Coordinates for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Research Area A Appendix...COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. I,...

2014-01-01

336

Marine Biodiversity & Biotechnology  

E-print Network

this biodiversity needs expertise from classical marine biology to the latest molecular genetics techniques Information System (GIS) analysis expertise Marine taxonomy, biodiversity & modelling Marine ecotoxicology & pollution assessment Invertebrate biology & immunology Understanding nanomaterials in the marine environment

Howie, Jim

337

Surveillance and Poaching on Inshore Reefs of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, is managed under the GBR Marine Park Act (1975) and is seen as a shining example of marine resource management. The principle tool of management is zoning for multiple use. We examined surveillance and illegal fishing around two inshore islands (Magnetic and Orpheus) of the GBR Marine Park in 2000\\/2001. Both islands are near

K. L. F. DAVIS; G. R. RUSS; D. H. WILLIAMSON; R. D. EVANS

2004-01-01

338

Marine and Other Aquatic Education. Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for marine and aquatic education in Hawaii was developed for the purpose of restructuring attitudes on the use, protection, and appreciation of aquatic resources. This report identifies key elements of the framework and contains suggestions for its implementation and management. Contents include: (1) a rationale for marine education…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

339

PRINCIPLES FOR THE DESIGN OF MARINE RESERVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory underlying the design of marine reserves, whether the goal is to preserve biodiversity or to manage fisheries, is still in its infancy. For both of these goals, there is a need for general principles on which to base marine reserve design, and because of the paucity of empirical experience, these principles must be based on models. However, most

Louis W. Botsford; Fiorenza Micheli; Alan Hastings

2003-01-01

340

Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are becoming a popular tool for marine conservation and resource management worldwide. In the past, reserves have been created with little understanding of how they actually affect the areas they are intended to protect. A few recent reviews have evaluated how reserves in general affect the density and biomass of organisms within them, but little work has been

Benjamin S. Halpern; Robert R. Warner

2002-01-01

341

Irreducible uncertainties, sustainable fisheries and marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are increasingly proposed as a management tool. Models can play a valuable role in the evaluation of the possible benefits of reserves because they allow us to conduct many more investigations than could ever be done empirically. In this paper, I develop a model for a marine reserve for an open population subject to environmental uncertainty.

Marc Mangel

2000-01-01

342

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Marine Biology Volume 2011, Article ID 396982, 14 pages and Implications for Marine Management Kent E. Carpenter,1 Paul H. Barber,2 Eric D. Crandall,3 Ma. Carmen A. Ablan-Me~nez,8 Mudjekeewis D. Santos,9 Craig J. Starger,2 and Abdul Hamid A. Toha10 1Biological Sciences

Hynes, Wayne L.

343

Marine energy.  

PubMed

Marine energy is renewable and carbon free and has the potential to make a significant contribution to energy supplies in the future. In the UK, tidal power barrages and wave energy could make the largest contribution, and tidal stream energy could make a smaller but still a useful contribution. This paper provides an overview of the current status and prospects for electrical generation from marine energy. It concludes that a realistic potential contribution to UK electricity supplies is approximately 80 TWh per year but that many years of development and investment will be required if this potential is to be realized. PMID:17272244

Kerr, David

2007-04-15

344

75 FR 9864 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): the FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

2010-03-04

345

75 FR 14548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): The FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

2010-03-26

346

75 FR 35330 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the following South Atlantic fishery management plans (FMPs): The FMP for Coral, Coral reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of the South Atlantic Region (Coral FMP); the FMP for the Dolphin and Wahoo Fishery off the Atlantic States...

2010-06-22

347

A theory for optimal monitoring of marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of marine reserves has traditionally focused on the task of rejecting the null hypothesis that marine reserves have no impact on the population and community structure of harvested populations. We consider the role of monitoring of marine reserves to gain information needed for management decisions. In particular we use a decision theoretic framework to answer the question: how long

Leah R. Gerber; Maria Beger; Michael A. McCarthy; Hugh P. Possingham

2005-01-01

348

ABOUT THE JOURNAL Marine Resource Economics publishes creative and scholarly  

E-print Network

policy problems. Examples include studies of fisheries, aquaculture, seafood marketing and trade, marine ocean energy sources, marine transportation, coastal land use and climate adaptation, and management to the oceans and coasts including fisheries, aquaculture, seafood markets and trade, marine and estuarine

Mateo, Jill M.

349

Marine Fisheries On the cover: The queen  

E-print Network

Marine Fisheries ~~WD~~ On the cover: The queen conch, Strombus gigas. Il- lustration by Harold L. Spiess. Articles July 1981, 43(7) The Biology, Fisheries, and Management of the Queen Conch, Strombus

350

Marine Mammals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

Meith, Nikki

351

Marine Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by William Barker and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module enables the user to carry out a short study of the relationship between concentration of a marine pollutant and shell thickness of mussels; to practice writing about the results of a mathematical study. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Barker, William

352

Marine Trades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Abbott, Alan

353

Provenance for actionable data products and indicators in marine ecosystem assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem-based management of Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs) involves the sharing of data and information products among a diverse set of stakeholders - from environmental and fisheries scientists to policy makers, commercial entities, nonprofits, and the public. Often the data products that are shared have resulted from a number of processing steps and may also have involved the combination of a number of data sources. The traceability from an actionable data product or indicator back to its original data source(s) is important not just for trust and understanding of each final data product, but also to compare with similar data products produced by the different stakeholder groups. For a data product to be traceable, its provenance, i.e., lineage or history, must be recorded and preferably machine-readable. We are collaborating on a use case to develop a software framework for the bi-annual Ecosystem Status Report (ESR) for the U.S. Northeast Shelf LME. The ESR presents indicators of ecosystem status including climate forcing, primary and secondary production, anthropogenic factors, and integrated ecosystem measures. Our software framework retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and generates final graphics for the ESR. The specific process for each data and information product is updated in a metadata template, including data source, code versioning, attribution, and related contextual information suitable for traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation. Here we present the use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR, in particular the W3C provenance (PROV) family of specifications, including the PROV-O ontology which maps the PROV data model to RDF. We are also exploring extensions to PROV-O in development (e.g., PROV-ES for Earth Science Data Systems, D-PROV for workflow structure). To associate data products in the ESR to domain-specific ontologies we are also exploring the Global Change Information System ontology, BCO-DMO Ocean Data Ontology, and other relevant published ontologies (e.g., Integrated Ocean Observing System ontology). We are also using the mapping of ISO 19115-2 Lineage to PROV-O and comparing both strategies for traceability of marine ecosystem indicators. The use of standard metadata for provenance for data products in the ESR will enable the transparency, and ultimately reproducibility, endorsed in the recent NOAA Information Quality Guidelines. Semantically enabling not only the provenance but also the data products will yield a better understanding of the connected web of relationships between marine ecosystem and ocean health assessments conducted by different stakeholder groups.

Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; Fox, P. A.; West, P.; Di Stefano, M.; Hare, J. A.; Fogarty, M.

2013-12-01

354

Construction of marine vocabularies in the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data producers often overlook existing metadata descriptors and controlled vocabularies for describing their data, opting instead to create custom descriptors and vocabularies. One of the objectives of the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project is to reduce this vocabulary proliferation. The work is accomplished as community collaborations, which are supported via the content management framework of the MMI Web site. Services,

L. Bermudez; J. Graybeal; Anthony W. Isenor; Roy Lowry; D. Wright

2005-01-01

355

Marine Program Annual Report 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the activities of a program designed to develop the information and systems necessary for managing the Continental Shelf and Coastal Zone of Northern New England. Ten research areas or projects are discussed: aquaculture, biology and ecology, coastal oceanography, buoy systems studies, man in the sea, marine platforms and…

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Marine Program.

356

Marine reserves: size and age do matter.  

PubMed

Marine reserves are widely used throughout the world to prevent overfishing and conserve biodiversity, but uncertainties remain about their optimal design. The effects of marine reserves are heterogeneous. Despite theoretical findings, empirical studies have previously found no effect of size on the effectiveness of marine reserves in protecting commercial fish stocks. Using 58 datasets from 19 European marine reserves, we show that reserve size and age do matter: Increasing the size of the no-take zone increases the density of commercial fishes within the reserve compared with outside; whereas the size of the buffer zone has the opposite effect. Moreover, positive effects of marine reserve on commercial fish species and species richness are linked to the time elapsed since the establishment of the protection scheme. The reserve size-dependency of the response to protection has strong implications for the spatial management of coastal areas because marine reserves are used for spatial zoning. PMID:18294212

Claudet, Joachim; Osenberg, Craig W; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Domenici, Paolo; García-Charton, José-Antonio; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Badalamenti, Fabio; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Brito, Alberto; Bulleri, Fabio; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Dimech, Mark; Falcón, Jesús M; Guala, Ivan; Milazzo, Marco; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Somerfield, Paul J; Stobart, Ben; Vandeperre, Frédéric; Valle, Carlos; Planes, Serge

2008-05-01

357

76 FR 82183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...characteristics. CE-BA 2 also amends South Atlantic FMPs as needed to designate...of the water column in the South Atlantic EEZ bounded by the Gulf Stream, as EFH for pelagic Sargassum...modify management in the SMZs of South Carolina, establish...

2011-12-30

358

15 CFR 922.103 - Management and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management and enforcement. 922.103...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Marine Sanctuary § 922.103 Management and enforcement. The...

2011-01-01

359

15 CFR 922.103 - Management and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management and enforcement. 922.103...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Marine Sanctuary § 922.103 Management and enforcement. The...

2012-01-01

360

15 CFR 922.103 - Management and enforcement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management and enforcement. 922.103...COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM...Marine Sanctuary § 922.103 Management and enforcement. The...

2010-01-01

361

National Data Program for the Marine Environment. Final Report, Volume One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national data program for the marine environment is recommended. Volume 1 includes: (1) description of the current marine data network, (2) analysis of current and future requirements, (3) delineation of priority marine data and products, (4) requirements and impact of technological change on marine data management, (5) evaluation of…

System Development Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

362

Marine Seismic Data Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Marine Seismic Data Center (MSDC) of the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). MSDC's purpose is to organize seismic reflection and refraction data into a modern relational database management system accessible through the Internet. The web site provides access to metadata, SEG-Y (seismic shot record conversion) files, navigation files, seismic profile images, processing histories and more. The main features of the web site include a geographic search engine, a metadata search engine, and metadata pages for the cruises. A tool for plotting seismic sections is being tested and will be added in the future.

363

Marine Sanctuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students will learn about the national marine sanctuaries found in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and off the coast of American Samoa. They include breeding and feeding grounds of whales, sea lions, sharks, and sea turtles; significant coral reefs and kelp forest habitats; and the remains of the U.S.S. Monitor, a Civil War ironclad sunk off the coast of North Carolina.

Science Netlinks

2002-06-10

364

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariners' Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

365

Mariners' Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Newport News, Virginia, the Mariner's Museum is one of the largest international maritime history museums filled to the crow's nest with prized artifacts that celebrate the spirit of seafaring adventure. Site features eight online exhibitions including: The Age of Exploration, the USS Monitor, Chesapeake Bay, the Transatlantic Slave Trade, and more. Also includes visitor information, permanent and temporary museum exhibit information, and an image collection.

366

Marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic and Sub-arctic in the course of towering industrial activity: ability of the management with using documentation facilities of satellite ecological criminalistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our studies we are following for the classification of the marine and ice landscapes of the Arctic that was suggested by prof. Ye.S. Korotkevich who had provided summarizing results of the long-term in situ field experiments and airborne studies that was fulfilled by scientists of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) under his leadership in Russian Arctic after the 2-nd World War. But satellite multispectral observations show significant temporal and spatial modification of the suggested scheme especially for Arctic ice landscapes that had occurred in nowadays due to the climate change and anthropogenic press. Design main principle and rules of satellite ecological criminalistics - science of crime detection of ecocatastrophe and incidents on sea and fresh waters with using aerospace survey as well for the control, for the management and the preventing of ecological instability of the marine and lakes ecosystems was done by Academician Kirill Kondratiev together with his apprentices and follower in 1970-s. In frame proposed paper we shall present results of our comprehensive satellite-airborne studies of the marine and ice landscapes as well discuss the incidents that happened in Arctic inside the inland and international waters in past and present days and were revealed with using multispectral remote sensing. But for all that we need to mention that our contemporary investigations are based on the all-weather satellite ERS-1/2 - Envisat - RADARSAT SAR survey archived since 1990-s by SUAI and NERSC/NIERSC.

Melentyev, Vladimir; Vladimirovich Melentyev, Konstantin; Petterssen, Lasse Herbert; Andreevna Zakharova, Tatiana

2013-04-01

367

An integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of human pressures and environmental forcing on the status of Large Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ecosystem approach to the management of the marine environment has received considerable attention over recent years. However, there are few examples which demonstrate its practical implementation. Much of this relates to the history of existing marine monitoring and assessment programmes which (for many countries) are sectoral, making it difficult to integrate monitoring data and knowledge across programmes at the operational level. To address this, a scientific expert group, under the auspices of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), prepared a plan for how ICES could contribute to the development of an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) for the North Sea by undertaking a pilot study utilising marine monitoring data. This paper presents the main findings arising from the expert group and in particular it sets out one possible integrated approach for assessing the relative significance of environmental forcing and fishing pressure on the ecological status of the North Sea, it then compares the findings with assessments made of other Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). We define the North Sea ecosystem on the basis of 114 state and pressure variables resolved as annual averages between 1983 and 2003 and at the spatial scale of ICES rectangles. The paper presents results of integrated time-series and spatial analysis which identifies and explains significant spatial and temporal gradients in the data. For example, a significant shift in the status of the North Sea ecosystem (based upon 114 state-pressure variables) is identified to have occurred around 1993. This corresponds to previously documented shifts in the environmental conditions (particularly sea surface temperature) and changes in the distribution of key species of plankton ( Calanus sp.), both reported to have occurred in 1989. The difference in specific timing between reported regime shifts for the North Sea may be explained, in part, by time-lag dependencies in the trophic structure of the ecosystem with shifts in higher trophic levels occurring later than 1989. By examining the connection (or relatedness) between ecosystem components (e.g. environment, plankton, fish, fishery and seabirds) for the identified regime states (1983-1993; 1993-2003) we conclude that both the North Sea pelagic and benthic parts of the ecosystem were predominantly top-down (fishery) controlled between 1983 and 1993, whereas between 1993 and 2003 the pelagic stocks shifted to a state responding mainly to bottom-up (environment) influences. However, for the demersal fish stocks between 1993 and 2003 top-down (fishery) pressure dominated even though over this period significant reductions in fishing pressure occurred. The present analysis, therefore, provides further evidence in support of the need for precautionary management measures taken in relation to setting fishery quotas.

Kenny, Andrew J.; Skjoldal, Hein Rune; Engelhard, Georg H.; Kershaw, Peter J.; Reid, James B.

2009-04-01

368

Economic Valuation and Cultural Roles of Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the plans of the Conservation International - Marine Management Area Science (CI-MMAS), for undertaking economic valuation and investigation of socio-cultural roles of marine management areas and\\/or marine protected areas (MPAs) in four locations. While the ecological benefits of MPAs have largely been demonstrated, information on the value of MPAs from social and economic perspectives remains limited.? Yet

Giselle Samonte-Tan; Leah Bunce; John Reid

369

77 FR 31330 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem-Based Management Committee; Dolphin Wahoo Committee; Shrimp Committee; Snapper...activities and provide direction to staff. 3. Dolphin Wahoo Committee Meeting: June 11, 2012, 3:30 p.m. Until 4:30 p.m. The Dolphin Wahoo Committee will receive a...

2012-05-25

370

DATA MANAGEMENT FOR MARINE GEOLOGY  

E-print Network

: 508-457-2187 Dawn Wright Department of Geosciences Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-5506 dawn@dusk.geo.orst.edu Tel: 541-737-1229 Fax: 541-737-1200 ORGANIZING COMMITTEE #12;1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

371

An Ecosystem-Based Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk and Increase Medication Adherence Among Prisoners Being Released to the Community  

PubMed Central

HIV+ prisoners reentering their communities are at increased risk for poor health outcomes and to transmit HIV. We report on a randomized trial comparing an ecosystem-based intervention and an individually-focused intervention for reducing HIV transmission risk and improving medication adherence. Reincarceration was considered as a secondary variable. Both groups decreased sexual risk behavior over the 12-month follow-up period. Unexpectedly, the ecosystem intervention group was less likely to be taking medication or to be adherent and more likely to have been reincarcerated. Failure to demonstrate a significant advantage of the ecosystem intervention may have resulted from the difficulty of engaging family and other ecosystem members in the intervention. Implications for developing and applying interventions for this population are discussed. PMID:23657796

Reznick, Olga Grinstead; McCartney, Kathleen; Gregorich, Steven; Zack, Barry; Feaster, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

372

An ecosystem-based intervention to reduce HIV transmission risk and increase medication adherence among inmates being released to the community.  

PubMed

HIV+ inmates reentering their communities are at increased risk for poor health outcomes and for transmitting HIV. This article reports on a randomized trial comparing an ecosystem-based intervention and an individually focused intervention for reducing HIV transmission risk and improving medication adherence. Reincarceration was considered as a secondary variable. Both groups decreased sexual risk behavior over the 12-month follow-up period. Unexpectedly, the ecosystem intervention group was less likely to be taking medication or to be adherent and more likely to have been reincarcerated. Failure to demonstrate a significant advantage of the ecosystem intervention may have resulted from the difficulty of engaging family and other ecosystem members in the intervention. Implications for developing and applying interventions for this population are discussed. PMID:23657796

Reznick, Olga Grinstead; McCartney, Kathleen; Gregorich, Steven E; Zack, Barry; Feaster, Daniel J

2013-07-01

373

Economic impacts of marine reserves: the importance of spatial behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biologists have shown virtually unqualified support for managing fisheries with marine reserves, signifying a new resource management paradigm that recognizes the importance of spatial processes in exploited systems. Most modeling of reserves employs simplifying assumptions about the behavior of fishermen in response to spatial closures. We show that a realistic depiction of fishermen behavior dramatically alters the conclusions about

Martin D. Smith; James E. Wilen

2003-01-01

374

Marine decision aids from space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The article discusses satellite observation of marine environments via microwave sensors and visible/infrared measurements. Specific applications include the monitoring of physical oceanography, weather and climate, coastal processes, ice processes, and resource use management. Four types of information delivery systems are identified: direct-to-user, regional/local user, global modeling user, and research user modes. Current developments in the marine information system include onboard correlation of synthetic aperture radar images at 10 to 100 m resolutions, and the extraction of wave, ship, iceberg or areal feature information from the image or signal before correlation.

Nagler, R. G.; Durstenfeld, R.; Mccandless, S. W.

1977-01-01

375

A review of initial investigations to utilize ERTS-1 data in determining the availability and distribution of living marine resources. [harvest and management of fisheries resources in Mississippi Sound and Gulf waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Marine Fisheries Service has been studying the application of aerospace remote sensing to fisheries management and utilization for many years. The 15-month ERTS study began in July 1972 to: (1) determine the reliability of satellite and high altitude sensors to provide oceanographic parameters in coastal waters; (2) demonstrate the use of remotely-sensed oceanographic information to predict the distribution and abundance of adult menhaden; and (3) demonstrate the potential use of satellites for acquiring information for improving the harvest and management of fisheries resources. The study focused on a coastal area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico, including parts of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The test area used in the final analysis was the Mississippi Sound and the area outside the barrier islands to approximately the 18-meter (10-fathom) curve.

Stevenson, W. H.; Kemmerer, A. J.; Atwell, B. H.; Maughan, P. M.

1974-01-01

376

THE IMPACT OF MARINE RESERVES: DO RESERVES WORK AND DOES RESERVE SIZE MATTER?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves are quickly gaining popularity as a management option for marine conservation, fisheries, and other human uses of the oceans. Despite the popularity of marine reserves as a management tool, few reserves appear to have been created or designed with an understanding of how reserves affect biological factors or how reserves can be designed to meet biological goals more

Benjamin S. Halpern

2003-01-01

377

Marine Iguana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

No iguana wants to be cooked alive on a hot rock and then served up as dinner for a Galapagos hawk. But it turns out the marine iguanas have a strategy that warns them of the presence of hawks they can’t see. They learned to tune in to a kind of police scanner…the alarm calls of mockingbirds.Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

378

Marine Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The marine environment is unique and because little light penetrates under water, technologies that use sound are required to gather information. The seafloor is characterized using underwater sound and acoustical systems. Current technological innovations enable scientists to further understand and apply information about animal locations and habitat. Remote sensing and exploration with underwater vehicles enables researchers to map and understand the sea floor. Similar technologies also aid in animal tracking, a method used within science and commercial industries. Through inquiry-based learning techniques, students learn the importance of habitat mapping and animal tracking.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

379

Rates of natural mortality in marine species are important in stock assessment and fishery management, yet they can be difficult to estimate with any degree of certainty. To  

E-print Network

#12;1 ABSTRACT Rates of natural mortality in marine species are important in stock assessment comprehensive way of estimating , I compare three size dependent mortality rate models that are log linear. #12;2 INTRODUCTION The rate of natural mortality in aquatic species refers to the rate of death caused

Mangel, Marc

380

In Press in: Boyd, I.A. (Ed) "Management of marine ecosystems: monitoring change in upper trophic levels" Cambridge University Press  

E-print Network

to fishery induced changes in prey community structure. That there should be uncertainty over the drivers and their prey. Estimates of marine top predator abundance are generally based upon counts at breeding sites, providing only indices of population size that can be sensitive to variability in breeding success

Aberdeen, University of

381

Management of a marine protected area for sustainability and conflict resolution: Lessons from Loreto Bay National Park (Baja California Sur, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Loreto Bay National Park was established to protect the area's ecosystems from habitat destruction and overexploitation. However, the park has not met two of its primary goals: recovery of commercially valuable fish populations and their sustainable use by stakeholders. Based on evidence from the literature, dialogue with stakeholders, a literature review on using recreational fees for marine protected area

Karen Stamieszkin; Jeffrey Wielgus; Leah R. Gerber

2009-01-01

382

Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3  

SciTech Connect

Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

Not Available

1988-01-31

383

Marine Lubricants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

384

Supply Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on supply management is designed to provide the supply chief with an understanding of the fundamental functions of supply management as it applies to a supply office. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

385

DR. CAMERON H. AINSWORTH CURRICULUM VITAE  

E-print Network

). Modelling reef fish population responses to fisheries restrictions in Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Columbia. Fisheries Centre. Department of Resource Management and Environmental Studies. Title, T., (2012). Effective ecosystem-based management must encourage regulatory compliance: A Gulf

Meyers, Steven D.

386

Glossary of Marine Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of terms used in marine biology is associated with the textbook, Marine Biology, Function, Biodiversity, Ecology, by Jeffery Levinton (Oxford University Press, New York). It is associated with Marine Biology Web, which provides links to other marine biology topics.

387

Instructors Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Instructors Marine Biology Location: Charleston Closes: 30-Nov-2012 The University of Oregon's Institute of Marine Biology maintains a pool of applicants for temporary instructional positions during are invertebrate zoology, biology of marine birds and mammals, and marine ecology. Courses may be taught in other

Oregon, University of

388

Toxic chemicals and their impacts in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada: from a chemical to an ecosystem-based risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) and Saguenay Fjord (SF), Quebec, Canada, have received world-wide attention in the early 1980s when high concentrations of contaminants and high prevalence of lesions including neoplasia, hermaphrodism and infection by opportunistic agents were reported in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Both persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs mainly originating from the upstream industrialized sectors of

C. M. Couillard; M. Lebeuf

389

Marine Ornithology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether one has a love of great seabirds or just an interest in the lives of these magnificent creatures, the website of the journal Marine Ornithology is well worth a visit. Started in 1976 by John Cooper, the journal is operated by an editorial board, under the direction of the Pacific Seabird Group, along with other related organizations. Visitors who may wish to contribute a piece to this peer-reviewed journal may want to take a look at their submission requirements and then proceed to the contents of the most recent issue. Some of the more recent articles in the latest issue deal with such topics as parasites and diseases of the auks and aspects of the breeding biology of the Gentoo penguin. For those looking for back issues, the full-text of every past issue dating back to 1988 is also available on the site.

2004-01-01

390

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries website provides health advisories and closures related to seafood consumption and recreational fishing. Links are provided to the Division's programs and projects, including shellfish sanitation and management, and shellfish closures. Maps and notices regarding closures related to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) are posted with each health notice, as well as a link to general information regarding PSP and the state's PSP monitoring program.

391

Proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs (University of Hawaii, Manoa Campus, January 13, 1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…

1978

392

Predictive Habitat Modelling as a Tool to Assess the Change in Distribution and Extent of an OSPAR Priority Habitat under an Increased Ocean Temperature Scenario: Consequences for Marine Protected Area Networks and Management  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of an OSPAR priority habitat under current baseline ocean temperatures; to illustrate the prospect for habitat loss under a changing ocean temperature scenario; and to demonstrate the potential application of predictive habitat mapping in “future-proofing” conservation and biodiversity management. Maxent modelling and GIS environmental envelope analysis of the biogenic bed forming species, Modiolus modiolus was carried out. The Maxent model was tested and validated using 75%/25% training/test occurrence records and validated against two sampling biases (the whole study area and a 20km buffer). The model was compared to the envelope analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Area Under the curve; AUC) was evaluated. The performance of the Maxent model was rated as ‘good’ to ‘excellent’ on all replicated runs and low variation in the runs was recorded from the AUC values. The extent of “most suitable”, “less suitable” and “unsuitable” habitat was calculated for the baseline year (2009) and the projected increased ocean temperature scenarios (2030, 2050, 2080 and 2100). A loss of 100% of “most suitable” habitat was reported by 2080. Maintaining a suitable level of protection of marine habitats/species of conservation importance may require management of the decline and migration rather than maintenance of present extent. Methods applied in this study provide the initial application of a plausible “conservation management tool”. PMID:23894298

Gormley, Kate S. G.; Porter, Joanne S.; Bell, Michael C.; Hull, Angela D.; Sanderson, William G.

2013-01-01

393

Marine Biology Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Biology Web, created by veteran marine biologist Dr. Jeff Levinton of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, is a great educational resource for both curious students and prospective marine biologists. The Becoming a Marine Biologist page gives students frank advice, and a realistic sense of what marine biology is and what marine biologists do. This website contains a sizeable list of hyperlinked marine labs, institutes, graduate programs, and undergraduate programs. A nice list of marine biology-related internships and courses are included as well. The website also features the useful MBREFâ??-A Reference Source for Marine Biology Student Research. The site even links to a system that allows visitors â??to obtain tidal predictions computed by CO-OPS for more than 3000 water level stations.â?ť

394

Marine antivenoms.  

PubMed

There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

Currie, Bart J

2003-01-01

395

Shoreline Armoring, Risk Management, and Coastal Resilience Under Rising Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The land–sea interface is a complex social–ecological system characterized by natural ecological processes and human-induced changes. Holistic management of the shoreline is a critical element of an ecosystem-based approach to the land–sea interface in coastal zone management (CZM) programs. Anthropogenic alteration of shoreline environments has resulted in significant loss of sandy beach ecosystems and eroded the resilience of these systems

John N. Kittinger; Adam L. Ayers

2010-01-01

396

MarineSIM: Robot simulation for marine environments  

E-print Network

Development of robust navigation algorithms for marine robotics is a challenge faced by many marine robotists. This paper presents MarineSIM, a marine robot simulation platform which provides an infrastructure to easily ...

Senarathne, P. G. C. Namal

397

Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine reserves (no-take zones) are widely recommended asconservation and fishery management tools. One potential benefitof marine reserves is that they can reduce fishing mortality.This can lead to increases in the abundance of spawners,providing insurance against recruitment failure and maintainingor enhancing yields in fished areas. This paper considers thefactors that influence recovery following marine reserveprotection, describes patterns of recovery in numbers

Simon Jennings

2000-01-01

398

Connectivity within and among a Network of Temperate Marine Reserves  

PubMed Central

Networks of marine reserves are increasingly being promoted as a means of conserving marine biodiversity. One consideration in designing systems of marine reserves is the maintenance of connectivity to ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of populations. Knowledge of connectivity, however, is frequently lacking during marine reserve design and establishment. We characterise patterns of genetic connectivity of 3 key species of habitat-forming macroalgae across an established network of temperate marine reserves on the east coast of Australia and the implications for adaptive management and marine reserve design. Connectivity varied greatly among species. Connectivity was high for the subtidal macroalgae Ecklonia radiata and Phyllospora comosa and neither species showed any clear patterns of genetic structuring with geographic distance within or among marine parks. In contrast, connectivity was low for the intertidal, Hormosira banksii, and there was a strong pattern of isolation by distance. Coastal topography and latitude influenced small scale patterns of genetic structure. These results suggest that some species are well served by the current system of marine reserves in place along this temperate coast but it may be warranted to revisit protection of intertidal habitats to ensure the long-term persistence of important habitat-forming macroalgae. Adaptively managing marine reserve design to maintain connectivity may ensure the long-term persistence and resilience of marine habitats and the biodiversity they support. PMID:21625388

Coleman, Melinda A.; Chambers, Justine; Knott, Nathan A.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; Harasti, David; Jordan, Alan; Kelaher, Brendan P.

2011-01-01

399

Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic failures in marine fisheries management have led some to suggest that marine protected areas (MPAs) are the solution to achieve sustainable fisheries. While such systems work for certain habitat-specific and nonmobile species, their utility for highly mobile stocks is questionable. Often the debate among proponents and critics of MPAs is confused by a lack of appreciation of the goals

Michel J. Kaiser

2005-01-01

400

RETURN TO THE RIVER -2000 Chapter 10 Marine Environment  

E-print Network

RETURN TO THE RIVER - 2000 Chapter 10 Marine Environment 367367 Return to Table of Contents Go to Next Chapter CHAPTER 10. THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT "Some might be tempted to attribute all changes that environment allows, management interventions are more important when the ocean environment reduces natural

401

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration MARINE AQUACULTURE POLICY1  

E-print Network

June 2011 1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration MARINE AQUACULTURE POLICY1 Purpose The purpose of this policy is to enable the development of sustainable marine aquaculture within the context considerations in management decisions concerning aquaculture. This policy reaffirms that aquaculture

402

University of California Santa Barbara Graduate Program in Marine Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes UCSB's interdisciplinary graduate program offering MS and PhD degrees in marine science. Taps faculty from several departments, whose diverse research interests and expertise includes: ecology, evolution and marine biology; geology; geography; molecular, cellular and developmental biology; mechanical engineering; chemistry and biochemistry; environmental science and management; anthropology. Lists admission information, degree requirements, courses, facilities and more.

403

Matching marine reserve design to reserve objectives.  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in using marine reserves for marine resource management and conservation has largely been driven by the hope that reserves might counteract declines in fish populations and protect the biodiversity of the seas. However, the creation of reserves has led to dissension from some interested groups, such as fishermen, who fear that reserves will do more harm than good. These perceived differences in the effect of marine reserves on various stakeholder interests has led to a contentious debate over their merit. We argue here that recent findings in marine ecology suggest that this debate is largely unnecessary, and that a single general design of a network of reserves of moderate size and variable spacing can meet the needs and goals of most stakeholders interested in marine resources. Given the high fecundity of most marine organisms and recent evidence for limited distance of larval dispersal, it is likely that reserves can both maintain their own biodiversity and service nearby non-reserve areas. In particular, spillover of larger organisms and dispersal of larvae to areas outside reserves can lead to reserves sustaining or even increasing local fisheries. Ultimately, the success of any reserve network requires attention to the uncertainty and variability in dispersal patterns of marine organisms, clear statements of goals by all stakeholder groups and proper evaluation of reserve performance. PMID:14561299

Halpern, Benjamin S; Warner, Robert R

2003-01-01

404

Supermarket Marine Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

1995-01-01

405

Frontiers of marine science  

PubMed Central

On 9–13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas. PMID:21208943

Webb, Thomas J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

2011-01-01

406

GLERL Research: An Ecosystem-based Approach GLERL researchers possess a wide range of scientific disciplines and expertise, allowing them to  

E-print Network

in the lakes, and how they affect ecosystem dynamics. GLERL is organized into three cross-cutting research programs: - Observing Systems and Advanced Technology Develops and evaluates new remote sensing products on important issues in both Great Lakes and marine coastal environments leading to new understanding, tools

407

Proposal to protect marine areas around Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty percent of Antarctica's Southern Ocean should be protected in a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and no-take marine reserves, according to a 21 May report by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance, which is composed of about 20 environmental groups. The protected areas should include the 19 Antarctic marine habitats outlined in the report, along with existing MPAs and areas identified through previous conservation and planning analyses, the report notes. Protected areas should include the Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell and Ross seas, the Indian Ocean Benthic Environment, and Pacific seamounts, according to the report. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which manages living resources for the Southern Ocean, has already agreed to establish an initial network of Antarctic MPAs this year, the report states.

Showstack, Randy

2012-05-01

408

Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.  

PubMed

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D A; Edgar, Robert J

2014-01-01

409

Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats  

PubMed Central

Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

2014-01-01

410

Plymouth University Marine Building  

E-print Network

Plymouth University Marine Building #12;The University's motto, `explore, dream, discover as it was at the school's founding in the Victorian era. The new Marine Building encapsulates that spirit ­ a Ł19 million for research, teaching, training and engagement with enterprise in the marine and maritime sectors. Boasting

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

411

Marine Science Scholarships  

E-print Network

Marine Science Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Name Contact Phone Number Contact E-mail Address Marine Science Endowed Student Support Fund Both incoming and current marine science majors are eligible to apply for these merit-based scholarships. Awards consist

Almor, Amit

412

Marine Education for Inlanders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under a U.S. Department of Commerce Sea Grant, Texas teachers have developed a three-book series designed to expose elementary and secondary students to the marine world. Book titles include "Marine Organisms in Science Teaching,""Children's Literature--Passage to the Sea," and "Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources." (LRA)

Broussard, Amy

1981-01-01

413

Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from

C. J. KLEIN; A. CHAN; L. KIRCHER; A. J. CUNDIFF; N. GARDNER; Y. HROVAT; A. SCHOLZ; B. E. KENDALL; S. AIRAMÉ

2008-01-01

414

A new approach to mapping marine benthic habitats using physical environmental data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable marine benthic habitat maps at regional and national scales are needed to enable the move towards the sustainable management of marine environmental resources. Due to the paucity of adequate biological data and the prohibitive cost of directly sampling benthic biota over large areas, the most effective means of developing broad-scale benthic habitat maps is to use commonly available marine

Zhi Huang; Brendan P. Brooke; Peter T. Harris

2011-01-01

415

APPLYING ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA TO MARINE RESERVE DESIGN: A CASE STUDY FROM THE CALIFORNIA CHANNEL ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ecological criteria as a theoretical framework, we describe the steps involved in designing a network of marine reserves for conservation and fisheries man- agement. Although we describe the case study of the Channel Islands, the approach to marine reserve design may be effective in other regions where traditional management alone does not sustain marine resources. A group of agencies,

Satie Airamé; Jenifer E. Dugan; Kevin D. Lafferty; Heather Leslie; Deborah A. McArdle; Robert R. Warner

2003-01-01

416

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

and trekking Guided walk Visit Poor Knights marine reserve Bird watching ­ shore based Bird watching1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand and tourism management in the future. We would like to learn what local residents think about marine tourism

417

Contribution of Biology and Oceanography to Increased Harvest of Marine Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of marine fisheries, when compared to agriculture, is handicapped by the small amount of influence that can be exerted in any phase of fish production except the harvest. However, fishery science can contribute to increased fish catches in several ways. Although planting of hatchery-reared marine fish has been of little use, cultivation of marine animals, particularly of molluscs, can

C. P. Idyll

1958-01-01

418

Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Tourism Research Institute  

E-print Network

1 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New Zealand Coordinator: [ ] #12;2 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers of economic change New/operator Manager Other (please specify) #12;3 Marine tourism, fisheries and community: creating barometers

419

Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

2011-04-01

420

78 FR 23574 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Comprehensive Dynamic Positioning Proficiency Development...Vessel Machinery and Systems Management Perspective...Applications Dynamic Positioning Software Testing and...Development of Autonomous Underwater Platforms for Marine...Ballast Water Treatment Systems Acceptance...

2013-04-19

421

76 FR 26253 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Ecosystem Restoration Task Force; National Ocean Policy, coastal and marine spatial planning, ocean energy and climate change adaptation; fisheries management; quota re-allocation policy; and aquaculture policy implementation. Updates...

2011-05-06

422

Dangerous targets? Unresolved issues and ideological clashes around marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT 1. While conservationists, resource managers, scientists and coastal planners have recognized the broad applicability of marine protected areas (MPAs), they are often implemented without a firm understanding,of the conservation,science } both,ecological and,socio-economic,} underlying marine,protection. The rush to implement,MPAs has set the stage for paradoxical,differences of opinions,in the marine,conservation,community. 2. The enthusiastic prescription of simplistic solutions to marine,conservation,problems,risks polarization of

Tundi Agardy; Peter Bridgewater; Michael P. Crosby; Jon Day; Paul K. Dayton; Richard Kenchington; Dan Laffoley; Patrick McConney; Peter A. Murray; John E. Parks; Lelei Peau

2003-01-01

423

Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a guide for citizens, scientists, resource managers, and policy makers, who are interested in understanding the economic and social value of marine protected areas (MPAs). We discuss the potential benefits and costs associated with MPAs as a means of illustrating the economic and social tradeoffs inherent in implementation decisions. In general, the effectiveness of a protected area

James N. Sanchirico; Kathryn A. Cochran; Peter M. Emerson

2002-01-01

424

New Peruvian Plant to Produce "Marine Beef"  

E-print Network

the Fishery Management Plan for Coral and Coral Reefs, now protect over 400 species of coral and applyNew Peruvian Plant to Produce "Marine Beef" Destruction of Coral and Coral Reefs Prohibited, but the plant had not yet begun operating. 106 corals, as well as hard bottoms, deep- water banks, patch reefs

425

Preliminary evaluation of effects of invasive tunicate management with acetic acid and calcium hydroxide on non-target marine organisms in Prince Edward Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of invasive tunicates in Prince Edward Island (PEI) estuaries has necessitated the development of approaches for managing tunicates that foul aquaculture structures, especially Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis. Spraying or immersion with a saturated solution of hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) or 5% acetic acid are effective against these tunicates, but are also biocidal to a variety of non-target

Andrea Locke; Kenneth G. Doe; Wayne L. Fairchild; Paula M. Jackman; Erica J. Reese

2009-01-01

426

Marine Mechanical Engineer Full Time Position Wanted: Marine Mechanical Engineer  

E-print Network

Marine Mechanical Engineer Full Time Position Wanted: Marine Mechanical Engineer Boksa Marine Design, Inc. is a growing naval architecture and marine engineering firm specializing in the design in the industry. Qualified candidates should have a BSE or MSE in mechanical engineering or marine engineering

Eustice, Ryan

427

Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology  

E-print Network

Minor in Marine Biology Minor in Marine Biology General Goals of the Minor in Marine Biology About who choose the Minor in Marine Biology will learn about the biology, evolution and ecology of organisms that inhabit these environments and the ecological processes linking them. Marine biology draws

Chen, Tsuhan

428

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences  

E-print Network

MArinE Biology School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Graduate Program in Marine Sciences Requirements for Degrees: MS: 30 credits; PhD: 18 thesis credits The marine biology graduate program focuses on the ecology, physiology and biochemistry/molecular biology of marine organisms. Students may pursue either

Hartman, Chris

429

Global priorities for marine biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

Selig, Elizabeth R; Turner, Will R; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G; Carpenter, Kent E; Mittermeier, Russell A

2014-01-01

430

Global Priorities for Marine Biodiversity Conservation  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, many marine populations have experienced major declines in abundance, but we still know little about where management interventions may help protect the highest levels of marine biodiversity. We used modeled spatial distribution data for nearly 12,500 species to quantify global patterns of species richness and two measures of endemism. By combining these data with spatial information on cumulative human impacts, we identified priority areas where marine biodiversity is most and least impacted by human activities, both within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ). Our analyses highlighted places that are both accepted priorities for marine conservation like the Coral Triangle, as well as less well-known locations in the southwest Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic Oceans, and within semi-enclosed seas like the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas. Within highly impacted priority areas, climate and fishing were the biggest stressors. Although new priorities may arise as we continue to improve marine species range datasets, results from this work are an essential first step in guiding limited resources to regions where investment could best sustain marine biodiversity. PMID:24416151

Selig, Elizabeth R.; Turner, Will R.; Troëng, Sebastian; Wallace, Bryan P.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Kaschner, Kristin; Lascelles, Ben G.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Mittermeier, Russell A.

2014-01-01

431

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre  

E-print Network

Coastal and Marine Resources Centre University College Cork Annual Report 2008 #12;Contents Director's Statement 1 Introduction 2 Marine Geomatics 3 Marine Ecology 4 Coastal and Marine Governance 5 for the Coastal & Marine Resources Centre (CMRC). The year started extremely positively with the construction

Schellekens, Michel P.

432

Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae, and invertebrates). Keystone groups were prevalent in estuarine or small/shallow systems, and in systems with reduced fishing pressure. Changes to the abundance of key functional groups might have significant implications for the functioning of ecosystems and should be avoided through management. Conclusion/significance Our results provide additional understanding of patterns of structural and functional indicators in different ecosystems. Ecosystem traits such as type, size, depth, and location need to be accounted for when setting reference levels as these affect absolute values of ecological indicators. Therefore, establishing absolute reference values for ecosystem indicators may not be suitable to the ecosystem-based, precautionary approach. Reference levels for ecosystem indicators should be developed for individual ecosystems or ecosystems with the same typologies (similar location, ecosystem type, etc.) and not benchmarked against all other ecosystems. PMID:24763610

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

2014-01-01

433

Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

1994-01-01

434

Isolation of a bacteriocin-producing lactococcus lactis and application of its bacteriocin to manage spoilage bacteria in high-value marine fish under different storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have considerable potential for biopreservation. The Lactococcus lactis strain PSY2 (GenBank account no. JF703669) isolated from the surface of marine perch Perca flavescens produced antibacterial activity against pathogenic and spoilage-causing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria viz. Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and possessed broad inhibitory spectrum. The biopreservative efficacy of the bacteriocin PSY2 was evaluated using fillets of reef cod, Epinephelus diacanthus. The fillets (10 g) were sprayed with 2.0 ml of 1,600 AU/ml bacteriocin, wrapped and kept under different storage temperatures viz., 4, 0 and -18 °C. The biopreservative extended the shelf-life of fillets stored at 4 °C to >21 days as against <14 days observed in the untreated samples. The total count of spoilage bacteria was reduced by 2.5 logarithmic units in the treated sample during the 14th day of storage as against the control. Chemical analysis revealed a significant change (P?

Sarika, A R; Lipton, A P; Aishwarya, M S; Dhivya, R S

2012-07-01

435

Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.  

PubMed

Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

Magera, Anna M; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B; Lotze, Heike K

2013-01-01

436

Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations  

PubMed Central

Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n?=?47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased study of populations with major data gaps, including offshore small cetaceans, cryptic species, and marine mammals in low latitudes and developing nations, is needed to better understand the status of marine mammal populations worldwide. PMID:24205025

Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

2013-01-01

437

Surface Immuno-Functionalisation for the Capture and Detection of Vibrio Species in the Marine Environment: A New Management Tool for Industrial Facilities  

PubMed Central

Bacteria from the genus Vibrio are a common and environmentally important group of bacteria within coastal environments and include species pathogenic to aquaculture organisms. Their distribution and abundance are linked to specific environmental parameters, including temperature, salinity and nutrient enrichment. Accurate and efficient detection of Vibrios in environmental samples provides a potential important indicator of overall ecosystem health while also allowing rapid management responses for species pathogenic to humans or species implicated in disease of economically important aquacultured fish and invertebrates. In this study, we developed a surface immuno-functionalisation protocol, based on an avidin-biotin type covalent binding strategy, allowing specific sandwich-type detection of bacteria from the Vibrio genus. The assay was optimized on 12 diverse Vibrio strains, including species that have implications for aquaculture industries, reaching detection limits between 7×103 to 3×104 cells mL?1. Current techniques for the detection of total Vibrios rely on laborious or inefficient analyses resulting in delayed management decisions. This work represents a novel approach for a rapid, accurate, sensitive and robust tool for quantifying Vibrios directly in industrial systems and in the environment, thereby facilitating rapid management responses. PMID:25310801

Laczka, Olivier F.; Labbate, Maurizio; Seymour, Justin R.; Bourne, David G.; Fielder, Stewart S.; Doblin, Martina A.

2014-01-01

438

76 FR 34656 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in the...Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE), formerly Minerals Management Service (MMS), for authorization to take...

2011-06-14

439

Chapter 9: Marine Geo-Informatics AUSTRALIA: A LARGE ISLAND SURROUNDED BY  

E-print Network

: They range from coastal and harbour management to maritime law, marine resource exploration and conservation,whichextendsfromthetropicstohighlatitudes,withitsuniqueresources.Inorder to manage our maritime jurisdiction we need to have effective means of remotely sensing, imaging

MĂĽller, Dietmar

440

Snorkelers impact on fish communities and algae in a temperate marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-use marine protected areas (MPAs) are used to manage marine resources, allocate space to different users and reduce\\u000a conflicts while protecting marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean, MPA managers are increasingly interested in containing\\u000a the effects of coastal recreation within underwater trails, but snorkelers impacts on the surrounding ecosystem remain largely\\u000a unknown. In a Mediterranean MPA, an underwater snorkeling trail was

Joachim Claudet; Philippe Lenfant; Muriel Schrimm

2010-01-01

441

18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

442

Discovery Collection: Marine Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Lisa Breslof

443

Sea Grant Marine Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent site introduces careers in marine biology, oceanography (biological, chemical, physical, geological), ocean engineering, related fields like marine educator, fisherman. Profiles of professionals in each discipline demonstrate the diversity of people working in marine science. Valuable advice from experts on how to prepare. Career Outlook and Salaries describe what to expect for positions in academia, industry, government and other arenas. Helpful FAQ section; Resources and Links list job search information, internships and more.

444

Biological control of marine invasive species: cautionary tales and land-based lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control (biocontrol) has successfully regulated pest populations in terrestrial agroecosystems, but it has also caused negative unintended consequences for native species. Marine biologists and resource managers have recently published a growing number of proposals to include biocontrol in integrated pest management programs in oceans, seas and estuaries. Here, I review six ecologically and taxonomically diverse case studies of marine

David Secord

2003-01-01

445

POLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas  

E-print Network

, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Keywords Coral reefs; diving; economics; financing; management; marine for diving in MPAs, but an excessive reliance on tourism for funding MPA management could expose coral reefsPOLICY PERSPECTIVE Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas Jeffrey Wielgus

Gerber, Leah R.

446

The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal currents and water properties (Moorings, Ocean Gliders and HF Radar) and three for coastal ecosystems (Acoustic Tagging and Tracking, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and a biophysical sensor network on the Great Barrier Reef). The value from this infrastructure investment lies in the coordinated deployment of a wide range of equipment aimed at deriving critical data sets that serve multiple applications. Additional information on IMOS is available at the website (http://www.imos.org.au). The IMOS Operators are Australian Institute of Marine Science, James Cook University, Sydney Institute of Marine Science, Geoscience Australia, Bureau of Meteorology, South Australia Research and Development Institute, University of Western Australia, Curtin University of Technology, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Tasmania.

Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

2008-12-01

447

Marine Modeling and Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch (MMAB) of the Environmental Modeling Center is responsible for the development of improved numerical weather and marine prediction modeling systems. These models provide analysis and real-time forecast guidance on marine meteorological, oceanographic, and cryospheric parameters over the global oceans and coastal areas of the US. This site provides access to MMAB modeling tools for ocean waves (including an interactive presentation,) sea ice, marine meteorology, sea surface temperature and more. The site also features a mailing list, bibliography of publications, and information about modeling products still in the experimental and development phases.

National Centers for Environmental Prediction, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

448

National Marine Fisheries Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Marine Fisheries Service announces it's home page. The server includes links to the NOAA home page as well as links to National Marine Fisheries Science Centers and NMFS related sites. In addition, the books Our Living Oceans Annual Report 1993 and Index for Fisheries of the U.S -1992 are available online. There are also home pages for certain NMFS office including The Office of Protected Resources which contains a brochure called Protecting the Nation's Marine Species which gives a listing of endangered and threatened species. This page also has various marine sounds and mpeg movies.

449

Sectionalized marine seismic cable  

SciTech Connect

A marine seismic cable is sectionalized with the individual cable sections being joined by articulated connector assemblies which permit relative bending movement between such individual cable sections.

Neeley, W.P.

1984-05-22

450

Marine Ecological Processes Online section  

E-print Network

Marine Ecological Processes Online section FAS 6272 (3 credits) Fall 2012 Course Description, behavior, population dynamics, and community structure in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Prerequisite will have: · Examined how ecological processes operate in the marine environment · Compared how ecological

Watson, Craig A.

451

Cumulative environmental impacts and integrated coastal management: the case of Xiamen, China  

E-print Network

Xiongzhi Xuea,*, Huasheng Honga , Anthony T. Charlesb a Marine Environmental Lab, Ministry of Education and enforcement mechanisms) with scientific and monitoring mechanisms (including an innovative `marine functional Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Integrated coastal management; Coastal management system

Charles, Anthony

452

A Handbook for Managers Visitor Use Observation  

E-print Network

in Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas #12;Responsible publisher: WWF-France and Parc National de Port Observation and Monitoring in Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas.MedPAN North project. WWF-France and Parc and Monitoring in Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas A Handbook for Managers #12;COLLECTION Responsible

Boyer, Edmond

453