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Sample records for marine isolate pseudoalteromonas

  1. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Kaveh; Nelson, Andrew; Hack, Ethan; Zhang, Jinwei; Green, David H.; Caldwell, Gary S.; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas constitutes an ecologically significant group of marine Gammaproteobacteria with potential biotechnological value as producers of bioactive compounds and of enzymes. Understanding their roles in the environment and bioprospecting for novel products depend on efficient ways of identifying environmental isolates. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping has promise as a rapid and reliable method of identifying and distinguishing between different types of bacteria, but has had relatively limited application to marine bacteria and has not been applied systematically to Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, we constructed a MALDI-TOF MS database of 31 known Pseudoalteromonas species, to which new isolates can be compared by MALDI-TOF biotyping. The ability of MALDI-TOF MS to distinguish between species was scrutinized by comparison with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patterns of similarity given by the two approaches were broadly but not completely consistent. In general, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS was greater than that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The database was tested with 13 environmental Pseudoalteromonas isolates from UK waters. All of the test strains could be identified to genus level by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, but most could not be definitely identified to species level. We conclude that several of these isolates, and possibly most, represent new species. Thus, further taxonomic investigation of Pseudoalteromonas is needed before MALDI-TOF MS biotyping can be used reliably for species identification. It is, however, a powerful tool for characterizing and distinguishing among environmental isolates and can make an important contribution to taxonomic studies. PMID:26903983

  2. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Discriminates Known Species and Marine Environmental Isolates of Pseudoalteromonas.

    PubMed

    Emami, Kaveh; Nelson, Andrew; Hack, Ethan; Zhang, Jinwei; Green, David H; Caldwell, Gary S; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas constitutes an ecologically significant group of marine Gammaproteobacteria with potential biotechnological value as producers of bioactive compounds and of enzymes. Understanding their roles in the environment and bioprospecting for novel products depend on efficient ways of identifying environmental isolates. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) biotyping has promise as a rapid and reliable method of identifying and distinguishing between different types of bacteria, but has had relatively limited application to marine bacteria and has not been applied systematically to Pseudoalteromonas. Therefore, we constructed a MALDI-TOF MS database of 31 known Pseudoalteromonas species, to which new isolates can be compared by MALDI-TOF biotyping. The ability of MALDI-TOF MS to distinguish between species was scrutinized by comparison with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patterns of similarity given by the two approaches were broadly but not completely consistent. In general, the resolution of MALDI-TOF MS was greater than that of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The database was tested with 13 environmental Pseudoalteromonas isolates from UK waters. All of the test strains could be identified to genus level by MALDI-TOF MS biotyping, but most could not be definitely identified to species level. We conclude that several of these isolates, and possibly most, represent new species. Thus, further taxonomic investigation of Pseudoalteromonas is needed before MALDI-TOF MS biotyping can be used reliably for species identification. It is, however, a powerful tool for characterizing and distinguishing among environmental isolates and can make an important contribution to taxonomic studies. PMID:26903983

  3. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    PubMed Central

    Genicot, Sabine M.; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ι-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40 ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ι-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ι-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ι-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes. PMID:25207269

  4. Discovery of a novel iota carrageenan sulfatase isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genicot, Sabine; Groisillier, Agnès; Rogniaux, Hélène; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Barbeyron, Tristan; Helbert, William

    2014-08-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides extracted from the cell wall of some marine red algae. These polysaccharides are widely used as gelling, stabilizing, and viscosifying agents in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Since the rheological properties of these polysaccharides depend on their sulfate content, we screened several isolated marine bacteria for carrageenan specific sulfatase activity, in the aim of developing enzymatic bioconversion of carrageenans. As a result of the screening, an iota-carrageenan sulfatase was detected in the cell-free lysate of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora strain PscT. It was purified through Phenyl Sepharose and Diethylaminoethyl Sepharose chromatography. The pure enzyme, Psc ?-CgsA, was characterized. It had a molecular weight of 115.9 kDaltons and exhibited an optimal activity/stability at pH ~8.3 and at 40°C ± 5°C. It was inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride but not by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Psc ?-CgsA specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-S sulfate of iota-carrageenan. The purified enzyme could transform iota-carrageenan into hybrid iota-/alpha- or pure alpha-carrageenan under controlled conditions. The gene encoding Psc ?-CgsA, a protein of 1038 amino acids, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the sequence analysis revealed that Psc ?-CgsA has more than 90% sequence identity with a putative uncharacterized protein Q3IKL4 from the marine strain Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, but besides this did not share any homology to characterized sulfatases. Phylogenetic studies show that P. carrageenovora sulfatase thus represents the first characterized member of a new sulfatase family, with a C-terminal domain having strong similarity with the superfamily of amidohydrolases, highlighting the still unexplored diversity of marine polysaccharide modifying enzymes.

  5. Exopolysaccharide production by a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain isolated from Madeira Archipelago ocean sediments.

    PubMed

    Roca, Christophe; Lehmann, Mareen; Torres, Cristiana A V; Baptista, Sílvia; Gaudêncio, Susana P; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2016-06-25

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are polymers excreted by some microorganisms with interesting properties and used in many industrial applications. A new Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain, MD12-642, was isolated from marine sediments and cultivated in bioreactor in saline culture medium containing glucose as carbon source. Its ability to produce EPS under saline conditions was demonstrated reaching an EPS production of 4.4g/L within 17hours of cultivation, corresponding to a volumetric productivity of 0.25g/Lh, the highest value so far obtained for Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains. The compositional analysis of the EPS revealed the presence of galacturonic acid (41-42mol%), glucuronic acid (25-26mol%), rhamnose (16-22mol%) and glucosamine (12-16mol%) sugar residues. The polymer presents a high molecular weight (above 1000kDa). These results encourage the biotechnological exploitation of strain MD12-642 for the production of valuable EPS with unique composition, using saline by-products/wastes as feedstocks. PMID:26923806

  6. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.

  7. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.; et al

    2015-01-14

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. We isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. In the host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested,more » >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system.« less

  8. Life-style and genome structure of marine Pseudoalteromonas siphovirus B8b isolated from the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B; Acinas, Silvia G

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new 'rare virosphere' phage-host model system. PMID:25587991

  9. Life-Style and Genome Structure of Marine Pseudoalteromonas Siphovirus B8b Isolated from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Elena; Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Sà, Elisabet Laia; Ignacio-Espinoza, J. Cesar; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Verberkmoes, Nathan C.; Vaqué, Dolors; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses (phages) alter bacterial diversity and evolution with impacts on marine biogeochemical cycles, and yet few well-developed model systems limit opportunities for hypothesis testing. Here we isolate phage B8b from the Mediterranean Sea using Pseudoalteromonas sp. QC-44 as a host and characterize it using myriad techniques. Morphologically, phage B8b was classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. One-step growth analyses showed that this siphovirus had a latent period of 70 min and released 172 new viral particles per cell. Host range analysis against 89 bacterial host strains revealed that phage B8b infected 3 Pseudoalteromonas strains (52 tested, >99.9% 16S rRNA gene nucleotide identity) and 1 non-Pseudoaltermonas strain belonging to Alteromonas sp. (37 strains from 6 genera tested), which helps bound the phylogenetic distance possible in a phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer event. The Pseudoalteromonas phage B8b genome size was 42.7 kb, with clear structural and replication modules where the former were delineated leveraging identification of 16 structural genes by virion structural proteomics, only 4 of which had any similarity to known structural proteins. In nature, this phage was common in coastal marine environments in both photic and aphotic layers (found in 26.5% of available viral metagenomes), but not abundant in any sample (average per sample abundance was 0.65% of the reads). Together these data improve our understanding of siphoviruses in nature, and provide foundational information for a new ‘rare virosphere’ phage–host model system. PMID:25587991

  10. Highly brominated antimicrobial metabolites from a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell; McAtee, Jesse; Hemscheidt, Thomas K

    2010-11-29

    Extracts of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. (CMMED 290) isolated from the surface of a nudibranch collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, displayed significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the lipophilic extract led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two new highly brominated compounds, 2,3,5,7-tetrabromobenzofuro[3,2-b]pyrrole (1) and 4,4',6-tribromo-2,2'-biphenol (2). In addition, we have identified the known compounds pentabromopseudilin and bromophene. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of the compounds 1 and 2 together with their antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20973551

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from Kāne’ohe Bay, O’ahu, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo’e in Kāne’ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain OCN003, Isolated from Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Beurmann, Silvia; Videau, Patrick; Ushijima, Blake; Smith, Ashley M; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M; Belcaid, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003 is a marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from a diseased colony of the common Hawaiian reef coral, Montipora capitata, found on a reef surrounding Moku o Lo'e in Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawaii. Here, we report the complete genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain OCN003. PMID:25593253

  13. Highly Brominated Antimicrobial Metabolites from a Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell; McAtee, Jesse; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of a marine Pseudoalteromonas. sp (CMMED 290) isolated from the surface of a nudibranch collected in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu displayed significant antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the lipophilic extract led to the isolation and structure elucidation of two new highly brominated compounds, 2,3,5,7-tetrabromobenzofuro[3,2-b]pyrrole 1 and 4,4′,6- tribromo-2,2′-biphenol 2. In addition, we have identified the known compounds pentabromopseudilin and bromophene. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of the compounds 1 and 2 together with their antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:20973551

  14. Algicidal Effects of a Novel Marine Pseudoalteromonas Isolate (Class Proteobacteria, Gamma Subdivision) on Harmful Algal Bloom Species of the Genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium, and Heterosigma

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, Connie; Bowman, John P.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    1998-01-01

    During a bacterial survey of the Huon Estuary in southern Tasmania, Australia, we isolated a yellow-pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strain (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain Y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. This organism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a strain with close affinities to Pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. This bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and death (within 3 h) of gymnodinoids (including Gymnodinium catenatum) and raphidophytes (Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo). It caused ecdysis of armored dinoflagellates (e.g., Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum mexicanum), but the algal cultures then recovered over the subsequent 24 h. Strain Y had no effect on a cryptomonad (Chroomonas sp.), a diatom (Skeletonema sp.), a cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria sp.), and two aplastidic protozoans. The algicidal principle of strain Y was excreted into the seawater medium and lost its efficacy after heating. Another common bacterial species, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, was isolated at the same time and did not have these algicidal effects. The minimum concentrations of strain Y required to kill G. catenatum were higher than the mean concentrations found in nature under nonbloom conditions. However, the new bacterium showed a chemotactic, swarming behavior that resulted in localized high concentrations around target organisms. These observations imply that certain bacteria could play an important role in regulating the onset and development of harmful algal blooms. PMID:9687434

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae Strains Isolated from Seagrass Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ruth D.; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M.; Coil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae UCD-SED9 and UCD-SED14 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding the roots of the seagrass, Zostera marina, collected near the UC, Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega Bay, California). The assemblies contain 4,847,456 bp and 4,817,752 bp, respectively. PMID:26988038

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae Strains Isolated from Seagrass Sediment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas porphyrae UCD-SED9 and UCD-SED14 (phylum Proteobacteria). These strains were isolated from sediment surrounding the roots of the seagrass, Zostera marina, collected near the UC, Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory (Bodega Bay, California). The assemblies contain 4,847,456 bp and 4,817,752 bp, respectively. PMID:26988038

  17. Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov., a marine bacterium that is the causative agent of red spot disease of Laminaria japonica.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, T; Makino, H; Tatsumi, M; Nakano, K; Tajima, K; Iqbal, M M; Yumoto, I; Ezura, Y; Christen, R

    1998-07-01

    An aerobic, polarly flagellated marine bacterium that produces a prodigiosin-like pigment was isolated from the red-spotted culture beds of Laminaria japonica. Five isolates had unique bacteriolytic activity for both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which had never been observed among Alteromonas or related species. The isolates were identified as the causative agent of red spot disease of L. japonica seeds. The phenotypic features of the isolates were similar to these of Pseudoalteromonas rubra ATCC 29570T, but they could be differentiated using 10 traits (growth at 37 degrees C, requirement for organic growth factors, bacteriolytic activity, utilization of sucrose, N-acetylglucosamine, fumarate, succinate, D-galactose, L-proline and acetate). The G+C content of DNAs from the isolates was 44-46 mol%. The isolates constitute a new species, distinct from the other Alteromonas and Pseudoalteromonas species, as shown by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and phylogenetic clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica sp. nov. (type strain = IAM 14595T) is proposed. A set of phenotypic features which differentiate this new species from closely related Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas species is provided. PMID:9734030

  18. Genome Sequences of Three Pseudoalteromonas Strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30), Isolated from the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    PubMed Central

    Rischer, Maja; Wolf, Thomas; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30) were sequenced and assembled. These genomes will inform future study of the genes responsible for the production of biologically active compounds responsible for these strains’ antimicrobial, biofouling, and algicidal activities. PMID:26659670

  19. Pseudoalteromonas xishaensis sp. nov., isolated from Acanthaster planci in the Xisha islands.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun; He, Xiangyan

    2013-11-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile by means of single polar flagellum, short rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain E418T, was isolated from the spines on the body surface of starfish Acanthaster planci in the Xisha islands, China. Cells of strain E418T were found to grow optimally at pH 7–8, at 25–37 °C, and in the presence of 2–5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain E418T is a member of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. The closest relative to this strain was found to be P. ruthenica LMG 19699T, with a similarity level of 97.7 %. DNA relatedness between the novel isolate and this phylogenetically related species was 57.4 %. Strain E418T decomposed Tween 80, gelatin, and casein, but was unable to decompose starch and grow on DNase Agar. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted of significant amounts of C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c, C18:1ω7c/C18:1ω6c, C16:0, and C17:1ω8c. The G+C content of DNA of this strain was determined to be 46.7 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA–DNA relatedness data suggest that strain E418T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudoalteromonas, for which the name Pseudoalteromonas xishaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. xishaensis is strain E418T (DSM 25588T = NBRC 108846T = CCTCC AB 2011177T). PMID:24022397

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Roots and Leaf Blades of the Seagrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Krusor, Megan L; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences for Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain UCD-33C and Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica UCD-48B. Pseudoalteromonas sp. UCD-33C was isolated from Zostera marina roots and P. lipolytica UCD-48B from Z. marina leaf blades, both collected in Woods Hole, MA. These assemblies contain 4,479,285 bp and 4,592,435 bp, respectively. PMID:26893412

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Roots and Leaf Blades of the Seagrass Zostera marina

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Alexandra; Krusor, Megan L.; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M.; Coil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences for Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain UCD-33C and Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica UCD-48B. Pseudoalteromonas sp. UCD-33C was isolated from Zostera marina roots and P. lipolytica UCD-48B from Z. marina leaf blades, both collected in Woods Hole, MA. These assemblies contain 4,479,285 bp and 4,592,435 bp, respectively. PMID:26893412

  2. Metalloid reducing bacteria isolated from deep ocean hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens sp. nov. and Pseudoalteromonas spiralis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, Christopher; Yurkova, Natalia; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schumann, Peter; Humphrey, Elaine; Beatty, J Thomas; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    Five strains of Gram-negative, rod, curved rod and spiral-shaped bacteria were isolated from the vicinity of deep ocean hydrothermal vents along the Main Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. All strains showed remarkable resistance to high levels of toxic metalloid oxyanions, and were capable of reducing the oxyanions tellurite and selenite to their less toxic elemental forms. Phylogenetic analysis of four strains identified these isolates as close relatives of the genus Pseudoalteromonas within the class Gammaproteobacteria. Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans was the closest relative of strains Te-1-1 and Se-1-2-redT, with, respectively, 99.5 and 99.8% 16S rDNA sequence similarity. Strain Te-2-2T was most closely related to Pseudoalteromonas paragorgicola, with 99.8% 16S rDNA sequence similarity. The DNA G+C base composition was 39.6 to 41.8 mol%, in agreement with other members of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. However, the isolates showed important morphological and physiological differences from previously described species of this genus, with one group forming rod-shaped bacteria typical of Pseudoalteromonas and the other forming vibrioid- to spiral-shaped cells. Based on these differences, and on phylogenetic data, we propose the creation of the new species Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens sp. nov., with strain Se-1-2-redT (DSMZ = 16098T = VKM B-2382T) as the type strain, and Pseudoalteromonas spiralis sp. nov., with strain Te-2-2T (DSMZ = 16099T = VKM B-2383T) as the type strain. PMID:17066332

  3. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Rapid Secondary-Metabolite Profiling of Marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Jin Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Dong-Gyun; An, Cheul Min; Lee, Jun Sik; Kim, Pan Soo; Lee, Hye Min; Oh, Joa-Sup; Lee, Jong Suk

    2016-01-01

    The ocean is a rich resource of flora, fauna, and food. A wild-type bacterial strain showing confluent growth on marine agar with antibacterial activity was isolated from marine water, identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Pseudoalteromonas sp., and designated as strain M2. This strain was found to produce various secondary metabolites including quinolone alkaloids. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, we identified nine secondary metabolites of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (pseudane-III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI). Additionally, this strain produced two novel, closely related compounds, 2-isopentylqunoline-4-one and 2-(2,3-dimetylbutyl)qunoline-4-(1H)-one, which have not been previously reported from marine bacteria. From the metabolites produced by Pseudoalteromonas sp. M2, 2-(2,3-dimethylbutyl)quinolin-4-one, pseudane-VI, and pseudane-VII inhibited melanin synthesis in Melan-A cells by 23.0%, 28.2%, and 42.7%, respectively, wherein pseudane-VII showed the highest inhibition at 8 µg/mL. The results of this study suggest that liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS-based metabolite screening effectively improves the efficiency of novel metabolite discovery. Additionally, these compounds are promising candidates for further bioactivity development. PMID:26805856

  4. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  5. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Melissa B; Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  6. Ecogenomics and genome landscapes of marine Pseudoalteromonas phage H105/1

    PubMed Central

    Duhaime, Melissa Beth; Wichels, Antje; Waldmann, Jost; Teeling, Hanno; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Marine phages have an astounding global abundance and ecological impact. However, little knowledge is derived from phage genomes, as most of the open reading frames in their small genomes are unknown, novel proteins. To infer potential functional and ecological relevance of sequenced marine Pseudoalteromonas phage H105/1, two strategies were used. First, similarity searches were extended to include six viral and bacterial metagenomes paired with their respective environmental contextual data. This approach revealed ‘ecogenomic' patterns of Pseudoalteromonas phage H105/1, such as its estuarine origin. Second, intrinsic genome signatures (phylogenetic, codon adaptation and tetranucleotide (tetra) frequencies) were evaluated on a resolved intra-genomic level to shed light on the evolution of phage functional modules. On the basis of differential codon adaptation of Phage H105/1 proteins to the sequenced Pseudoalteromonas spp., regions of the phage genome with the most ‘host'-adapted proteins also have the strongest bacterial tetra signature, whereas the least ‘host'-adapted proteins have the strongest phage tetra signature. Such a pattern may reflect the evolutionary history of the respective phage proteins and functional modules. Finally, analysis of the structural proteome identified seven proteins that make up the mature virion, four of which were previously unknown. This integrated approach combines both novel and classical strategies and serves as a model to elucidate ecological inferences and evolutionary relationships from phage genomes that typically abound with unknown gene content. PMID:20613791

  7. Antibiofilm Activity of the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain 3J6▿

    PubMed Central

    Dheilly, Alexandra; Soum-Soutéra, Emmanuelle; Klein, Géraldine L.; Bazire, Alexis; Compère, Chantal; Haras, Dominique; Dufour, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Biofilm formation results in medical threats or economic losses and is therefore a major concern in a variety of domains. In two-species biofilms of marine bacteria grown under dynamic conditions, Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain 3J6 formed mixed biofilms with Bacillus sp. strain 4J6 but was largely predominant over Paracoccus sp. strain 4M6 and Vibrio sp. strain D01. The supernatant of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 liquid culture (SN3J6) was devoid of antibacterial activity against free-living Paracoccus sp. 4M6 and Vibrio sp. D01 cells, but it impaired their ability to grow as single-species biofilms and led to higher percentages of nonviable cells in 48-h biofilms. Antibiofilm molecules of SN3J6 were able to coat the glass surfaces used to grow biofilms and reduced bacterial attachment about 2-fold, which might partly explain the biofilm formation defect but not the loss of cell viability. SN3J6 had a wide spectrum of activity since it affected all Gram-negative marine strains tested except other Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilm biovolumes of the sensitive strains were reduced 3- to 530-fold, and the percentages of nonviable cells were increased 3- to 225-fold. Interestingly, SN3J6 also impaired biofilm formation by three strains belonging to the human-pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli. Such an antibiofilm activity is original and opens up a variety of applications for Pseudoalteromonas sp. 3J6 and/or its active exoproducts in biofilm prevention strategies. PMID:20363799

  8. Bioactive Compound Synthetic Capacity and Ecological Significance of Marine Bacterial Genus Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, John P.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Pseudoalteromonas is a marine group of bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria that has come to attention in the natural product and microbial ecology science fields in the last decade. Pigmented species of the genus have been shown to produce an array of low and high molecular weight compounds with antimicrobial, anti-fouling, algicidal and various pharmaceutically-relevant activities. Compounds formed include toxic proteins, polyanionic exopolymers, substituted phenolic and pyrolle-containing alkaloids, cyclic peptides and a range of bromine-substituted compounds. Ecologically, Pseudoalteromonas appears significant and to date has been shown to influence biofilm formation in various marine econiches; involved in predator-like interactions within the microbial loop; influence settlement, germination and metamorphosis of various invertebrate and algal species; and may also be adopted by marine flora and fauna as defensive agents. Studies have been so far limited to a relatively small subset of strains compared to the known diversity of the genus suggesting that many more discoveries of novel natural products as well as ecological connections these may have in the marine ecosystem remain to be made. PMID:18463726

  9. Pseudoalteromonas bacteria are capable of degrading paralytic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Carrie J; Garduño, Rafael A; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ku, John C; Quilliam, Michael A; Gill, Tom A

    2009-11-01

    Marine bacterial isolates cultured from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture. Seven isolates reduced the overall toxicity of the algal extract by > or = 90% within 3 days. These isolates shared at least 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with five Pseudoalteromonas spp. Phenotypic tests suggested that all are novel strains of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. PMID:19717625

  10. Pseudoalteromonas Bacteria Are Capable of Degrading Paralytic Shellfish Toxins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Carrie J.; Garduño, Rafael A.; Kalmokoff, Martin; Ku, John C.; Quilliam, Michael A.; Gill, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine bacterial isolates cultured from the digestive tracts of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were screened for the ability to reduce the toxicity of a PST mixture. Seven isolates reduced the overall toxicity of the algal extract by ≥90% within 3 days. These isolates shared at least 99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with five Pseudoalteromonas spp. Phenotypic tests suggested that all are novel strains of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis. PMID:19717625

  11. Spotlight on Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Marine Bacteria Pseudoalteromonas: Chemodiversity and Ecological Significance.

    PubMed

    Offret, Clément; Desriac, Florie; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Mounier, Jérôme; Jégou, Camille; Fleury, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the antimicrobial metabolite-producing Pseudoalteromonas strains. The genus Pseudoalteromonas hosts 41 species, among which 16 are antimicrobial metabolite producers. To date, a total of 69 antimicrobial compounds belonging to 18 different families have been documented. They are classified into alkaloids, polyketides, and peptides. Finally as Pseudoalteromonas strains are frequently associated with macroorganisms, we can discuss the ecological significance of antimicrobial Pseudoalteromonas as part of the resident microbiota. PMID:27399731

  12. Spotlight on Antimicrobial Metabolites from the Marine Bacteria Pseudoalteromonas: Chemodiversity and Ecological Significance

    PubMed Central

    Offret, Clément; Desriac, Florie; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Mounier, Jérôme; Jégou, Camille; Fleury, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    This review is dedicated to the antimicrobial metabolite-producing Pseudoalteromonas strains. The genus Pseudoalteromonas hosts 41 species, among which 16 are antimicrobial metabolite producers. To date, a total of 69 antimicrobial compounds belonging to 18 different families have been documented. They are classified into alkaloids, polyketides, and peptides. Finally as Pseudoalteromonas strains are frequently associated with macroorganisms, we can discuss the ecological significance of antimicrobial Pseudoalteromonas as part of the resident microbiota. PMID:27399731

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of a new agarase-encoding gene from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinzhi; Chu, Yan; Wu, Qianqian; Gu, Yuchao; Han, Feng; Yu, Wengong

    2009-10-01

    The beta-agarase gene agaA, cloned from a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. CY24, consists of 1,359 nucleotides encoding 453 amino acids in a sequence corresponding to a catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GH16) and a carbohydrate-binding module type 13 (CBM13). The recombinant enzyme is an endo-type agarase that hydrolyzes beta-1,4-linkages of agarose, yielding neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the predominant products. In two cleavage patterns, AgaA digested the smallest substrate, neoagarooctaose, into neoagarobiose, neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose. Site directed mutation was performed to investigate the differences between AgaA and AgaD of Vibrio sp. PO-303, identifying residues V(109)VTS(112) as playing a key role in the enzyme reaction. PMID:19504047

  14. Antibacterial activity of Pseudoalteromonas in the coral holobiont.

    PubMed

    Shnit-Orland, Maya; Sivan, Alex; Kushmaro, Ariel

    2012-11-01

    Corals harbor diverse and abundant prokaryotic populations. Bacterial communities residing in the coral mucus layer may be either pathogenic or symbiotic. Some species may produce antibiotics as a method of controlling populations of competing microbial species. The present study characterizes cultivable Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolated from the mucus layer of different coral species from the northern Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, Israel. Six mucus-associated Pseudoalteromonas spp. obtained from different coral species were screened for antibacterial activity against 23 tester strains. Five of the six Pseudoalteromonas strains demonstrated extracellular antibacterial activity against Gram-positive-but not Gram-negative-tester strains. Active substances secreted into the cell-free supernatant are heat-tolerant and inhibit growth of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and of ten endogenous Gram-positive marine bacteria isolated from corals. The Pseudoalteromonas spp. isolated from Red sea corals aligned in a phylogenetic tree with previously isolated Pseudoalteromonas spp. of marine origin that demonstrated antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that coral mucus-associated Pseudoalteromonas may play a protective role in the coral holobiont's defense against potential Gram-positive coral pathogens. PMID:22767125

  15. Genome analysis of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra JG1 reveals various survival advantages in marine environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Competition between bacteria for habitat and resources is very common in the natural environment and is considered to be a selective force for survival. Many strains of the genus Pseudoalteromonas were confirmed to produce bioactive compounds that provide those advantages over their competitors. In our previous study, P. flavipulchra JG1 was found to synthesize a Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra antibacterial Protein (PfaP) with L-amino acid oxidase activity and five small chemical compounds, which were the main competitive agents of the strain. In addition, the genome of this bacterium has been previously sequenced as Whole Genome Shotgun project (PMID: 22740664). In this study, more extensive genomic analysis was performed to identify specific genes or gene clusters which related to its competitive feature, and further experiments were carried out to confirm the physiological roles of these genes when competing with other microorganisms in marine environment. Results The antibacterial protein PfaP may also participate in the biosynthesis of 6-bromoindolyl-3-acetic acid, indicating a synergistic effect between the antibacterial macromolecule and small molecules. Chitinases and quorum quenching enzymes present in P. flavipulchra, which coincide with great chitinase and acyl homoserine lactones degrading activities of strain JG1, suggest other potential mechanisms contribute to antibacterial/antifungal activities. Moreover, movability and rapid response mechanisms to phosphorus starvation and other stresses, such as antibiotic, oxidative and heavy metal stress, enable JG1 to adapt to deleterious, fluctuating and oligotrophic marine environments. Conclusions The genome of P. flavipulchra JG1 exhibits significant genetic advantages against other microorganisms, encoding antimicrobial agents as well as abilities to adapt to various adverse environments. Genes involved in synthesis of various antimicrobial substances enriches the antagonistic mechanisms of P

  16. Isolation and characterization of Pseudoalteromonas sp. from fermented Korean food, as an antagonist to Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Choi, Wooyoung; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2014-02-01

    The microbial intervention for sustainable management of aquaculture, especially use of probiotics, is one of the most popular and practical approaches towards controlling pathogens. Vibrio harveyi is a well-known pathogenic bacterium, which is associated to a huge economic loss in the aquaculture system by causing vibriosis. The present study is crafted for screening and characterization of anti-Vibrio strains, which were isolated from various traditional fermented Korean foods. A total of 196 strains have been isolated from soybean paste (78 strains), red chili paste (49 strains), soy sauce (18 strains), jeotgal-a salted fish (34 strains), and the gazami crab-Portunus trituberculatus (17 strains). Fifteen strains showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. harveyi when subjected to coculture condition. Among the strains isolated, one has been identified as a significant anti-Vibrio strain. Further biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed it as Pseudoalteromonas aliena, which had been deposited at the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms (KCCM), Korea and designated as KCCM 11207P. The culture supernatants did not have any antimicrobial properties either in pure or in coculture condition. The culture supernatant was not toxic when supplemented to the swimming crab, Zoea, and Artemia larvae in aquaculture system. The results were very encouraging and showed a significant reduction in accumulated mortality. Here, we reported that pathogenic vibriosis can be controlled by Pseudoalteromonas sp. under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results indicated that the biotic treatment offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in crab aquaculture. PMID:23793257

  17. Purification and biochemical characterization of an alkaline protease from marine bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimei; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Dechao; Li, Chaoxu; Sun, Chaomin

    2015-12-01

    An extracellular alkaline protease produced by marine bacteria strain Pseudoalteromonas sp. 129-1 was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The purity of the protease was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and molecular mass was estimated to be 35 kDa. The protease maintained considerable activity and stability at a wide temperature range of 10-60 °C and pH range of 6-11, and optimum activity was detected at temperature of 50 °C and pH of 8. Metallo-protease inhibitor, EDTA, had no inhibitory effect on protease activity even at concentration up to 15 mM, whereas 15 mM PMSF, a common serine protease inhibitor, greatly inactivated the protease. The high stability of the protease in the presence of surfactants (SDS, Tween 80, and Triton X-100), oxidizing agent H(2)O(2), and commercial detergents was observed. Moreover, the protease was tolerant to most of the tested organic solvents, and saline tolerant up to 30%. Interestingly, biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was greatly reduced by 0.01 mg ml(-1) of the protease, and nearly completely abolished with the concentration of 1 mg ml(-1). Collectively, the protease showed valuable feathers as an additive in laundry detergent and non-toxic anti-biofilm agent. PMID:26213994

  18. Isolation of moderately halophilic pseudoalteromonas producing extracellular hydrolytic enzymes from persian gulf.

    PubMed

    Ardakani, M Roayaie; Poshtkouhian, A; Amoozegar, M A; Zolgharnein, H

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases and DNases have quite diverse potential usages in different areas such as food industry, biomedical sciences and chemical industries, also it would be of great importance to have available enzymes showing optimal activities at different values of salt concentrations and temperature. Halophiles are the most likely source of such enzymes, because not only their enzymes are salt-tolerant, but many are also thermotolerant. The purpose of this study was isolation of hydrolytic extracellular enzyme producing halophilic bacteria from water and sediment of the Persian Gulf. Isolated bacteria from water and sediment were inoculated in media with concentration of 0-20% NaCl to determine the optimum salt concentration for growth, isolates were also inoculated in 4 types of solid medium containing substrates of 3 extracellular hydrolytic enzymes including amylase, Protease and Lipase, to determine the quantitative detection of enzyme production, selected strains after more accurate physiological and biochemical studies were identified regarding phylogeny and molecular characteristics using 16S rRNA technique. Isolated enzyme producing bacteria belong to Pseudoalteromonas genera. PMID:23450116

  19. Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808 as a source of cold-adapted lactose hydrolyzing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Nam, EunSook; Ahn, JongKun

    2011-01-01

    Psychrophilic bacteria, which grow on lactose as a carbon source, were isolated from Antarctic polar sea water. Among the psychrophilic bacteria isolated, strain KNOUC808 was able to grow on lactose at below 5°C, and showed 0.867 unit of o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside(ONPG) hydrolyzing activity at 4°C. The isolate was gram-negative, rod, aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase positive. Optimum growth was done at 20°C, pH 6.8–7.2. The composition of major fatty acids in cell of KNOUC801 was C12:0 (5.48%), C12:0 3OH (9.21%), C16:0 (41.83%), C17:0 ω8 (7.24%) and C18:1 ω7 (7.04%). All these results together suggest that it is affiliated with Pseudoalteromonas genus. The 16S rDNA sequence corroborate the phenotypic tests and the novel strain was designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. KNOUC808. The optimum temperature and pH for lactose hydrolyzing enzyme was 20°C and 7.8, respectively. The enzyme was stable at 4°C for 7 days, but its activity decreased to about 50% of initial activity at 37°C in 7 days. PMID:24031708

  20. Stereochemical course of hydrolytic reaction catalyzed by alpha-galactosidase from cold adaptable marine bacterium of genus Pseudoalteromonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunina, Irina; Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasiliy; Slepchenko, Lyubov; Isakov, Vladimir; Rasskazov, Valeriy

    2014-10-01

    The recombinant α-galactosidase of the marine bacterium (α-PsGal) was synthesized with the use of the plasmid 40Gal, consisting of plasmid pET-40b (+) (Novagen) and the gene corresponding to the open reading frame of the mature α-galactosidase of marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, transformed into the E. coli Rosetta(DE3) cells. In order to understand the mechanism of action, the stereochemistry of hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl α-D-galactopyranoside (4-NPGP) by α-PsGal was measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The kinetics of formation of α- and β-anomer of galactose showed that α-anomer initially formed and accumulated, and then an appreciable amount of β-anomer appeared as a result of mutarotation. The data clearly show that the enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-NPGP proceeds with the retention of anomeric configuration, probably, due to a double displacement mechanism of reaction.

  1. [Cloning and expression of endoglucanase of marine cold-adapted bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1].

    PubMed

    You, Yin-wei; Wang, Tian-hong

    2005-02-01

    The cold-adapted gram-negative rod bacterium MB-1 which could secret cellulase was screened from mud of the bottom of the Huanghai. According to the sequence of 16S rDNA, this bacterium screened was identified as one species of Pseudoalteromonas and was named as Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. The gene celA encoding cold-adapted endogluanase was cloned and then jointed to pGEX-4T-1 to construct expression plasmid pGEX-celA which was expressed in E. coli BL21. Analysis to the supernatant of E. coli sonicate revealed that the concentration of GST-CelA was about 78.5 mg/L. Properties of the fusion enzyme of GST-CelA including the optimum temperature at 35 degrees C and the optimum pH about 7.2, showed that this fusion enzyme still belonged to cold-adapted enzyme and neutral enzyme. The result lays solid base for the fundamental theory and application research on cold-adapted cellulase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. MB-1. PMID:15847183

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis Strain UCD-SED8 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ruth D; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Coil, David A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis UCD-SED8, a marine bacterium normally associated with the production of tetrodotoxin in pufferfish. This strain was isolated from sediment samples surrounding Zostera marina roots collected from Bodega Marine, California. The assembly consists of 4,017,727 bp contained in 35 contigs. PMID:26543114

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis Strain UCD-SED8 (Phylum Gammaproteobacteria)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ruth D.; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M.; Coil, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis UCD-SED8, a marine bacterium normally associated with the production of tetrodotoxin in pufferfish. This strain was isolated from sediment samples surrounding Zostera marina roots collected from Bodega Marine, California. The assembly consists of 4,017,727 bp contained in 35 contigs. PMID:26543114

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain ND6B, an Oil-Degrading Isolate from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected at a Depth of 1,210 Meters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harris, Austin P.; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2014-11-26

    We report the draft genome of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain ND6B, which is able to grow with crude oil as a carbon source. Strain ND6B was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea deep water at a depth of 1,210 m. The genome of strain ND6B provides insight into the oil-degrading ability of the Pseudoalteromonas species.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain XI10 Isolated from the Brine-Seawater Interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guishan; Fauzi Haroon, Mohamed; Zhang, Ruifu; Hikmawan, Tyas

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain XI10 was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain XI10, a gammaproteobacterium that synthesizes polysaccharides for biofilm formation when grown in liquid culture. PMID:26966209

  6. Characterization of a cryptic plasmid pSM429 and its application for heterologous expression in psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pseudoalteromonas is an important genus widespread in marine environment, and a lot of psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas strains thrive in deep sea and polar sea. By now, there are only a few genetic systems for Pseudoalteromonas reported and no commercial Pseudoalteromonas genetic system is available, which impedes the study of Pseudoalteromonas, especially for psychrophilic strains. The aim of this study is to develop a heterologous expression system for psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas. Results A cryptic plasmid pSM429 isolated from psychrophilic Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429 from the Arctic sea ice, was sequenced and characterized. The plasmid pSM429 is 3874 bp in length, with a G+C content of 28%. Four putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on pSM429. Based on homology, the ORF4 was predicted to encode a replication initiation (Rep) protein. A shuttle vector (Escherichia coli, Pseudoalteromonas), pWD, was constructed by ligating pSM429 and pUC19 and inserting a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) cassette conferring chloramphenicol resistance. To determine the minimal replicon of pSM429 and to check the functionality of identified ORFs, various pWD derivatives were constructed. All derivatives except the two smallest ones were shown to allow replication in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429, a plasmid-cured strain of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429, suggesting that the orf4 and its flanking intergenic regions are essential for plasmid replication. Although not essential, the sequence including some repeats between orf1 and orf2 plays important roles in segregational stability of the plasmid. With the aid of pWD-derived plasmid pWD2, the erythromycin resistance gene and the cd gene encoding the catalytic domain of a cold-adapted cellulase were successfully expressed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429. Conclusions Plasmid pSM429 was isolated and characterized, and the regions essential for plasmid replication and stability were determined

  7. Discovery and Characterization of a Distinctive Exo-1,3/1,4-β-Glucanase from the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain BB1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Yoshio; Lamont, Iain L.; Cutfield, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Marine bacteria residing on local red, green, and brown seaweeds were screened for exo-1,3-β-glucanase (ExoP) activity. Of the 90 bacterial species isolated from 32 seaweeds, only one, a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display such activity. It was isolated from a Durvillaea sp., a brown kelp known to contain significant amounts of the storage polysaccharide laminarin (1,3-β-d-glucan with some 1,6-β branching). Four chromatographic steps were utilized to purify the enzyme (ExoP). Chymotryptic digestion provided peptide sequences for primer design and subsequent gene cloning. The exoP gene coded for 840 amino acids and was located just 50 bp downstream from a putative lichenase (endo-1,3-1,4-β-glucanase) gene, suggesting possible cotranscription of these genes. Sequence comparisons revealed ExoP to be clustered within a group of bacterial glycosidases with high similarity to a group of glycoside hydrolase (GH3) plant enzymes, of which the barley exo-1,3/1,4-β-glucanase (ExoI) is the best characterized. The major difference between the bacterial and plant proteins is an extra 200- to 220-amino-acid extension at the C terminus of the former. This additional sequence does not correlate with any known functional domain, but ExoP was not active against laminarin when this region was removed. Production of recombinant ExoP allowed substrate specificity studies to be performed. The enzyme was found to possess similar levels of exoglucanase activity against both 1,4-β linkages and 1,3-β linkages, and so ExoP is designated an exo-1,3/1,4-β-exoglucanase, the first such bacterial enzyme to be characterized. This broader specificity could allow the enzyme to assist in digesting both cell wall cellulose and cytoplasmic laminarin. PMID:20729316

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099 Isolated from the Hydrothermal Vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Zhou, Zhi; Gao, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequences of two strains, Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099, which were isolated from hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs with total sizes of 4.4 Mb and 4.1 Mb for DSM 16098 and DSM 16099, respectively. PMID:27563045

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099 Isolated from the Hydrothermal Vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Zhou, Zhi; Gao, Dahai; Wang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequences of two strains, Pseudoalteromonas telluritireducens DSM 16098 and P. spiralis DSM 16099, which were isolated from hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The reads generated by an Ion Torrent PGM were assembled into contigs with total sizes of 4.4 Mb and 4.1 Mb for DSM 16098 and DSM 16099, respectively. PMID:27563045

  10. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata Genome Reveals Properties of a Surface-Associated Life Style in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Torsten; Evans, Flavia F.; Schleheck, David; Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Burke, Catherine; Penesyan, Anahit; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Stelzer-Braid, Sacha; Saunders, Neil; Johnson, Justin; Ferriera, Steve; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Egan, Suhelen

    2008-01-01

    Background Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. Conclusions/Significance The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community

  11. Cloning and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase gene from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shangyong; Yang, Xuemei; Yu, Wengong; Han, Feng

    2015-12-01

    κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides exhibit various biological activities. Enzymatic degradation by κ-carrageenase is safe and controllable. Therefore, κ-carrageenases have captured more and more attentions. In this study, a κ-carrageenase encoding gene, cgkX, was cloned from Pseudoalteromonas sp. QY203 with degenerate and inverse PCR. It comprised an ORF of 1194 bp in length, encoding a protein with 397 amino acid residues. CgkX is a new member of glycoside hydrolase family 16. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a high similarity with CgkX of Pseudoalteromonas κ-carrageenase; however, the recombinant CgkX showed different biochemical characteristics. The recombinant enzyme was most active at pH 7.0 and 55°C in the presence of 300 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was stable in a broad range of acidity ranging from pH 3.0 to pH 10.0 when temperature was below 40°C. More than 80% of its activity was maintained after being incubated at pH 3.6-10.0 and 4°C for 24 h. CgkX retained more than 90% of activity after being incubated at 40°C for 1 h. EDTA and SDS (1 mmol L-1) did not inhibit its activity. CgkX hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan into disaccharide and tetrasaccharide as an endo-cleaver. All these characteristics demonstrated that CgkX is applicable to both κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide production and κ-carrageenase structure-function research.

  12. Modulation of violacein production and phenotypes associated with biofilm by exogenous quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactones in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14.

    PubMed

    Mireille Ayé, Armande; Bonnin-Jusserand, Maryse; Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Culioli, Gérald; Koffi Nevry, Rose; Rabah, Nadia; Blache, Yves; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2015-10-01

    Various phenotypes ranging from biofilm formation to pigment production have been shown to be regulated by quorum sensing (QS) in many bacteria. However, studies of the regulation of pigments produced by marine bacteria in saline conditions and of biofilm-associated phenotypes are scarcer. This study focuses on the demonstration of the existence of a QS communication system involving N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in the Mediterranean Sea strain Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14. We have investigated whether TC14 produces the violacein pigment, and whether intrinsic or exogenous AHLs could influence its production and modulate biofilm-associated phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that the purple pigment produced by TC14 is violacein. The study shows that in planktonic conditions, TC14 produces more pigment in the medium in which it grows less. Using different approaches, the results also show that TC14 does not produce intrinsic AHLs in our conditions. When exogenous AHLs are added in planktonic conditions, the production of violacein is upregulated by C6-, C12-, 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs (homoserine lactones), and downregulated by 3-oxo-C6-HSL. In sessile conditions, 3-oxo-C8-HSL upregulates the production of violacein. The study of the biofilm-associated phenotypes shows that oxo-derived-HSLs decrease adhesion, swimming and biofilm formation. While 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs decrease both swimming and adhesion, 3-oxo-C6-HSLs decrease not only violacein production in planktonic conditions but also swimming, adhesion and more subtly biofilm formation. Therefore, TC14 may possess a functional LuxR-type QS receptor capable of sensing extrinsic AHLs, which controls violacein production, motility, adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:26318530

  13. The antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Erylus deficiens (Astrophorida, Geodiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Ana Patrícia; Viana, Flávia; Bondoso, Joana; Correia, Maria Inês; Gomes, Luis; Humanes, Madalena; Reis, Alberto; Xavier, Joana R.; Gaspar, Helena; Lage, Olga M.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in the study of marine sponges and their associated microbiome has increased both for ecological reasons and for their great biotechnological potential. In this work, heterotrophic bacteria associated with three specimens of the marine sponge Erylus deficiens, were isolated in pure culture, phylogenetically identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The isolation of bacteria after an enrichment treatment in heterotrophic medium revealed diversity in bacterial composition with only Pseudoalteromonas being shared by two specimens. Of the 83 selected isolates, 58% belong to Proteobacteria, 23% to Actinobacteria and 19% to Firmicutes. Diffusion agar assays for bioactivity screening against four bacterial strains and one yeast, revealed that a high number of the isolated bacteria (68.7%) were active, particularly against Candida albicans and Vibrio anguillarum. Pseudoalteromonas, Microbacterium, and Proteus were the most bioactive genera. After this preliminary screening, the bioactive strains were further evaluated in liquid assays against C. albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Filtered culture medium and acetone extracts from three and 5 days-old cultures were assayed. High antifungal activity against C. albicans in both aqueous and acetone extracts as well as absence of activity against B. subtilis were confirmed. Higher levels of activity were obtained with the aqueous extracts when compared to the acetone extracts and differences were also observed between the 3 and 5 day-old extracts. Furthermore, a low number of active strains was observed against E. coli. Potential presence of type-I polyketide synthases (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) genes were detected in 17 and 30 isolates, respectively. The high levels of bioactivity and the likely presence of associated genes suggest that Erylus deficiens bacteria are potential sources of novel marine bioactive compounds. PMID:25999928

  14. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Isolation of cellulolytic actinomycetes from marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Veiga, M.; Esparis, A.; Fabregas, J.

    1983-07-01

    The cellulolytic activity of 36 actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments was investigated by the cellulose-azure method. Approximately 50% of the isolates exhibited various degrees of cellulolytic activity. 13 references.

  16. Marine yeast isolation and industrial application

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Abdelrahman Saleh; Tucker, Gregory A; Daw, Zakaria Yehia; Du, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last century, terrestrial yeasts have been widely used in various industries, such as baking, brewing, wine, bioethanol and pharmaceutical protein production. However, only little attention has been given to marine yeasts. Recent research showed that marine yeasts have several unique and promising features over the terrestrial yeasts, for example higher osmosis tolerance, higher special chemical productivity and production of industrial enzymes. These indicate that marine yeasts have great potential to be applied in various industries. This review gathers the most recent techniques used for marine yeast isolation as well as the latest applications of marine yeast in bioethanol, pharmaceutical and enzyme production fields. PMID:24738708

  17. Complete genome of brown algal polysaccharides-degrading Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii KCTC 12958(T) (=KMM 3549(T)).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Choe, Hanna; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, Doo-Sang; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2016-02-10

    Pseudoalteromonas issachenkonii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, chemoorganotrophic marine bacterium that was isolated from the thallus of Fucus evanescens (marine brown macroalgae) sampled from the Kraternaya Bight of the Kurile Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Here, we report the complete genome of P. issachenkonii KCTC 12958(T) (=KMM 3549(T)=LMG 19697(T)=CIP 106858(T)), which consists of 4,131,541 bp (G+C content of 40.3%) with two chromosomes, 3538 protein-coding genes, 102 tRNAs and 8 rRNA operons. Several genes related to glycoside hydrolases, proteases, and bacteriolytic- and hemolytic activities were detected in the genome that help explain how the strain mediates degradation of algal cell wall and decomposes algal polysaccharides into industrially applicable products. PMID:26732413

  18. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  19. Korormicin, a novel antibiotic specifically active against marine gram-negative bacteria, produced by a marine bacterium.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, K; Takadera, T; Adachi, K; Nishijima, M; Sano, H

    1997-11-01

    A novel antibiotic named korormicin was isolated from the marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. F-420. This strain was isolated from the surface of a macro alga Halimeda sp. collected from Palau (the Republic of Belau). The planar structure of korormicin was determined by the result of 2D NMR studies and mass spectral data. Korormicin had specific inhibitory activity against marine Gram-negative bacteria, but was inactive against terrestrial microorganisms. PMID:9592569

  20. Isolation of marine bacteria with antimicrobial activities from cultured and field-collected soft corals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hsin; Kuo, Jimmy; Sung, Ping-Jung; Chang, Yu-Chia; Lu, Mei-Chin; Wong, Tit-Yee; Liu, Jong-Kang; Weng, Ching-Feng; Twan, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Fu-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria associated with eight field-collected and five cultured soft corals of Briareum sp., Sinularia sp., Sarcophyton sp., Nephtheidae sp., and Lobophytum sp. were screened for their abilities in producing antimicrobial metabolites. Field-collected coral samples were collected from Nanwan Bay in southern Taiwan. Cultured corals were collected from the cultivating tank at National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium. A total of 1,526 and 1,138 culturable, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from wild and cultured corals, respectively; seawater requirement and antimicrobial activity were then assessed. There is no significant difference between the ratio of seawater-requiring bacteria on the wild and cultured corals. The ratio of antibiotic-producing bacteria within the seawater-requiring bacteria did not differ between the corals. Nineteen bacterial strains that showed high antimicrobial activity were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains could be assigned at the family level (Rhodobacteraceae). The remaining 16 strains belong to eight genera: Marinobacterium (2 strains), Pseudoalteromonas (1), Vibrio (5), Enterovibrio (1), Tateyamaria (1), Labrenzia (2), and Pseudovibrio (4). The crude extract from bacteria strains CGH2XX was found to have high cytotoxicity against the cancer cell line HL-60 (IC(50) = 0.94 μg/ml) and CCRF-CEM (IC(50) = 1.19 μg/ml). Our results demonstrate that the marine bacteria from corals have great potential in the discovery of useful medical molecules. PMID:22872580

  1. Development of a genetic system for the deep-sea psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gammaproteobacteria frequently found in deep-sea sediments, which may play important roles in deep-sea sediment ecosystem. Although genome sequence analysis of Pseudoalteromonas has revealed some specific features associated with adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment, it is still difficult to study how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. The aim of this study is to develop a genetic system in the deep-sea sedimentary bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, making it possible to perform gene mutation by homologous recombination. Results The sensitivity of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 to antibiotic was investigated and the erythromycin resistance gene was chosen as the selective marker. A shuttle vector pOriT-4Em was constructed and transferred into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 through intergeneric conjugation with an efficiency of 1.8 × 10-3, which is high enough to perform the gene knockout assay. A suicide vector pMT was constructed using pOriT-4Em as the bone vector and sacB gene as the counterselective marker. The epsT gene encoding the UDP-glucose lipid carrier transferase was selected as the target gene for inactivation by in-frame deletion. The epsT was in-frame deleted using a two-step integration–segregation strategy after transferring the suicide vector pMT into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. The ΔepsT mutant showed approximately 73% decrease in the yield of exopolysaccharides, indicating that epsT is an important gene involved in the EPS production of SM9913. Conclusions A conjugal transfer system was constructed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 with a wide temperature range for selection and a high transfer efficiency, which will lay the foundation of genetic manipulation in this strain. The epsT gene of SM9913 was successfully deleted with no selective marker left in the chromosome of the host, which thus make it

  2. Characterization of self-generated variants in Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica biofilm with increased antifouling activities.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenshun; Guo, Xing-Pan; Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Cai, Xingsheng; Tian, Xinpeng; Zhang, Si; Yang, Jin-Long; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2015-12-01

    Pseudoalteromonas is widespread in various marine environments, and most strains can affect invertebrate larval settlement and metamorphosis by forming biofilms. However, the impact and the molecular basis of population diversification occurring in Pseudoalteromonas biofilms are poorly understood. Here, we show that morphological diversification is prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas species during biofilm formation. Two types of genetic variants, wrinkled (frequency of 12±5%) and translucent (frequency of 5±3%), were found in Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica biofilms. The inducing activities of biofilms formed by the two variants on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus were significantly decreased, suggesting strong antifouling activities. Using whole-genome re-sequencing combined with genetic manipulation, two genes were identified to be responsible for the morphology alternations. A nonsense mutation in AT00_08765 led to a wrinkled morphology due to the overproduction of cellulose, whereas a point mutation in AT00_17125 led to a translucent morphology via a reduction in capsular polysaccharide production. Taken together, the results suggest that the microbial behavior on larval settlement and metamorphosis in marine environment could be affected by the self-generated variants generated during the formation of marine biofilms, thereby rendering potential application in biocontrol of marine biofouling. PMID:26264135

  3. Phylogenentic and enzymatic characterization of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant marine bacteria belong to γ-Proteobacteria group isolated from the sub-Antarctic Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Héctor A; Benito, Juliana; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Abate, Carlos M

    2015-05-01

    The phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of cultivable-dependent approaches were determined to establish the diversity of marine bacteria associated with the intestines of benthonic organisms and seawater samples from the Argentina's Beagle Channel. A total of 737 isolates were classified as psychrophlic and psychrotolerant culturable marine bacteria. These cold-adapted microorganisms are capable of producing cold-active glycosyl hydrolases, such as β-glucosidases, celulases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, chitinases, and proteases. These enzymes could have potential biotechnological applications for use in low-temperature manufacturing processes. According to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of part of genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA (ARDRA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB-RFLP), 11 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified and clustered in known genera using InfoStat software. The 50 isolates selected were sequenced based on near full sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB sequences and identified by their nearest neighbors ranging between 96 and 99 % of identities. Phylogenetic analyses using both genes allowed relationships between members of the cultured marine bacteria belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria group (Aeromonas, Halteromonas, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Serratia, Colwellia, Glacielocola, and Psychrobacter) to be evaluated. Our research reveals a high diversity of hydrolytic bacteria, and their products actuality has an industrial use in several bioprocesses at low-temperature manufacturing. PMID:25344742

  4. Filamentous phages prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas spp. confer properties advantageous to host survival in Arctic sea ice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Shen, Qing-Tao; Zhao, Dian-Li; Tang, Bai-Lu; Su, Hai-Nan; Wu, Zhao-Yu; Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Yu, Yong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice is one of the most frigid environments for marine microbes. In contrast to other ocean ecosystems, microbes in permanent sea ice are space confined and subject to many extreme conditions, which change on a seasonal basis. How these microbial communities are regulated to survive the extreme sea ice environment is largely unknown. Here, we show that filamentous phages regulate the host bacterial community to improve survival of the host in permanent Arctic sea ice. We isolated a filamentous phage, f327, from an Arctic sea ice Pseudoalteromonas strain, and we demonstrated that this type of phage is widely distributed in Arctic sea ice. Growth experiments and transcriptome analysis indicated that this phage decreases the host growth rate, cell density and tolerance to NaCl and H2O2, but enhances its motility and chemotaxis. Our results suggest that the presence of the filamentous phage may be beneficial for survival of the host community in sea ice in winter, which is characterized by polar night, nutrient deficiency and high salinity, and that the filamentous phage may help avoid over blooming of the host in sea ice in summer, which is characterized by polar day, rich nutrient availability, intense radiation and high concentration of H2O2. Thus, while they cannot kill the host cells by lysing them, filamentous phages confer properties advantageous to host survival in the Arctic sea ice environment. Our study provides a foremost insight into the ecological role of filamentous phages in the Arctic sea ice ecosystem. PMID:25303713

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis Strain MQS005, a Bacterium with Potential Quorum-Sensing Regulation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yonglong; Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xiaoqing; Mazumder, Asit; Liang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis strain MQS005, a bacterium possessing potential quorum-sensing regulatory activity. This strain was isolated from water from the South China Sea, People's Republic of China. The assembly consists of 4,252,538 bp and contains 144 contigs, with a G+C content of 41.85%. PMID:27491986

  6. Diversity of fungal isolates from three Hawaiian marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanzi; Wang, Guangyi

    2009-01-01

    Sponges harbor diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. However, the nature of sponge-fungal association and diversity of sponge-derived fungi have barely been addressed. In this study, the cultivation-dependent approach was applied to study fungal diversity in the Hawaiian sponges Gelliodes fibrosa, Haliclona caerulea, and Mycale armata. The cultivated fungal isolates were representatives of 8 taxonomic orders, belonging to at least 25 genera of Ascomycota and 1 of Basidiomycota. A portion of these isolates (n=15, 17%) were closely affiliated with fungal isolates isolated from other marine habitats; the rest of the isolates had affiliation with terrestrial fungal strains. Cultivated fungal isolates were classified into 3 groups: 'sponge-generalists'-found in all sponge species, 'sponge-associates'-found in more than one sponge species, and 'sponge-specialists'-found only in one sponge species. Individuals of G. fibrosa collected at two different locations shared the same group of 'sponge-specialists'. Also, representatives of 15 genera were identified for the first time in marine sponges. Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of sponge-derived fungi may provide critical information to distinguish between 'resident fungi' and 'transient fungi' in sponges as it has been done in other marine microbial groups. This is the first report of the host specificity analysis of culturable fungal communities in marine sponges. PMID:17681460

  7. Cytotoxic Sesterterpenoids Isolated from the Marine Sponge Scalarispongia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong-Geun; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun

    2014-01-01

    Eight scalarane sesterterpenoids, including four new compounds, were isolated from the marine sponge Scalarispongia sp. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 2D-NMR and HRMS analyses. All of the isolated compounds, with the exception of 16-O-deacetyl-12,16-epi-scalarolbutanolide, showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity (GI50 values down to 5.2 μM) against six human cancer cell lines. PMID:25375188

  8. Cryoprotective properties and preliminary characterization of exopolysaccharide (P-Arcpo 15) produced by the Arctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii Arcpo 15.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Byung-Gee; Park, Ha Ju; Yim, Joung Han

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-two bacterial strains that secrete exopolysaccharides (EPS) were isolated from marine samples obtained from the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean; of these, seven strains were found to be capable of producing cryoprotective EPS. The ArcPo 15 strain was isolated based on its ability to secrete large amounts of EPS, and was identified as Pseudoalteromonas elyakovii based on 16S rDNA analysis. The EPS, P-ArcPo 15, was purified by protease treatment and gel filtration chromatography. The purified EPS (P-ArcPo 15) had a molecular mass of 1.7 × 10(7) Da, and its infrared spectrum showed absorption bands of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. The principal sugar components of P-ArcPo 15 were determined to be mannose and galacturonic acid, in the ratio of 3.3:1.0. The cryoprotective properties of P-ArcPo 15 were characterized by an Escherichia coli viability test. In the presence of 0.5% (w/v) EPS, the survival percentage of E. coli cells was as high as 94.19 ± 7.81% over five repeated freeze-thaw cycles. These biochemical characteristics suggest that the EPS P-ArcPo 15 may be useful in the development of cryoprotectants for biotechnological purposes, and we therefore assessed the utility of this novel cryoprotective EPS. PMID:26810617

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain NW 4327 (MTCC 11073, DSM 25418), a Pathogen of the Great Barrier Reef Sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Jayanta D.; Pramanik, Arnab; Webster, Nicole S.; Llewellyn, Lyndon E.; Gachhui, Ratan

    2014-01-01

    To date, only one marine sponge pathogen (Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain NW 4327) has fulfilled Koch’s postulates. We report the 4.48-Mbp draft genome sequence of this strain, which is pathogenic to the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. The sequence provides valuable information on sponge-pathogen interactions, including the mode of transmission and associated virulence factors. PMID:24482504

  10. Biofilm formation by Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica and its removal by chlorine.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Periasamy; Nancharaiah, Y Venkata; Venugopalan, Vayalam P; Rao, T Subba; Jayachandran, Seetharaman

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of a recently described marine bacterium, SBT 033 GenBank Accession No. AY723742), Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica, at the seawater intake point, outfall and mixing point of an atomic power plant is described, and its ability to form biofilm was investigated. The effectiveness of the antifouling biocide chlorine in the inactivation of planktonic as well as biofilm cells of P. ruthenica was studied in the laboratory. The results show that the planktonic cells were more readily inactivated than the cells enclosed in a biofilm matrix. Viable counting showed that P. ruthenica cells in biofilms were up to 10 times more resistant to chlorine than those in liquid suspension. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it was shown that significant detachment of P. ruthenica biofilm developed on a glass substratum could be accomplished by treatment with a dose of 1 mg l-1 chlorine. Chlorine-induced detachment led to a significant reduction in biofilm thickness (up to 69%) and substratum coverage (up to 61%), after 5-min contact time. The results show that P. ruthenica has a remarkable ability to form biofilms but chlorine, a common biocide, can be used to effectively kill and detach these biofilms. PMID:17178570

  11. Antimicrobial potential of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Valli, S; Suvathi, Sugasini S; Aysha, OS; Nirmala, P; Vinoth, Kumar P; Reena, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Actinomycetes species isolated from marine environment. Methods Twenty one strains of Actinomycetes were isolated from samples of Royapuram, Muttukadu, Mahabalipuram sea shores and Adyar estuary. Preliminary screening was done using cross-streak method against two gram-positive and eight gram-negative bacteria. The most potent strains C11 and C12 were selected from which antibacterial substances were extracted. The antibacterial activities of the extracts were performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular identification of those isolates was done. Results All those twenty one isolates were active against at least one of the test organisms. Morphological characters were recorded. C11 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (13.0±0.5 mm), Vibrio harveyi (11.0±0.2 mm), Pseudomonas species (12.0±0.3 mm). C12 showed activity against Staphylococcus species (16.0±0.4 mm), Bacillus subtilis (11.0±0.2 mm), Vibrio harveyi (9.0±0.1 mm), Pseudomonas species (10.0±0.2 mm). 16S rRNA pattern strongly suggested that C11 and C12 strains were Streptomyces species. Conclusions The results of the present investigation reveal that the marine Actinomycetes from coastal environment are the potent source of novel antibiotics. Isolation, characterization and study of Actinomycetes can be useful in discovery of novel species of Actinomycetes. PMID:23569952

  12. Marine fungi isolated from Chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Rudolph, R; Novoa, V; Sáez, K; Martínez, M; Rudolph, A; Torres-Diaz, C; Becerra, J

    2016-08-01

    Salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of Southern Chile. This activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. We analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. We isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. The five isolated strains showed an activity on oxytetracycline and were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma deliquescens, Penicillium crustosum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Talaromyces atroroseus by a scanning electron microscopy and characterized by molecular techniques. Results showed significant degradation in the concentration of oxytetracycline at the first 2 days of treatment for all strains analyzed. At 21 days of treatment, the concentration of oxytetracycline was decreased 92 % by T. harzianum, 85 % by T. deliquescens, 83 % by P. crustosum, 73 % by R. mucilaginosa, and 72 % by T. atroroseus, all of which were significantly higher than the controls. Given these results, we propose that fungal strains isolated from marine sediments may be useful tools for biodegradation of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, in the salmon industry. PMID:27418075

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis Strain MQS005, a Bacterium with Potential Quorum-Sensing Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yonglong; Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xiaoqing; Mazumder, Asit

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis strain MQS005, a bacterium possessing potential quorum-sensing regulatory activity. This strain was isolated from water from the South China Sea, People’s Republic of China. The assembly consists of 4,252,538 bp and contains 144 contigs, with a G+C content of 41.85%. PMID:27491986

  14. Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    2000-01-01

    The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

  15. A direct pre-screen for marine bacteria producing compounds inhibiting quorum sensing reveals diverse planktonic bacteria that are bioactive.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Jamie S; Chang, Barbara J; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sutton, David C

    2015-02-01

    A promising new strategy in antibacterial research is inhibition of the bacterial communication system termed quorum sensing. In this study, a novel and rapid pre-screening method was developed to detect the production of chemical inhibitors of this system (quorum-quenching compounds) by bacteria isolated from marine and estuarine waters. This method involves direct screening of mixed populations on an agar plate, facilitating specific isolation of bioactive colonies. The assay showed that between 4 and 46 % of culturable bacteria from various samples were bioactive, and of the 95 selectively isolated bacteria, 93.7 % inhibited Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence without inhibiting growth, indicating potential production of quorum-quenching compounds. Of the active isolates, 21 % showed further activity against quorum-sensing-regulated pigment production by Serratia marcescens. The majority of bioactive isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplification and sequencing as belonging to the genera Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas. Extracts of two strongly bioactive Pseudoalteromonas isolates (K1 and B2) were quantitatively assessed for inhibition of growth and quorum-sensing-regulated processes in V. harveyi, S. marcescens and Chromobacterium violaceum. Extracts of the isolates reduced V. harveyi bioluminescence by as much as 98 % and C. violaceum pigment production by 36 % at concentrations which had no adverse effect on growth. The activity found in the extracts indicated that the isolates may produce quorum-quenching compounds. This study further supports the suggestion that quorum quenching may be a common attribute among culturable planktonic marine and estuarine bacteria. PMID:25082352

  16. Discovery of keratinases using bacteria isolated from marine environments.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Bastian; Overy, David P; Haltli, Bradley; Kerr, Russell G

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria are important for the biodegradation of keratin. Thus, a workflow to isolate keratin-degrading bacteria utilizing an optimized azo-keratin assay was established. Deteriorated feather samples, collected in marine shoreline environments from the intertidal zone, yielded 50 unique bacterial isolates exhibiting keratin degradation when feather meal was supplied as keratin substrate. The majority of isolates, identified by 16S sequencing, belonged to genera previously reported to produce keratinases: Bacillus spp. (42%) and Stenotrophomonas spp. (40%). The remaining 18% represented the genera Alcaligenes, Chryseobacterium, Salinivibrio, Delftia, Stappia, and Microbacterium, genera not previously been associated with keratinase production. The workflow, also applied to 21 Bacilli from our in-house culture collection, additionally revealed four Bacilli with remarkable feather degradation potential. The industrial applicability of their associated keratinases was evaluated and the most active keratinase expressed in E. coli to confirm keratinase expression. Enriched keratinase fractions demonstrated activity up to 75°C and retained viability when stored lyophilized at 20°C for up to 200d. PMID:26607323

  17. Synthesis of Cycloprodigiosin Identifies the Natural Isolate as a Scalemic Mixture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Rebecca E.; de Rond, Tristan; Lindsay, Vincent N. G.; Keasling, Jay D.; Sarpong, Richmond

    2015-07-17

    We prepared the enantiomers of the natural product cycloprodigiosin using an expedient five-step synthetic sequence that takes advantage of a Schöllkopf–Barton–Zard (SBZ) pyrrole annulation with a chiral isocyanoacetate and a nitrocyclohexene derivative. Using chiral HPLC and X-ray crystallographic analyses of the synthetically prepared material and natural isolate (isolated from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra), naturally occurring cycloprodigiosin was determined to be a scalemic mixture occurring in an enantiomeric ratio of 83:17 (R)/(S) at C4'.

  18. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the Mediterranean sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, U; Schmid, M; Wagner, M; Fieseler, L; Gernert, C; Hacker, J

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the marine sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cavernicola. The obtained 27 isolates could be subdivided into eight phylogenetically different clusters based on comparative sequence analysis of their 16S rDNA genes. The sponge isolates were affiliated with the low (Bacillus) and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Arthobacter, Micrococcus), as well as the alpha-Proteobacteria (unknown isolate) and gamma-Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas). One novel Bacillus species was identified and two species were closely related to previously uncharacterized strains. Isolates with antimicrobial activity were numerically most abundant in the genera Pseudoalteromonas and the alpha-Proteobacteria. The sponge isolates show antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative reference strains but not against the fungus Candida albicans. A general pattern was observed in that Gram-positive bacteria inhibited Gram-positive strains while Gram-negative bacteria inhibited Gram-negative isolates. Antimicrobial activities were also found against clinical isolates, i.e. multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from hospital patients. The high recovery of strains with antimicrobial activity suggests that marine sponges represent an ecological niche which harbors a hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial diversity and, concomitantly, a yet untapped metabolic potential. PMID:11311441

  19. Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Li, Juan; Xiao, Di; Lu, Jin-Xing; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated Y11T, was isolated from marine sediment at Weihai in China. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel isolate showed highest similarity to Saccharicrinis fermentans DSM 9555T (94.0 %) and Saccharicrinis carchari SS12T (92.7 %). Strain Y11T was a Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, yellow-pigmented bacterium and was able to hydrolyse agar weakly. It was catalase-negative, oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic and motile by gliding. Optimal growth occurred at 28-30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 34.4 mol%. The strain contained MK-7 as the prevalent menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C15 : 1ω6c. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unknown lipids. Data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study clearly place the strain as representing a novel species within the genus Saccharicrinis, for which the name Saccharicrinis marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y11T ( = CICC10837T = KCTC42400T). PMID:26297337

  20. Antifouling potential of bacteria isolated from a marine biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Rongguo; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Marine microorganisms are a new source of natural antifouling compounds. In this study, two bacterial strains, Kytococcus sedentarius QDG-B506 and Bacillus cereus QDG-B509, were isolated from a marine biofilm and identified. The bacteria fermentation broth could exert inhibitory effects on the growth of Skeletonema costatum and barnacle larvae. A procedure was employed to extract and identify the antifouling compounds. Firstly, a toxicity test was conducted by graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The best extraction conditions were found to be pH 2 and 100% petroleum ether. The EC 50 value of the crude extract of K. sedentarius against the test microalgae was 236.7 ± 14.08 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 290.6 ± 27.11 μg mL-1. Secondly, HLB SPE columns were used to purify the two crude extracts. After purification, the antifouling activities of the two extracts significantly increased: the EC 50 of the K. sedentarius extract against the test microalgae was 86.4 ± 3.71 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 92.6 ± 1.47 μg mL-1. These results suggest that the metabolites produced by the two bacterial strains are with high antifouling activities and they should be fatty acid compounds. Lastly, GC-MS was used for the structural elucidation of the compounds. The results show that the antifouling compounds produced by the two bacterial strains are myristic, palmitic and octadecanoic acids.

  1. Development of a Cold-Adapted Pseudoalteromonas Expression System for the Pseudoalteromonas Proteins Intractable for the Escherichia coli System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zi-Chao; Tang, Bai-Lu; Zhao, Dian-Li; Pang, Xiuhua; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Although the Escherichia coli expression system is the most commonly used expression system, some proteins are still difficult to be expressed by this system, such as proteins with high thermolability and enzymes that cannot mature by autoprocessing. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative expression systems. In this study, a cold-adapted Pseudoalteromonas expression system was developed. A shuttle vector was constructed, and a conjugational transfer system between E. coli and psychrophilic strain Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM20429 was established. Based on the shuttle vector, three reporter vectors were constructed to compare the strength of the cloned promoters at low temperature. The promoter of xylanase gene from Pseudoalteromonas sp. BSi20429 was chosen due to its high activity at 10-15°C. An expression vector pEV containing the chosen promoter, multiple cloning sites and a His tag was constructed for protein expression and purification. With pEV as expression vector and SM20429 as the host, a cold-adapted protease, pseudoalterin, which cannot be maturely expressed in E. coli, was successfully expressed as an active extracellular enzyme when induced by 2% oat spelt xylan at 15°C for 48 h. Recombinant pseudoalterin purified from the culture by Ni affinity chromatography had identical N-terminal sequence, similar molecular mass and substrate specificity as the native pseudoalterin. In addition, another two cold-adapted enzymes were also successfully expressed by this system. Our results indicate that this cold-adapted Pseudoalteromonas expression system will provide an alternative choice for protein expression, especially for the Pseudoalteromonas proteins intractable for the E. coli system. PMID:26333173

  2. Kocuria sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Bala, Monu; Kaur, Chandandeep; Kaur, Ishwinder; Khan, Fazlurrahman; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2012-03-01

    A Gram-positive, pinkish-orange pigmented, coccoid strain, FCS-11(T) was isolated from a marine sediment sample taken from Kochi fort area, Kerala, India and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic study. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain was determined and the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain FCS-11(T) should be assigned to the genus Kocuria. The chemotaxonomic data supported this taxonomic placement i.e. menaquinones MK-7(H(2)), MK-8(H(2)) and MK-9(H(2)); major fatty acids anteiso C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) as major polar lipids. Further phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the strain FCS-11(T) belonged to the genus Kocuria and is closely related to Kocuria turfanensis MTCC 10790(T) (99.4%) followed by Kocuria polaris MTCC 3702(T) (98.2%), Kocuria rosea MTCC 2522(T) (98.2%), Kocuria flava MTCC 10971(T) (98.2%), Kocuria aegyptia MTCC 10791(T) (98.0%), Kocuria himachalensis MTCC 7020(T) (97.5%) and Kocuria atrinae MTCC 10972(T) (97.1%). However, the DNA-DNA hybridisation values obtained between strain FCS-11(T) and other related strains were well below the threshold that is required for the proposal of a novel species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.7 mol%. The phenotypic and genotypic data showed that the strain FCS-11(T) merits the recognition as a representative of a novel species of the genus Kocuria. It is proposed that the isolate should be classified in the genus Kocuria as a novel species, Kocuria sediminis sp. nov. The type strain is FCS-11(T) (= MTCC 10969(T) = JCM 17929(T)). PMID:22012251

  3. Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Meghana N; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Venkata Ramana, V; Joseph, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-01-01

    A novel pale-pink coloured strain, designated NIO-1023(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample from Chorao Island, Goa, India. The taxonomic position of strain NIO-1023(T) was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. The cells were observed to be Gram-stain positive, coccal shaped and non-spore forming. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. The strain NIO-1023(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Deinococcus ficus (97.8 %), whereas other Deinococcus species showed less than 95 % sequence similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness with respect to D. ficus CC-FR2-10(T) was 23.9 %. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain NIO-1023(T) contains only menaquinone MK-8 as the respiratory quinone and a complex polar lipid profile consisting of different unidentified glycolipids and polar lipids, two unknown phospholipids and three unknown phosphoglycolipids. As in other deinococci, one of these phosphoglycolipids was predominant in the profile. The predominant fatty acids were identified as C17:1 w8c, C16:1 w6c/w7c, C15:1 w6c and C17:1 w9c. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain NIO-1023(T) was determined to be 67.2 mol%. The biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties demonstrate that strain NIO-1023(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Deinococcus enclensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1023(T) (=DSM 25127(T) = NCIM 5456(T)). PMID:25344421

  4. Unveiling the pan-genome of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs: molecular characterisation of new variable regions of SXT/R391-like ICEs detected in Pseudoalteromonas sp. and Vibrio scophthalmi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Blanco, Arturo; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2016-08-01

    Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have been identified in fish-isolated bacterial strains collected from marine aquaculture environments of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula. Here we analysed the variable regions of two ICEs, one preliminarily characterised in a previous study (ICEVscSpa3) and one newly identified (ICEPspSpa1). Bacterial strains harboring these ICEs were phylogenetically assigned to Vibrio scophthalmi and Pseudoalteromonas sp., thus constituting the first evidence of SXT/R391-like ICEs in the genus Pseudoalteromonas to date. Variable DNA regions, which confer element-specific properties to ICEs of this family, were characterised. Interestingly, the two ICEs contained 29 genes not found in variable DNA insertions of previously described ICEs. Most notably, variable gene content for ICEVscSpa3 showed similarity to genes potentially involved in housekeeping functions of replication, nucleotide metabolism and transcription. For these genes, closest homologues were found clustered in the genome of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans L19, suggesting a transfer as a block to ICEVscSpa3. Genes encoding antibiotic resistance, restriction modification systems and toxin/antitoxin systems were absent from hotspots of ICEVscSpa3. In contrast, the variable gene content of ICEPspSpa1 included genes involved in restriction/modification functions in two different hotspots and genes related to ICE maintenance. The present study unveils a relatively large number of novel genes in SXT/R391-ICEs, and demonstrates the major role of ICE elements as contributors to horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27230650

  5. Paracoccus sediminis sp. nov., isolated from Pacific Ocean marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Sun, Cong; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2014-08-01

    Strain CMB17(T) was a short rod-shaped bacterium isolated from marine sediment of the Pacific Ocean. Cells were Gram-stain-negative and non-motile. Optimal growth occurred at 25-30 °C, pH 6.5-7 and 0.5-1% (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c (87.59%), and ubiquinone-10 was detected as the only isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CMB17(T) is most closely related to Paracoccus stylophorae KTW-16(T) (96.7%), P. solventivorans DSM 6637(T) (96.4%) and P. saliphilus YIM 90738(T) (96.4%). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CMB17(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, denominated Paracoccus sediminis sp. nov. (type strain CMB17(T) = JCM 18467(T) = DSM 26170(T) = CGMCC 1.12681(T)). PMID:24812365

  6. Exploring Regulation Genes Involved in the Expression of L-Amino Acid Oxidase in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Lin, Jianxun; Zhao, Minyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) is believed to play important biological and ecological roles in marine niches, thus attracting increasing attention to understand the regulation mechanisms underlying its production. In this study, we investigated genes involved in LAAO production in marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1 using transposon mutagenesis. Of more than 4,000 mutants screened, 15 mutants showed significant changes in LAAO activity. Desired transposon insertion was confirmed in 12 mutants, in which disrupted genes and corresponding functionswere identified. Analysis of LAAO activity and lao gene expression revealed that GntR family transcriptional regulator, methylase, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, TonB-dependent heme-receptor family, Na+/H+ antiporter and related arsenite permease, N-acetyltransferase GCN5, Ketol-acid reductoisomerase and SAM-dependent methytransferase, and their coding genes may be involved in either upregulation or downregulation pathway at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational and/or posttranslational level. The nhaD and sdmT genes were separately complemented into the corresponding mutants with abolished LAAO-activity. The complementation of either gene can restore LAAO activity and lao gene expression, demonstrating their regulatory role in LAAO biosynthesis. This study provides, for the first time, insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating LAAO production in Pseudoalteromonas sp. Rf-1, which is important to better understand biological and ecological roles of LAAO. PMID:25815733

  7. Halomarina salina sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Mei; Xu, Jia-Qi; Zhou, Yao; Li, Yang; Lü, Zhen-Zhen; Hou, Jing; Zhu, Lin; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2016-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, designated ZS-57-S(T), was isolated from Zhoushan marine solar saltern, China. Cells were observed to be pleomorphic, stained Gram-negative and formed red pigmented colonies on agar plates. Optimal growth was obtained at 3.9 M NaCl (range 1.4-4.8 M), 0.3 M MgCl2 (range 0-1.0 M), 30 °C (range 20-55 °C) and pH 6.5-7.5 (range 5.5-9.0). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as C20C20 and C20C25 diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain ZS-57-S(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halomarina oriensis JCM 16495(T) (98.2 and 93.7 % similarities, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain ZS-57-S(T) was determined to be 67.1 mol% (T m). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain ZS-57-S(T) (=CGMCC 1.12543(T) = JCM 30039(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halomarina, for which the name Halomarina salina sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27198657

  8. Alkalimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Xin; Liu, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Strain FA028T, a beige-pigmented, facultatively anaerobic, heterotrophic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, was isolated from marine sediment of the coast of Weihai, China. Cells of strain FA028T were rod-shaped, 1–3 μm in length and 0.5 μm in width. The strain was able to grow at 13–37 °C, at pH 7.0–9.5 and in the presence of 1.0–4.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Optimal growth was observed at 28 °C, with 3.0 % NaCl and at pH 7.5–8.0. Nitrate was not reduced. The G+C content of the DNA was 43.4 mol%. The isoprenoid quinone was Q-9 and the main cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω9c and iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c. The major polar lipids in strain FA028T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol; phospholipid was present in moderate to minor amounts in the polar lipid profile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain FA028T was affiliated with the phylum Proteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that this isolate is unique, sharing < 93 % similarity with species of the families Alteromonadaceae and Oceanospirillaceae. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain FA028T should be classified as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Alteromonadaceae, for which the name Alkalimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Alkalimarinus sediminis is FA028T ( = CICC 10906T = KCTC 42258T). PMID:26297022

  9. The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline isolated from the arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibits marine micro- and macrobiofouling.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Kine O; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Petitbois, Julie; Haug, Tor; Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

    2014-12-01

    The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1-10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented. PMID:25051957

  10. Exopolysaccharides Play a Role in the Swarming of the Benthic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ang; Mi, Zi-Hao; Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yang; Su, Hai-Nan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Qin, Qi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Most marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharide (EPS), which is important for bacterial survival in the marine environment. However, it is still unclear whether the self-secreted EPS is involved in marine bacterial motility. Here we studied the role of EPS in the lateral flagella-driven swarming motility of benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (SM9913) by a comparison of wild SM9913 and ΔepsT, an EPS synthesis defective mutant. Reduction of EPS production in ΔepsT did not affect the growth rate or the swimming motility, but significantly decreased the swarming motility on a swarming plate, suggesting that the EPS may play a role in SM9913 swarming. However, the expression and assembly of lateral flagella in ΔepsT were not affected. Instead, ΔepsT had a different swarming behavior from wild SM9913. The swarming of ΔepsT did not have an obvious rapid swarming period, and its rate became much lower than that of wild SM9913 after 35 h incubation. An addition of surfactin or SM9913 EPS on the surface of the swarming plate could rescue the swarming level. These results indicate that the self-secreted EPS is required for the swarming of SM9913. This study widens our understanding of the function of the EPS of benthic bacteria. PMID:27092127

  11. Halomicroarcula salina sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain YGHS18(T) was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells from the strain were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YGHS18(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), with 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M) and at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimum NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 0.9 M. The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and a diglycosyl diether (DGD-2). Strain YGHS18(T) possessed two heterogeneous 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB) and both were related to those of members of the genera Haloarcula (93.1-96.9% sequence similarity) and Halomicroarcula (92.7-96.1% similarity). The rrnA gene (orthologous gene) of strain YGHS18(T) clustered phylogenetically with members of the genus Halomicroarcula while the rrnB gene formed a paraphyly with members of the genera Halomicroarcula and Haloarcula . The rpoB' gene of strain YGHS18(T) was related phylogenetically to species of the genera Halomicroarcula (91.6-92.7% sequence similarity) and Haloarcula (91.5-92.4% similarity). EF-2 gene analysis revealed that strain YGHS18(T) was related phylogenetically to species of the genus Halomicroarcula (92.2-92.9% sequence similarity) rather than to those of the genus Haloarcula (90.9-91.7% similarity). The DNA G+C content of strain YGHS18(T) was determined to be 64.5 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YGHS18(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12128(T) =JCM 18369(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halomicroarcula , for which the name Halomicroarcula salina sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25721722

  12. Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain TGN-42-S1(T) was isolated from the Tanggu marine solar saltern, China. Cells from strain TGN-42-S1(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35-37 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M), and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether (S-TeGD), and three unidentified glycolipids which were chromatographically identical to those of the Halobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain TGN-42-S1(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) (98.8 and 93.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively), Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T) (98.4 and 91.9 %), and Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102(T) (96.9 and 91.1 %). The DNA G + C content of strain TGN-42-S1(T) was determined to be 69.2 mol %. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hbt. jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) and Hbt. salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halobacterium. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain TGN-42-S1(T) (=CGMCC 1.12575(T) =JCM 19908(T)) represents a new species of Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25112838

  13. Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Xu, Jia-Qi; Xu, Wen-Mei; Wang, Zhao; Yin, Shuai; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, YGH94(T), was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near the Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells of the strain were observed to be short rods, stain Gram-negative and to form red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YGH94(T) was found to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 40 °C), at 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and four major glycolipids (disulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids chromatographically identical to glycolipids in Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T)). Strain YGH94(T) was found to possess two heterogeneous 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB) and both are related to those of Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) (92.7-98.6 % similarities), Halosimplex pelagicum R2(T) (94.6-99.2 % similarities) and Halosimplex rubrum R27(T) (92.9-98.8 % similarities). The rpoB' gene similarity between strain YGH94(T) and Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T), Hsx. pelagicum R2(T) and Hsx. rubrum R27(T) are 95.4, 94.9 and 95.1 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH94(T) was determined to be 64.0 mol%. Strain YGH94(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (35-39 %) with the current three members of the genus Halosimplex. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain YGH94(T) (=CGMCC 1.12235(T) = JCM 18647(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halosimplex, for which the name Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26059862

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Flynn, James D; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F; Klotz, Martin G; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Murrell, J Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D; Svenning, Mette M; Stein, Lisa Y; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Gammaproteobacterial Methanotrophs Isolated from Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, James D.; Hirayama, Hisako; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Dunfield, Peter F.; Knief, Claudia; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Khmelenina, Valentina N.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; Murrell, J. Colin; Semrau, Jeremy D.; Svenning, Mette M.; Stein, Lisa Y.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Bringel, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Stéphane; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Methylobacter marinus A45, Methylobacter sp. strain BBA5.1, and Methylomarinum vadi IT-4 were obtained. These aerobic methanotrophs are typical members of coastal and hydrothermal vent marine ecosystems. PMID:26798114

  16. Photobacterium swingsii sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Rotllant, Guiomar; Peinado, Lauro; Romalde, Jesus L; Doce, Alejandra; Cabanillas-Beltrán, Hector; Chimetto, Luciane A; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-02-01

    Six Gram-negative coccobacilli were isolated from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from Mexico and haemolymph of spider crabs (Maja brachydactyla) from Spain. All of the isolates grew as small green colonies on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar and were facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-positive and sensitive to the vibriostatic agent O/129. Repetitive palindromic PCR analysis revealed a high degree of genomic homogeneity among the isolates. Several phenotypic traits differentiated the isolates from the type strains of species of the genus Photobacterium. DNA-DNA relatedness between two representative isolates and their closest phylogenetic neighbours by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, Photobacterium aplysiae CAIM 14(T) and Photobacterium frigidiphilum CAIM 20(T), was 44.01-53.85 %. We propose a novel species of the genus Photobacterium to accommodate the six isolates, with the name Photobacterium swingsii sp. nov. The type strain is CAIM 1393(T) (=CECT 7576(T)). PMID:20228205

  17. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Epiphytic and Endophytic Fungi from Marine Organisms: Isolation, Bioassay and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Feng, Yan; Kang, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Gu, Peng-Juan; Wang, Yu; Ma, Li-Fang; Zhu, Yan-Hua

    2009-01-01

    In the search for new marine derived antibiotics, 43 epi- and endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the surface or the inner tissue of different marine plants and invertebrates. Through preliminary and secondary screening, 10 of them were found to be able to produce broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites. By morphological and molecular biological methods, three active strains were characterized to be Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata. PMID:19597575

  18. A novel cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine microalgae are of major ecologic and emerging economic importance. Biotechnological screening schemes of microalgae for specific traits and laboratory experiments to advance our knowledge on algal biology and evolution strongly benefit from culture collections reflecting a maximum of the natural inter- and intraspecific diversity. However, standard procedures for strain isolation and identification, namely DNA extraction, purification, amplification, sequencing and taxonomic identification still include considerable constraints increasing the time required to establish new cultures. Results In this study, we report a cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae. The throughput was increased by applying strain isolation on plates and taxonomic identification by direct PCR (dPCR) of phylogenetic marker genes in combination with a novel sequencing electropherogram based screening method to assess the taxonomic diversity and identity of the isolated cultures. For validation of the effectiveness of this approach, we isolated and identified a range of unialgal cultures from natural phytoplankton communities sampled in the Arctic Ocean. These cultures include the isolate of a novel marine Chlorophyceae strain among several different diatoms. Conclusions We provide an efficient and effective approach leading from natural phytoplankton communities to isolated and taxonomically identified algal strains in only a few weeks. Validated with sensitive Arctic phytoplankton, this approach overcomes the constraints of standard molecular characterisation and establishment of unialgal cultures. PMID:25114712

  19. Expression and enzymatic characterization of a cold-adapted β-agarase from Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Sha, Yujie

    2015-03-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium, designated as Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ21, was isolated from an Antarctic sediment sample. The agarase gene aga1161 from Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ21 consisting of a 2 382-bp coding region was cloned. The gene encodes a 793-amino acids protein and was found to possess characteristic features of the Glyco_hydro_42 family. The recombinant agarase (rAga1161) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a fusion protein. Enzyme activity analysis revealed that the optimum temperature and pH for the purified recombinant agarase were 30-40°C and 8.0, respectively. rAga1161 was found to maintain as much as 80% of its maximum activity at 10°C, which is typical of a coldadapted enzyme. The pattern of agar hydrolysis demonstrated that the enzyme is an β-agarase, producing neoagarobiose (NA2) as the final main product. Furthermore, this work is the first proof of an agarolytic activity in Antarctic bacteria and these results indicate the potential for the Antarctic agarase as a catalyst in medicine, food and cosmetic industries.

  20. A novel strategy for the construction of genomic mutants of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Maria; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Pezzella, Cinzia; Rippa, Valentina; Duilio, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The sequencing and the annotation of the marine Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 genome has paved the way to investigate on the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to cold conditions. The growing interest in this unique bacterium prompted the developing of several genetic tools for studying it at the molecular level. To allow a deeper understanding of the PhTAC125 physiology a genetic system for the reverse genetics in this bacterium was developed. In the present work, we describe a practical technique for allelic exchange and/or gene inactivation by in-frame deletion and the use of a counterselectable marker in P. haloplanktis. The construction of suitable non-replicating plasmid and methods used to carry out a two-step integration-segregation strategy in this bacterium are reported in detail.Furthermore two examples, in which the developed methodology was applied to find out gene function or to construct genetically engineered bacterial strains, were described. PMID:22160901

  1. Screening and selection of stress resistant Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-In; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Kwan Young; So, Jae-Seong

    2010-10-01

    We attempted to isolate Lactobacillus spp. from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and select stress resistant strains for development of a future marine aquaculture feed adjuvant. A total of 83 lactobacilli strains were isolated from oyster. They were all Gram-positive, rod-shaped and catalase-negative. By performing a stress resistance assay, we selected eighteen isolates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Lactobacillus paracasei was the most prevalent species among the selected isolates. The in vitro antagonistic effect of the selected strains against fish pathogens was assayed by measurement of inhibition diameters. Except for MH44, MH51, MH53 and MH62, most of the isolates showed inhibition of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio proteolyticus (diameters over 15 mm). Lactobacillus rhamnosus MH22 was selected as the most stress resistant strain showing the MICs of 1.8 M NaCl, 14% ethanol and 0.014% hydrogen peroxide. L. rhamnosus MH22 isolated from oyster has a potential to be applied as a microbial feed adjuvant for marine aquaculture. PMID:20633689

  2. Biogeographic Variation in Host Range Phenotypes and Taxonomic Composition of Marine Cyanophage Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, China A.; Marston, Marcia F.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the important role of phages in marine systems, little is understood about how their diversity is distributed in space. Biogeographic patterns of marine phages may be difficult to detect due to their vast genetic diversity, which may not be accurately represented by conserved marker genes. To investigate the spatial biogeographic structure of marine phages, we isolated over 400 cyanophages on Synechococcus host strain WH7803 at three coastal locations in the United States (Rhode Island, Washington, and southern California). Approximately 90% of the cyanophage isolates were myoviruses, while the other 10% were podoviruses. The diversity of isolates was further characterized in two ways: (i) taxonomically, using conserved marker genes and (ii) phenotypically, by testing isolates for their ability to infect a suite of hosts, or their “host range.” Because host range is a highly variable trait even among closely related isolates, we hypothesized that host range phenotypes of cyanophage isolates would vary more strongly among locations than would taxonomic composition. Instead, we found evidence for strong biogeographic variation both in taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, with little taxonomic overlap among the three coastal regions. For both taxonomic composition and host range phenotypes, cyanophage communities from California and Rhode Island were the most dissimilar, while Washington communities exhibited similarity to each of the other two locations. These results suggest that selection imposed by spatial variation in host dynamics influence the biogeographic distribution of cyanophages. PMID:27446023

  3. Isolation and characterization of novel marine-derived actinomycete taxa rich in bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Magarvey, Nathan A; Keller, Jessica M; Bernan, Valerie; Dworkin, Martin; Sherman, David H

    2004-12-01

    A unique selective enrichment procedure has resulted in the isolation and identification of two new genera of marine-derived actinobacteria. Approximately 90% of the microorganisms cultured by using the presented method were from the prospective new genera, a result indicative of its high selectivity. In this study, 102 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments collected from the Bismarck Sea and the Solomon Sea off the coast of Papua New Guinea. A combination of physiological parameters, chemotaxonomic characteristics, distinguishing 16S rRNA gene sequences, and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes provided strong evidence for the two new genera (represented by strains of the PNG1 clade and strain UMM518) within the family Micromonosporaceae. Biological activity testing of fermentation products from the new marine-derived actinomycetes revealed that several had activities against multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens, malignant cells, and vaccinia virus replication. PMID:15574955

  4. Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain MCTG268 Isolated from the Cosmopolitan Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Tony; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Copeland, Alex; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos; Markowitz, Victor; Pillay, Manoj; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Andersen, Evan; Pati, Amrita; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Cantor, Michael N; Woyke, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Marinobacter sp. strain MCTG268 was isolated from the cosmopolitan marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and can degrade oil hydrocarbons as sole sources of carbon and energy. Here, we present the genome sequence of this strain, which is 4,449,396 bp with 4,157 genes and an average G+C content of 57.0%. PMID:27609918

  5. Five New Amicoumacins Isolated from a Marine-Derived Bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Xu, Ying; Liu, Lingli; Han, Zhuang; Lai, Pok Yui; Guo, Xiangrong; Zhang, Xixiang; Lin, Wenhan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Four novel amicoumacins, namely lipoamicoumacins A–D (1–4), and one new bacilosarcin analog (5) were isolated from culture broth of a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis, together with six known amicoumacins. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (2D NNR, IR, CD and MS) analysis and in comparison with data in literature. PMID:22412803

  6. Sterol and steroid catabolites from cholesterol produced by the psychrophile Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis.

    PubMed

    Gelzo, Monica; Lamberti, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe; Dello Russo, Antonio; Corso, Gaetano; Masullo, Mariorosario

    2014-09-01

    Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, a psychrotrophilic marine bacterium of biotechnological interest, shows anti-biofilm properties and is particularly relevant for cold storage of vacuum packed seafood. We focused our interest on the activation of cholesterol metabolism in this bacterium as the presence in its genome of a putative 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1) -dehydrogenase. This study reports GC-MS and LC-MS/MS profiles of sterols/steroids and their derivatives found in cell extracts of P. haloplanktis grown in a medium with a low content of cholesterol. Here, for the first time, we suggest that P. haloplanktis produces some intermediates of cholesterol catabolism, putatively identified as 24-hydroxycholest-1,4-dien-3-one-26-oic acid, chol-1,4-dien-3-one-24-oic acid, 26-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one, and pregn-4-en-3-one-20-carboxylic acid, a finding already reported in other microorganisms. The presence of these compounds, also considered steroid precursors, produced by P. haloplanktis in vacuum packed seafood could be of interest for healthy of consumers, as well as, for biotechnological applications in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25230192

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Five Marine Cyanophages Propagated on Synechococcus sp. Strain WH7803

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, William H.; Joint, Ian R.; Carr, Noel G.; Mann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Five marine cyanophages propagated on Synechococcus sp. strain WH7803 were isolated from three different oceanographic provinces during the months of August and September 1992: coastal water from the Sargasso Sea, Bermuda; Woods Hole harbor, Woods Hole, Mass.; and coastal water from the English Channel, off Plymouth Sound, United Kingdom. The five cyanophage isolates were found to belong to two families, Myoviridae and Styloviridae, on the basis of their morphology observed in the transmission electron microscope. DNA purified from each of the cyanophage isolates was restricted with a selection of restriction endonucleases, and three distinguishably different patterns were observed. DNA isolated from Myoviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel had highly related restriction patterns, as did DNA isolated from Styloviridae isolates from Bermuda and the English Channel. DNA isolated from the Myoviridae isolate from Woods Hole had a unique restriction pattern. The genome size for each of the Myoviridae isolates was ca. 80 to 85 kb, and it was ca. 90 to 100 kb for each of the Styloviridae isolates. Southern blotting analysis revealed that there was a limited degree of homology among all cyanophage DNAs probed, but clear differences were observed between cyanophage DNA from the Myoviridae and that from the Styloviridae isolates. Polypeptide analysis revealed a clear difference between Myoviridae and Styloviridae polypeptide profiles, although the major, presumably structural, protein in each case was ca. 53 to 54 kDa. Images PMID:16349088

  8. Role of bacteria in marine barite precipitation: a case study using Mediterranean seawater.

    PubMed

    Torres-Crespo, N; Martínez-Ruiz, F; González-Muñoz, M T; Bedmar, E J; De Lange, G J; Jroundi, F

    2015-04-15

    Marine bacteria isolated from natural seawater were used to test their capacity to promote barite precipitation under laboratory conditions. Seawater samples were collected in the western and eastern Mediterranean at 250 m and 200 m depths, respectively, since marine barite formation is thought to occur in the upper water column. The results indicate that Pseudoalteromonas sp., Idiomarina sp. and Alteromonas sp. actually precipitate barite under experimental conditions. Barite precipitates show typical characteristics of microbial precipitation in terms of size, morphology and composition. Initially, a P-rich phase precipitates and subsequently evolves to barite crystals with low P contents. Under laboratory conditions barite formation correlates with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. Barite precipitates are particularly abundant in cultures where EPS production is similarly abundant. Our results further support the idea that bacteria may provide appropriate microenvironments for mineral precipitation in the water column. Therefore, bacterial production in the past ocean should be considered when using Ba proxies for paleoproductivity reconstructions. PMID:25647371

  9. Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Antarctic shallow-water marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico; Vaca, Inmaculada; Chávez, Renato

    2013-10-01

    During the characterization of the mycobiota associated with shallow-water marine environments from Antarctic sea, a novel pink yeast species was isolated. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S-ITS regions revealed that the isolated yeast was closely related to Rhodotorula pallida CBS 320(T) and Rhodotorula benthica CBS 9124(T). On the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel basidiomycetous yeast species, Rhodotorula portillonensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Pi2(T) ( = CBS 12733(T)  = CECT 13081(T)) which was isolated from shallow-water marine sediment in Fildes Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. PMID:23934251

  10. Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Chen, C; Li, J; Xiang, W; Wu, H; Wu, J; Dai, S; Wu, H; Li, T; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, red, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain A4T, was isolated from culture broth of a marine cyanobacterium. Cells were flexible rods with gliding motility. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain A4T formed a coherent cluster with members of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter, and represents a distinct lineage in the family Flammeovirgaceae. Thermotolerance and a distinctive cellular fatty acid profile could readily distinguish this isolate from any bacteria of the genera Roseivirga and Fabibacter with a validly published name. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain A4T is suggested to represent a novel species in a novel genus, for which the name Fabivirga thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A4T ( = KCTC 42507T = CGMCC 1.15111T). PMID:26652750

  11. Pollen baiting facilitates the isolation of marine thraustochytrids with potential in omega-3 and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Wilkens, Serena; Adcock, Jacqui L; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-11-01

    Marine heterotrophic microbes are capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids, omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids, and have potential for biodiesel production. Pollen baiting using Pinus radiata pollen grain along with direct plating techniques were used in this study as techniques for the isolation of oil-producing marine thraustochytrid species from Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia. Thirteen isolates were obtained using either direct plating or using pine pollen, with pine pollen acting as a specific substrate for the surface attachment of thraustochytrids. The isolates obtained from the pollen baiting technique showed a wide range of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulation, from 11 to 41 % of total fatty acid content (TFA). Direct plating isolates showed a moderate range of DHA accumulation, from 19 to 25 % of TFA. Seven isolates were identified on the basis of 18S rRNA sequencing technique as Thraustochytrium species, Schizochytrium species, and Ulkenia species. Although both methods appear to result in the isolation of similar strains, pollen baiting proved to be a simpler method for the isolation of these relatively slow-growing organisms. PMID:23990167

  12. A novel halotolerant xylanase from marine isolate Bacillus subtilis cho40: gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Khandeparker, Rakhee; Verma, Preeti; Deobagkar, Deepti

    2011-10-01

    Although several xylanases have been studied, only few xylanases from marine micro-organisms have been reported. We report here a novel halotolerant xylanase from marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis cho40 isolated from Chorao island of mandovi estuary Goa, India. Extracellular xylanase was produced by using agricultural residue such as wheat bran as carbon source under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The optimal pH and temperature of xylanase were reported to be 6.0 and 60°C, respectively. Xyn40 was highly salt-tolerant, and showed highest activity at 0.5M NaCl. Xylanase activity was greatly induced (140%) when pre-incubated with 0.5M NaCl for 4h. The xylanase gene, xyn40, from marine bacterium B. subtilis cho40 was cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The xylanase gene was 645 bp long and had a 215 amino acid ORF protein with a molecular mass of 22.9 kDa. It had all features of xylanase enzyme and showed homology to xylanases reported from B. subtilis. It differs from the earlier reported xylanase sequences by the presence of more serine residues compared to threonine and also by the presence of polar (hydrophilic) amino acids in higher abundance (61%) than non-polar amino acids (39%). The novel xylanase, reported in this study is a halotolerant enzyme from marine isolate and can play a very important role in bioethanol production from marine seaweeds. PMID:21890005

  13. Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Chimetto, Luciane; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Lang, Elke; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-12-01

    Five strains (CAIM 1831(T), CAIM 1832, CAIM 1833, CAIM 1834 and CAIM 1836) were isolated from cultured sole (Solea senegalensis) in two regions of Spain, two strains (CAIM 404 and CAIM 1294) from wild-caught spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) in Mexico, and one strain (CAIM 1835) from corals in Brazil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the novel isolates showed similarity to Vibrio ponticus (98.2-98.3%, GenBank accession no. AJ630103) and to a lesser degree to Vibrio furnissii (97.2-97.3%, X76336) and to Vibrio fluvialis (96.9-97.1%, X74703). Multilocus sequence analysis clustered these strains closely together and clearly separated them from phylogenetically related species of the genus Vibrio. Genomic fingerprinting by rep-PCR clustered the novel strains according to their geographical origin. Phenotypic analyses showed a large variation among the new strains, but many tests enabled them to be differentiated from other species of the genus Vibrio. The mean ΔT(m) values between the strains analysed here and closely related type strains were above 6.79 °C. The values between the novel isolates were below 2.35 °C, well outside the limit suggested for the delineation of a bacterial species. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented here clearly place these new strains as a coherent group within the genus Vibrio, for which we propose the name Vibrio alfacsensis sp. nov. with CAIM 1831(T) ( = DSM 24595(T) = S277(T)) as the type strain. PMID:22286904

  14. Ecological roles and biotechnological applications of marine and intertidal microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sayani; Sana, Barindra; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    This review is a retrospective of ecological effects of bioactivities produced by biofilms of surface-dwelling marine/intertidal microbes as well as of the industrial and environmental biotechnologies developed exploiting the knowledge of biofilm formation. Some examples of significant interest pertaining to the ecological aspects of biofilm-forming species belonging to the Roseobacter clade include autochthonous bacteria from turbot larvae-rearing units with potential application as a probiotic as well as production of tropodithietic acid and indigoidine. Species of the Pseudoalteromonas genus are important examples of successful surface colonizers through elaboration of the AlpP protein and antimicrobial agents possessing broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against medical and environmental isolates. Further examples of significance comprise antiprotozoan activity of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata elicited by violacein, inhibition of fungal colonization, antifouling activities, inhibition of algal spore germination, and 2-n-pentyl-4-quinolinol production. Nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas, emanates from surface-attached microbial activity of marine animals. Marine and intertidal biofilms have been applied in the biotechnological production of violacein, phenylnannolones, and exopolysaccharides from marine and tropical intertidal environments. More examples of importance encompass production of protease, cellulase, and xylanase, melanin, and riboflavin. Antifouling activity of Bacillus sp. and application of anammox bacterial biofilms in bioremediation are described. Marine biofilms have been used as anodes and cathodes in microbial fuel cells. Some of the reaction vessels for biofilm cultivation reviewed are roller bottle, rotating disc bioreactor, polymethylmethacrylate conico-cylindrical flask, fixed bed reactor, artificial microbial mats, packed-bed bioreactors, and the Tanaka photobioreactor. PMID:24817086

  15. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  16. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  17. Photobacterium sanguinicancri sp. nov. isolated from marine animals.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Roque, Ana; Rotllant, Guiomar; Romalde, Jesus L; Doce, Alejandra; Eggermont, Mieke; Defoirdt, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Six strains were isolated from the hemolymph of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla, captured in Spain, and one from a diseased blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. The 16S rRNA gene sequences showed close similarity to the recently described Photobacterium swingsii (98.1 %) and to a lesser degree to Photobacterium aquimaris (97.8 %). MLSA analyses showed a monophyletic group including P. swingsii that form a new subclade. All genomic analyses (Average Nucleotide Identity, Average Amino Acid Identity, and in silico DNA-DNA) clearly separate the strains analysed from P. swingsii with values below the thresholds to delimit a new species. The phenotypic, genotypic and genomic data presented here clearly place these strains as a coherent group within the genus Photobacterium, for which we propose the name Photobacterium sanguinicancri sp. nov. Strain CAIM 1827(T) (=CECT 7579(T), =DSM 24670(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the species. PMID:27048242

  18. Bacillus encimensis sp. nov. isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Mawlankar, Rahul; Mual, Poonam; Verma, Ashish; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Joseph, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2015-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated SGD-V-25(T) was isolated from Veraval sediment sample, India. Strain SGD-V-25(T) was capable of growing at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6-12 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-5% (w/v) NaCl. The taxonomic position of this strain was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the phylum Firmicutes , forming the cluster with Bacillus badius MTCC 1548(T), with which it shares highest similarity of 99.1% with 13 nt differences. Other type strains of the genus Bacillus showed less than 96% similarity. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile of strain SGD-V-25(T) showed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phsophoglycolipid and two aminophospholipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω11c and C16 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SGD-V-25(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain SGD-V-25(T) could be clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus Bacillus , and the name Bacillus encimensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate this strain. The type strain is SGD-V-25(T) ( =NCIM 5513(T) =DSM 28241(T)). PMID:25678682

  19. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. PMID:25171211

  20. Preliminary study on swarming marine bacteria isolated from Pulau Tinggi's sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairi, Fareed; Idris, Hamidah; Zakaria, Nur Syuhana; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Marine sponges were known to produce novel bioactive compounds that have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activities. Most of the bioactive compounds were secreted from the bacteria that lives on the sponges. The bacterial communities also produced biofilm, toxin or biosurfactant that protect the sponges from disease or in-coming predator. In this study, twenty nine marine bacteria with swarming motility characteristic was isolated from 2 different sponge samples collected in Pulau Tinggi These isolates were grown and their genome were extracted for molecular identification using the 16S rRNA approach. Sequence comparison using BLASTn and multiple alignments using MEGA4 was performed to produce a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 20 of the isolates were grouped under α-Proteobacteria that comprised of 19 isolates in the Vibrionaceae family and one belongs to Aeromonadaceae family. Furthermore, six isolates from Actinobacteria family and three isolates from Firmicutes were also detected. The swarming characteristic indicates the possible production of biosurfactant.

  1. Pressure-induced alteration in effects of high CO2 on marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, N.; Tsukasaki, A.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key mitigation technology to reduce the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Current CCS research is dominated by improvements of the efficiency of the capturing, transport or storage of CO2. Also, it is important to estimate potential impacts on marine environments related to potential CO2 leakage. It has been demonstrated that seawater acidification effects on marine community structure and food chains. Bacteria are the basis of marine microbial food web and responsible for a significant part of marine biogeochemical cycles in both water column and bottom sediments. We used a high pressure incubation system which is composed of an HPLC pump and stainless-steel pressure vessels. The system could maintain stably the pressure up to 30 MPa. Using the system, we investigated the effects of high CO2 concentration on a deep-sea bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp., isolated from the western North Pacific Ocean. The isolate was incubated in acidified seawaters at various CO2 concentrations under simulated pressure conditions between 0.1 MPa and 30 MPa. We determined bacterial growth rate and live/dead cell viability. It was found that both CO2 concentration and pressure influenced substantially the growth rate of the isolate. In order to assess potential effects of leaked CO2 on microbial assemblages in marine environments, it was suggested that hydraulic pressure is one essential variable to be considered.

  2. Loktanella sediminum sp. nov., isolated from marine surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhang, Zenghu; Liu, Yan; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic and short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain S3B03(T), was isolated from the sediment of the northern Okinawa Trough. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain S3B03(T) belonged to the genus Loktanella (family Rhodobacteraceae) and showed the highest sequence similarity with Loktanella litorea KCTC 23883(T) (96.16 %) and 92.99-95.90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other members of the genus Loktanella. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl at pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-32 °C. Ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) was the predominant respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain S3B03(T) was 57.6 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic analysis, strain S3B03(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella sediminum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S3B03(T) ( = JCM 30120(T) = DSM 28715(T) = MCCC 1K00257(T)). PMID:25428418

  3. Loktanella maritima sp. nov. isolated from shallow marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoto; Romanenko, Lyudmila A; Kurilenko, Valeriya V; Svetashev, Vassilii I; Kalinovskaya, Natalia I; Mikhailov, Valery V

    2014-07-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile bacterium, KMM 9530(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Sea of Japan seashore. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis positioned novel strain KMM 9530(T) in the genus Loktanella as a separate line adjacent to Loktanella sediminilitoris KCTC 32383(T), Loktanella tamlensis JCM 14020(T) and Loktanella maricola JCM 14564(T) with 98.5-98.2% sequence similarity. Strain KMM 9530(T) was characterized by its weak hydrolytic capacity and inability to assimilate most organic substrates. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10, polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown aminolipid and unknown lipids, and the major fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization, it can be concluded that the novel strain KMM 9530(T) represents a novel species in the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella maritima sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is KMM 9530(T) ( = NRIC 0919(T) = JCM 19807(T)). PMID:24744019

  4. Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2015-12-01

    The novel actinomycete strain PWB-003T, which produced fluostatins B and C antibiotics, was isolated from nearshore sediment collected from Panwa Cape, Phuket Province, Thailand. Data from the present polyphasic study indicated that strain PWB-003T represented a member of the genus Micromonospora. It produced single spores on substrate mycelia and contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Whole-cell hydrolysate contained ribose, xylose, arabinose, mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-10 (H4). Cellular fatty acids comprised C18 : 1ω9c, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, the novel strain was closely related to Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10T (99.38 %), Micromonospora chaiyaphumensis MC5-1T (99.16 %), Micromonospora yangpuensis FXJ6.011T (98.97 %), Micromonospora echinaurantiaca DSM 43904T (98.97 %), Micromonospora pallida DSM 43817T (98.97 %), Micromonospora sagamiensis DSM 43912T and Micromonospora auratinigra JCM 12357T (both 98.97 %). The G+C content of the DNA was 74.5 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness values among strain PWB-003T and related type strains ranged from 11.3 ± 1.3 to 38.8 ± 1.1 %. On the basis of these observations, strain PWB-003T could be distinguished from its closely related type strains and is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora fluostatini sp. nov. (type strain PWB-003T = JCM 30529T = PCU 341T = TISTR 2345T) is proposed. PMID:26358439

  5. Marine bacterioplankton diversity and community composition in an antarctic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Lo Giudice, Angelina; Caruso, Consolazione; Mangano, Santina; Bruni, Vivia; De Domenico, Maria; Michaud, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial community inhabiting the water column at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) was examined by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique and the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of 606 bacterial isolates. Overall, the FISH analysis revealed a bacterioplankton composition that was typical of Antarctic marine environments with the Cytophaga/Flavobacter (CF) group of Bacteroidetes that was equally dominant with the Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. As sampling was performed during the decay of sea-ice, it is plausible to assume the origin of Bacteroidetes from the sea-ice compartment where they probably thrive in high concentration of DOM which is efficiently remineralized to inorganic nutrients. This finding was supported by the isolation of Gelidibacter, Polaribacter, and Psychroflexus members (generally well represented in Antarctic sea-ice) which showed the ability to hydrolyze macromolecules, probably through the production of extracellular enzymes. A consistently pronounced abundance of the Gammaproteobacteria (67.8%) was also detected within the cultivable fraction. Altogether, the genera Psychromonas and Pseudoalteromonas accounted for 65.4% of total isolates and were ubiquitous, thus suggesting that they may play a key role within the analyzed bacterioplankton community. In particular, Pseudoalteromonas isolates possessed nitrate reductase and were able to hydrolyze substrates for protease, esterase, and β-galactosidase, thus indicating their involvement in the carbon and nitrogen cycling. Finally, the obtained results highlight the ability of the Actinobacteria to survive and proliferate in the Terra Nova Bay seawater as they generally showed a wide range of salt tolerance and appeared to be particularly competitive with strictly marine bacteria by better utilizing supplied carbon sources. PMID:21748267

  6. Phylogenetic characterization of three morphs of mussels (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) inhabiting isolated marine environments in Palau Islands.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadasuke V; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2011-08-01

    Marine lakes in the Palau Islands are known to harbor unique marine fauna that have remained isolated since the formation of the lakes after the Last Glacial Maximum. We analyzed mussels from marine lakes located on different islands and conducted morphological, phylogenetic and population genetic characterization to clarify their evolutionary history. The mussels were morphologically classified into three differentiated morphs: NS, ON, and MC. Their common characteristics were consistent with the Brachidontes-Hormomya complex of the Mytilidae family. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene supported the taxonomic position of the mussels among the Mytilidae. In the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene lineage, NS-and MC-morphs were highly diverged from each other; their estimated time of divergence dates back to the mid-Pleistocene. ON-morph was more closely related to MC-morph, although the shell morphologies of ON- and MC-morphs were easily distinguishable. Population genetic analysis revealed the coexistence of highly diverged haplotypes within a population of ON-morph, indicating introgression of mtDNA among the morphs. Our data suggest that morphological differentiation of marine lake mussels can occur in a relatively short period under different environmental conditions. Thus, the marine lakes provide a unique site for the study of diversification in mussels. PMID:21800997

  7. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  8. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Carotenogenic Flavobacterial Isolates from Marine Waters.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, Rama; Sachindra, Nakkarike M

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are known to possess immense nutraceutical properties and microorganisms are continuously being explored as natural source for production of carotenoids. In this study, pigmented bacteria belonging to Flavobacteriaceae family were isolated using kanamycin-containing marine agar and identified using the molecular techniques and their phenotypic characteristics were studied along with their potential to produce carotenoids. Analysis of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding patterns and the fragment size of the bands indicated that the 10 isolates fall under two major groups. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis the isolates were identified as Vitellibacter sp. (3 isolates), Formosa sp. (2 isolates) and Arenibacter sp. (5 isolates). Phenotypically, the isolates showed slight variation from the reported species of these three genera of Flavobacteriaceae. Only the isolates belonging to Vitellibacter and Formosa produced flexirubin, a typical yellow orange pigment produced by most of the organisms of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. were found to produce higher amount of carotenoids compared to Arenibacter sp. and zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoid produced by these two species. The study indicated that Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. can be exploited for production of carotenoids, particularly zeaxanthin. PMID:27281997

  9. Thymidine uptake, thymidine incorporation, and thymidine kinase activity in marine bacterium isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, W.H.; Paul, J.H. )

    1990-05-01

    One assumption made in bacterial production estimates from ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation is that all heterotrophic bacteria can incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA. Heterotrophic marine bacterium isolates from Tampa Bay, Fla., Chesapeake Bay, Md., and a coral surface microlayer were examined for thymidine uptake (transport), thymidine incorporation, the presence of thymidine kinase genes, and thymidine kinase enzyme activity. Of the 41 isolates tested, 37 were capable of thymidine incorporation into DNA. The four organisms that could not incorporate thymidine also transported the thymidine poorly and lacked thymidine kinase activity. Attempts to detect thymidine kinase genes in the marine isolates by molecular probing with gene probes made from Escherichia coli and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes proved unsuccessful. To determine if the inability to incorporate thymidine was due to the lack of thymidine kinase, one organism, Vibro sp. strain DI9, was transformed with a plasmid (pGQ3) that contained an E. coli thymidine kinase gene. Although enzyme assays indicated high levels of thymidine kinase activity in transformants, these cells still failed to incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA or to transport thymidine into cells. These results indicate that the inability of certain marine bacteria to incorporate thymidine may not be solely due to the lack of thymidine kinase activity but may also be due to the absence of thymidine transport systems.

  10. Antimicrobial activities of novel cultivable bacteria isolated from marine sponge Tedania anhelans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Ke, Caihuan; Wang, Dexiang

    2013-05-01

    Marine sponge Tedania anhelans distributes throughout the intertidal zone of Fujian, southeastern China, and is a potential source of natural bioactive products. The sponge harbors a large number of bacterial groups that have been identified using various techniques, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Fractionation of dissociated sponge allowed isolation of 25 bacterial species. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic analysis attributed most of these eubacteria to α- Proteobacteria, γ- Proteobacteria, Cytophaga / Flavobacterium / Bacteroidetes (CFB group), and the family Bacillaceae of Gram-positive bacteria. In sequence similarity, five putatively novel species were identified with less than 98% similarity to other strains in the NCBI database. Tests for antimicrobial activities were performed against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, antitumor indicators Escherichia coli 343/591 (with DNA repair deficiency), regular E. coli 343/636 (with different DNA repair capacity), and 10 bacterial isolates exhibited inhibitory bioactivities. Among these strains, three isolates were detected involving function gene NRPS-A domains, which were most closely related to the amino acid sequences of linear gramicidin synthetase and pyoverdine synthetase. These results contribute to our knowledge of the microbes associated with marine sponges and further reveal novel bacterial resources for the screening of bioactive marine natural products.

  11. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Vibrio spp. isolated from marine environment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chih-Ching; Chen, Chang-Chieh; Choi, Meng-Hui; Kung, Shieh-Shiuh; Wei, Yu-Hong

    2007-11-01

    Bacteria isolated from marine sediments were screened for their ability to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates. Among the isolates, four Vibrio spp. (strain M11, M14, M20 and M31) were studied in detail. All synthesized intracellular lipid inclusions during growth on diverse carbon sources including acetate, glycerol, succinate, glucose and sucrose. The inclusions were identified to be poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. No other type of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) was found to be accumulated by these marine isolates, suggesting that the diversity of PHAs produced in marine environments may be not as versatile as found in other environments. Strain M11 accumulated PHB in concentrations as high as 41% of cell dry weight when grown in medium containing 4% of sodium chloride. One of the Vibrio spp. was identified to be closely related to Vibrio natriegens (98% identity) by partial 16S rDNA sequence homology. V. natriegens has the shortest generation time (9.8 min) of any bacterium and this characteristic may be an exploitable trait for the industrial production of PHB. PMID:17416432

  12. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  13. Biodegradation of polyether algal toxins–Isolation of potential marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    SHETTY, KATEEL G.; HUNTZICKER, JACQUELINE V.; REIN, KATHLEEN S.; JAYACHANDRAN, KRISH

    2012-01-01

    Marine algal toxins such as brevetoxins, okadaic acid, yessotoxin, and ciguatoxin are polyether compounds. The fate of polyether toxins in the aqueous phase, particularly bacterial biotransformation of the toxins, is poorly understood. An inexpensive and easily available polyether structural analog salinomycin was used for enrichment and isolation of potential polyether toxin degrading aquatic marine bacteria from Florida bay area, and from red tide endemic sites in the South Florida Gulf coast. Bacterial growth on salinomycin was observed in most of the enrichment cultures from both regions with colony forming units ranging from 0 to 6 × 107 per mL. The salinomycin biodegradation efficiency of bacterial isolates determined using LC-MS ranged from 22% to 94%. Selected bacterial isolates were grown in media with brevetoxin as the sole carbon source to screen for brevetoxin biodegradation capability using ELISA. Out of the two efficient salinomycin biodegrading isolates MB-2 and MB-4, maximum brevetoxin biodegradation efficiency of 45% was observed with MB-4, while MB-2 was unable to biodegrade brevetoxin. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity MB-4 was found have a match with Chromohalobacter sp. PMID:20954040

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Ethane, Propane, and Butane Consuming Bacteria from Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, M. C.; Valentine, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    Three strains of ethane, propane, or butane consuming bacteria were isolated from marine hydrocarbon seep sediments at Coal Oil Point, off shore Santa Barbara, CA. These three isolates (MR1, MR2 and MR3) were capable of growth at natural environmental temperatures and salinity. Isolate MR2 was capable of growth on ethane or propane as the sole carbon source, isolate MR4 on propane or butane, and isolate MR3 on ethane, propane, or butane. All three isolates were also able to grow on other carbon-containing molecules, including ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, acetate, butyrate, sucrose, and dextrose, and isolates MR3 and MR4 were able to grow on 1-butanol and 2-butanol. None showed significant growth with methane, methanol, or formate as the sole carbon source. 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that isolate MR2 was most closely related to the gamma-Proteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri, while isolates MR3 and MR4 were both Gram-positive and most similar to Rhodococcus wratislaviensis and Rhodococcus opacus, respectively. Compared to methanotrophs, relatively little is known about the organisms that consume the C2-C4 alkanes, but both our isolates and the previously described species appear to be capable of metabolizing a wide variety of carbon compounds, including several common pollutants. The growth of these hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria on other organic compounds raises the possibility that the abundance and distribution of organic matter might be expected to impact the oxidation of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. Additional studies will further characterize the range of metabolism, and will investigate the importance of these organisms in natural hydrocarbon seep environments.

  15. Recent Developments in the Isolation, Synthesis, and Bioactivities of Bispyrroloquinone Alkaloids of Marine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean continues to provide a plethora of unique scaffolds capable of remarkable biological applications. A large number of pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, including discorhabdins, epinardins, batzellines, makaluvamines, and veiutamine have already been isolated from marine organisms. A class of pyrroloiminoquinone-related alkaloids known as bispyrroloquinones is the focus of this review. This family of marine alkaloids, which contain an aryl substituted bispyrroloquinone ring system, includes three subclasses of alkaloids namely, wakayin, tsitsikammamines A-B and zyzzyanones A-D. Both wakayin and the tsitsikammamines contain a tetracyclic fused bispyrroloiminoquinone ring system, while zyzzyanones contain a fused tricyclic bispyrroloquinone ring system. The unique chemical structures of these marine natural products and their diverse biological properties, including antifungal and antimicrobial activity, as well as the potent, albeit generally nonspecific and universal cytotoxicities, have attracted great interest of synthetic chemists over the past three decades. Tsitsikammamines, wakayin, and several of their analogues show inhibition of topoisomerases. One additional possible mechanism of anticancer activity of tsitsikammamines analogues that was discovered recently is through the inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, an enzyme involved in tumoral immune resistance. This review discusses the isolation, synthesis, and bioactivities of bispyrroloquinone alkaloids and their analogues. PMID:26253489

  16. Recent advances in isolation, synthesis, and evaluation of bioactivities of bispyrroloquinone alkaloids of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E

    2015-08-01

    The ocean continues to provide a plethora of unique scaffolds capable of remarkable biological applications. A large number of pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids, including discorhabdins, epinardins, batzellines, makaluvamines, and veiutamine, have been isolated from various marine organisms. A class of pyrroloiminoquinone-related alkaloids, known as bispyrroloquinones, is the focus of this review article. This family of marine alkaloids, which contain an aryl substituted bispyrroloquinone ring system, includes three subclasses of alkaloids namely, wakayin, tsitsikammamines A-B, and zyzzyanones A-D. Both wakayin and the tsitsikammamines contain a tetracyclic fused bispyrroloiminoquinone ring system, while zyzzyanones contain a fused tricyclic bispyrroloquinone ring system. The unique chemical structures of these marine natural products and their diverse biological properties, including antifungal and antimicrobial activity, as well as the potent, albeit generally nonspecific and universal cytotoxicities, have attracted great interest of synthetic chemists over the past three decades. Tsitsikammamines, wakayin, and several of their analogs show inhibition of topoisomerases. One additional possible mechanism of anticancer activity of tsitsikammamines analogs that has been discovered recently is through the inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, an enzyme involved in tumoral immune resistance. This review discusses the isolation, synthesis, and evaluation of bioactivities of bispyrroloquinone alkaloids and their analogs. PMID:26253489

  17. Fulvibacter tottoriensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2008-07-01

    A novel bacterium, MTT-39(T), was isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected at Tottori on the coast of the Sea of Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. The bacterium formed yellowish brown colonies on marine agar 2216. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MTT-39(T) classified this strain as a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, the maximum sequence similarity obtained was only 91.5 % (with Kordia algicida OT-1(T)). In the maximum-likelihood tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the novel bacterium clustered with the type strains of Kordia algicida, Lutibacter litoralis, Tenacibaculum maritimum and Polaribacter filamentus. The novel strain exhibited the following characteristics: the predominant fatty acids in cells grown on artificial seawater-based tryptic soya agar were iso-C(15 : 1), iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, the major respiratory quinone was MK-6 and the DNA G+C content was 35 mol%. On the basis of its distinct phenotypic traits and the phylogenetic distance between this marine isolate and other recognized taxa, strain MTT-39(T) represents a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Fulvibacter tottoriensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is MTT-39(T) (=NBRC 102624(T)=KCTC 22214(T)=CGMCC 1.7058(T)). PMID:18599714

  18. Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Christiane S.; Amorim, Simone D.; Santos, André Felipe das M.; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Ott, Paulo Henrique; Rodrigues, Dalia dos Prazeres

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ) and southern (RS) coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/ UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl), APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 18–24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar) and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P. shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A. veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%), A. caviae (12.3%), A. hydrophila (9.6%) and P. shigelloides (7%). The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species. PMID:24031302

  19. Isolation and identification of Perkinsus olseni from feces and marine sediment using immunological and molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Il; Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Cho, Moonjae; Park, Kwang-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-11-01

    Molecular and immunological probes were used to identify various life stages of Perkinsus olseni, a protozoan parasite of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, from a marine environment and decomposing clam tissue. Western blotting revealed that the antigenic determinants of the rabbit anti-P. olseni antibody developed in this study were peptides with molecular masses of 55.9, 24.0, and 19.2kDa. Immunofluorescent assay indicated that the rabbit anti-P. olseni IgG was specific to all life stages, including the prezoosporangium, trophozoite, and zoospore. Perkinsus olseni prezoosporangium-like cells were successfully isolated from marine sediment collected from Hwangdo on the west coast of Korea, where P. olseni-associated clam mortality has recurred for the past decade. Purified cells were positively stained with the rabbit anti-P. olseni antibody in an immunofluorescence assay, confirming for the first time the presence of P. olseni in marine sediment. Actively replicating zoospores inside the prezoosporangia were observed in the decomposing clam tissue collected from Hwangdo. P. olseni was also isolated from the feces and pseudofeces of infected clams and confirmed by PCR. The clams released 1-2 prezoosporangia per day through feces. The data suggested that the fecal discharge and decomposition of the infected clam tissue could be the two major P. olseni transmission routes. PMID:20691188

  20. Biomineralization processes of calcite induced by bacteria isolated from marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Cui, Hongpeng; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; He, Hao; Fang, Nianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Biomineralization is a known natural phenomenon associated with a wide range of bacterial species. Bacterial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation by marine isolates was investigated in this study. Three genera of ureolytic bacteria, Sporosarcina sp., Bacillus sp. and Brevundimonas sp. were observed to precipitate calcium carbonate minerals. Of these species, Sporosarcina sp. dominated the cultured isolates. B. lentus CP28 generated higher urease activity and facilitated more efficient precipitation of calcium carbonate at 3.24 ± 0.25 × 10−4 mg/cell. X-ray diffraction indicated that the dominant calcium carbonate phase was calcite. Scanning electron microscopy showed that morphologies of the minerals were dominated by cubic, rhombic and polygonal plate-like crystals. The dynamic process of microbial calcium carbonate precipitation revealed that B. lentus CP28 precipitated calcite crystals through the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea, and that when ammonium ion concentrations reached 746 mM and the pH reached 9.6, that favored calcite precipitation at a higher level of 96 mg/L. The results of this research provide evidence that a variety of marine bacteria can induce calcium carbonate precipitation, and may influence the marine carbonate cycle in natural environments. PMID:26273260

  1. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  2. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean samples.

    PubMed Central

    Baya, A M; Brayton, P R; Brown, V L; Grimes, D J; Russek-Cohen, E; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 microgram of one of a set of chemicals selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmid DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites. PMID:3755317

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Piezophilic Bacteria from Deep Marine Subsurface Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runko, G. M.; Fang, J.; Kato, C.

    2014-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere remains as the least studied of all of Earth's habitats and is inadequately understood, but is extremely important to understand the impacts that microbes have on global biogeochemical cycles. Sediment samples were obtained during IODP Expedition 337 in the western Pacific Ocean, from 1,498 meters below the seafloor (mbsf; samples 6R3), 1,951-1,999 mbsf (19R1), and 2,406 mbsf (29R7). These samples were initially mixed with marine broth and cultivated under anaerobic conditions at pressure of 35 MPa (megapascal) and temperatures of 35° C, 45° C, and 55° C for 3 months on board the Chikyu. Single colonies were isolated via plating on marine broth. Then, six strains of bacteria were identified, 6R3-1, 6R3-15, 19R1-5, 29R7-12B, 29R7-12M, and 29R7-12S. The six strains were then examined for optimal growth temperature and pressure. These organisms are Gram-positive, spore-forming, facultative anaerobic piezophilic bacteria. Major fatty acids are anteiso-15:0, anteiso-17:0 and iso-15:0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates are closely related to Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Robinsoniella peoriensis, and Bacillus subtilis. Because of their abundance in the deep marine subsurface, these microorganisms likely play an important role in sustaining the deep microbial ecosystem and influencing biogeochemical cycles in the deep biosphere.

  4. Isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of a new isobenzofuran derivative from marine Streptomyces sp. W007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Xie, Zeping; Lou, Tingting; Jiang, Peng

    2016-03-01

    A new isobenzofuran derivative ( 1) was isolated from the marine Streptomyces sp. W007 and its structure was determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by a combination of experimental analyses and comparison with reported data, including biogenetic reasoning, J-coupling analysis, NOESY, and 1H-1HCOSY. Compound 1 exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells of gastric cancer BGC-823, lung cancer A549, and breast cancer MCF7.

  5. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  6. Elastolytic Mechanism of a Novel M23 Metalloprotease Pseudoalterin from Deep-sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Weiss, Anthony S.; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is a common insoluble protein that is abundant in marine vertebrates, and for this reason its degradation is important for the recycling of marine nitrogen. It is still unclear how marine elastin is degraded because of the limited study of marine elastases. Here, a novel protease belonging to the M23A subfamily, secreted by Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 from deep-sea sediment, was purified and characterized, and its elastolytic mechanism was studied. This protease, named pseudoalterin, has low identities (<40%) to the known M23 proteases. Pseudoalterin has a narrow specificity but high activity toward elastin. Analysis of the cleavage sites of pseudoalterin on elastin showed that pseudoalterin cleaves the glycyl bonds in hydrophobic regions and the peptide bonds Ala–Ala, Ala–Lys, and Lys–Ala involved in cross-linking. Two peptic derivatives of desmosine, desmosine-Ala-Ala and desmosine-Ala-Ala-Ala, were detected in the elastin hydrolysate, indicating that pseudoalterin can dissociate cross-linked elastin. These results reveal a new elastolytic mechanism of the M23 protease pseudoalterin, which is different from the reported mechanism where the M23 proteases only cleave glycyl bonds in elastin. Genome analysis suggests that M23 proteases may be popular in deep-sea sediments, implying their important role in elastin degradation. An elastin degradation model of pseudoalterin was proposed, based on these results and scanning electron microscopic analysis of the degradation by pseudoalterin of bovine elastin and cross-linked recombinant tropoelastin. Our results shed light on the mechanism of elastin degradation in deep-sea sediment. PMID:23012370

  7. Antibacterial potential of antagonistic Streptomyces sp. isolated from marine sponge Dendrilla nigra.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Joseph; Joseph, Soniya; Asha, K R T; Manjusha, W A; Sangeetha, V S; Jayaseema, D M; Antony, M C; Denslin Vinitha, A J

    2004-11-01

    The role of Streptomyces sp. (BTL7) in synthesis of antibacterial agents reported from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was evaluated. Selective isolation of actinomycetes was performed on the newly developed selective media, Sponge Agar (SA) 1 and SA 2. The growth rate and antibiotic production were increased on the media supplemented with sponge extract. The chosen isolate BTL7 showed inhibitory interaction with Micrococcus luteus and the extracellular products contained potent antibacterial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration of BTL7 against M. luteus was 44 microg protein/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 88 microg protein/ml. Peak antibacterial activity was observed at 72 h in batch culture. Based on the findings, it could be inferred that bacterial endosymbionts sponges could form a reliable source for bioprospecting of next generation pharmaceutical agents. PMID:19712370

  8. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  9. Biological surface-active compounds from marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nga Phuong; Landfald, Bjarne; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2016-01-01

    Surface-active compounds (SACs) are widely used in different industries as well as in many daily consumption products. However, with the increasing concern for their environmental acceptability, attention has turned towards biological SACs which are biodegradable, less toxic and more environmentally friendly. In this work, 176 marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial isolates from petroleum-contaminated sites along the Norwegian coastline were isolated and screened for their capacity to produce biological SACs. Among them, 18 isolates were capable of reducing the surface tension of the culture medium by at least 20 mN m(-1) and/or capable of maintaining more than 40% of the emulsion volume after 24 h when growing on glucose or kerosene as carbon and energy source. These isolates were members of the genera Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Rhodococcus, Catenovulum, Cobetia, Glaciecola, Serratia, Marinomonas and Psychromonas. Two isolates, Rhodococcus sp. LF-13 and Rhodococcus sp. LF-22, reduced surface tension of culture medium by more than 40 mN m(-1) when growing on kerosene, n-hexadecane or rapeseed oil. The biosurfactants were produced by resting cells of the two Rhodococcus strains suggesting the biosynthesis of the biosurfactants was not necessarily associated with their growth on hydrocarbons. PMID:26506920

  10. Antibacterial activity and QSAR of chalcones against biofilm-producing bacteria isolated from marine waters.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P M; Prabhawathi, V; Doble, M

    2010-04-01

    Biofouling in the marine environment is a major problem. In this study, three marine organisms, namely Bacillus flexus (LD1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (MD3) and Vibrio natriegens (MD6), were isolated from biofilms formed on polymer and metal surfaces immersed in ocean water. Phylogenetic analysis of these three organisms indicated that they were good model systems for studying marine biofouling. The in vitro antifouling activity of 47 synthesized chalcone derivatives was investigated by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration against these organisms using a twofold dilution technique. Compounds C-5, C-16, C-24, C-33, C-34 and C-37 were found to be the most active. In the majority of the cases it was found that these active compounds had hydroxyl substitutions. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed after dividing the total data into training and test sets. The statistical measures r(2), [image omitted] (>0.6) q(2) (>0.5) and the F-ratio were found to be satisfactory. Spatial, structural and electronic descriptors were found to be predominantly affecting the antibiofouling activity of these compounds. Among the spatial descriptors, Jurs descriptors showed their contribution in all the three antibacterial QSARs. PMID:20544550

  11. Marine Fungal and Bacterial Isolates for Lipase Production: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Patnala, H S; Kabilan, U; Gopalakrishnan, L; Rao, R M D; Kumar, D S

    2016-01-01

    Lipases, belonging to the class of enzymes called hydrolases, can catalyze triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol. They are produced by microbes of plant and animal origin, and also by marine organisms. As marine microorganisms thrive in extreme conditions, lipases isolated from their origin possess characteristics of extremozymes, retain its activity in extreme conditions and can catalyze few chemical reactions which are impossible otherwise relative to the lipase produced from terrestrial microorganisms. Lipases are useful in many industries like detergent, food, leather, pharmaceutical, diary, etc. Few commercial enzymes have been developed and the use of them in certain industries like dairy, soaps are proved to be beneficial. There are few research papers reporting the production of lipase from marine bacteria and fungi. Lipase production involves two types of fermentation processes-solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Although SmF process is used conventionally, SSF process produces lipase in higher amounts. The production is also influenced by the composition of the medium, physiochemical parameters like temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources. PMID:27452166

  12. Isolation and expression of two aquaporin-encoding genes from the marine phanerogam Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Maestrini, Pierluigi; Giordani, Tommaso; Lunardi, Andrea; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2004-12-01

    Seagrasses such as Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile are marine phanerogams, widespread in various seas, where they form large prairies representing dynamic substrates exceeding the area of the sediment surface several times over and allowing settlement of epiphyte organisms. Studying mechanisms involved in water transport in marine plants, we isolated two aquaporin-encoding genes, PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1, showing high similarity to plasma membrane- and tonoplast-intrinsic protein-encoding genes, respectively. PoPIP1;1 is unique in the genome of P. oceanica, while PoTIP1;1 belongs to an aquaporin subfamily of at least four members. PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 encode functional proteins, as indicated by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Both genes are constitutively expressed in the leaves, with higher levels of transcripts in young than in differentiated leaf tissues. Variations of salt concentration in aquarium determined different PoPIP1;1 and PoTIP1;1 transcript accumulation, indicating the existence of adaptation mechanisms related to gene expression also in marine plants, i.e. adapted to very high salt concentrations. Hyposalinity induced lower levels of PIP1 transcripts, while hypersalinity determined more PIP1 transcripts than normal salinity. TIP1 transcripts increased in response to both hypo- and hypersalinity after 2 days of treatment and went back to control levels after 5 d. PMID:15653802

  13. Marine AChE inhibitors isolated from Geodia barretti: natural compounds and their synthetic analogs.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elisabeth K; Hansen, Espen; W K Moodie, Lindon; Isaksson, Johan; Sepčić, Kristina; Cergolj, Marija; Svenson, Johan; Andersen, Jeanette H

    2016-02-01

    Barettin, 8,9-dihydrobarettin, bromoconicamin and a novel brominated marine indole were isolated from the boreal sponge Geodia barretti collected off the Norwegian coast. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of electric eel acetylcholinesterase. Barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin displayed significant inhibition of the enzyme, with inhibition constants (Ki) of 29 and 19 μM respectively towards acetylcholinesterase via a reversible noncompetitive mechanism. These activities are comparable to those of several other natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors of marine origin. Bromoconicamin was less potent against acetylcholinesterase, and the novel compound was inactive. Based on the inhibitory activity, a library of 22 simplified synthetic analogs was designed and prepared to probe the role of the brominated indole, common to all the isolated compounds. From the structure-activity investigation it was shown that the brominated indole motif is not sufficient to generate a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, even when combined with natural cationic ligands for the acetylcholinesterase active site. The four natural compounds were also analysed for their butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in addition and shown to display comparable activities. The study illustrates how both barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin display additional bioactivities which may help to explain their biological role in the producing organism. The findings also provide new insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:26695619

  14. Shimia sagamensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Yuichi; Mori, Kozue; Uchida, Hiromi; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    A novel marine bacterial strain designated JAMH 011(T) was isolated from the cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, aerobic chemo-organotrophs and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth occurred at temperatures below 31 °C, with the optimum at 25 °C. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain was closely affiliated with members of the genus Shimia in the class Alphaproteobacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of the novel isolate with the type strain of the closest related species, Shimia haliotis WM35(T), was 98.1%. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 57.3 mol%. The hybridization values for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain JAMH 011(T) and reference strains belonging to the genus Shimia were less than 9.4 ± 0.7%. Based on differences in taxonomic characteristics, the isolated strain represents a novel species of the genus Shimia, for which the name Shimia sagamensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAMH 011(T) ( = JCM 30583(T) = DSM 29734(T)). PMID:25977284

  15. Induction and characterization of a lysogenic bacteriophage of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from marine fish species.

    PubMed

    Hoai, T D; Yoshida, T

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of prophages in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from several marine fish species in Japan. Representative strains of 16 bacterial genotypes (S1-S16) selected from more than 400 L. garvieae isolates were used to induce lysogenic bacteriophages. These strains were treated with 500 ng mL(-1) freshly prepared mitomycin C. A cross-spotting assay was performed to validate the lysogenic and indicator strains. The lysogenic strains were selected for isolation and concentration of the phages. Phage DNA was digested with EcoRI for biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect integrated prophage DNA. Of the 16 representative bacterial genotypes, 12 strains integrated prophages as indicated by the PCR assay, and 10 phages were detected and isolated using two indicator bacterial strains. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that these phages were homologous and named as PLgT-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of PLgT-1 was consistent with the virus family Siphoviridae. PCR analysis of the prophage DNA revealed that all of the S1 genotype strains were lysogenic (30/30), but none of the S16 genotype strains were lysogenic (0/30). This is the first study to investigate lysogenic bacteriophages from L. garvieae. PMID:26471724

  16. Taxonomic assessment and enzymes production by yeasts isolated from marine and terrestrial Antarctic samples.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A W F; Dayo-Owoyemi, I; Nobre, F S; Pagnocca, F C; Chaud, L C S; Pessoa, A; Felipe, M G A; Sette, L D

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic identity of yeasts isolated from the Antarctic continent and to evaluate their ability to produce enzymes (lipase, protease and xylanase) at low and moderate temperatures. A total of 97 yeast strains were recovered from marine and terrestrial samples collected in the Antarctica. The highest amount of yeast strains was obtained from marine sediments, followed by lichens, ornithogenic soils, sea stars, Salpa sp., algae, sea urchin, sea squirt, stone with lichens, Nacella concinna, sea sponge, sea isopod and sea snail. Data from polyphasic taxonomy revealed the presence of 21 yeast species, distributed in the phylum Ascomycota (n = 8) and Basidiomycota (n = 13). Representatives of encapsulated yeasts, belonging to genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus were recovered from 7 different Antarctic samples. Moreover, Candida glaebosa, Cryptococcus victoriae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and R. laryngis were the most abundant yeast species recovered. This is the first report of the occurrence of some species of yeasts recovered from Antarctic marine invertebrates. Additionally, results from enzymes production at low/moderate temperatures revealed that the Antarctic environment contains metabolically diverse cultivable yeasts, which could be considered as a target for biotechnological applications. Among the evaluated yeasts in the present study 46.39, 37.11 and 14.43 % were able to produce lipase (at 15 °C), xylanase (at 15 °C) and protease (at 25 °C), respectively. The majority of lipolytic, proteolytic and xylanolytic strains were distributed in the phylum Basidiomycota and were mainly recovered from sea stars, lichens, sea urchin and marine sediments. PMID:24114281

  17. Complete genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842, harboring a putative conjugative plasmid pMBL6842.

    PubMed

    Li, Baiyuan; Wang, Pengxia; Zeng, Zhenshun; Cai, Xingsheng; Wang, Guanghua; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-04-20

    Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of Gram-negative and is ubiquitously distributed in the ocean. Many Pseudoalteromonas species are capable of producing pigments, which can serve as an alternative source to replace synthetic pigments used in the food industry. Prodigiosins belong to a family of secondary metabolite characterized by a common pyrrolyl pyrromethane skeleton, and have been successfully applied to yogurt, milk and carbonated drinks as substitutes for synthetic additives. The strain Pseudoalteromonas rubra SCSIO 6842 can produce cycloprodigiosin and harbors a conjugative plasmid. Here we report the complete genome of P. rubra SCSIO 6842 for a better understanding of the molecular basis of cycloprodigiosin production and regulation. PMID:26970053

  18. Isolation and distribution of iridescent Cellulophaga and other iridescent marine bacteria from the Charente-Maritime coast, French Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Kientz, Betty; Agogué, Hélène; Lavergne, Céline; Marié, Pauline; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2013-06-01

    An intense colored marine bacterium, identified as Cellulophaga lytica, was isolated previously from a sea anemone surface on the Charente-Maritime rocky shore (Atlantic Coast, France), and iridescence of its colonies under direct light was recently described. In addition, iridescence intensities were found to differ strongly between C. lytica strains from different culture collections. However, importantly, the occurrence and distribution of iridescent bacteria in the marine environment were still unknown. Therefore, in this study, a search was undertaken for marine iridescent bacterial strains in different biotopes of the Charente-Maritime coast. Various marine samples (water, sediment, macroalgae, other macroorganisms and detritus) were collected from seven biotopes using a direct plate inoculation method. As a result, 34 iridescent strains related to the genus Cellulophaga, as well as 63 iridescent strains affiliated to the genera Tenacibaculum and Aquimarina, were isolated. Iridescent colors were different according to the genera but iridescent marine bacteria were widely distributed. However, a majority of strains were isolated from rocky shores and, in particular, red seaweed surfaces and mollusks. The data from the study suggested that isolates with iridescent properties were well conserved in stressful environments such as the coastal shoreline. This origin may provide an insight into the ecological and biological functions of iridescence. PMID:23623798

  19. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  20. Gordonia didemni sp. nov. an actinomycete isolated from the marine ascidium Didemnum sp.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; de Souza, Wallace Rafael; Parma, Márcia; de Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana

    2016-02-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated isolate B204(T), was isolated from a marine ascidian Didemnum sp., collected from São Paulo, Brazil, and its taxonomic position established using data from a polyphasic study. The organism showed a combination of chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Gordonia and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Gordonia 16S rRNA gene tree. It was closely related to Gordonia terrae DSM 43249(T) (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Gordonia lacunae DSM 45085(T) (99.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) but was distinguished from these strains by a moderate level of DNA-DNA relatedness (63.0 and 54.7 %) and discriminatory phenotypic properties. Based on the data obtained, the isolate B204(T) (=CBMAI 1069(T) = DSM 46679(T)) should therefore be classified as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia didemni sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26678782

  1. Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Total Synthesis of Lajollamide A from the Marine Fungus Asteromyces cruciatus

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Hong, Hanna; Correa, Jhonny; Egereva, Ekaterina; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gross, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The marine-derived filamentous fungus Asteromyces cruciatus 763, obtained off the coast of La Jolla, San Diego, USA, yielded the new pentapeptide lajollamide A (1), along with the known compounds regiolone (2), hyalodendrin (3), gliovictin (4), 1N-norgliovicitin (5), and bis-N-norgliovictin (6). The planar structure of lajollamide A (1) was determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of lajollamide A (1) was unambiguously solved by total synthesis which provided three additional diastereomers of 1 and also revealed that an unexpected acid-mediated partial racemization (2:1) of the L-leucine and L-N-Me-leucine residues occurred during the chemical degradation process. The biological activities of the isolated metabolites, in particular their antimicrobial properties, were investigated in a series of assay systems. PMID:23342379

  2. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Algicidal Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinJoo; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the biological community, serving as the principal primary producers in the food web and sustaining oxygen levels in aquatic environments. Among marine planktonic diatoms, the cosmopolitan Skeletonema costatum is one of the most abundant and widespread species in the world’s oceans. Here, we report the basic characteristics of a new diatom-infecting S. costatum virus (ScosV) isolated from Jaran Bay, Korea, in June 2008. ScosV is a polyhedral virus (45–50 nm in diameter) that propagates in the cytoplasm of host cells and causes lysis of S. costatum cultures. The infectivity of ScosV was determined to be strain- rather than species-specific, similar to other algal viruses. The burst size and latent period were roughly estimated at 90–250 infectious units/cell and <48 h, respectively. PMID:26060438

  3. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Algicidal Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, JinJoo; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the biological community, serving as the principal primary producers in the food web and sustaining oxygen levels in aquatic environments. Among marine planktonic diatoms, the cosmopolitan Skeletonema costatum is one of the most abundant and widespread species in the world's oceans. Here, we report the basic characteristics of a new diatom-infecting S. costatum virus (ScosV) isolated from Jaran Bay, Korea, in June 2008. ScosV is a polyhedral virus (45-50 nm in diameter) that propagates in the cytoplasm of host cells and causes lysis of S. costatum cultures. The infectivity of ScosV was determined to be strain- rather than species-specific, similar to other algal viruses. The burst size and latent period were roughly estimated at 90-250 infectious units/cell and <48 h, respectively. PMID:26060438

  4. Marine bacterial isolates inhibit biofilm formation and disrupt mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Chari; Begum, Mansur Farzana; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2010-09-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, biofilms cause 65% of infections in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm cause life threatening infections in cystic fibrosis infection and they are 1,000 times more tolerant to antibiotic than the planktonic cells. As quorum sensing, hydrophobicity index and extracellular polysaccharide play a crucial role in biofilm formation, extracts from 46 marine bacterial isolates were screened against these factors in P. aeruginosa. Eleven extracts showed antibiofilm activity. Extracts of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) and S6-15 (Bacillus pumilus = MTCC 5560) inhibited the formation of PAO1 biofilm up to 95% in their Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration(BIC) of 50 and 60 microg/ml and 85% and 64% in the subinhibitory concentrations (1/4 and 1/8 of the BIC, respectively). Furthermore, the mature biofilm was disrupted to 70-74% in their BIC. The antibiofilm compound from S6-15 was partially purified using solvent extraction followed by TLC and silica column and further characterized by IR analysis. Current study for the first time reveals the antibiofilm and antiquorum-sensing activity of B. pumilus, B. indicus, Bacillus arsenicus, Halobacillus trueperi, Ferrimonas balearica, and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus from marine habitat. PMID:20665017

  5. Biodegradation of Free Phytol by Bacterial Communities Isolated from Marine Sediments under Aerobic and Denitrifying Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rontani, Jean-François; Bonin, Patricia C.; Volkman, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Biodegradation of (E)-phytol [3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2(E)-en-1-ol] by two bacterial communities isolated from recent marine sediments under aerobic and denitrifying conditions was studied at 20°C. This isoprenoid alcohol is metabolized efficiently by these two bacterial communities via 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and (E)-phytenic acid. The first step in both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation of (E)-phytol involves the transient production of (E)-phytenal, which in turn can be abiotically converted to 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one. Most of the isoprenoid metabolites identified in vitro could be detected in a fresh sediment core collected at the same site as the sediments used for the incubations. Since (E)-phytenal is less sensitive to abiotic degradation at the temperature of the sediments (15°C), the major part of (E)-phytol appeared to be biodegraded in situ via (E)-phytenic acid. (Z)- and (E)-phytenic acids are present in particularly large quantities in the upper section of the core, and their concentrations quickly decrease with depth in the core. This degradation (which takes place without significant production of phytanic acid) is attributed to the involvement of alternating β-decarboxymethylation and β-oxidation reaction sequences induced by denitrifiers. Despite the low nitrate concentration of marine sediments, denitrifying bacteria seem to play a significant role in the mineralization of (E)-phytol. PMID:10584007

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Methanesulfonic Acid-Degrading Bacteria from the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. S.; Owens, N.; Murrell, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Two methylotrophic bacterial strains, TR3 and PSCH4, capable of growth on methanesulfonic acid as the sole carbon source were isolated from the marine environment. Methanesulfonic acid metabolism in these strains was initiated by an inducible NADH-dependent monooxygenase, which cleaved methanesulfonic acid into formaldehyde and sulfite. The presence of hydroxypyruvate reductase and the absence of ribulose monophosphate-dependent hexulose monophosphate synthase indicated the presence of the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation. Cell suspensions of bacteria grown on methanesulfonic acid completely oxidized methanesulfonic acid to carbon dioxide and sulfite with a methanesulfonic acid/oxygen stoichiometry of 1.0:2.0. Oxygen electrode-substrate studies indicated the dissimilation of formaldehyde to formate and carbon dioxide for energy generation. Carbon dioxide was not fixed by ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. It was shown that methanol is not an intermediate in methanesulfonic acid metabolism, although these strains grew on methanol and other one-carbon compounds, as well as a variety of heterotrophic carbon sources. These two novel marine facultative methylotrophs have the ability to mineralize methanesulfonic acid and may play a role in the cycling of global organic sulfur. PMID:16535055

  7. Genome sequence and emended description of Leisingera nanhaiensis strain DSM 24252T isolated from marine sediment

    PubMed Central

    Breider, Sven; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jörn; Chertkov, Olga; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Simon, Meinhard; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Leisingera nanhaiensis DSM 24252T is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from sandy marine sediments. Here we present the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation together with a summary of the organism's phenotypic features. The 4,948,550 bp long genome with its 4,832 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and six extrachromosomal elements with lengths of 236 kb, 92 kb, 61 kb, 58 kb, 56 kb, and 35 kb, respectively. The analysis of the genome showed that DSM 24252T possesses all genes necessary for dissimilatory nitrite reduction, and the strain was shown to be facultatively anaerobic, a deviation from the original description that calls for an emendation of the species. Also present in the genome are genes coding for a putative prophage, for gene-transfer agents and for the utilization of methylated amines. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that L. nanhaiensis might not belong to the genus Leisingera. PMID:25197454

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from wastewater and wastewater-impacted marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Artichowicz, Wojciech; Tarasewicz, Katarzyna; Fudala-Ksiazek, Sylwia

    2015-12-01

    In this study, species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. were studied in influent (INF), effluent (EFF), and marine outfall (MOut) of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The susceptibility was tested against 8 antimicrobial classes, active against Pseudomonas spp.: aminoglycosides, carbapenems, broad-spectrum cephalosporins from the 3rd and 4th generation, extended-spectrum penicillins, as well as their combination with the β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, fluoroquinolones, and polymyxins. Among identified species, resistance to all antimicrobials but colistin was shown by Pseudomonas putida, the predominant species in all sampling points. In other species, resistance was observed mainly against ceftazidime, ticarcillin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and aztreonam, although some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, and Pseudomonas protegens showed multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype. Among P. putida, resistance to β-lactams and to fluoroquinolones as well as multidrug resistance become more prevalent after wastewater treatment, but the resistance rate decreased in marine water samples. Obtained data, however, suggests that Pseudomonas spp. are equipped or are able to acquire a wide range of antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and thus should be monitored as possible source of resistance genes. PMID:26286796

  9. Isolation of Surfactant-Resistant Bacteria from Natural, Surfactant-Rich Marine Habitats▿

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Craig J.; Coe, Kieran M.; Plante, Rebecca G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental remediation efforts often utilize either biodegradative microbes or surfactants, but not in combination. Coupling both strategies holds the potential to dramatically increase the rate and extent of remediation because surfactants can enhance the bioavailability of contaminants to microbes. However, many surfactants permeabilize bacterial cell membranes and are effective disinfectants. An important goal then is to find or genetically modify microorganisms that possess both desirable degradative capabilities and the ability to thrive in the presence of surfactants. The guts of some marine invertebrates, particularly deposit feeders, have previously been shown to contain high levels of biosurfactants. Our primary aim was to mine these natural, surfactant-rich habitats for surfactant-resistant bacteria. Relative to sediment porewaters, the gut contents of two polychaete deposit feeders, Nereis succinea and Amphitrite ornata, exhibited a significantly higher ratio of bacteria resistant to both cationic and anionic surfactants. In contrast, bacteria in the gut fluids of a holothuroid, Leptosynapta tenuis, showed surfactant susceptibility similar to that of bacteria from sediments. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the majority of surfactant-resistant isolates were previously undescribed species of the genus Vibrio or were of a group most closely related to Spongiobacter spp. We also tested a subset of resistant bacteria for the production of biosurfactants. The majority did produce biosurfactants, as demonstrated via the oil-spreading method, but in all cases, production was relatively weak under the culture conditions employed. Novel surfactant-resistant, biosurfactant-producing bacteria, and the habitats from which they were isolated, provide a new source pool for potential microorganisms to be exploited in the in situ bioremediation of marine sediments. PMID:18586977

  10. Adhesion of marine cryptic Escherichia isolates to human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vignaroli, Carla; Sante, Laura Di; Magi, Gloria; Luna, Gian Marco; Di Cesare, Andrea; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Facinelli, Bruna; Biavasco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Five distinct cryptic lineages (clades I–V) have recently been recognized in the Escherichia genus. The five clades encompass strains that are phenotypically and taxonomically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli sensu stricto; however, scant data are available on their ecology, virulence and pathogenic properties. In this study 20 cryptic E. coli strains isolated from marine sediments were investigated to gain insights into their virulence characteristics and genetic traits. The ability to adhere to intestinal cells was highest among clade V strains, which also harbored the genes involved in gut colonization as well as the genes (pduC and eut operon) typically found in environmentally adapted E. coli strains. The pduC gene was significantly associated with clade V. Multilocus sequence typing of three representative clade V isolates revealed new sequence types (STs) and showed that the strains shared two allelic loci (adk 51 and recA 37). Our findings suggest that cryptic Escherichia lineages are common in coastal marine sediments and that this habitat may be suitable for their growth and persistence outside the host. On the other hand, detection in clade V strains of a gene repertoire and adhesion properties similar to those of intestinal pathogenic strains could indicate their potential virulence. It could be argued that there is a dual nature of cryptic clade V strains, where the ability to survive and persist in a secondary habitat does not involve the loss of the host-associated lifestyle. Clade V could be a group of closely related, environmentally adapted E. coli strains. PMID:25216085

  11. Extracellular secretion of Pseudoalteromonas sp. cold-adapted esterase in Escherichia coli in the presence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. components of ABC transport system.

    PubMed

    Długołecka, Anna; Cieśliński, Hubert; Turkiewicz, Marianna; Białkowska, Aneta M; Kur, Józef

    2008-12-01

    Recently we described identification and characterization of GDSL esterase EstA from psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A. Attempts to obtain heterologous overexpression of this enzyme in Escherichia coli system were not satisfactory. The EstA protein was expressed as inclusion bodies, most of that were inactive after purification step, and the recovery of esterolytic activity was very low after refolding. Based on the sequence analysis we found that the esterase EstA gene is clustered with three genes encoding components of ABC transport system. These genes, designated abc1, abc2, and abc3 encode an ATP-binding protein (ABC1) and two permease proteins (ABC2 and ABC3). In present study, to obtain larger amounts of the active cold-adapted EstA esterase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A, we designed a two-plasmid E. coli expression system where the gene encoding EstA enzyme was cloned into pET30b(+) expression vector and three genes encoding components of ABC transport system were cloned into pACYC-pBAD vector. It was shown that the created expression system was useful for extracellular production of active EstA enzyme which was purified from the culture medium. In the presence of all the three transporter proteins the secretion of EstA was at the highest level. When one or two of these components were missing, EstA secretion was also possible, but not so effective. It indicates that ABC2 and ABC3 proteins of Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A could be replaced with their homologous proteins of E. coli. PMID:18700165

  12. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  13. Matrix Production, Pigment Synthesis, and Sporulation in a Marine Isolated Strain of Bacillus pumilus

    PubMed Central

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Riccio, Antonio; Vanacore, Adele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Molinaro, Antonio; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    The ability to produce an extracellular matrix and form multicellular communities is an adaptive behavior shared by many bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the model system for spore-forming bacteria, matrix production is one of the possible differentiation pathways that a cell can follow when vegetative growth is no longer feasible. While in B. subtilis the genetic system controlling matrix production has been studied in detail, it is still unclear whether other spore formers utilize similar mechanisms. We report that SF214, a pigmented strain of Bacillus pumilus isolated from the marine environment, can produce an extracellular matrix relying on orthologs of many of the genes known to be important for matrix synthesis in B. subtilis. We also report a characterization of the carbohydrates forming the extracellular matrix of strain SF214. The isolation and characterization of mutants altered in matrix synthesis, pigmentation, and spore formation suggest that in strain SF214 the three processes are strictly interconnected and regulated by a common molecular mechanism. PMID:26506360

  14. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, T.; Jayasri, M. A.; Suthindhiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2–5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  15. Natural antifouling compounds produced by a novel fungus Aureobasidium pullulans HN isolated from marine biofilm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2013-12-15

    A fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans, was isolated from marine biofilm and identified. A bioassay-guided fractionation procedure was developed to isolate and purify antifouling compounds from A. pullulans HN. The procedure was: fermentation broth-aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate-graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction-SPE purification-GC-MS analysis. Firstly, the fermentation broth was tested for its toxicity. Then it was treated with aeration and addition of sodium thiosulfate, and its toxicity was almost not changed. Lastly, antifouling compounds were extracted at different pH, the extract had high toxicity at pH 2 but almost no toxicity at pH 10, which suggested the toxicants should be fatty acids. The EC50 of the extract against Skeletonema costatum was 90.9 μg ml(-1), and its LC50 against Balanus amphitrete larvae was 22.2 μg ml(-1). After purified by HLB SPE column, the EC50 of the extract against S. costatum was 49.4 μg ml(-1). The myristic and palmitic acids were found as the main toxicants by GC-MS. PMID:24210009

  16. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Revathy, T; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2-5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  17. Diversity of protease-producing marine bacteria from sub-antarctic environments.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio; López, Maria Alejandra; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio

    2011-12-01

    From seawater and the intestines of benthonic organisms collected from the Beagle Channel, Argentina, 230 marine bacteria were isolated. Cultivable bacteria were characterized and classified as psychrotolerant, whereas few isolates were psychrophiles. These isolates were capable of producing proteases at 4 and 15 °C under neutral (pH 7.0), alkaline (pH 10.0) and acidic (pH 4.5) conditions on different media, revealing 62, 33 and 22% producers at cold and 84, 47 and 33% producers at low temperatures, respectively. More protease-producing strains (67%) were detected when isolated from benthic invertebrates as compared to seawater (33%), with protease production under neutral conditions resulting in milk protein hydrolysis halos between 27 and 30 ± 2 mm in diameter. Using sterile 0.22 μm membrane filters, 29 isolates exhibiting extracellular protease activity were detected. These were grouped into six operational taxonomic units by restriction analysis and identified based on 16S rDNA as γ-proteobacteria of the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Alteromonas, Aeromonas, and Serratia. Plasmids were found to be harbored by eight strains, mainly within the isolates from benthonic organisms. PMID:21656810

  18. Isolation and initial characterization of a novel type of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase activity from a marine microorganism.

    PubMed

    Willetts, Andrew; Joint, Ian; Gilbert, Jack A; Trimble, William; Mühling, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A novel type of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) has been found in a marine strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophila strain PML168 that was isolated from a temperate intertidal zone. The enzyme is able to use NADH as the source of reducing power necessary to accept the atom of diatomic oxygen not incorporated into the oxyfunctionalized substrate. Growth studies have establish that the enzyme is inducible, appears to serve a catabolic role, and is specifically induced by one or more unidentified components of seawater as well as various anthropogenic xenobiotic compounds. A blast search of the primary sequence of the enzyme, recovered from the genomic sequence of the isolate, has placed this atypical BVMO in the context of the several hundred known members of the flavoprotein monooxygenase superfamily. A particular feature of this BVMO lies in its truncated C-terminal domain, which results in a relatively small protein (357 amino acids; 38.4 kDa). In addition, metagenomic screening has been conducted on DNA recovered from an extensive range of marine environmental samples to gauge the relative abundance and distribution of similar enzymes within the global marine microbial community. Although low, abundance was detected in samples from many marine provinces, confirming the potential for biodiscovery in marine microorganisms. PMID:22414193

  19. The Pathogen of the Great Barrier Reef Sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile Is a New Strain of Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans Containing Abundant and Diverse Virulence-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Jayanta D; Pramanik, Arnab; Webster, Nicole S; Llewellyn, Lyndon E; Gachhui, Ratan; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2015-08-01

    Sponge diseases have increased dramatically, yet the causative agents of disease outbreaks have eluded identification. We undertook a polyphasic taxonomic analysis of the only confirmed sponge pathogen and identified it as a novel strain of Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and gyraseB (gyrB) gene sequences along with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain NW4327 was most closely related to P. agarivorans. DNA-DNA hybridization and in silico genome comparisons established NW4327 as a novel strain of P. agarivorans. Genes associated with type IV pili, mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pili, and curli formation were identified in NW4327. One gene cluster encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, HlyD and TolC, and two clusters related to the general secretion pathway indicated the presence of type I secretion system (T1SS) and type II secretion system (T2SS), respectively. A contiguous gene cluster of at least 19 genes related to type VI secretion system (T6SS) which included all 13 core genes was found. The absence of T1SS and T6SS in nonpathogenic P. agarivorans S816 established NW4327 as the virulent strain. Serine proteases and metalloproteases of the classes S8, S9, M4, M6, M48, and U32 were identified in NW4327, many of which can degrade collagen. Collagenase activity in NW4327 and its absence in the nonpathogenic P. agarivorans KMM 255(T) reinforced the invasiveness of NW4327. This is the first report unambiguously identifying a sponge pathogen and providing the first insights into the virulence genes present in any pathogenic Pseudoalteromonas genome. The investigation supports a theoretical study predicting high abundance of terrestrial virulence gene homologues in marine bacteria. PMID:25837832

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains, P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, Which Induce Larval Settlement and Metamorphosis in Hydractinia echinata

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Thomas; Rischer, Maja; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    To gain a broader understanding of the importance of a surface-associated lifestyle and morphogenic capability, we have assembled and annotated the genome sequences of Pseudoalteromonas strains P1-7a, P1-9, P1-13-1a, P1-16-1b, P1-25, and P1-26, isolated from Hydractinia echinata. These genomes will allow detailed studies on bacterial factors mediating interkingdom communication. PMID:26679587

  1. Isolation and characterization of multifunctional Streptomyces species with antimicrobial, nematicidal and phytohormone activities from marine environments in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Ferial M; Fathy, Hayam M; El-Zayat, Ayatollah S; Elghonaimy, Ahlam M

    2015-06-01

    Different strategies have been employed for selective isolation of Streptomycetes from 20 marine samples varied in their biological nature. The recovery of Streptomycetes isolates (112) was influenced preferentially by different strategies; sediment samples were the best source of potential candidate Streptomycetes. All isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities with variable spectrum; the most promising isolates (31) were phenotypically characterized and identified as Streptomyces sp.; these isolates exhibited variable capacity for secretion of numerous hydrolytic enzymes such as catalase, protease, amylase, lipase, lecithinase, asparaginase, chitinase and pectinase. All the strains resisted both penicillin and streptomycin, 29 were sensitive to neomycin; the majority of strains (25) showed multiple antibiotic resistance index greater than 0.2; 23, 22 and 13 degraded the shrimp shell, chicken feather and corn cob, respectively, producing bioactive substance(s) which indicates their diversity and their ecological role in the marine ecosystem. At least 28 strains exhibited nematicidal activity in vitro and in vivo against root-knot nematode and supported plant growth. In vitro, the assessed Streptomyces species exhibited the ability to produce gibberellic acid, indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, kinetin and benzyladenine. Except for indole acetic acid, this is the first report concerning the ability of marine Streptomyces to produce such phytohormones and the use of shrimp shell waste as a mono component medium for production of phytohormones. The study is efficacious in selecting effective biodiverse strains of marine Streptomyces that may work under diverse agro-ecological conditions as a useful element in plant nutrition and as biocontrol agents involved in integrated management programs. PMID:25805507

  2. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  3. Kocuria subflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment from the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Chen, Jia-Yang; Cao, Li-Xiang; Park, Dong-Jin; Xiao, Min; Kim, Chang-Jin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, aerobic, non-motile coccus, designated strain YIM 13062(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 13062(T) belongs to the genus Kocuria, and is closely related to Kocuria polaris NBRC 103063(T) (97.8 % similarity), Kocuria rosea NBRC 3768(T) (97.6 % similarity) and Kocuria carniphila JCM 14118(T) (97.4 % similarity). The strain grew optimally at 28 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-4 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall peptidoglycan type was Lys-Ala3 (type A3α). The major isoprenoid quinones were MK-6(H2) and MK-7(H2). The polar lipids of strain YIM 13062(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified phospholipid (PL), one unidentified aminophospholipid (APL), two unidentified aminolipids (AL) and four unidentified lipids (L). Major fatty acids of the novel isolate were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C18:1 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM 13062(T) was 68.0 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 13062(T) and K. polaris NBRC 103063(T), K. rosea NBRC 3768(T), K. carniphila JCM 14118(T) were 53.2, 48.8 and 42.6 %, respectively. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data, it is apparent that strain YIM 13062(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria subflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 13062(T) (=CGMCC 4.7252(T)=KCTC 39547(T)). PMID:26362332

  4. Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic phototrophic Alphaproteobacterium isolated from a marine aquaculture biofilter.

    PubMed

    Foesel, Bärbel U; Gössner, Anita S; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, diplococcoid bacterium (strain D2-3(T)) was isolated from the biofilter of a recirculating marine aquaculture system. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) indicated that the new organism occupied a novel lineage within the alpha-1 subclass of Proteobacteria and was related to the genera Rhodothalassium, Azospirillum, Craurococcus, Acidiphilium, and Tistrella. The highest sequence similarity (90.8%) of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of D2-3(T) was to that of Candidatus "Alysiosphaera europaea". D2-3(T) was mesophilic, heterotrophic, required sea salt, and had a pH optimum of 8.0. Growth in the presence of light resulted in the formation of pink colonies, a 25% increased cell yield, and a slightly increased growth rate. D2-3(T) contained carotenoids and low amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Membranes of D2-3(T) contained b-type cytochromes. The G+C content of the DNA was 60.3+/-0.1mol%. Phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that D2-3(T) represented a new aerobic phototrophic genus, for which the name Geminicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the type species (D2-3(T)=DSM 18922(T)=ATCC BAA-1445(T)). PMID:17643894

  5. Whole genome analyses of marine fish pathogenic isolate, Mycobacterium sp. 012931.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Satoru; Kabayama, Jun; Hwang, Seong Don; Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae Sung; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Takeyama, Haruko; Mori, Tetsushi; Aoki, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium is a genus within the order Actinomycetales that comprises of a large number of well-characterized species, several of which includes pathogens known to cause serious disease in human and animal. Here, we report the whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. strain 012931 isolated from the marine fish, yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Mycobacterium sp. 012931 is a fish pathogen causing serious damage to aquaculture farms in Japan. DNA dot plot analysis showed that Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was more closely related to Mycobacterium marinum when compared across several Mycobacterium species. However, little conservation of the gene order was observed between Mycobacterium sp. 012931 and M. marinum genome. The annotated 5,464 genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 was classified into 26 subsystems. The insertion/deletion gene analysis shows Mycobacterium sp. 012931 had 643 unique genes that were not found in the M. marinum strains. In the virulence, disease, and defense subsystem, both insertion and deletion genes of Mycobacterium sp. 012931 were associated with the PPE gene cluster of Mycobacteria. Of seven plcB genes in Mycobacterium sp. 012931, plcB_2 and plcB_3 showed low identities with those of M. marinum strains. Therefore, Mycobacterium sp. 012931 has differences on genetic and virulence from M. marinum and may induce different interaction mechanisms between host and pathogen. PMID:24879010

  6. Colwellia asteriadis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the starfish Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Ju; Kwon, Hak Cheol; Koh, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Sug; Yang, Hyun Ok

    2010-08-01

    A marine bacterial strain, KMD 002T, was isolated from an Amur starfish, Asterias amurensis, collected in the East Sea of Korea. Strain KMD 002T was a Gram-negative, beige-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium. The strain was capable of growth at relatively low temperatures (4-25 degrees C) and over a broad pH range (pH 4.0-10.0). The major fatty acids were C16:1omega7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH and C16:0 and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content of strain KMD 002T was 40.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KMD 002T belonged to the genus Colwellia. However, various phenotypic properties as well as low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to members of the genus Colwellia (94.1-96.7%) suggested that strain KMD 002T is a representative of a novel species, for which the name Colwellia asteriadis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMD 002T (=KCCM 90077T =JCM 15608T). PMID:19801395

  7. Rubrobacter aplysinae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain RV113(T)) was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain RV113(T) belongs to the genus Rubrobacter, and is related most closely to Rubrobacter bracarensis VF70612_S1(T) (96.9% similarity) and more distantly related (<93%) to all other species of the genus Rubrobacter. The peptidoglycan diamino acid was lysine. Strain RV113(T) exhibited a quinone system with menaquinone MK-8 as the predominant compound. The polar lipid profile of strain RV113(T) consisted of the major compounds phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C17 : 0ω9c. These chemotaxonomic traits are in agreement with those of other species of the genus Rubrobacter. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the clear phenotypic differentiation of strain RV113(T) from all recognized Rubrobacter species. Strain RV113(T) is thus considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Rubrobacter aplysinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RV113(T) ( = DSM 27440(T) = CECT 8425(T)). PMID:24170773

  8. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  9. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  10. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  11. Aceticlastic and NaCl-Requiring Methanogen “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov., Isolated from Marine Tidal Flat Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Kaoru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Among methanogens, only 2 genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina, are known to contribute to methanogenesis from acetate, and Methanosaeta is a specialist that uses acetate specifically. However, Methanosaeta strains so far have mainly been isolated from anaerobic digesters, despite the fact that it is widespread, not only in anaerobic methanogenic reactors and freshwater environments, but also in marine environments, based upon extensive 16S rRNA gene-cloning analyses. In this study, we isolated an aceticlastic methanogen, designated strain 03d30qT, from a tidal flat sediment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Methanosaeta. Unlike the other known Methanosaeta species, this isolate grows at Na+ concentrations of 0.20 to 0.80 M, with an optimum concentration of 0.28 M. Quantitative estimation using real-time PCR detected the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Methanosaeta in the marine sediment, and relative abundance ranged from 3.9% to 11.8% of the total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. In addition, the number of Methanosaeta organisms increased with increasing depth and was much higher than that of Methanosarcina organisms, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogens contribute to acetate metabolism to a greater extent than previously thought in marine environments, where sulfate-reducing acetate oxidation prevails. This is the first report on marine Methanosaeta species, and based on phylogenetic and characteristic studies, the name “Methanosaeta pelagica” sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with type strain 03d30q. PMID:22344667

  12. Determination of the Chemical Structures of Tandyukisins B–D, Isolated from a Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takeshi; Umebayashi, Yoshihide; Kawashima, Maiko; Sugiura, Yuma; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    Tandyukisins B–D (1–3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines. PMID:26006715

  13. Determination of the chemical structures of tandyukisins B-D, isolated from a marine sponge-derived fungus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Umebayashi, Yoshihide; Kawashima, Maiko; Sugiura, Yuma; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-05-01

    Tandyukisins B-D (1-3), novel decalin derivatives, have been isolated from a strain of Trichoderma harzianum OUPS-111D-4 originally derived from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai, and their structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. In addition, their chemical structures were established by chemical transformation. They exhibited weak cytotoxicity, but selective growth inhibition on panel screening using 39 human cancer cell lines. PMID:26006715

  14. Isolation of naturally occurring enteroviruses from a variety of shellfish species residing in Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.; Vicale, T.J.; Dahl, M.C.

    1980-02-01

    Shellfish and shellfish-raising waters from a variety of Long Island and New Jersey marine embayments were examined for the presence of human enteroviruses. Little difference in virological quality was noted between areas designated as being open or closed to shellfishing. Viral isolations could not be correlated with coliform counts from identical samples, indicating the need to re-evaluate the use of bacterial standards as indices of the overall sanitary quality of water and shellfish.

  15. Isolation and Structures of Axistatins 1-3 from the Republic of Palau Marine Sponge Agelas axifera Hentschel1

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, George R.; Tang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Bourne, Gregory T.; Arm, Christoph A.; Leet, John E.; Knight, John C.; Pettit, Robin K.; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Doubek, Dennis L.; Ward, Franklin J.; Weber, Christine; Hooper, John N. A.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation begun in 1979 directed at the Republic of Palau marine sponge Agelas axifera Hentschel for cancer cell growth inhibitory constituents subsequently led to the isolation of three new pyrimidine diterpenes designated axistatins 1 (1), 2 (2), and 3 (3), together with the previously reported formamides 4, 5 and agelasine F (6). The structures were elucidated by analysis of 2D-NMR spectra and by HRMS. All of the isolated compounds were found to be moderate inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Axistatins 1–3 (1–3), formamide 4, and agelasine F (6) also exhibited antimicrobial activity. PMID:23410078

  16. Drimane Sesquiterpene-Conjugated Amino Acids from a Marine Isolate of the Fungus Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium Minioluteum)

    PubMed Central

    Ngokpol, Suthatip; Suwakulsiri, Wittaya; Sureram, Sanya; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Aree, Thammarat; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2015-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpene lactones (3, 4, 6 and 7) and three known compounds, purpuride (1), berkedrimane B (2) and purpuride B (5), were isolated from the marine fungus, Talaromyces minioluteus (Penicillium minioluteum). New compounds were drimane sesquiterpenes conjugated with N-acetyl-l-valine, and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, as well as by single crystal X-ray analysis. The isolated compounds could not inhibit the apoptosis-regulating enzyme, caspase-3, while three of the compounds (2, 3 and 7) exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. PMID:26058010

  17. Isolation and structures of axistatins 1-3 from the Republic of Palau marine sponge Agelas axifera Hentschel .

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Tang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Bourne, Gregory T; Arm, Christoph A; Leet, John E; Knight, John C; Pettit, Robin K; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Doubek, Dennis L; Ward, Franklin J; Weber, Christine; Hooper, John N A

    2013-03-22

    An investigation begun in 1979 directed at the Republic of Palau marine sponge Agelas axifera Hentschel for cancer cell growth inhibitory constituents subsequently led to the isolation of three new pyrimidine diterpenes designated axistatins 1 (1), 2 (2), and 3 (3), together with the previously reported formamides 4, 5, and agelasine F (6). The structures were elucidated by analysis of 2D-NMR spectra and by HRMS. All of the isolated compounds were found to be moderate inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Axistatins 1-3 (1-3), formamide 4, and agelasine F (6) also exhibited antimicrobial activity. PMID:23410078

  18. Oceanisphaera arctica sp. nov., isolated from Arctic marine sediment, and emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, T N R; Reddy, P Vishnu Vardhan; Begum, Z; Manasa, P; Shivaji, S

    2012-08-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, coccoid, non-motile bacterium, designated strain V1-41(T), was isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected, at a depth of 200 m, from Kongsfjorden (an inlet on the west coast of Spitsbergen, an island that forms part of the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean). The strain formed cream-brown colonies on marine agar. Cells of the novel strain were positive in tests for catalase, oxidase, lysine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase activities but negative for gelatinase and lipase activities. They hydrolysed aesculin, starch and urea, but not casein or DNA. Most of the cellular fatty acids were medium-chain and saturated (37.1%) or long-chain and unsaturated (27.8%), with C(12:0) (37.1%), C(18:1)ω7c, and summed features 2 (19.3%) and 3 (24.1%) predominating. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminophospholipids, four unidentified phospholipids and one other unidentified lipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strain's closest known relatives were Oceanisphaera litoralis DSM 15406(T) (98.5% sequence similarity) and Oceanisphaera donghaensis BL1(T) (98.3%). In DNA-DNA hybridizations, however, the levels of relatedness between strain V1-41(T) and O. litoralis DSM 15406(T) and between the novel strain and O. donghaensis DSM 17589(T) were found to be only 19% and 29%, respectively. Based on these low levels of similarity at the DNA-DNA level and the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic differences from O. litoralis DSM 15406(T) and O. donghaensis DSM 17589(T), strain V1-41(T) represents a novel species of the genus Oceanisphaera for which the name Oceanisphaera arctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is V1-41(T) ( = CCUG 58690(T) = KCTC 23013(T) = NBRC 106171(T)). PMID:22003041

  19. Isolation and Characterisation of 1-Alkyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid-Tolerant and Biodegrading Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Megaw, Julianne; Busetti, Alessandro; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify marine-derived bacteria which exhibited high tolerance to, and an ability to biodegrade, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids. The salinity and hydrocarbon load of some marine environments may induce selective pressures which enhance the ability of microbes to grow in the presence of these liquid salts. The isolates obtained in this study generally showed a greater ability to grow in the presence of the selected ionic liquids compared to microorganisms described previously, with two marine-derived bacteria, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Brevibacterium sanguinis growing in concentrations exceeding 1 M 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. The ability of these bacteria to degrade the selected ionic liquids was assessed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and three were shown to degrade the selected ionic liquids by up to 59% over a 63-day test period. These bacterial isolates represent excellent candidates for further potential applications in the bioremediation of ionic liquid-containing waste or following accidental environmental exposure. PMID:23560109

  20. Isolation by environmental distance in mobile marine species: molecular ecology of franciscana dolphins at their southern range.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Martin; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Subramaniam, Ajit; Yackulic, Charles; Bordino, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    The assessment of population structure is a valuable tool for studying the ecology of endangered species and drafting conservation strategies. As we enhance our understanding about the structuring of natural populations, it becomes important that we also understand the processes behind these patterns. However, there are few rigorous assessments of the influence of environmental factors on genetic patterns in mobile marine species. Given their dispersal capabilities and localized habitat preferences, coastal cetaceans are adequate study species for evaluating environmental effects on marine population structure. The franciscana dolphin, a rare coastal cetacean endemic to the Western South Atlantic, was studied to examine these issues. We analysed genetic data from the mitochondrial DNA and 12 microsatellite markers for 275 franciscana samples utilizing frequency-based, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms to assess population structure and migration patterns. This information was combined with 10 years of remote sensing environmental data (chlorophyll concentration, water turbidity and surface temperature). Our analyses show the occurrence of genetically isolated populations within Argentina, in areas that are environmentally distinct. Combined evidence of genetic and environmental structure suggests that isolation by distance and a process here termed isolation by environmental distance can explain the observed correlations. Our approach elucidated important ecological and conservation aspects of franciscana dolphins, and has the potential to increase our understanding of ecological processes influencing genetic patterns in other marine species. PMID:20465582

  1. Screening of bromotyramine analogues as antifouling compounds against marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andjouh, Sofyane; Blache, Yves

    2016-09-01

    Rapid and efficient synthesis of 23 analogues inspired by bromotyramine derivatives, marine natural products, by means of CuSO4-catalysed [3+2] alkyne-azide cycloaddition is described. The final target was then assayed for anti-biofilm activity against three Gram-negative marine bacteria, Pseudoalteromonas ulvae (TC14), Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica (TC8) and Paracoccus sp. (4M6). Most of the synthesised bromotyramine/triazole derivatives are more active than the parent natural products Moloka'iamine (A) and 3,5-dibromo-4-methoxy-β-phenethylamine (B) against biofilm formation by the three bacterial strains. Some of these compounds were shown to act as non-toxic inhibitors of biofilm development with EC50 < 200 μM without any effect on bacterial growth even at high concentrations (200 μM). PMID:27450150

  2. Sulfitobacter pseudonitzschiae sp. nov., isolated from the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhuan; Lai, Qiliang; Luo, Qiaoqi; Jiang, Simeng; Zhu, Ruilin; Liang, Junrong; Gao, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on bacterial strain H3(T), which was isolated from the toxic marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Cells of strain H3(T) were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite, but not denitrification. Growth was observed at NaCl concentrations of 1-9%, pH 6-12 and 10-37 °C. It was unable to degrade aesculin or gelatin. The dominant fatty acids (>10 %) were C18:1ω7c/ω6c (summed feature 8) and C16:0. The respiratory ubiquinone was Q10. The major lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an aminolipid and one unknown lipid, and the minor lipids were two phospholipids and three unknown lipids. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 61.7 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that strain H3(T) was related most closely to Sulfitobacter donghicola DSW-25(T) (97.3% similarity) and levels of similarity with other species of the genus Sulfitobacter were 95.1-96.9%. The mean (± sd) DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain H3(T) and Sulfitobacter donghicola DSW-25(T) was 18.0 ± 2.25%. The average nucleotide identity between strain H3(T) and Sulfitobacter donghicola DSW-25(T) was 70.45%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain H3(T) formed a separate clade close to the genus Sulfitobacter and was distinguishable from phylogenetically related species by differences in several phenotypic properties. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain H3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the name Sulfitobacter pseudonitzschiae is proposed (type strain H3(T) =DSM 26824(T) =MCCC 1A00686(T)). PMID:25278561

  3. Lignin-modifying enzymes of Flavodon flavus, a basidiomycete isolated from a coastal marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Raghukumar, C.; D`Souza, T.M.; Thorn, R.G.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-05-01

    A basidiomycetous fungus Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden (strain 312), isolated from decaying sea grass from a coral lagoon off the west coast of India, mineralized nearly 24% of {sup 14}C-labeled synthetic lignin to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 24 days. When grown in low-nitrogen medium this fungus produced three major classes of extracellular lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs): manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP), lignin peroxidase (LIP), and laccase. Low MNP and laccase activities were seen in high-nitrogen medium, but no LIP activity was seen. In media containing lignocellulosic substrates such as pine, poplar, or sugarcane bagasse as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, relatively high MNP and moderate levels of laccases were seen, but LIP production either was not seen or was minimal. LME production was also seen in media prepared with artificial seawater. Fast protein liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing resolved LMEs into four isozymes each of MNP and LIP, while laccase isozymes were resolved into two groups, one group containing seven isozymes and the other group containing at least three isozymes. The molecular masses of the different isozymes were 43 to 99 kDa for MNP, 40 and 41.5 kDa for LIP, and 43 and 99 kDa for laccase. F. flavus showed effective degradation of various dye pollutants in media prepared with or without artificial seawater. This is the first report on the production of all three major classes of LMEs by F. flavus and points to the bioremediation potential of this organism in terrestrial as well as marine environments.

  4. Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saif, Sarah Saleh Abdu-llah; Abdel-Raouf, Nevein; El-Wazanani, Hend A.; Aref, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances. PMID:24596500

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Strain MMB-1 (CECT 4803), a Novel Melanogenic Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Solano, F; Garcia, E; Perez, D; Sanchez-Amat, A

    1997-09-01

    A novel marine melanogenic bacterium, strain MMB-1, was isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. The taxonomic characterization of this strain indicated that it belongs to the genus Alteromonas. Under in vivo conditions, L-tyrosine was the specific monophenolic precursor for melanin synthesis. This bacterium contained all types of activities associated with polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), cresolase (EC 1.18.14.1), catecholase (EC 1.10.3.1), and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2). These activities were due to the presence of two different PPOs. The first one showed all the enzymatic activities, but it was not involved in melanogenesis in vivo, since amelanogenic mutant strains obtained by nitrosoguanidine treatment contained levels of this PPO similar to that of the wild-type MMB-1 strain. The second PPO showed cresolase and catecholase activities but no laccase, and it was involved in melanogenesis, since this enzyme was lost in amelanogenic mutant strains. This PPO was strongly activated by sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical micelle concentration, and it is a tyrosinase-like enzyme showing a lag period in its tyrosine hydroxylase activity that could be avoided by small amounts of L-dopa. This is the first report of a bacterium that contains two PPOs and also the first report of a pluripotent PPO showing all types of oxidase activities. The bacterium and the pluripotent PPO may be useful models for exploring the roles of PPOs in cellular physiology, aside from melanin formation. On the other hand, the high oxidizing capacity of the PPO for a wide range of substrates could make possible its application in phenolic biotransformations, food processing, or the cosmetic industry, where fungal and plant PPOs are being used. PMID:16535688

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Strain MMB-1 (CECT 4803), a Novel Melanogenic Marine Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Solano, F.; Garcia, E.; Perez, De; Sanchez-Amat, A.

    1997-01-01

    A novel marine melanogenic bacterium, strain MMB-1, was isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. The taxonomic characterization of this strain indicated that it belongs to the genus Alteromonas. Under in vivo conditions, L-tyrosine was the specific monophenolic precursor for melanin synthesis. This bacterium contained all types of activities associated with polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), cresolase (EC 1.18.14.1), catecholase (EC 1.10.3.1), and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2). These activities were due to the presence of two different PPOs. The first one showed all the enzymatic activities, but it was not involved in melanogenesis in vivo, since amelanogenic mutant strains obtained by nitrosoguanidine treatment contained levels of this PPO similar to that of the wild-type MMB-1 strain. The second PPO showed cresolase and catecholase activities but no laccase, and it was involved in melanogenesis, since this enzyme was lost in amelanogenic mutant strains. This PPO was strongly activated by sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical micelle concentration, and it is a tyrosinase-like enzyme showing a lag period in its tyrosine hydroxylase activity that could be avoided by small amounts of L-dopa. This is the first report of a bacterium that contains two PPOs and also the first report of a pluripotent PPO showing all types of oxidase activities. The bacterium and the pluripotent PPO may be useful models for exploring the roles of PPOs in cellular physiology, aside from melanin formation. On the other hand, the high oxidizing capacity of the PPO for a wide range of substrates could make possible its application in phenolic biotransformations, food processing, or the cosmetic industry, where fungal and plant PPOs are being used. PMID:16535688

  7. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  8. Targeted Capture and Heterologous Expression of the Pseudoalteromonas Alterochromide Gene Cluster in Escherichia coli Represents a Promising Natural Product Exploratory Platform

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Marine pseudoalteromonads represent a very promising source of biologically important natural product molecules. To access and exploit the full chemical capacity of these cosmopolitan Gram-(−) bacteria, we sought to apply universal synthetic biology tools to capture, refactor, and express biosynthetic gene clusters for the production of complex organic compounds in reliable host organisms. Here, we report a platform for the capture of proteobacterial gene clusters using a transformation-associated recombination (TAR) strategy coupled with direct pathway manipulation and expression in Escherichia coli. The ∼34 kb pathway for production of alterochromide lipopeptides by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida JCM 20779 was captured and heterologously expressed in E. coli utilizing native and E. coli-based T7 promoter sequences. Our approach enabled both facile production of the alterochromides and in vivo interrogation of gene function associated with alterochromide’s unusual brominated lipid side chain. This platform represents a simple but effective strategy for the discovery and biosynthetic characterization of natural products from marine proteobacteria. PMID:25140825

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity and Biological Activity of Actinobacteria Isolated from the Chukchi Shelf Marine Sediments in the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  10. Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of actinobacteria isolated from the Chukchi Shelf marine sediments in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meng; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Dong, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-03-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of Actinobacteria and have the potential to produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. In this study, we used four selective isolation media to culture Actinobacteria from the sediments collected from the Chukchi Shelf in the Arctic Ocean. A total of 73 actinobacterial strains were isolated. Based on repetitive DNA fingerprinting analysis, we selected 30 representatives for partial characterization according to their phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial activities and secondary-metabolite biosynthesis genes. Results from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the 30 strains could be sorted into 18 phylotypes belonging to 14 different genera: Agrococcus, Arsenicicoccus, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Citricoccus, Janibacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Microlunatus, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinibacterium and Streptomyces. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report on the isolation of Microlunatus genus members from marine habitats. Of the 30 isolates, 11 strains exhibited antibacterial and/or antifungal activity, seven of which have activities against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. All 30 strains have at least two biosynthetic genes, one-third of which possess more than four biosynthetic genes. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the Chukchi Shelf sediment and their potential for producing biologically active compounds and novel material for genetic manipulation or combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:24663116

  11. Antibacterial activity of diketopiperazines isolated from a marine fungus using t-butoxycarbonyl group as a simple tool for purification.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2015-08-15

    Nine diketopiperazines were characterized from the culture of marine fungal isolate MR2012 which based on DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolated fungal metabolites 4-12 were unambiguously identified as a series of simple and re-arranged diketopiperazines by analysis of spectroscopic data. t-Butoxycarbonyl group (BOC) derivatization was used to separate the intractable mixture of 4 and 5. When all compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, the isolated metabolites showed moderate to weak effects, while the semisynthetic derivatives 4a and 5a displayed strong activity comparable to the positive control, tetracycline against gram positive bacteria. PMID:26099531

  12. Isolation of a New Natural Product and Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts from Fungi of Indonesian Marine Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Tarman, Kustiariyah; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wende, Kristian; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A.

    2011-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, 11 fungal strains were isolated from Indonesian marine habitats. Ethyl acetate extracts of their culture broth were tested for cytotoxic activity against a urinary bladder carcinoma cell line and for antifungal and antibacterial activities against fish and human pathogenic bacteria as well as against plant and human pathogenic fungi. The crude extract of a sterile algicolous fungus (KT31), isolated from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva exhibited potent cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/mL. Another fungal strain (KT29) displayed fungicidal properties against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arth. at 50 μg/spot. 2-Carboxy-8-methoxy-naphthalene-1-ol (1) could be isolated as a new natural product. PMID:21556160

  13. Isolation of a new natural product and cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of extracts from fungi of Indonesian marine habitats.

    PubMed

    Tarman, Kustiariyah; Lindequist, Ulrike; Wende, Kristian; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2011-01-01

    In the search for bioactive compounds, 11 fungal strains were isolated from Indonesian marine habitats. Ethyl acetate extracts of their culture broth were tested for cytotoxic activity against a urinary bladder carcinoma cell line and for antifungal and antibacterial activities against fish and human pathogenic bacteria as well as against plant and human pathogenic fungi. The crude extract of a sterile algicolous fungus (KT31), isolated from the red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva exhibited potent cytotoxic activity with an IC₅₀ value of 1.5 μg/mL. Another fungal strain (KT29) displayed fungicidal properties against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arth. at 50 μg/spot. 2-Carboxy-8-methoxy-naphthalene-1-ol (1) could be isolated as a new natural product. PMID:21556160

  14. Phylogenetic Identification of Fungi Isolated from the Marine Sponge Tethya aurantium and Identification of Their Secondary Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Jutta; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Blümel, Martina; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi associated with the marine sponge Tethya aurantium were isolated and identified by morphological criteria and phylogenetic analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. They were evaluated with regard to their secondary metabolite profiles. Among the 81 isolates which were characterized, members of 21 genera were identified. Some genera like Acremonium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, and Trichoderma are quite common, but we also isolated strains belonging to genera like Botryosphaeria, Epicoccum, Parasphaeosphaeria, and Tritirachium which have rarely been reported from sponges. Members affiliated to the genera Bartalinia and Volutella as well as to a presumably new Phoma species were first isolated from a sponge in this study. On the basis of their classification, strains were selected for analysis of their ability to produce natural products. In addition to a number of known compounds, several new natural products were identified. The scopularides and sorbifuranones have been described elsewhere. We have isolated four additional substances which have not been described so far. The new metabolite cillifuranone (1) was isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum strain LF066. The structure of cillifuranone (1) was elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR analysis and turned out to be a previously postulated intermediate in sorbifuranone biosynthesis. Only minor antibiotic bioactivities of this compound were found so far. PMID:21731550

  15. Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov., isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yanjuan; Qu, Junge; Xu, Junyi; Wu, Peichun; Cao, Xupeng; Xue, Song

    2015-12-01

    An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 2-5T, was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated marine sponge collected near Dalian Bay, China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Cells of strain 2-5T were non-spore forming, non-motile, rods 0.2-0.3 µm wide and 1.1-1.2µm long. Strain 2-5T grew well on nutrient agar, TSA, R2A agar and LB agar. Colonies of strain 2-5T on LB agar were circular, smooth with entire margins, non-transparent and pale yellow after 3 d of incubation at 30°C. Growth of strain 2-5T occurred in LN medium with 0-6% NaCl; no growth occurred in the presence of 8.0% NaCl. Strain 2-5T grew at 15-42°C and at pH 6.0-8.0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 2-5T clustered with the species of the genus Lysobacter. Its closet neighbors were the type strains of Lysobacter concretionis KCTC 12205T (97% similarity), Lysobacter arseniciresistens ZS79T (96%), and Lysobacter defluii APB-9T (96%). The value for DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2-5T and L. concretionis KCTC 12205T was 23%. Branched fatty acids iso-C16: 0, iso-C15: 0, iso-C 11: 0 3-OH, iso-C17: 1ω9 c and iso-C11: 0 were found to be predominant. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Strain 2-5T had a DNA G+C content of 63.8 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic data, strain 2-5T represents a novel species of the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter hymeniacidonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-5T (=CGMCC 1.12190T = JCM 18137T).

  16. Algibacter psychrophilus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Jung, You-Jung; Lee, Yung Mi; Baek, Kiwoon; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Yirang; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Hong Kum

    2015-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, flexirubin-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and psychrophilic bacterial strain, PAMC 27237T, was isolated from marine sediment of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Strain PAMC 27237T grew at 0-20 °C (optimally at 17 °C), at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-3.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at 1.5-2.5 %). The major fatty acids (≥5 %) were iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C17 : 0 2-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c/C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c, anteiso-C15 : 1 A, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 1 G. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, four unidentified lipids and a glycolipid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain PAMC 27237T belongs to the genus Algibacter, showing high similarities with the type strains of Algibacter agarivorans (97.2 %), Algibacter agarilyticus (97.0 %) and Algibacter mikhailovii (96.4 %). Average nucleotide identity values between strain PAMC 27237T and the type strains of A. agarivorans and A. agarilyticuswere 83.1 and 84.2 %, respectively, and mean genome-to-genome distances were 22.4-24.2 %, indicating that strain PAMC 27237T is clearly distinguished from the most closely related species of the genus Algibacter. The genomic DNA G+C content calculated from genome sequences was 33.5 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, strain PAMC 27237T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Algibacter, for which the name Algibacter psychrophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PAMC 27237T ( = KCTC 42130T = JCM 30370T). PMID:25740931

  17. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Robert W.; Barret, Matthieu; Cotter, Paul D.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Chen, Rui; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal; Barbosa, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf) operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications. PMID:23736764

  18. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) Analysis (MLVA) approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two species, and their

  19. Two new benzoquinone derivatives and two new bisorbicillinoids were isolated from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium terrestre.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weizhong; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming; Cui, Chengbin; Fan, Guotao

    2005-07-01

    Four new compounds were isolated from a marine-derived fungus Penicillium terrestre, namely 2-(2', 3'-dihydrosorbyl)-3,6-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), 3-acetonyl-2,6-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2), dihydrobisvertinolone (3), tetrahydrobisvertinolone (4). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 3 and 4 were determined by their CD spectra. Their cytotoxic effects on P388 and A-549 cell lines were preliminarily examined by the MTT method. PMID:16161481

  20. A Novel Erythromycin Resistance Plasmid from Bacillus Sp. Strain HS24, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Dara; Morrissey, John P.; Adams, Claire; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the origin and natural reservoirs of resistance determinants is fundamental to efficiently tackle antibiotic resistance. This paper reports the identification of a novel 5.8 kb erythromycin resistance plasmid, from Bacillus sp. HS24 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans. pBHS24B has a mosaic structure and carries the erythromycin resistance gene erm(T). This is the first report of an erythromycin resistance plasmid from a sponge associated bacteria and of the Erm(T) determinant in the genus Bacillus. PMID:25548909

  1. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Rontani, J F; Gilewicz, M J; Michotey, V D; Zheng, T L; Bonin, P C; Bertrand, J C

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the metabolism of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one by a denitrifying bacterium (Marinobacter sp. strain CAB) isolated from marine sediments. Under aerobic and denitrifying conditions, this strain efficiently degraded this ubiquitous isoprenoid ketone. Several bacterial metabolites, 4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecan-1-ol, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanal, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid, Z-3,7-dimethylocten-2-oic acid, Z-3,7,11-trimethyldodecen-2-oic acid, and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol, were formally identified, and different pathways were proposed to explain the formation of such isoprenoid compounds. PMID:9023941

  2. Draft genome sequence of the marine Streptomyces sp. strain PP-C42, isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Longjiang; Liu, Yun; Li, Zefeng; Baumann, Heike I; Kleinschmidt, Katrin; Ye, Wanzhi; Imhoff, Johannes F; Kleine, Michael; Cai, Daguang

    2011-07-01

    Streptomyces, a branch of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, represents the largest genus of actinobacteria. The streptomycetes are characterized by a complex secondary metabolism and produce over two-thirds of the clinically used natural antibiotics today. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a Streptomyces strain, PP-C42, isolated from the marine environment. A subset of unique genes and gene clusters for diverse secondary metabolites as well as antimicrobial peptides could be identified from the genome, showing great promise as a source for novel bioactive compounds. PMID:21571991

  3. Reduced genetic diversity and increased reproductive isolation follow population-level loss of larval dispersal in a marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Ryan A; Krug, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Population-level consequences of dispersal ability remain poorly understood, especially for marine animals in which dispersal is typically considered a species-level trait governed by oceanographic transport of microscopic larvae. Transitions from dispersive (planktotrophic) to nondispersive, aplanktonic larvae are predicted to reduce connectivity, genetic diversity within populations, and the spatial scale at which reproductive isolation evolves. However, larval dimorphism within a species is rare, precluding population-level tests. We show the sea slug Costasiella ocellifera expresses both larval morphs in Florida and the Caribbean, regions with divergent mitochondrial lineages. Planktotrophy predominated at 11 sites, 10 of which formed a highly connected and genetically diverse Caribbean metapopulation. Four populations expressed mainly aplanktonic development and had markedly reduced connectivity, and lower genetic diversity at one mitochondrial and six nuclear loci. Aplanktonic dams showed partial postzygotic isolation in most interpopulation crosses, regardless of genetic or geographic distance to the sire's source, suggesting that outbreeding depression affects fragmented populations. Dams from genetically isolated and neighboring populations also exhibited premating isolation, consistent with reinforcement contingent on historical interaction. By increasing self-recruitment and genetic drift, the loss of dispersal may thus initiate a feedback loop resulting in the evolution of reproductive isolation over small spatial scales in the sea. PMID:26635309

  4. [Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Li, Jin

    2016-02-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification strain named y5 was isolated from marine environment by traditional microbial isolation method using seawater as medium. It was identified as Klebsiella sp. based on the morphological, physiological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate; the optimal pH was 7.0; and the optimal C/N was 17. The strain could use NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were77.07%, 64.14% and 100% after 36 hours, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 100% after 36 hours in the coexistence of NH4Cl, NaNO2 and KNO3. The results showed that the strain y5 had independent and efficient heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification activities in high salt wastewater. PMID:27363156

  5. Selection of Yarrowia lipolytica strains with high protein content from yeasts isolated from different marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Li, Jing; Wang, Xianghong

    2007-10-01

    A total of 78 Yarrowia lipolytica yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish, and marine algae were obtained. After the crude protein of the yeasts was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that seven strains of the marine yeasts grown in soy bean cake hydrolysate with 20 g L-1 of glucose for 48 h at 28°C contained more than 41.0 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight and the cell dry weight was more than 4.4 g per L of the culture. Among them, strain SWJ-1b contained the highest crude protein. The results of Biolog identification and molecular methods further confirmed that they indeed belonged to Y. lipolytica.

  6. A Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Precursor Induces Mortality in the Marine Coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth L; Deering, Robert W; Rowley, David C; El Gamal, Abrahim; Schorn, Michelle; Moore, Bradley S; Johnson, Matthew D; Mincer, Tracy J; Whalen, Kristen E

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria play a central role in mediating biogeochemical cycling and food web structure in the ocean. However, deciphering the chemical drivers of these interspecies interactions remains challenging. Here, we report the isolation of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), released by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, a marine gamma-proteobacteria previously reported to induce phytoplankton mortality through a hitherto unknown algicidal mechanism. HHQ functions as both an antibiotic and a bacterial signaling molecule in cell-cell communication in clinical infection models. Co-culture of the bloom-forming coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi with both live P. piscicida and cell-free filtrates caused a significant decrease in algal growth. Investigations of the P. piscicida exometabolome revealed HHQ, at nanomolar concentrations, induced mortality in three strains of E. huxleyi. Mortality of E. huxleyi in response to HHQ occurred slowly, implying static growth rather than a singular loss event (e.g., rapid cell lysis). In contrast, the marine chlorophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were unaffected by HHQ exposures. These results suggest that HHQ mediates the type of inter-domain interactions that cause shifts in phytoplankton population dynamics. These chemically mediated interactions, and other like it, ultimately influence large-scale oceanographic processes. PMID:26870019

  7. A Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Precursor Induces Mortality in the Marine Coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth L.; Deering, Robert W.; Rowley, David C.; El Gamal, Abrahim; Schorn, Michelle; Moore, Bradley S.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Mincer, Tracy J.; Whalen, Kristen E.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between phytoplankton and bacteria play a central role in mediating biogeochemical cycling and food web structure in the ocean. However, deciphering the chemical drivers of these interspecies interactions remains challenging. Here, we report the isolation of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), released by Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, a marine gamma-proteobacteria previously reported to induce phytoplankton mortality through a hitherto unknown algicidal mechanism. HHQ functions as both an antibiotic and a bacterial signaling molecule in cell–cell communication in clinical infection models. Co-culture of the bloom-forming coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi with both live P. piscicida and cell-free filtrates caused a significant decrease in algal growth. Investigations of the P. piscicida exometabolome revealed HHQ, at nanomolar concentrations, induced mortality in three strains of E. huxleyi. Mortality of E. huxleyi in response to HHQ occurred slowly, implying static growth rather than a singular loss event (e.g., rapid cell lysis). In contrast, the marine chlorophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were unaffected by HHQ exposures. These results suggest that HHQ mediates the type of inter-domain interactions that cause shifts in phytoplankton population dynamics. These chemically mediated interactions, and other like it, ultimately influence large-scale oceanographic processes. PMID:26870019

  8. Isolation and characterization of Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3, a novel riboflavin-producing marine yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenmin; Wang, Xianghong; Ju, Liang; Chi, Zhe; Guo, Ning

    2008-01-01

    We found that the marine yeast strain W14-3 isolated from seawater of China Eastern Sea could produce riboflavin. It is interesting to observe that the marine yeast strain produced a large amount of riboflavin in the medium containing xylose, sucrose, galactose and maltose under the conditions of vigorous shaking. The yeast strain was found to belong to Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie based on the results of routine and molecular identification. The protein sequences deduced from the partial genes encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase in the yeast exhibited high identity with those of the corresponding enzymes for riboflavin biosynthesis in other yeasts. Fe(3+) available in the medium repressed riboflavin production and expression of the genes responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis in the yeast. The results have evidenced that a riboflavin synthesis pathway indeed existed in the yeast. This is the first study to report that C. membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3 from the marine environment could produce riboflavin. PMID:18262398

  9. Characterization of a New Cold-Adapted and Salt-Activated Polysaccharide Lyase Family 7 Alginate Lyase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Lan; Dong, Sheng; Xu, Fei; Dong, Fang; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Xie, Bin-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Marine bacterial alginate lyases play a role in marine alginate degradation and carbon cycling. Although a large number of alginate lyases have been characterized, reports on alginate lyases with special characteristics are still rather less. Here, a gene alyPM encoding an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7) was cloned from marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524 and expressed in Escherichia coli. AlyPM shows 41% sequence identity to characterized alginate lyases, indicating that AlyPM is a new PL7 enzyme. The optimal pH for AlyPM activity was 8.5. AlyPM showed the highest activity at 30°C and remained 19% of the highest activity at 5°C. AlyPM was unstable at temperatures above 30°C and had a low Tm of 37°C. These data indicate that AlyPM is a cold-adapted enzyme. Moreover, AlyPM is a salt-activated enzyme. AlyPM activity in 0.5–1.2 M NaCl was sixfolds higher than that in 0 M NaCl, probably caused by a significant increase in substrate affinity, because the Km of AlyPM in 0.5 M NaCl decreased more than 20-folds than that in 0 M NaCl. AlyPM preferably degraded polymannuronate and mainly released dimers and trimers. These data indicate that AlyPM is a new PL7 endo-alginate lyase with special characteristics. PMID:27486451

  10. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates.

    PubMed

    Wendte, J M; Miller, M A; Nandra, A K; Peat, S M; Crosbie, P R; Conrad, P A; Grigg, M E

    2010-04-19

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite identified as a cause of fatal neurological disease in the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In an effort to characterize virulent S. neurona strains circulating in the marine ecosystem, this study developed a range of markers relevant for molecular genotyping. Highly conserved sequences within the 18S ribosomal gene array, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (RPOb) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (CO1) were assessed for their ability to distinguish isolates at the genus and species level. For within-species comparisons, five surface antigens (SnSAG1-SnSAG5) and one high resolution microsatellite marker (Sn9) were developed as genotyping markers to evaluate intra-strain diversity. Molecular analysis at multiple loci revealed insufficient genetic diversity to distinguish terrestrial isolates from strains infecting marine mammals. Furthermore, SnSAG specific primers applied against DNA from the closely related species, Sarcocystis falcatula, lead to the discovery of highly similar orthologs to SnSAG2, 3, and 4, calling into question the specificity of diagnostic tests based on these antigens. The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes. PMID:20071081

  11. Disruption of Microbial Biofilms by an Extracellular Protein Isolated from Epibiotic Tropical Marine Strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    PubMed Central

    Dusane, Devendra H.; Damare, Samir R.; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V.; Ramaiah, N.; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. Methodology/Principal Findings B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275) derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. Conclusion/Significance We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent. PMID:23691235

  12. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida)

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Enrique E.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Müller, Werner E.G.; Schröder, Heinz-C.; Custódio, Márcio R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques. PMID:24031790

  13. Isolation and cultivation of fungal strains from in vitro cell cultures of two marine sponges (Porifera: Halichondrida and Haplosclerida).

    PubMed

    Rozas, Enrique E; Albano, Rodolpho M; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz-C; Custódio, Márcio R

    2011-10-01

    Despite the large number of reports describing sponge-microbe associations, limited knowledge is available about associated fungi and their relationships with the hosts. In this work, specific fungal strains were obtained directly from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and single sponge cells (cytospins) and compared with those obtained from whole tissue preparations. A total of 27 fungal strains were isolated from the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona melana. Fifteen strains, nine from H. heliophila and six from H. melana, were obtained from whole tissue and were considered as possible mesohyl associated or transient fungi. Twelve strains were isolated from in vitro sponge cell cultures (primmorphs) and were, therefore, considered as cell associated. From these, five different strains were obtained from H. heliophila isolated cells, while five were identified from cytospins and two from primmorphs of H. melana. The fungal strains obtained from cell cultures from both sponge species were different, and none of them were detected in the whole tissue preparations of the same species. Nine H. heliophila and seven H. melana strains shows low similarity with the sequences available in public databases and belong to potentially new species. This is the first report of fungi isolated directly from sponge cells, which allowed the observation and selection of specific strains that probably would not be obtained by usual culture dependent techniques. PMID:24031790

  14. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS. PMID:26826831

  15. Comparative study on the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from four Tunisian marine biotopes.

    PubMed

    Lajnef, Rim; Snoussi, Mejdi; Romalde, Jesús López; Nozha, Cohen; Hassen, Abdennaceur

    2012-12-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns and the plasmids profiles of the predominant etiological agent responsible for vibriosis in Tunisia, V. alginolyticus were studied to contribute to control their spread in some Mediterranean aquaculture farms and seawater. The sixty-nine V. alginolyticus strains isolated from different marine Tunisian biotopes (bathing waters, aquaculture and conchylicole farms and a river connected to the seawater during the cold seasons) were multi-drug resistant with high resistance rate to ampicillin, kanamycin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, imipinem, and nalidixic acid. The multiple resistance index ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 for the isolates of Khenis, from 0.5 to 0.8 for those of Menzel Jmil, from 0.5 to 0.75 (Hergla) and from 0.3 to 0.7 for the isolates of Oued Soltane. The high value of antibiotic resistance index was recorded for the V. alginolyticus population isolated from the fish farm in Hergla (ARI = 0.672) followed by the population isolated from the conchylicole station of Menzel Jmil (ARI = 0.645). The results obtained by the MIC tests confirmed the resistance of the V. alginolyticus to ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, cefotaxime, streptomycin and trimethoprim. Plasmids were found in 79.48 % of the strains analyzed and 30 different plasmid profiles were observed. The strains had a high difference in the size of plasmids varying between 0.5 and 45 kb. Our study reveals that the antibiotic-resistant bacteria are widespread in the aquaculture and conchylicole farm relatively to others strains isolated from seawater. PMID:22918722

  16. Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

  17. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

  18. Structure of EstA esterase from psychrotrophic Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A covalently inhibited by monoethylphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Brzuszkiewicz, Anna; Nowak, Elzbieta; Dauter, Zbigniew; Dauter, Miroslawa; Cieslinski, Hubert; Dlugolecka, Anna; Kur, Józef

    2010-10-28

    The crystal structure of the esterase EstA from the cold-adapted bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. 643A was determined in a covalently inhibited form at a resolution of 1.35 {angstrom}. The enzyme has a typical SGNH hydrolase structure consisting of a single domain containing a five-stranded {beta}-sheet, with three helices at the convex side and two helices at the concave side of the sheet, and is ornamented with a couple of very short helices at the domain edges. The active site is located in a groove and contains the classic catalytic triad of Ser, His and Asp. In the structure of the crystal soaked in diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (DNP), the catalytic serine is covalently connected to a phosphonate moiety that clearly has only one ethyl group. This is the only example in the Protein Data Bank of a DNP-inhibited enzyme with covalently bound monoethylphosphate.

  19. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    PubMed

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. PMID:25807991

  20. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra: isolation and phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Joseph; Gandhimathi, R.; Kiran, G. Seghal; Priya, S. Shanmugha; Ravji, T. Rajeetha; Hema, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Culturable heterotrophic bacterial composition of marine sponge Dendrilla nigra was analysed using different enrichments. Five media compositions including without enrichment (control), enriched with sponge extract, with growth regulator (antibiotics), with autoinducers, and complete enrichment containing sponge extract, antibiotics, and autoinducers were developed. DNA hybridization assay was performed to explore host specific bacteria and ecotypes of culturable sponge-associated bacteria. Enrichment with selective inducers (AHLs and sponge extract) and regulators (antibiotics) considerably enhanced the cultivation potential of sponge-associated bacteria. It was found that Marinobacter (MSI032), Micromonospora (MSI033), Streptomyces (MSI051), and Pseudomonas (MSI057) were sponge-associated obligate symbionts. The present findings envisaged that “ Micromonospora-Saccharomonospora-Streptomyces” group was the major culturable actinobacteria in the marine sponge D. nigra. The DNA hybridization assay was a reliable method for the analysis of culturable bacterial community in marine sponges. Based on the culturable community structure, the sponge-associated bacteria can be grouped (ecotypes) as general symbionts, specific symbionts, habitat flora, and antagonists.

  1. Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with an infected puncture wound and from a marine flatfish.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lin, Cherry C N; Fung, Ami M Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2013-07-01

    A bacterium, HKU30(T), was isolated from the infected tissue of a patient with wound infection after puncture by a fish fin. Cells are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-positive cocci arranged in chains. Colonies were non-haemolytic. The strain was catalase, oxidase, urease and Voges-Proskauer test negative. It reacted with Lancefield's group G antisera and was resistant to optochin. It grew on bile aesculin agar and in 5 % NaCl. It was unidentified by three commercial identification systems. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium shared 98.2, 97.7, 97.4 and 97.1 % nucleotide identities with Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, Streptococcus parauberis and Streptococcus uberis, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 35.6 ± 0.9 mol% (mean ± sd). In view of the occupational exposure of the patient, an epidemiological study was performed to isolate the bacterium from marine fish. Two strains, with similar phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to those of HKU30(T), were isolated from a three-lined tongue sole (Cynoglossus abbreviatus) and an olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, groEL, gyrB, sodA and rpoB, showed that the three isolates formed a distinct branch among known species of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related to S. parauberis (CCUG 39954(T)). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated ≤ 53.8 % DNA relatedness between the three isolates and related species of the genus Streptococcus. A novel species, Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is HKU30(T) ( = DSM 26014(T) = CECT 8154(T)). PMID:23264498

  2. Isolation and characterization of a single-stranded DNA virus infecting the marine diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11 isolated from western Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kei; Tomaru, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms are significant organisms for primary production in the earth's aquatic environment. Hence, their dynamics are an important focus area in current studies. Viruses are a great concern as potential factors of diatom mortality, along with other physical, chemical, and biological factors. We isolated and characterized a new diatom virus (Csp07DNAV) that lyses the marine planktonic diatom Chaetoceros sp. strain SS628-11. This paper examines the physiological, morphological, and genomic characteristics of Csp07DNAV. The virus was isolated from a surface water sample that was collected at Hiroshima Bay, Japan. It was icosahedral, had a diameter of 34 nm, and accumulated in the nuclei of host cells. Rod-shaped virus particles also coexisted in the host nuclei. The latent period and burst size were estimated to be <12 h and 29 infectious units per host cell, respectively. Csp07DNAV had a closed circular single-stranded DNA genome (5,552 nucleotides), which included a double-stranded region and 3 open reading frames. The monophyly of Csp07DNAV and other Bacilladnavirus group single-stranded DNA viruses was supported by phylogenetic analysis that was based on the amino acid sequence of each virus protein. On the basis of these results, we considered Csp07DNAV to be a new member of the genus Bacilladnavirus. PMID:24358139

  3. [Isolation, Identification and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of a Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrification Strain y3 Isolated from Marine Environment].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-hua; Yu, De-shuang; Zhang, Pei-yu; Lin, Xue-zheng; Xu, Guang-yao; Li, Jin

    2016-03-15

    A heterotrophic nitrification--aerobic denitrification bacterium named y3 was isolated from the sludge of Jiaozhou Bay using the enrichment medium with seawater as the matrix. It was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological observation, physiological experiments and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. The experiment results showed that the optimal carbon resource was sodium citrate, the optimal pH was 7.0, and the optimal C/N was 13. The strain could use NH₄Cl, NaNO₂ and KNO₃ as sole nitrogen source, and the removal efficiencies were 98.69%, 78.38% and 72.95% within 20 hours, respectively. There was no nitrate and nitrite accumulation during the heterotrophic nitrification process. Within 20 hours, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 99.56%, 99.75% and 99.41%, respectively, in the mixed system with NO₃⁻-N: NO²⁻-N of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. When the NH₄⁺-N: NO₃⁻-N ratios were 2: 1 , 1: 1 , 1: 2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were all 100% . When the NH₄⁺-N:NO₂⁻-N ratios were 2:1,1:1,1:2, the nitrogen removal efficiencies were 90.43%, 92.79% and 99.96%, respectively. They were higher than those with single nitrogen source. As a result, strain y3 had good nitrogen removal performance in high saline wastewater treatment. PMID:27337905

  4. Advanced solid-state NMR characterization of marine dissolved organic matter isolated using the coupled reverse osmosis/electrodialysis method.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingdong; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Pignatello, Joseph J; Perdue, E Michael

    2012-06-01

    Advanced (13)C solid-state techniques were employed to investigate the major structural characteristics of two surface-seawater dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples isolated using the novel coupled reverse osmosis/electrodialysis method. The NMR techniques included quantitative (13)C direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) and DP/MAS with recoupled dipolar dephasing, (13)C cross-polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), (13)C chemical shift anisotropy filter, CH, CH(2), and CH(n) selection, two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear correlation NMR (2D HETCOR), 2D HETCOR combined with dipolar dephasing, and (15)N cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS). The two samples (Coastal and Marine DOM) were collected at the mouth of the Ogeechee River and in the Gulf Stream, respectively. The NMR results indicated that they were structurally distinct. Coastal DOM contained significantly more aromatic and carbonyl carbons whereas Marine DOM was markedly enriched in alkoxy carbon (e.g., carbohydrate-like moieties). Both samples contained significant amide N, but Coastal DOM had nitrogen bonded to aromatic carbons. Our dipolar-dephased spectra indicated that a large fraction of alkoxy carbons were not protonated. For Coastal DOM, our NMR results were consistent with the presence of the major structural units of (1) carbohydrate-like moieties, (2) lignin residues, (3) peptides or amino sugars, and (4) COO-bonded alkyls. For Marine DOM, they were (1) carbohydrate-like moieties, (2) peptides or amino sugars, and (3) COO-bonded alkyls. In addition, both samples contained significant amounts of nonpolar alkyl groups. The potential sources of the major structural units of DOM were discussed in detail. Nonprotonated O-alkyl carbon content was proposed as a possible index of humification. PMID:22553962

  5. Characterization of Cryptocaryon irritans isolates from marine fishes in Mainland China by ITS ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sun, H Y; Zhu, X Q; Xie, M Q; Wu, X Y; Li, A X; Lin, R Q; Song, H Q

    2006-07-01

    Seven isolates of Cryptocaryon irritans from different host species and geographical locations in Mainland China were characterized by the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using two isolates of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis for comparative purposes. The rDNA region including the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2, and flanking 18S and 28S sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were sequenced directly. The ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 sequences were 129, 160, and 190 bp in length, respectively, for all seven C. irritans isolates, whereas the corresponding sequences for the two I. multifiliis isolates were 142, 153, and 194 bp, respectively. While sequence variation among the seven C. irritans isolates ranged from 0 to 1.6% in both the ITS-1 and ITS-2, and the two I. multifiliis isolates differed by 1.4% in the ITS-1 and 1.0% in the ITS-2; C. irritans differed from I. multifiliis by 57.1-60.9% in the ITS-1 and 79.4-83.0% in the ITS-2, indicating that ITS sequences provide reliable genetic markers for the identification and differentiation of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence pairwise-distance data using the neighbor-joining method inferred that the seven C. irritans isolates from Mainland China and two other isolates (T.A and Aus.C) from other countries clustered together to show monophyly, which could be readily distinguished from the other monophyletic group all from other regions. Therefore, ITS sequence data and phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that C. irritans isolates from Mainland China represent a single species. The definition of genetic markers in the ITS rDNA provide opportunities for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of the C. irritans from Mainland China and elsewhere and is also relevant to the diagnosis and control of fish diseases they cause. PMID:16523350

  6. Assessment of Bioflocculant Production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from the Bottom Sediment of Algoa Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nontembiso, Piyo; Sekelwa, Cosa; Leonard, Mabinya V.; Anthony, Okoh I.

    2011-01-01

    The bioflocculant-producing potentials of a marine bacteria isolated from the bottom sediment of Algoa Bay was investigated using standard methods. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% similarity to that of Bacillus sp. HXG-C1 and the nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank as Bacillus sp. Gilbert with accession number HQ537128. Bioflocculant was optimally produced when sucrose (72% flocculating activity) and ammonium chloride (91% flocculating activity) were used as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; an initial pH 6.2 of the production medium; and Mg2+ as cation. Chemical analysis of the purified bioflocculant revealed the compound to be a polysaccharide. PMID:21822413

  7. A novel aryl-hydrazide from the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea: isolation, synthesis of derivatives, and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Roullier, Catherine; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Weghe, Pierre van de; Devehat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël

    2010-08-01

    A new aryl-hydrazide l-glutamic acid derivative, pygmeine (3), was isolated from a methanolic extract of Lichina pygmaea, a marine lichen. Synthetic derivatives obtained via a two-step coupling of l-glutamic acid with phenylhydrazine moieties were useful to elucidate the structure of 3 and to carry out biological assays. Thus, the cytotoxicity of the ortho-, meta-, and para-hydroxyl isomers along with their respective benzyl intermediates, and a natural methoxylated analog, were evaluated on murine and human melanoma cells (B16, A375). The para-hydroxyl isomer 6 was found to be the most active (IC(50)=1.6 microM) on B16 cells. PMID:20570625

  8. 11-Oxoaerothionin isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina fistularis shows anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Gandolfi, Renata C; Secatto, Adriana; Falcucci, Romulo M; Faccioli, Lucia H; Hajdu, Eduardo; Peixinho, Solange; Berlinck, Roberto G S

    2012-12-01

    Marine sponges of the order Verongida are a rich source of biologically active bromotyrosine-derived secondary metabolites. However, none of these compounds are known to display anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, we report the anti-inflammatory effects of 11-oxoaerothionin isolated from the Verongida sponge Aplysina fistularis. When RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages were preincubated with 11-oxoaerothionin and stimulated with LPS (lipopolysaccharide), a concentration-dependent inhibition of iNOS(inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein and NO(2)(-) (Nitrite) production were observed. The same effect was observed when proinflammatory cytokines and PGE(2) (Prostaglandin E2) production was evaluated. In summary, we demonstrated that in the presence of LPS, 11-oxoaerothionin suppresses NO(2) and iNOS expression as well as inflammatory cytokines and PGE(2). PMID:22537094

  9. Violapyrones H and I, new cytotoxic compounds isolated from Streptomyces sp. associated with the marine starfish Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Jae; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Junho; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Yun, Jieun; Kang, Jong Soon

    2014-06-01

    Two new α-pyrone derivatives, violapyrones H (1) and I (2), along with known violapyrones B (3) and C (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine actinomycete Streptomyces sp. The strain was derived from a crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, collected from Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. The structures of violapyrones were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESIMS data. Violapyrones (1-4) exhibited cytotoxicity against 10 human cancer cell lines with GI50 values of 1.10-26.12 μg/mL when tested using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. This is the first report on the cytotoxicity of violapyrones against cancer cell lines and the absolute configuration of violapyrone C. PMID:24886866

  10. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F David; Iii, Roger Smith; Watanabe, Coran M H

    2015-10-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue. PMID:26473885

  11. Isolation and identification of chitin in three-dimensional skeleton of Aplysina fistularis marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Wysokowski, Marcin; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Galli, Roberta; Stelling, Allison L; Stöcker, Hartmut; Kaiser, Sabine; Niederschlag, Elke; Gärtner, Günter; Behm, Thomas; Ilan, Micha; Petrenko, Alexander Y; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    The recent discovery of chitin within skeletons of numerous marine and freshwater sponges (Porifera) stimulates further experiments to identify this structural aminopolysaccharide in new species of these aquatical animals. Aplysina fistularis (Verongida: Demospongiae: Porifera) is well known to produce biologically active bromotyrosines. Here, we present a detailed study of the structural and physico-chemical properties of the three-dimensional skeletal scaffolds of this sponge. Calcofluor white staining, Raman and IR spectroscopy, ESI-MS as well as chitinase digestion test were applied in order to unequivocally prove the first discovery of α-chitin in skeleton of A. fistularis. PMID:23994783

  12. Macrolactone Nuiapolide, Isolated from a Hawaiian Marine Cyanobacterium, Exhibits Anti-Chemotactic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shogo; Williams, Howard; Cagle, Davey; Karanovich, Kristopher; Horgen, F. David; Smith, Roger; Watanabe, Coran M. H.

    2015-01-01

    A new bioactive macrolactone, nuiapolide (1) was identified from a marine cyanobacterium collected off the coast of Niihau, near Lehua Rock. The natural product exhibits anti-chemotactic activity at concentrations as low as 1.3 μM against Jurkat cells, cancerous T lymphocytes, and induces a G2/M phase cell cycle shift. Structural characterization of the natural product revealed the compound to be a 40-membered macrolactone with nine hydroxyl functional groups and a rare tert-butyl carbinol residue. PMID:26473885

  13. Salmonella infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), a marine mammal sentinel species: pathogenicity and molecular typing of Salmonella strains compared with human and livestock isolates.

    PubMed

    Baily, Johanna L; Foster, Geoffrey; Brown, Derek; Davison, Nicholas J; Coia, John E; Watson, Eleanor; Pizzi, Romain; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Dagleish, Mark P

    2016-03-01

    Microbial pollution of the marine environment through land-sea transfer of human and livestock pathogens is of concern. Salmonella was isolated from rectal swabs of free-ranging and stranded grey seal pups (21.1%; 37/175) and compared with strains from the same serovars isolated from human clinical cases, livestock, wild mammals and birds in Scotland, UK to characterize possible transmission routes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analyses. A higher prevalence of Salmonella was found in pups exposed to seawater, suggesting that this may represent a source of this pathogen. Salmonella Bovismorbificans was the most common isolate (18.3% pups; 32/175) and was indistinguishable from isolates found in Scottish cattle. Salmonella Typhimurium was infrequent (2.3% pups; 4/175), mostly similar to isolates found in garden birds and, in one case, identical to a highly multidrug resistant strain isolated from a human child. Salmonella Haifa was rare (1.1% pups; 2/175), but isolates were indistinguishable from that of a human clinical isolate. These results suggest that S. Bovismorbificans may circulate between grey seal and cattle populations and that both S. Typhimurium and S. Haifa isolates are shared with humans, raising concerns of microbial marine pollution. PMID:26768299

  14. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of marine dissolved organic matter isolated using coupled reverse osmosis-electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivnjak, J.-F.; Pfromm, P. H.; Ingall, E.; Vetter, T. A.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Hertkorn, N.; Frommberger, M.; Knicker, H.; Perdue, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    The coupled reverse osmosis-electrodialysis (RO/ED) method was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from 16 seawater samples. The average yield of organic carbon was 75 ± 12%, which is consistently greater than the yields of organic carbon that have been commonly achieved using XAD resins, C 18 adsorbents, and cross-flow ultrafiltration. UV-visible absorbance spectra and molar C/N ratios of isolated samples were consistent with the corresponding properties of DOM in the original seawater samples, indicating that DOM samples can be isolated using the coupled RO/ED method without any bias for/against these two properties. Five of the samples were desalted sufficiently that reliable measurements of their 13C and 1HNMR spectra and their Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectra could be obtained. The 13C and 1HNMR spectra of RO/ED samples differed distinctly from those of samples that have been isolated in much lower yields by other methods. In particular, RO/ED samples contained a relatively lower proportion of carbohydrate carbon and a relatively greater proportion of alkyl carbon than samples that have been isolated using cross-flow ultrafiltration. From the FTICR mass spectra of RO/ED samples, samples from the open ocean contained a much lower proportion of unsaturated compounds and a much higher proportion of fatty acids than coastal samples.

  15. Actinomycetes for Marine Drug Discovery Isolated from Mangrove Soils and Plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kui; Gao, An-Hui; Xie, Qing-Yi; Gao, Hao; Zhuang, Ling; Lin, Hai-Peng; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Jia; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Ruan, Ji-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a largely unexplored source for actinomycetes with the potential to produce biologically active secondary metabolites. Consequently, we set out to isolate, characterize and screen actinomycetes from soil and plant material collected from eight mangrove sites in China. Over 2,000 actinomycetes were isolated and of these approximately 20%, 5%, and 10% inhibited the growth of Human Colon Tumor 116 cells, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while 3% inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. In addition, nine isolates inhibited aurora kinase A, an anti-cancer related protein, and three inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases. Representative bioactive isolates were characterized using genotypic and phenotypic procedures and classified to thirteen genera, notably to the genera Micromonospora and Streptomyces. Actinomycetes showing cytotoxic activity were assigned to seven genera whereas only Micromonospora and Streptomyces strains showed anti-PTP1B activity. We conclude that actinomycetes isolated from mangrove habitats are a potentially rich source for the discovery of anti-infection and anti-tumor compounds, and of agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. PMID:19370169

  16. Isolation and characterization of a marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture QH-2 from an intertidal zone of the China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kailing; Pan, Hongmiao; Li, Jinhua; Yu-Zhang, Kui; Zhang, Sheng-Da; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Yue, Haidong; Pan, Yongxin; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2010-05-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. Because of their fastidious requirements for growth conditions, only very few axenic MTB cultures have been obtained worldwide. In this study, we report a novel marine magnetotactic spirillum axenic culture, designated as QH-2, isolated from the China Sea. It was able to grow in semi-solid or liquid chemically defined medium. The cells were amphitrichously flagellated and contained one single magnetosome chain with an average number of 16 magnetosomes per cell. Phosphate and lipid granules were also observed in the cells. Both rock magnetism and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy characterizations indicated that the magnetosomes in QH-2 were single-domain magnetites (Fe(3)O(4)). QH-2 cells swam mostly in a straight line at a velocity of 20-50 microm/s and occasionally changed to a helical motion. Unlike other magnetotactic spirilla, QH-2 cells responded to light illumination. As a consequence of illumination, the cells changed the direction in which they swam from parallel to the magnetic field to antiparallel. This response appears to be similar to the effect of an increase in [O(2)]. Analysis of the QH-2 16S rRNA sequence showed that it had greater than 11% sequence divergence from freshwater magnetotactic spirilla. Thus, the marine QH-2 strain seems to be both phylogenetically and magnetotactically distinct from the freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. studied previously. PMID:20178843

  17. Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-yellow pigmented, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated A6F-11(T), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel marine strain was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it shared the highest (92.9 %) sequence similarity with Arenibacter palladensis LMG 21972(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from related members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A6F-11(T) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.7 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel taxon in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Spongiimicrobium salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. salis gen. nov., sp. nov. is A6F-11(T) (= KCTC 42753(T) = NBRC 111401(T)). PMID:27125652

  18. Isolation, screening, and characterization of surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria of Mumbai Harbor.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Rajamani; Jagtap, Chandrakant; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-04-15

    Diverse marine bacterial species predominantly found in oil-polluted seawater produce diverse surface-active agents. Surface-active agents produced by bacteria are classified into two groups based on their molecular weights, namely biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. In this study, surface-active agent-producing, oil-degrading marine bacteria were isolated using a modified Bushnell-Haas medium with high-speed diesel as a carbon source from three oil-polluted sites of Mumbai Harbor. Surface-active agent-producing bacterial strains were screened using nine widely used methods. The nineteen bacterial strains showed positive results for more than four surface-active agent screening methods; further, these strains were characterized using biochemical and nucleic acid sequencing methods. Based on the results, the organisms belonged to the genera Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Bacillus, Comamonas, Chryseomicrobium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Nesterenkonia, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The present study confirmed the prevalence of surface-active agent-producing bacteria in the oil-polluted waters of Mumbai Harbor. PMID:26912197

  19. Characterization of a Newly Isolated Marine Fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus for Optimized Production of the Anti-Tumor Agent Wentilactones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The potential anti-tumor agent wentilactones were produced by a newly isolated marine fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus. This fungus was derived from deep-sea sediment and identified by polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular, and extrolite profiles. However, wentilactone production was detected only under static cultures with very low yields. In order to improve wentilactone production, culture conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimal static fermentation conditions, the experimental values were closely consistent with the prediction model. The yields of wentilactone A and B were increased about 11-fold to 13.4 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. The result was further verified by fermentation scale-up for wentilactone production. Moreover, some small-molecule elicitors were found to have capacity of stimulating wentilactone production. To our knowledge, this is first report of optimized production of tetranorlabdane diterpenoids by a deep-sea derived marine fungus. The present study might be valuable for efficient production of wentilactones and fundamental investigation of the anti-tumor mechanism of norditerpenoids. PMID:26610530

  20. Dithiolopyrrolone Natural Products: Isolation, Synthesis and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhiwei; Huang, Sheng; Yu, Yi; Deng, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Dithiolopyrrolones are a class of antibiotics that possess the unique pyrrolinonodithiole (4H-[1,2] dithiolo [4,3-b] pyrrol-5-one) skeleton linked to two variable acyl groups. To date, there are approximately 30 naturally occurring dithiolopyrrolone compounds, including holomycin, thiolutin, and aureothricin, and more recently thiomarinols, a unique class of hybrid marine bacterial natural products containing a dithiolopyrrolone framework linked by an amide bridge with an 8-hydroxyoctanoyl chain linked to a monic acid. Generally, dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and even parasites. Holomycin appeared to be active against rifamycin-resistant bacteria and also inhibit the growth of the clinical pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus N315. Its mode of action is believed to inhibit RNA synthesis although the exact mechanism has yet to be established in vitro. A recent work demonstrated that the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri employs an RNA methyltransferase for self-resistance during the holomycin production. Moreover, some dithiolopyrrolone derivatives have demonstrated promising antitumor activities. The biosynthetic gene clusters of holomycin have recently been identified in S. clavuligerus and characterized biochemically and genetically. The biosynthetic gene cluster of thiomarinol was also identified from the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SANK 73390, which was uniquely encoded by two independent pathways for pseudomonic acid and pyrrothine in a novel plasmid. The aim of this review is to give an overview about the isolations, characterizations, synthesis, biosynthesis, bioactivities and mode of action of this unique family of dithiolopyrrolone natural products, focusing on the period from 1940s until now. PMID:24141227

  1. Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from Marine Dimethylsulfide-Degrading Enrichment Cultures and Identification of Polypeptides Induced during Growth on Dimethylsulfide▿

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS)-degrading enrichment cultures were established from samples of coastal seawater, nonaxenic Emiliania huxleyi cultures, and mixed marine methyl halide-degrading enrichment cultures. Bacterial populations from a broad phylogenetic range were identified in the mixed DMS-degrading enrichment cultures by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Sequences of dominant DGGE bands were similar to those of members of the genera Methylophaga and Alcanivorax. Several closely related Methylophaga strains were obtained that were able to grow on DMS as the carbon and energy source. Roseobacter-related populations were detected in some of the enrichment cultures; however, none of the Roseobacter group isolates that were tested were able to grow on DMS. Oxidation of DMS by Methylophaga sp. strain DMS010 was not affected by addition of the inhibitor chloroform or methyl tert-butyl ether, suggesting that DMS metabolism may occur by a route different from those described for Thiobacillus species and other unidentified marine isolates. Addition of DMS and methanethiol to whole-cell suspensions of strain DMS010 induced oxygen uptake when strain DMS010 was grown on DMS but not in cells grown on methanol. The apparent Kms of strain DMS010 for DMS and for methanethiol were 2.1 and 4.6 μM, respectively, when grown on DMS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the biomass of strain DMS010 and analysis of peptide bands by mass spectrometry techniques and N-terminal sequencing provided the first insight into the identity of polypeptides induced during growth on DMS. These included XoxF, a homolog of the large subunit of methanol dehydrogenase for which a biological role has not been identified previously. PMID:17322322

  2. Mining Genomes of Three Marine Sponge-Associated Actinobacterial Isolates for Secondary Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Hannes; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three actinobacterial isolates, Micromonospora sp. RV43, Rubrobacter sp. RV113, and Nocardiopsis sp. RV163 that had previously been isolated from Mediterranean sponges. The draft genomes were analyzed for the presence of gene clusters indicative of secondary metabolism using antiSMASH 3.0 and NapDos pipelines. Our findings demonstrated the chemical richness of sponge-associated actinomycetes and the efficacy of genome mining in exploring the genomic potential of sponge-derived actinomycetes. PMID:26430030

  3. Azo dye decolorization by a halotolerant exoelectrogenic decolorizer isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangcheng; Mou, Zhiyi; Geng, Jiya; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Based on both capabilities of extracellular electron transfer and high salt tolerance, marine exoelectrogenic bacteria have the potential to serve as halotolerant/halophilic exoelectrogenic decolorizers (HEDs) for textile wastewater treatment. However, research in this area is still rare. In this study, we employed Shewanella marisflavi EP1 for this purpose. The results showed that EP1 could decolorize Xylidine Ponceau 2R (XP2R) under high NaCl concentrations up to 20%. Two different mechanisms were involved: degradation and bioflocculation. XP2R was decolorized by degradation in the range of 0-7.4% NaCl, by bioaugmented flocculation in 10-20% NaCl; and the range of 7.4-10% NaCl was the transition period from degradation to flocculation. Considering the property of flocculation by strain EP1, it is reasonable that XP2R was hard to penetrate into EP1 cells, thus it was an extracellular process of decolorization. The overall results further suggested that like EP1, marine exoelectrogenic bacteria might serve as a category of functional microbes (i.e., HEDs) for textile wastewater treatment. PMID:27239968

  4. In vitro bioactivity studies of ceramic structures isolated from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alexandre A; Aroso, Ivo M; Silva, Tiago H; Mano, João F; Duarte, Ana Rita C; Reis, Rui L

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focused on the potential of bioceramics from different marine sponges-namely Petrosia ficiformis, Agelas oroides and Chondrosia reniformis-for novel biomedical/industrial applications. The bioceramics from these sponges were obtained after calcination at 750 °C for 6 h in a furnace. The morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro bioactivity of the bioceramics was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) after 14 and 21 d. Observation of the bioceramics by SEM after immersion in SBF solution, coupled with spectroscopic elemental analysis (EDS), showed that the surface morphology was consistent with a calcium-phosphate (Ca/P) coating, similar to hydroxyapatite crystals (HA). Evaluation of the characteristic peaks of Ca/P crystals by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction further confirmed the existence of HA. Cytotoxicity studies were carried out with the different ceramics and these were compared with a commercially available Bioglass(®). In vitro tests demonstrated that marine bioceramics from these sponges are non-cytotoxic and have the potential to be used as substitutes for synthetic Bioglass(®). PMID:27481449

  5. Sensors for isolation of anti-cancer compounds found within marine invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, Gordon; LaRue, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Highly evolved bacteria living within immobile marine animals are being targeted as a source of antitumor pharmaceuticals. This paper describes 2 electo-optical sensor systems developed for identifying species of tunicates and actinobacteria that live within them. Two stages of identification include 1) a benthic survey apparatus to locate species and 2) a laboratory housed cell analysis platform used to classify their bacterial micro-biome. Marine Optics Sampling- There are over 3000 species of Tunicates that thrive in diverse habitats. We use a system of cameras, GPS and the GPS/photo integration application on a PC laptop to compile a time / location stamp for each image taken during the dive survey. A shape-map of x/y coordinates of photos are stored for later identification and sampling. Flow Cytometers/cell sorters housed at The Medical University of South Carolina and The University of Maryland have been modified to produce low-noise, high signal wave forms used for bacteria analysis. We strive to describe salient contrasts between these two fundamentally different sensor systems. Accents are placed on analog transducers and initial step sensing systems and output.

  6. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects of diterpenes isolated from the marine alga, Dictyota menstrualis.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Moura, Laura; Marqui de Almeida, Ana Carolina; Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Ortiz-Ramirez, Fredy; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Fuly, André Lopes

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Therapeutics are available, but they often have unsatisfactory results and may produce side effects. Alternative treatments based on the use of natural products have been extensively investigated, because of their low toxicity and side effects. Marine organisms are prime candidates for such products, as they are sources of numerous and complex substances with ecological and pharmacological effects. In this work, we investigated, through in vitro experiments, the effects of three diterpenes (pachydictyol A, isopachydictyol A and dichotomanol) from the Brazilian marine alga, Dictyota menstrualis, on platelet aggregation and plasma coagulation. Results showed that dichotomanol inhibited ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but failed to inhibit washed platelets (WP). In contrast, pachydictyol A and isopachydictyol A failed to inhibit the aggregation of PRP, but inhibited WP aggregation induced by collagen or thrombin. These diterpenes also inhibited coagulation analyzed by the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and on commercial fibrinogen. Moreover, diterpenes inhibited the catalytic activity of thrombin. Theoretical studies using the Osiris Property Explorer software showed that diterpenes have low theoretical toxicity profiles and a drug-score similar to commercial anticoagulant drugs. In conclusion, these diterpenes are promising candidates for use in anticoagulant therapy, and this study also highlights the biotechnological potential of oceans and the importance of bioprospecting to develop medicines. PMID:24796305

  7. Overexpression and secretion of AgaA7 from Pseudoalteromonas hodoensis sp. nov in Bacillus subtilis for the depolymerization of agarose.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Cabulong, Rhudith B; Moron, Llewelyn S; Nisola, Grace M; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Interest in agar or agarose-based pharmaceutical products has driven the search for potent agarolytic enzymes. An extracellular β-agarase (AgaA7) recently isolated from Pseudoalteromonas hodoensis sp. nov was expressed in Bacillus subtilis, which was chosen due to its capability to overproduce and secrete functional enzymes. Phenotypic analysis showed that the engineered B. subtilis secreted a functional AgaA7 when fused with the aprE signal peptide (SP) at the amino-terminus. The maximum agarolytic activity was observed during the late logarithmic phase. To further improve the secretion of AgaA7, an expression library of AgaA7 fused to different naturally occurring B. subtilis SPs was created. The amount of AgaA7 secreted by the clones was compared through activity assay, immuno-blot, and purification via affinity chromatography. Although the aprE SP can readily facilitate the secretion of AgaA7, other SPs such as yqgA, pel, and lipA were relatively more efficient. Among these SPs, lipA was the most efficient in improving the secretion of AgaA7.The use of B. subtilis as host for the expression and secretion of agarolytic and other hydrolytic enzymes can be a useful tool in the field of white biotechnology. PMID:27241288

  8. Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W.N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J.R.; Dopazo, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

  9. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  10. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-11-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  11. Characterization of a 7Fe ferredoxin isolated from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica strain 617: spectroscopic and electrochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Macedo, A L; Besson, S; Moreno, C; Fauque, G; Moura, J J; Moura, I

    1996-12-13

    A 7Fe ferredoxin, isolated from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica strain 617, was characterized. The NH2-terminal sequence analysis, performed until residue number 56, shows a high similarity with the 7Fe ferredoxins isolated from Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. EPR and NMR spectroscopies identify the presence of both [3Fe-4S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters, with cysteinyl coordination. The electrochemical studies on [Fe-S] clusters show that a fast diffusion-dominated electron transfer, promoted by Mg(II), takes place between the ferredoxin and the glassy carbon electrode. Square wave voltammetry studies gave access to the electrosynthesis of a 4Fe center formed within the [3Fe-4S] core. The [3Fe-4S] cluster exhibited two reduction potentials at -175 and -680 +/- 10 mV and the [4Fe-4S] cluster was characterized by an unusually low reduction potential of -715 +/- 10 mV, at pH 7.6 PMID:8954931

  12. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; Potvin, Éric; Jeong, Hae Jin; Drebing, Wolfgang; Kilcoyne, Jane; Al-Jorani, Ahmed; Twiner, Michael J.; Göthel, Qun; Köck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1) and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2) by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1) and (2) were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively. PMID:26528990

  13. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum.

    PubMed

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; Potvin, Éric; Jeong, Hae Jin; Drebing, Wolfgang; Kilcoyne, Jane; Al-Jorani, Ahmed; Twiner, Michael J; Göthel, Qun; Köck, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1) and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2) were isolated from the Korean (870 L) and North Sea (120 L) strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1) and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2) by ¹H- and (13)C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1) and (2) were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively. PMID:26528990

  14. Tenacibaculum skagerrakense sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the pelagic zone in Skagerrak, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Frette, Lone; Jørgensen, Niels O G; Irming, Heidi; Kroer, Niels

    2004-03-01

    A number of bacteria were isolated from sea water in Skagerrak, Denmark, at 30 m depth. Two of the isolates, strains D28 and D30(T), belonged to the Flavobacteriaceae within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the two strains indicated strongly that they belonged to the genus Tenacibaculum and that they showed greatest similarity to the species Tenacibaculum amylolyticum and Tenacibaculum mesophilum. DNA-DNA hybridization values, DNA base composition and phenotypic characteristics separated the Skagerrak strains from the other species within TENACIBACULUM: Thus, it is concluded that the strains belong to a novel species within the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum skagerrakense sp. nov. is proposed, with strain D30(T) (=ATCC BAA-458(T)=DSM 14836(T)) as the type strain. PMID:15023969

  15. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Anti-Adenoviral Secondary Metabolites from Marine Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Mårten; Carlsson, Marcus; Uvell, Hanna; Islam, Koushikul; Edlund, Karin; Cullman, Inger; Altermark, Björn; Mei, Ya-Fang; Elofsson, Mikael; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Wadell, Göran; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus infections in immunocompromised patients are associated with high mortality rates. Currently, there are no effective anti-adenoviral therapies available. It is well known that actinobacteria can produce secondary metabolites that are attractive in drug discovery due to their structural diversity and their evolved interaction with biomolecules. Here, we have established an extract library derived from actinobacteria isolated from Vestfjorden, Norway, and performed a screening campaign to discover anti-adenoviral compounds. One extract with anti-adenoviral activity was found to contain a diastereomeric 1:1 mixture of the butenolide secondary alcohols 1a and 1b. By further cultivation and analysis, we could isolate 1a and 1b in different diastereomeric ratio. In addition, three more anti-adenoviral butenolides 2, 3 and 4 with differences in their side-chains were isolated. In this study, the anti-adenoviral activity of these compounds was characterized and substantial differences in the cytotoxic potential between the butenolide analogs were observed. The most potent butenolide analog 3 displayed an EC50 value of 91 μM and no prominent cytotoxicity at 2 mM. Furthermore, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for these compounds based on their relative time of appearance and structure. PMID:24477283

  17. Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Vidal, Maximino; Gijón, Daniel; Zarza, Carles; Santos, Ysabel

    2012-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated 35/09(T), was isolated from diseased European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Spain. Colonies were pale-yellow-pigmented with uneven edges and did not adhere to the agar. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 31.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Sequence similarities between the isolate and type strains of other members of the genus were 93.1-97.3 %. The major fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) were iso-C(15 : 0) (24.8 %), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (18.0 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (8.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (6.9 %) and iso-C(15 : 1) (6.2 %). Genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain 35/09(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) ( = CECT 7612(T) = NCIMB 14598(T)). PMID:21460137

  18. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455). PMID:21984666

  19. Isolation of Araguspongine M, a New Stereoisomer of an Araguspongine/Xestospongin alkaloid, and Dopamine from the Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua Collected in Palau

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongwei; Mishima, Yuri; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Akira; Mine, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng; Yamada, Junko; Oda, Taiko; Namikoshi, Michio

    2004-01-01

    A new stereoisomer of an araguspongine/xestospongin alkaloid, named araguspongine M (1), has been isolated together with 12 known compounds, araguspongines B (2) and D (3), dopamine, three galactosyl diacylglycerols, 24-methyl cholesterol, 5,6-dihydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, and three 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols (11–13), from the marine sponge Neopetrosia exigua (formerly Xestospongia exigua) collected in Palau. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of its spectral data analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of dopamine from a marine sponge. This compound may be produced by an endosymbiotic Synechococcus-like cyanobacterium. Compounds 1–3 and 11–13 showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 at IC50’s of 5.5, 5.5, 5.9, 22.4, 9.5, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The possible biosynthesis origin of the isolated metabolites is discussed.

  20. Halotia gen. nov., a phylogenetically and physiologically coherent cyanobacterial genus isolated from marine coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Hentschke, Guilherme Scotta; Sant'Anna, Célia Leite; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2015-02-01

    Nostoc is a common and well-studied genus of cyanobacteria and, according to molecular phylogeny, is a polyphyletic group. Therefore, revisions of this genus are urged in an attempt to clarify its taxonomy. Novel strains isolated from underexplored environments and assigned morphologically to the genus Nostoc are not genetically related to the 'true Nostoc' group. In this study, four strains isolated from biofilms collected in Antarctica and five strains originated from Brazilian mangroves were evaluated. Despite their morphological similarities to other morphotypes of Nostoc, these nine strains differed from other morphotypes in ecological, physiological and genetic aspects. Based on the phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene, the Antarctic sequences were grouped together with the sequences of the Brazilian mangrove isolates and Nostoc sp. Mollenhauer 1 : 1-067 in a well-supported cluster (74 % bootstrap value, maximum-likelihood). This novel cluster was separated phylogenetically from the 'true Nostoc' clade and from the clades of the morphologically similar genera Mojavia and Desmonostoc. The 16S rRNA gene sequences generated in this study exhibited 96 % similarity to sequences from the nostocacean genera mentioned above. Physiologically, these nine strains showed the capacity to grow in a salinity range of 1-10 % NaCl, indicating their tolerance of saline conditions. These results provide support for the description of a new genus, named Halotia gen. nov., which is related morphologically to the genera Nostoc, Mojavia and Desmonostoc. Within this new genus, three novel species were recognized and described based on morphology and internal transcribed spacer secondary structures: Halotia branconii sp. nov., Halotia longispora sp. nov. and Halotia wernerae sp. nov., under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants. PMID:25424485

  1. Isolation and characterization of glutamine synthetase from the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D L; Alberte, R S

    1996-01-01

    Two peaks of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity were resolved by anion-exchange chromatography from the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum Grev. The second peak of activity accounted for greater than 93% of total enzyme activity, and this isoform was purified over 200-fold. Results from denaturing gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography suggest that six 70-kD subunits constitute the 400-kD native enzyme. The structure of the diatom GS, therefore, appears more similar to that of a type found in bacteria than to the type common among other eukaryotes. Apparent Michaelis constant values were 0.7 mM for NH4(+), 5.7 mM for glutamic acid, and 0.5 mM for ATP. Enzyme activity was inhibited by serine, alanine, glycine, phosphinothricin, and methionine sulfoximine. Polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified enzyme localized a single polypeptide on western blots of S. costatum cell lysates and recognized the denatured, native enzyme. Western analysis of the two peak fractions derived from anion-exchange chromatography demonstrated that the 70-kD protein was present only in the later eluting peak of enzyme activity. This form of GS does not appear to be unique to S. costatum, since the antiserum recognized a similar-sized protein in cell lysates of other chromophytic algae. PMID:8756499

  2. Effects of low temperature on tropical and temperate isolates of marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Varkey, Deepa; Mazard, Sophie; Ostrowski, Martin; Tetu, Sasha G; Haynes, Paul; Paulsen, Ian T

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is an important factor influencing the distribution of marine picocyanobacteria. However, molecular responses contributing to temperature preferences are poorly understood in these important primary producers. We compared the temperature acclimation of a tropical Synechococcus strain WH8102 with temperate strain BL107 at 18 °C relative to 22 °C and examined their global protein expression, growth patterns, photosynthetic efficiency and lipid composition. Global protein expression profiles demonstrate the partitioning of the proteome into major categories: photosynthesis (>40%), translation (10-15%) and membrane transport (2-8%) with distinct differences between and within strains grown at different temperatures. At low temperature, growth and photosynthesis of strain WH8102 was significantly decreased, while BL107 was largely unaffected. There was an increased abundance of proteins involved in protein biosynthesis at 18 °C for BL107. Each strain showed distinct differences in lipid composition with higher unsaturation in strain BL107. We hypothesize that differences in membrane fluidity, abundance of protein biosynthesis machinery and the maintenance of photosynthesis efficiency contribute to the acclimation of strain BL107 to low temperature. Additional proteins unique to BL107 may also contribute to this strain's improved fitness at low temperature. Such adaptive capacities are likely important factors favoring growth of temperate strains over tropical strains in high latitude niches. PMID:26495993

  3. The isolation of prophyra-334 from marine algae and its UV-absorption behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaohui, Zhang; Xin, Gao; Tashiro, Yuri; Matsukawa, Shingo; Ogawa, Hiroo

    2005-12-01

    Prophyra-334 was prepared by methanol extraction and HPLC methods from marine algae (dried laver). It is a sunscreen compound that has good absorption of ultraviolet radiations in the wavelength ranges of 200-400 nm. The absorption maximum wavelength of prophyra-334 is at 334 nm, so defined the name. The molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) of prophyra-334 in aqueous solution at 334 nm wavelength is 4.23×104. The absorption of prophyra-334 in organic solvents differs in aqueous solutions. In polar organic solvents, the absorption maximum wavelength of prophyra-334 has a slight shift toward longer wavelength compared with that in pure water. On the contrary, in inert non-polar organic solvents, the absorption maximum wavelength and the shape of absorption spectra of prophyra-334 are changed. The effects of organic solvents on prophyra-334 stability suggested that: (1) the absorbance of prophyra-334 in water is generally constant at temperature of 60°C in 24 h, meaning that prophyra-334 is quite stable in water; (2) the absorbance of prophyra-334 in ethanol and hexane decreases at the same condition. The stability of prophyra-334 in organic solvents is less than that in aqueous solution. In benzene, the prophyra-334 is very instable.

  4. Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dhayanithi, NB; Kumar, TT Ajith; Kalaiselvam, M; Balasubramanian, T; Sivakumar, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 µg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 µg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 µg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery. PMID:23569985

  5. Sonorensin: an Antimicrobial Peptide, Belonging to the Heterocycloanthracin Subfamily of Bacteriocins, from a New Marine Isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized. PMID:24610839

  6. Extraction, isolation, and purification of analytes from samples of marine origin--a multivariate task.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Lucia; Bjørsvik, Hans-René

    2012-12-01

    The development of a multivariate study for a quantitative analysis of six different polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissue of Atlantic Salmo salar L. is reported. An extraction, isolation, and purification process based on an accelerated solvent extraction system was designed, investigated, and optimized by means of statistical experimental design and multivariate data analysis and regression. An accompanying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical method was developed for the identification and quantification of the analytes, BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, and BDE 154. These PBDEs have been used in commercial blends that were used as flame-retardants for a variety of materials, including electronic devices, synthetic polymers and textiles. The present study revealed that an extracting solvent mixture composed of hexane and CH₂Cl₂ (10:90) provided excellent recoveries of all of the six PBDEs studied herein. A somewhat lower polarity in the extracting solvent, hexane and CH₂Cl₂ (40:60) decreased the analyte %-recoveries, which still remain acceptable and satisfactory. The study demonstrates the necessity to perform an intimately investigation of the extraction and purification process in order to achieve quantitative isolation of the analytes from the specific matrix. PMID:22840418

  7. Toxin-screening and identification of bacteria isolated from highly toxic marine gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Luo, Xuan; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lin, Xiang-Tian

    2008-07-01

    Bacteria isolated from a highly toxic sample of gastropod Nassarius semiplicatus in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province in July 2007, were studied to probe into the relationship between bacteria and toxicity of nassariid gastropod. The toxicity of the gastropod sample was 2 x 10(2)mouse unit (MU) per gram of tissue (wet weight). High concentration of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues (TTXs) were found in the digestive gland and muscle of the gastropod, using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass chromatography (LC-MS). Bacterial strains isolated from the digestive gland were cultured and screened for TTX with a competitive ELISA method. Tetrodotoxin was detected in a proportion of bacterial strains, but the toxin content was low. Partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the TTX-producing strains was then sequenced and compared with those published in the GenBank to tentatively identify the toxic strains. It was found that most of the toxic strains were closely affiliated with genus Vibrio, and the others were related to genus Shewanella, Marinomonas, Tenacibaculum and Aeromonas. These findings suggest that tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria might play an important role in tetrodotoxin accumulation/production in N. semiplicatus. PMID:18573274

  8. Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from coastal surface water.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Park, Sanghwa; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Chiura, Hiroshi Xavier; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2015-10-01

    A slightly curved-rod-shaped, pink-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain with gliding motility, designated SK-8T, was isolated from coastal surface water of Misaki, Japan. Phylogenetic trees generated using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SK-8T belonged to the genus Fabibacter and showed 96.0 % sequence similarity to the type strain of the most closely related species, Fabibacter pacificus DY53T. The novel isolate was phenotypically and physiologically different from previously described strains. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two aminophospholipids and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 39.1 mol% and MK-7 was the only predominant isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of this taxonomic study employing a polyphasic approach, it was suggested that strain SK-8T represents a novel species of the genus Fabibacter, with the newly proposed name Fabibacter misakiensis sp. nov. The type strain is SK-8T ( = NBRC 110216T = KCTC 32969T). PMID:26296998

  9. Rubritalea halochordaticola sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing verrucomicrobial species isolated from a marine chordate.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A gram-negative-staining, obligately aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and chemoheterotrophic bacterium, designated strain MN1-1006(T), was isolated from an ascidian (sea squirt) sample, and was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate shared approximately 93-99% sequence similarity with recognized species of the genus Rubritalea within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MN1-1006(T) and Rubritalea squalenifaciens HOact23(T) and Rubritalea sabuli YM29-052(T) were 57% and 14.5%, respectively. Strain MN1-1006(T) produced carotenoid compounds that rendered the cell biomass a reddish pink colour. The strain also contained squalene. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the novel strain contained muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain MN1-1006(T) was 51.4 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(14:0), iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-9. On the basis of these data, it was concluded that strain MN1-1006(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rubritalea, for which the name Rubritalea halochordaticola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MN1-1006(T )( = KCTC 23186(T) = NBRC 107102(T)). PMID:20656813

  10. Pelagitalea pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new marine bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunsang; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Kim, Hyun Soo; Yoon, Jaewoo

    2015-04-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, beige-pigmented, short-rod-shaped, non-motile and chemoheterotrophic bacteria, designated K2-48(T) was isolated from seawater collected in the Western North Pacific Ocean near Japan. Preliminary analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate was affiliated with the family Oceanospirillaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria and that it showed the highest sequence similarity (93.7 %) to Neptunomonas qingdaonensis P10-2-4(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Oceanospirillaceae. The major fatty acids of strain K2-48(T) were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and C16:0 as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 43.2 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone 9 and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, a phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospolipid. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that strain K2-48(T) represents a novel genus sp. We propose the name Pelagitalea pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. for this strain; its type strain is K2-48(T) (=KCCM 90119(T)). PMID:25487119

  11. Isolation and classification of a novel marine Bacteroidetes as Frondibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain negative, golden-yellow pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain A5Q-67(T) was isolated from leaf litter collected at the mangrove estuary of Nakama River, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the novel isolate was affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (94.2 %) to Imtechella halotolerans K1(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain A5Q-67(T) were identified as iso-C17:0 3-OH, summed feature 1 (iso-C15:1 H and/or C13:0 3-OH) and iso-C15:0 as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.7 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified lipid. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Frondibacter aureus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. aureus is A5Q-67(T) (=KCTC 32991(T) = NBRC 110021(T)). PMID:25385000

  12. Influence of temperature, pH, and salinity on membrane lipid composition and TEX86 of marine planktonic thaumarchaeal isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elling, Felix J.; Könneke, Martin; Mußmann, Marc; Greve, Andreas; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea of the phylum Thaumarchaeota are a cosmopolitan group of microorganisms representing a major fraction of the picoplankton in the ocean. The cytoplasmic membranes of Thaumarchaeota consist predominantly of intact polar isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids, which may be used as biomarkers for living Thaumarchaeota. Fossil thaumarchaeal GDGT core lipids accumulate in marine sediments and serve as the basis for geochemical proxies such as the TEX86 paleothermometer. Here, we demonstrate that the responses of membrane lipid compositions and resulting TEX86 values to growth temperature strongly diverge in three closely related thaumarchaeal pure cultures, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and two novel strains isolated from South Atlantic surface water, although the inventories of intact polar lipids and core lipids were overall similar in the three strains. N. maritimus and its closely related strain NAOA6 showed linear relationships of TEX86 and growth temperature but no correlation of TEX86 and temperature was observed in the more distantly related strain NAOA2. In contrast, the weighted average number of cycloalkyl moieties (ring index) was linearly correlated with growth temperature in all strains. This disparate relationship of TEX86 to growth temperature among closely related Thaumarchaeota suggests that the ring index but not the TEX86 ratio represents a universal response to growth temperature in marine planktonic Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, the distinct TEX86-temperature relationships in the cultivated strains indicate that environmental GDGT signals may include an ecological component, which has important implications for ocean temperature reconstructions using the TEX86 proxy. In contrast, different growth medium salinities in the range 27-51‰ tested for N. maritimus showed no systematic effect on intact polar GDGT composition and TEX86. Similarly, N. maritimus showed only small changes in intact

  13. An ortholog of the Leptospira interrogans lipoprotein LipL32 aids in the colonization of Pseudoalteromonas tunicata to host surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Hoke, David E.; Egan, Suhelen

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a common surface colonizer of marine eukaryotes, including the macroalga Ulva australis.Genomic analysis of P. tunicata identified genes potentially involved in surface colonization, including genes with homology to bacterial virulence factors that mediate attachment. Of particular interest is the presence of a gene, designated ptlL32, encoding an ortholog to the Leptospira lipoprotein LipL32, which has been shown to facilitate the interaction of Leptospira sp. with host extracellular matrix (ECM) structures and is thought to be an important virulence trait for pathogenic Leptospira. To investigate the role of PtlL32 in the colonization by P. tunicata we constructed and characterized a ΔptlL32 mutant strain. Whilst P. tunicata ΔptlL32 bound to an abiotic surface with the same capacity as the wild type strain, it had a marked effect on the ability of P. tunicata to bind to ECM, suggesting a specific role in attachment to biological surfaces. Loss of PtlL32 also significantly reduced the capacity for P. tunciata to colonize the host algal surface demonstrating a clear role for this protein as a host-colonization factor. PtlL32 appears to have a patchy distribution across specific groups of environmental bacteria and phylogenetic analysis of PtlL32 orthologous proteins from non-Leptospira species suggests it may have been acquired via horizontal gene transfer between distantly related lineages. This study provides the first evidence for an attachment function for a LipL32-like protein outside the Leptospira and thereby contributes to the understanding of host colonization in ecologically distinct bacterial species. PMID:25071736

  14. Anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 against Serratia marcescens SMJ-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Faiq; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the anti-biofilm activity of Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract against the biofilm producer, Serratia marcescens. The crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 was extracted with ethyl acetate. The sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 0.1 mg/ml, has been used in this study. The anti-biofilm activity of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 crude extract was assessed against the biofilm of S. marcescens using the crystal violet assay. The growth curve has been used as the indicator of the effect of crude extracts to bacterial growth. The sub-MIC crude extract was tested against two of S. marcescens virulence factors, including the swarming ability and production of prodigiosin using the swarming assay and prodigiosin assay. The growth curves of S. marcescens indicated that the sub-MIC concentration of crude extract did not affect the growth of S. marcescens. The production of prodigiosin was reduced by 44%. The diameter of the swarming area was reduced from 8.7 cm to 0.8 cm. The sub-MIC crude extract inhibits 26.9% of the biofilm production in S. marcescens. This crude extract lost its activity at 50°C and above. In conclusion, crude extract of P. flavipulchra SktPp1 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens SMJ-11 biofilm formation.

  15. Characterization of outer membrane vesicles released by the psychrotolerant bacterium Pseudoalteromonas antarctica NF3

    PubMed Central

    Nevot, Maria; Deroncelé, Víctor; Messner, Paul; Guinea, Jesús; Mercadé, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pseudoalteromonas antarctica NF3 is an Antarctic psychrotolerant Gram-negative bacterium that accumulates large amounts of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) with high protein content. Transmission electron microscopy analysis after high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution (HPF-FS) shows that the EPS is composed of a capsular polymer and large numbers of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). These vesicles are bilayered structures and predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 25–70 nm, which is similar to what has been observed in OMVs from other Gram-negative bacteria. Analyses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phospholipids and protein profiles of OMVs are consistent with the bacterial outer membrane origin of these vesicles. In an initial attempt to elucidate the functions of OMVs proteins, we conducted a proteomic analysis on 1D SDS-PAGE bands. Those proteins putatively identified match with outer membrane proteins and proteins related to nutrient processing and transport in Gram-negative bacteria. This approach suggests that OMVs present in the EPS from P. antarctica NF3, might function to deliver proteins to the external media, and therefore play an important role in the survival of the bacterium in the extreme Antarctic environment. PMID:16913913

  16. Isolation of a phenol-utilizing marine bacterium from Durban Harbour (South Africa) and its preliminary characterization as Marinobacter sp. KM2.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Karis; Schmidt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Many aromatic hydrocarbons assigned to the so-called high production volume chemicals (HPVCs) are frequently encountered constituents of wastewaters that end up in the sea. Although the pollutant-degrading capabilities of freshwater bacteria are well known, the catabolism of pollutants by marine bacteria has received limited attention. A marine bacterium with the ability to aerobically utilize phenol - an HPVC and common aromatic pollutant - as its sole source of carbon and energy, was isolated from water samples from Durban Harbour, South Africa. The isolate, designated strain KM2, was assigned to the genus Marinobacter based on a variety of phenotypic properties and by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate displays an absolute growth requirement for NaCl which cannot be offset by replacement of NaCl with other salts. In addition to 4-methylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol, it utilizes a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as butan-1-ol and hexadecane under aerobic conditions. The transient formation of an intermediate exhibiting the UV-Vis spectral characteristics for 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in cultures growing on phenol suggests that the isolate catabolizes this compound via the meta cleavage pathway. These results indicate that members of the genus Marinobacter might participate in the elimination of aromatic pollutants in South African marine environments. PMID:22339030

  17. [Algicidal activity against red-tide algaes by marine bacterial strain N3 isolated from a HABs area, southern China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming

    2013-05-01

    A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549

  18. Repeated evolution of reproductive isolation in a marine snail: unveiling mechanisms of speciation.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Panova, Marina; Kemppainen, Petri; André, Carl; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Butlin, Roger K

    2010-06-12

    Distinct ecotypes of the snail Littorina saxatilis, each linked to a specific shore microhabitat, form a mosaic-like pattern with narrow hybrid zones in between, over which gene flow is 10-30% of within-ecotype gene flow. Multi-locus comparisons cluster populations by geographic affinity independent of ecotype, while loci under selection group populations by ecotype. The repeated occurrence of partially reproductively isolated ecotypes and the conflicting patterns in neutral and selected genes can either be explained by separation in allopatry followed by secondary overlap and extensive introgression that homogenizes neutral differences evolved under allopatry, or by repeated evolution in parapatry, or in sympatry, with the same ecotypes appearing in each local site. Data from Spain, the UK and Sweden give stronger support for a non-allopatric model of ecotype formation than for an allopatric model. Several different non-allopatric mechanisms can, however, explain the repeated evolution of the ecotypes: (i) parallel evolution by new mutations in different populations; (ii) evolution from standing genetic variation; and (iii) evolution in concert with rapid spread of new positive mutations among populations inhabiting similar environments. These models make different predictions that can be tested using comprehensive phylogenetic information combined with candidate loci sequencing. PMID:20439278

  19. An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola

    PubMed Central

    Lipowicz, Bartosz; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz; Proksch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1) since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases. PMID:23966036

  20. An aeroplysinin-1 specific nitrile hydratase isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina cavernicola.

    PubMed

    Lipowicz, Bartosz; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz; Proksch, Peter

    2013-08-01

    A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1) since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases. PMID:23966036

  1. Isolation, identification, and optimal cultivation of a marine bacterium antagonistic to Magnaporthe grisea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W J; Guo, P; Liu, M; Yang, B L; Wang, J H; Jiang, J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a plate confrontation method was used to isolate bacteria antagonistic to the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea from samples collected from China's Dalian Bay. The antagonist strain LM-031 was obtained. We studied this strain's morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and analyzed its 16S rDNA sequence. We compared the effects of different culture conditions (type of media, carbon and nitrogen source, incubation temperature and time, and initial pH value) on the inhibitory effect against M. grisea. Strain LM-031 was preliminarily identified as Bacillus pumilus and was found to strongly inhibit M. grisea, especially when grown on BPY medium at an initial pH 7 for 72 h at 30°C. The optimum carbon and nitrogen sources for growth were lactose and peptone, respectively. The most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for production of active substances were glucose and NH4Cl, respectively. Our results show that development and utilization of B. pumilus LM-031 has great potential for biological control of M. grisea. PMID:27323038

  2. Bioflocculant production by Bacillus sp. Gilbert isolated from a marine environment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ugbenyen, A M; Cosa, S; Mabinya, L V; Okoh, A I

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study we reported on the bioflocculant production by a Bacillus species isolated from sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In current study we carried out further evaluation on the effect of different culture conditions on the bioflocculant production, as well as characterised the bioflocculant produced in detail. The bacteria produced bioflocculant optimally under the following conditions: using sodium carbonate (95.2% flocculating activity) and potassium nitrate (76.6% flocculating activity) as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively; inoculum size of 3% (v/v); initial pH 9.0; and Al3+ as coagulant aid. The crude bioflocculant retained 44.2% residual flocculating activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. Chemical analysis of the Bacillus sp. Gilbert purified bioflocculant demonstrated that it was composed mainly of polysaccharide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and methylene groups in the bioflocculant and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis detected the elemental composition in mass proportion (% w/w) of C, N, O, S and P as 4.12 : 7.40: 39.92: 3.00: 13.91. Scanning electron micrograph image of the bioflocculant revealed an amorphous compound. PMID:25272753

  3. A beta-galactose-specific lectin isolated from the marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus possesses anti-HIV-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Kong, Jing; Li, Wei; Molchanova, Valentina; Chikalovets, Irina; Belogortseva, Natalia; Luk'yanov, Pavel; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2006-01-01

    A 30 kDa beta-galactose-specific lectin named CVL was isolated from the polychaete marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus (Annelida) and its anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro was determined. Results showed that CVL inhibited cytopathic effect induced by HIV-1 and the production of viral p24 antigen. The EC(50) values were 0.0043 and 0.057 microM, respectively. Time-of-addition analysis of anti-HIV-1 activity indicated its action was at the early stage of virus replication. CVL could blocked the cell-to-cell fusion process of HIV infected and uninfected cells with an EC(50) of 0.073 microM. The inhibition of HIV-1 entry into host cells was demonstrated by using fluorescence-based real-time quantify PCR. At CVL concentration of 0.33 microM and 0.07 microM, 86% and 21% virus attachment were blocked, respectively. The anti-HIV-1 action of CVL might relate to blockade of HIV-1 entry into cells. PMID:16316787

  4. Spongiiferula fulva gen. nov., sp. nov., a Bacterium of the Family Flavobacteriaceae Isolated from a Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    A Gram stain-negative, strictly aerobic, brown-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped, chemoheterotrophic bacterial strain-designated A6F-119(T) was isolated from a marine sponge (Rhabdastrella sp.). Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the new strain represented a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (93 %) to Tenacibaculum maritimum NBRC 15946(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from the recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The DNA G + C content of strain A6F-119(T) was determined to be 30.8 mol%; MK-6 was identified as the major menaquinone; and the presence of iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c as the major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids. A polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, and three unidentified lipids. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Spongiiferula fulva gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. fulva is A6F-119(T) (= KCTC 42752(T) = NBRC 111402(T)). PMID:26960291

  5. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species in the southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Tolfo, Neidimar Cezar Correa; Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; Medeiros, Aline Weber; Tavares, Maurício; Frazzon, Jeverson; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate species distribution, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and presence of resistance genes in enterococci isolated from fecal samples of wild marine species, including seabirds (n=12), sea turtles (n=8), and mammals (n=3) found alive or dead in southern coast of Brazil. Enterococci were classified based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, tested for antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of tet(S), tet(M), tet(L), mrsC, and erm(B) genes by PCR. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were the most common species. Single (37.09%), double (25.80%), and multiple (16.12%) antibiotic resistance patterns were observed. Resistance to rifampicin occurred most frequently. The msrC, tet(M), and/or tet(L) genes were detected in 60.15%, 73.07%, and 23.07% of the resistant strains, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains in these species could be related to food web interactions and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome. PMID:26952995

  6. Feifantangia zhejiangensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from seawater of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Zuo-Guo; Jiang, Ri-Jin; Yang, Zhi-Jian

    2015-12-01

    A marine bacterium, NMD7(T), was isolated from seawater of the East China Sea. The cells were found to be aerobic, Gram-stain negative, non-motile rods. Growth of strain NMD7(T) could be observed in the medium without Na(+). Flexirubin-type pigments were observed to be produced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NMD7(T) is an authentic member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, forming a monophyletic clade as retrieved in neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees, and is closely related to Formosa spongicola A2(T) (96.0 %). The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6. Major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The main polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, one aminophospholipid, three aminolipids and five unidentified lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, it is proposed that strain NMD7(T) be classified as representing a new genus, Feifantangia gen. nov. and a new species, Feifantangia zhejiangensis sp. nov. The type strain is NMD7(T) (=KCTC 42445T =MCCC 1K00458T). PMID:26410371

  7. Anticancer Effect and Structure-Activity Analysis of Marine Products Isolated from Metabolites of Mangrove Fungi in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li-yang; Zhang, Jian-ye; Liang, Yong-ju; Chen, Li-ming; Zhen, Li-sheng; Wang, Fang; Mi, Yan-jun; She, Zhi-gang; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Lin, Yong-cheng; Fu, Li-wu

    2010-01-01

    Marine-derived fungi provide plenty of structurally unique and biologically active secondary metabolites. We screened 87 marine products from mangrove fungi in the South China Sea for anticancer activity by MTT assay. 14% of the compounds (11/86) exhibited a potent activity against cancer in vitro. Importantly, some compounds such as compounds 78 and 81 appeared to be promising for treating cancer patients with multidrug resistance, which should encourage more efforts to isolate promising candidates for further development as clinically useful chemotherapeutic drugs. Furthermore, DNA intercalation was not involved in their anticancer activities, as determined by DNA binding assay. On the other hand, the structure-activity analysis indicated that the hydroxyl group was important for their cytotoxic activity and that bulky functional groups such as phenyl rings could result in a loss of biological activity, which will direct the further development of marine product-based derivatives. PMID:20479969

  8. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2015-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy- (6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy-β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  9. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2016-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy-(6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy- β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  10. Domibacillus enclensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment, and emended description of the genus Domibacillus.

    PubMed

    Sonalkar, Vidya V; Mawlankar, Rahul; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Tang, Shan-Kun; Dastager, Syed G

    2014-12-01

    A novel red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated NIO-1016(T), was isolated from a sediment sample from Chorao Island, India and was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain was Gram-reaction-positive, strictly aerobic, motile and catalase-positive and produced spherical to slightly ellipsoidal endospores with subterminal position on swollen sporangia. The genomic DNA G+C content was 46.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The predominant quinones were MK-6 (89.3 %) and MK-7 (8.7 %). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and an unidentified phospholipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (type A1γ) was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and the major whole-cell sugars were glucose and ribose. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were identified as Domibacillus robiginosus DSM 25058(T) (98.0 % similarity) and Domibacillus indicus DSM 28032(T) (97.2 % similarity), other species of the genus Bacillus displayed below 96 % similarity. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological differences between strain NIO-1016(T) and its closest neighbours indicate that this strain represents a novel species in the genus Domibacillus in the family Bacillaceae for which the name Domibacillus enclensis sp. nov. is proposed with the type species NIO-1016(T) ( = DSM 25145(T) = NCIM 5462(T) = CCTCC AB 2011121(T)). PMID:25242536

  11. Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Park, So-Hyun; Seo, Ga-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated EC29(T), was isolated from the brown alga Ecklonia cava collected on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain EC29(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 1-5% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Winogradskyella. Strain EC29(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, of 96.5-97.8%, to the type strains of Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T), Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EC29(T) exhibited < 27% DNA-DNA relatedness with Winogradskyella pulchriflava EM106(T) and Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T). The predominant fatty acids of strain EC29(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.1 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Based on a polyphasic study, strain EC29(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Winogradskyella, for which the name Winogradskyella eckloniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EC29(T) ( = KCTC 32172(T) = JCM 18703(T)). PMID:25979633

  12. Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from marine brown alga Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Young-Ju; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated EC11(T) was isolated from brown alga Ecklonia cava collected from Jeju Island, Korea. EC11(T) was identified as a Gram-negative, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain. The strain EC11(T) grew over a temperature range of 10 °C to 30 °C (optimally at 25 °C), and a pH range of 6.0-10.5 (optimally at pH 7.5). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EC11(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium. Strain EC11(T) shared close similarity with Flavobacterium jumunjinense HME7102(T) (96.4%), Flavobacterium dongtanense LW30(T) (95.8%), Flavobacterium haoranii LQY-7(T) (95.3%), and Flavobacterium urocaniciphilum (95.1%). The major fatty acids (> 5%) were iso-C17:0 3-OH (22.4%), iso-C15:0 3-OH (19.0%), C15:0 (12.4%), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c/ C16:1 ω6c; 9.78%), iso-C15:1 G (9.6%), and iso-C16:0 3-OH (9.0%). The DNA G+C content was 28.1 mol% and the strain contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and three unknown polar lipids. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analysis, strain EC11T represents a novel species of the Flavobacterium genus, for which the name Flavobacterium jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of F. jejuensis is EC11(T) (=KCTC 42149(T) = JCM 30735(T)). PMID:26502959

  13. Shewanella algicola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Yoo, Han-Su; Lee, Dong-Heon; Park, So-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ju; Oh, Duck-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium motile by means of a single polar flagella, strain ST-6T, was isolated from a brown alga (Sargassum thunbergii) collected in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Strain ST-6T was psychrotolerant, growing at 4-30 °C (optimum 20 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences revealed that strain ST-6T belonged to a distinct lineage in the genus Shewanella. Strain ST-6T was related most closely to Shewanella basaltis J83T, S. gaetbuli TF-27T, S. arctica IT12T, S. vesiculosa M7T and S. aestuarii SC18T, showing 96-97 % and 85-70 % 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences similarities, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ST-6T and the type strains of two species of the genus Shewanella were <22.6 %. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/ or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0, iso-C13:0 and C17:1ω8c. The DNA G+C content of strain ST-6Twas 42.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone MK-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain ST-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella algicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST-6T (= KCTC 23253T = JCM 31091T). PMID:26962005

  14. Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine alkaline hydrothermal chimney.

    PubMed

    Ben Aissa, Fatma; Postec, Anne; Erauso, Gaël; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2014-04-01

    A novel thermotolerant, anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a hydrothermal chimney in Prony Bay, New Caledonia. This strain, designated FatNI3(T), grew at 15-55 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5.8-8.9 (optimum 7.7). It was slightly halophilic, requiring at least 0.5 % NaCl for growth (optimum 2.5-3.0 %), and was able to grow at up to 6 % NaCl. Sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, nitrate and nitrite were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Growth of strain FatNI3(T) was inhibited in the presence of sulfite (2 mM) or nitrite (2 mM). Strain FatNI3(T) fermented cellobiose, glucose, mannose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, lactose, ribose, fructose, rhamnose, raffinose, xylose, yeast extract, peptone and biotrypticase. The main fermentation products from glucose metabolism were acetate, ethanol, H2 and CO2. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The main polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and unknown glycolipids and phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.6 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological properties, strain FatNI3(T) ( = DSM 25904 = JCM 18391) belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Vallitalea, for which the name Vallitalea pronyensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24408522

  15. Zooshikella marina sp. nov. a cycloprodigiosin- and prodigiosin-producing marine bacterium isolated from beach sand.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A red-pigmented bacterium producing a metallic green sheen, designated strain JC333T, was isolated from a sand sample collected from Shivrajpur-Kachigad beach, Gujarat, India. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC333T showed highest sequence similarity to Zooshikella ganghwensis JC2044T (99.24 %) and less than 91.94 % similarity with other members of the class Gammaproteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridizations between JC333T and Z. ganghwensis JC2044T showed low relatedness values of 19 ± 1.3 % (reciprocal 21 ± 2.2 %). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q9) and the polar lipid profile was composed of the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. The presence of C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain JC333T to the genus Zooshikella. Prodigiosin, cycloprodigiosin and eight other prodigiosin analogues were the pigments of JC333T. Characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, physiological parameters, pigment analysis, ubiquinone, and polar lipid and fatty acid compositions revealed that JC333T represents a novel species of the genus Zooshikella, for which the name Zooshikella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC333T ( = KCTC 42659T = LMG 28823T). PMID:26409875

  16. Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from marine sediment of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Li, Li; Jiang, Zhao; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated 10A08AT and 10A08BT, were isolated from marine sediment samples of the South China Sea and their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. The two Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strains produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced in the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and all mycelium fragmented with age. Whole-cell hydrolysates of both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and no diagnostic sugars. Their predominant menaquinones (>10 %) were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08AT and MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-10(H4) and MK-10(H6) for strain 10A08BT. The polar lipids detected from the two strains were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown phosphoglycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C16 : 0 and summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains 10A08AT and 10A08BT were 70.9 and 71.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the two strains were shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Nocardiopsis. DNA–DNA hybridization relatedness values of < 70 % between these two isolates and their closest neighbour, Nocardiopsis terrae YIM 90022T, and between the two strains supported the conclusion that they represent two novel species. Based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the two isolates belong to the genus Nocardiopsis, and the names Nocardiopsis oceani sp. nov. (type strain 10A08AT = DSM 45931T = BCRC 16951T) and Nocardiopsis nanhaiensis sp. nov. (type strain 10A08BT = CGMCC 47227T = BCRC 16952T) are proposed. PMID:26297579

  17. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from US West Coast public marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Soge, Olusegun O.; Meschke, John S.; No, David B.; Roberts, Marilyn C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (MRCoNS) from marine water and intertidal beach sand from public beaches in Washington State, USA. Methods Fifty-one staphylococci from Washington State beaches were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, carriage of acquired tetracycline and/or macrolide resistance genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, the BBL Crystal™ Gram-Positive ID System and/or 16S rRNA sequencing, coagulase test and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for MRSA. Results Five multidrug-resistant MRSA SCCmec type I, of which three were MLST type ST45, one ST59 and one a new MLST type, ST1405, plus one susceptible non-typeable (NT) MRSA ST30 were characterized. Thirty-three MRCoNS isolates, representing 21 strains from 9 Staphylococcus spp., carried a range of SCCmec types [I (2), II (6), III (3), V (2), I/II (1) and NT (7)] and varied in their antibiotic susceptibility to other antibiotic classes and carriage of acquired tetracycline/macrolide resistance gene(s). MRSA and MRCoNS donors co-transferred tet(M) and erm(A) genes to an Enterococcus faecalis recipient at a frequency of 10−8. Conclusions This is the first report of MRSA and MRCoNS isolated from marine water and intertidal beach sand. The MLST types and antibiotic carriage of five MRSA isolates were similar to hospital MRSA isolates rather than US community-acquired MRSA isolates. Our results suggest that public marine beaches may be a reservoir for transmission of MRSA to beach visitors as well as an ecosystem for exchange of antibiotic resistance genes among staphylococci and related genera. PMID:19837712

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Sulfitobacter sp. CB2047, a Member of the Roseobacter Clade of Marine Bacteria, Isolated from an Emiliania huxleyi Bloom.

    PubMed

    Ankrah, Nana Y D; Lane, Thomas; Budinoff, Charles R; Hadden, Mary K; Buchan, Alison

    2014-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Sulfitobacter sp. strain CB2047, a marine bacterium of the Roseobacter clade, isolated from a phytoplankton bloom. The genome encodes pathways for the catabolism of aromatic compounds as well as transformations of carbon monoxide and sulfur species. The strain also encodes a prophage as well as the gene transfer agent (GTA), both of which are prevalent among members of the Rhodobacterales order. PMID:25377705

  19. Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Cho, Byung C

    2006-04-01

    A rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated strain CL-TF09T, isolated from a tidal flat in Ganghwa, Korea, was characterized based on its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile and phylogenetic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation with the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain CL-TF09T showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the genera Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter; sequence similarities between CL-TF09T and the type strains of Tenacibaculum and Polaribacter species ranged from 90.7 to 91.8 %. Cells of strain CL-TF09T were non-motile and grew on solid media as yellow colonies. The strain grew in the presence of 1-5 % sea salts, within a temperature range of 5-30 degrees C and at pH 7-8. The strain had iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (17.4 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (16.7 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (15.1 %) and iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (13.4 %) as predominant fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 33.9 mol%. Based on the physiological, fatty acid composition and phylogenetic data presented, strain CL-TF09T is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Lutibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-TF09T (=KCCM 42118T = JCM 13034T). PMID:16585692

  20. Lutimonas vermicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the marine polychaete Periserrula leucophryna.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Jo; Choo, Yoe-Jin; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2007-08-01

    A Gram-negative, yellow-coloured, non-motile, chemoheterotrophic, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated IMCC1616(T), was isolated from the marine polychaete Periserrula leucophryna inhabiting tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, and characterized by a polyphasic approach. The temperature, pH and NaCl ranges for growth were 3-37 degrees C, pH 5.0-11.0 and 0.5-7.5 %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analyses, the strain was most closely related to members of the genera Lutibacter (90.7 %), Tenacibaculum (89.2-90.4 %) and Polaribacter (88.4-90.2 %). Phylogenetic analysis using three treeing algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 40.1 mol% and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (16.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (10.9 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (8.8 %) and iso-C(17 : 1) omega 9c (8.2 %). The DNA G+C content, large amount of iso-C(17 : 1) omega 9c and several phenotypic characteristics, including growth temperature and catalase activity, differentiated the strain from other related genera in the family. Therefore, from the taxonomic evidence collected in this study, it is proposed that strain IMCC1616(T) represents a new genus and species named Lutimonas vermicola gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Lutimonas vermicola is strain IMCC1616(T) (=KCCM 42379(T) =NBRC 102041(T)). PMID:17684236

  1. Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an alkalitolerant marine bacterium isolated from eggs of spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Deep, Kamal; Poddar, Abhijit; Das, Subrata K

    2014-11-01

    A facultative anaerobe, alkalitolerant, gram-negative marine bacterium strain LBS5(T), was isolated from eggs carried on the pleopods of female spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) in Andaman Sea from a depth of 3.5 m. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 15-38 °C and pH 5.5-11. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.5. It can grow in the presence of 0.5-7 % NaCl (w/v), and the optimal NaCl required for growth was 2-4 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strain LBS5(T) belongs to the genus Photobacterium and showed 99.6 % similarity with P. aquae AE6(T), 98.2 % with P. aphoticum M46(T), 97 % with P. rosenbergii CC1(T), 96.9 % with P. lutimaris DF-42(T), and 96.6 % with P. halotolerans MACL01(T). The DNA-DNA similarities between strains LBS5(T) with other closely related strains were well below 70 %. The DNA G + C content was 50.52 (±0.9) mol%. The major fatty acids were C16:1w7c/w6c, C18:1w6c/w7c, C16:0, C15:0 iso, C16:0 10-methyl/17:1 iso w9c, C17:0 iso. Polar lipids included a phosphatidylglycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethanolamine, and one unidentified lipid. Based on the polyphasic evidences, strain LBS5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Photobacterium for which Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS5(T) (=DSM 27646(T) = LMG 27617(T) = JCM 19199(T)). PMID:24962598

  2. HCA and HML isolated from the red marine algae Hypnea cervicornis and Hypnea musciformis define a novel lectin family

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Celso S.; Debray, Henri; Nascimento, Kyria S.; Pinto, Vicente P.T.; Cavada, Benildo S.; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Farias, Wladimir R.L.; Sampaio, Alexandre H.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    HCA and HML represent lectins isolated from the red marine algae Hypnea cervicornis and Hypnea musciformis, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition assays suggest that HML binds GalNAc/Gal substituted with a neutral sugar through 1–3, 1–4, or 1–2 linkages in O-linked mucin-type glycans, and Fuc(α1–6)GlcNAc of N-linked glycoproteins. The specificity of HCA includes the epitopes recognized by HML, although the glycoproteins inhibited distinctly HML and HCA. The agglutinating activity of HCA was inhibited by GalNAc, highlighting the different fine sugar epitope-recognizing specificity of each algal lectin. The primary structures of HCA (9193±3 Da) and HML (9357±1 Da) were determined by Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry of the N-terminally blocked fragments. Both lectins consist of a mixture of a 90-residue polypeptide containing seven intrachain disulfide bonds and two disulfide-bonded subunits generated by cleavage at the bond T50–E51 (HCA) and R50–E51 (HML). The amino acid sequences of HCA and HML display 55% sequence identity (80% similarity) between themselves, but do not show discernible sequence and cysteine spacing pattern similarities with any other known protein structure, indicating that HCA and HML belong to a novel lectin family. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of the two lectins revealed the existence of internal domain duplication, with residues 1–47 and 48–90 corresponding to the N- and C-terminal domains, respectively. The six conserved cysteines in each domain may form three intrachain cysteine linkages, and the unique cysteine residues of the N-terminal (Cys46) and the C-terminal (Cys71) domains may form an intersubunit disulfide bond. PMID:16046632

  3. Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from an artificial oil-spill marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Rim; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, halophilic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped and nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain S37T, was isolated from an artificial oil-spill sediment sample from the coast of Taean, South Korea. Cells grew at 10-37 °C and pH 5.0-9.0, with optimal growth at 28 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. Growth was observed with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl in marine broth, with optimal growth with 3-5 % NaCl, but no growth was observed in the absence of NaCl. According to the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37T represents a member of the genus Vibrio of the class Gammaproteobacteria and forms a clade with Vibrio plantisponsor MSSRF60T (97.38 %), Vibrio diazotrophicus ATCC 33466T (97.31 %), Vibrio aestuarianus ATCC 35048T (97.07 %) Vibrio areninigrae J74T (96.76 %) and Vibrio hispanicus LMG 13240T (96.76 %). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The DNA G+C content was 41.9 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization analysis results showed a 30.2 % association value with the closely related type strain V. plantisponsor DSM 21026T. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain S37T represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio oceanisediminis sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain S37T ( = KEMB 2255-005T = JCM 30409T). PMID:26296768

  4. [Desulfovibrio hontreensis sp. nov., a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Marine Biofoulings at the South Vietnam Coastal Area].

    PubMed

    Tarasov, A L; Osipov, G A; Borzenkov, I A

    2015-01-01

    A Desulfovibrio strain physiologically similar to and phylogeneticall related to "D. caledoniensis" SEBR 7250, D. portus MSL79, and D. dechloracetivorans ATCC 700912 (96.9, 95.9, and 95.8% similarity of the 16S rRNA gen sequences, respectively) was isolated from marine biofouling in the coastal zone of the South China Sae (Nha Trang, South Vietnam). The cells of strain ME were gram-negative motile vibrios (0.4-0.6 x 1.3-2 μm) with a single flagellum. The strain grew at 20 to 39 degrees C (growth optimum at 34-37 degrees C), pH 5.8 to 8.5 (pH optimum at 6.8-7.5), and salinity from 0.08 to 1.1 M Na+ (optimum at 0.2-0.3 M Na+). In the presence of sulfate, the strain grew autotrophically with hydrogen or on lactate, formate, pyruvate, fumarate, and malate. Weak growth occurred on succinate, glycerol, and fructose. In the absence of sulfate, the strain was able to ferment pyruvate, malate (weakly), but not lactate. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as electron acceptors. Vitamins and yeast extract were not required for growth. The G+C content was 52.4 mol %. Predominant fatty acids were C18:0 (13.9%), C16:0 (9.6%), iso-C16:0 (9.5%), C18: 1w7 (8.8%), anteiso-C15:0 (8.1%), and iso-C 17:1 (7.2%). The fatty acid composition was close to that of D. dechloracetivorans BO and has some similarity to that of D. portus. Based on its genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strain ME maybe considered as a new species, for which the name Desulfovibrio hontrensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27169246

  5. Fatty acid profiles of marine benthic microorganisms isolated from the continental slope of bay of bengal: a possible implications in the benthic Food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, P. S.; Khan, S. Ajmal

    2007-12-01

    Marine bacteria, actinomycetes and fungal strains were isolated from continental slope sediment of the Bay of Bengal and studied for fatty acid profile to investigate their involvement in the benthic food-web. Fifteen different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from bacterial isolates, 14 from actinomycetes and fungal isolates were detected. The total unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial isolates ranged from 11.85 to 37.26%, while the saturated fatty acid ranged between 42.34 and 80.74%. In actinomycetes isolates, total unsaturated fatty acids varied from 27.86 to 38.85% and saturated fatty acids ranged from 35.29 to 51.25%. In fungal isolates unsaturated fatty acids ranged between 44.62 and 65.52% while saturated FA ranged from 20.80 to 46.30%. The higher percentages of unsaturated fatty acids from the microbial isolates are helpful in anticipating the active participation in the benthic food-web of Bay of Bengal.

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and enzymatic properties of a novel βeta-agarase from a marine isolate Psudoalteromonas SP. AG52

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chulhong; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Choi, Young-Ung; Lee, Jehee

    2010-01-01

    An agar-degrading Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 bacterial strain was identified from the red seaweed Gelidium amansii collected from Jeju Island, Korea. A β-agarase gene which has 96.8% nucleotide identity to Aeromonas β-agarase was cloned from this strain, and was designated as agaA. The coding region is 870 bp, encoding 290 amino acids and possesses characteristic features of the glycoside hydrolase family (GHF)-16. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein was 32 kDa. The recombinant β-agarase (rAgaA) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a fusion protein. The optimal temperature and pH for activity were 55 °C and 5.5, respectively. The enzyme had a specific activity of 105.1 and 79.5 unit/mg toward agar and agarose, respectively. The pattern of agar hydrolysis demonstrated that the enzyme is an endo-type β-agarase, producing neoagarohexaose and neoagarotetraose as the final main products. Since, Pseudoalteromonas sp. AG52 encodes an agaA gene, which has greater identity to Aeromonas β-agarase, the enzyme could be considered as novel, with its unique bio chemical characteristics. Altogether, the purified rAgaA has potential for use in industrial applications such as development of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24031567

  7. Life in the Cold: a Proteomic Study of Cold-Repressed Proteins in the Antarctic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125▿†

    PubMed Central

    Piette, Florence; D'Amico, Salvino; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Danchin, Antoine; Leprince, Pierre; Feller, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The proteomes expressed at 4°C and 18°C by the psychrophilic Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis were compared using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis with special reference to proteins repressed by low temperatures. Remarkably, the major cold-repressed proteins, almost undetectable at 4°C, were heat shock proteins involved in folding assistance. PMID:21478318

  8. Marine-derived quorum-sensing inhibitory activities enhance the antibacterial efficacy of tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P; Maggs, Christine A; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (-63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (-33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (-89%) and a 2-log reduction (-99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

  9. Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P.; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (−63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (−33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (−89%) and a 2-log reduction (−99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

  10. Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liang-Zi; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei; Liu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, strain CZ-AM5(T), was isolated from an aerated biological filter in a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain CZ-AM5(T) were non-spore-forming rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 1.2-2.0 µm long, and motile by means of one or two polar or lateral flagella. Strain CZ-AM5(T) was strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30-35 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 4.0 %). The predominant fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c (80.3 %). Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 60.4 mol%. Strain CZ-AM5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.5 %) to Phaeobacter caeruleus LMG 24369(T); it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.0-96.5, 95.2-96.3, 96.2, 94.6-95.7 and 94.8-95.8 % to members of the genera Phaeobacter, Ruegeria, Citreimonas, Leisingera and Donghicola, respectively. However, phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CZ-AM5(T) did not join any of the above genera, but formed a distinct lineage in the trees. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain CZ-AM5(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Cribrihabitans marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Cribrihabitans marinus is CZ-AM5(T) ( = CGMCC 1.13219(T) = JCM 19401(T)). PMID:24425741

  11. Effect of addition of Tween 80 and potassium dihydrogenphosphate to basal medium on the isolation of marine eukaryotes, thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Yousuke; Nagano, Naoki; Okita, Yuji; Izumida, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2008-05-01

    Tween 80, KH(2)PO(4) and tomato juice were added to basal medium for the isolation of thraustochytrids. By the addition of Tween 80 and KH(2)PO(4), the number of thraustochytrids isolated from seawater increased. KH(2)PO(4) and Tween 80 were considered to be useful for isolating thraustochytrids. PMID:18558350

  12. Characterization of a VHS virus genotype III isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss) at a marine site on the west coast of Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Norwegian production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been without any outbreaks of VHS for many years until the disease emerged in a farm in western Norway in November 2007. The fish were, in addition to VHS virus, positive for gill chlamydia-like bacteria, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and a microsporidian. A new VHS virus genotype III was isolated from the fish in RTgill-W1 cells and the complete coding region (11,065 nucleotides) was sequenced. This virus was also used in a challenge experiment to see if it could cause any mortality in rainbow trout in sea water. Results This is the first time a nearly complete sequence of a genotype III virus isolate has been presented. The organization of the genes is the same as in the other VHS virus genotypes studied (GI and GIV). Between the ORFs are nontranslated regions that contain highly conserved sequences encompassing the polyadenylation signal for one gene, and the putative transcription initiation site of the next gene. The intergenic regions vary in length from 74 nt to 128 nt. The nucleotide sequence is more similar to genotype I isolates compared to isolates from genotype II and IV. Analyses of the sequences of the N and G protein genes show that this new isolate is distinct from other VHS virus isolates and groups closely together with isolates from genotype III. In a challenge experiment, using intraperitoneal (ip) injection of the isolate, co-habitation with infected fish, and bath challenge, mortalities slightly above 40% were obtained. There was no significant difference in mortality between the bath challenged group and the ip injected group, while the mortality in the co-habitation group was as low as 30%. Conclusions All VHS virus isolates in genotype III are from marine fish in the North East Atlantic. Unlike the other known genotype III isolates, which are of low virulence, this new isolate is moderately virulent. It was not possible to detect any changes in the virus genome that

  13. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18) and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27) showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C. PMID:23628828

  14. Genome sequence of the Roseovarius mucosus type strain (DSM 17069T), a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing representative of the marine Roseobacter group isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Roseovarius mucosus Biebl et al. 2005 is a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the marine Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, which was isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The marine Roseobacter group was found to be abundant in the ocean and plays an important role for global and biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the features of the R. mucosus strain DFL-24T together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 17069T. The 4,247,724 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,194 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. In addition to the presence of four plasmids, genome analysis revealed the presence of genes associated with host colonization, DMSP utilization, cytotoxins, and quorum sensing that could play a role in the interrelationship of R. mucosus with the dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii and other marine organisms. Furthermore, the genome encodes genes associated with mixotrophic growth, where both reduced inorganic compounds for lithotrophic growth and a photoheterotrophic lifestyle using light as additional energy source could be used. PMID:26203330

  15. Paleogeography and paleoenvironments of southwestern Baffin Island (Nunavut, Canada): post-glacial isostatic uplift and isolation of Nettilling Lake from marine influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narancic, Biljana; Pienitz, Reinhard; Francus, Pierre; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Although signs of recent climate change are more compelling in circumpolar regions, we have limited knowledge of Arctic climates and environments and their past variability. In order to better understand and anticipate the extent and nature of future changes in the Arctic, it is necessary to increase our capacity to model past environmental changes. Instrumental monitoring using high technology in circumpolar regions has been implemented only over recent decades. Hence, to extend the climate record in time, we use a multi-proxy paleolimnological approach to study the sedimentary records preserved in Nettilling Lake, the largest lake in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The main objective is to reconstruct the postglacial environmental history of the Nettilling Lake watershed using biological and geochemical proxies. Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, has a surface area of 5,541 km2 and a maximum depth of 65 m. Its basin has undergone postglacial marine invasion following the last deglaciation due to isostatic subsidence exerted by the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The glacio-isostatic uplift of the region resulted in the establishment of a freshwater lake between ca. 6000-6500 B.P. as established by radiocarbon dating. Biostratigraphic and geochemical analyses were completed on two sediment cores, one from a lagoonal system in the northwestern part and another from the eastern part of the Lake. The sediment records clearly document the marine-lacustrine transition through paleosalinity shifts inferred from the chemistry of the cores, and the composition of fossil diatom and foraminifer assemblages. Remains of fossil chironomid larvae first appeared in the record after basin isolation and the establishment of freshwater conditions. Precise radiocarbon dating of the isolation contacts helps refine regional glacio-isostatic rebound and the duration and extent of the postglacial marine phase. Post-glacial marine regression and the associated changes in paleosalinity are also

  16. Cerasicoccus arenae gen. nov., sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing marine representative of the family Puniceicoccaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', isolated from marine sand.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-09-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on strain YM26-026(T), which was isolated from acid-treated sediment in Kamaishi, Japan. The bacterial cells were pale-pink-pigmented, Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, non-spore-forming, spherical and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate was a member of the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' and shared approximately 84-87 % sequence similarity with strains of the class Opitutae that have been cultivated to date. Strain YM26-026(T) produced pale-pink pigments of carotenoid. beta-Lactam antibiotic susceptibility tests and amino acid analysis of cell-wall hydrolysates indicated that the novel isolate did not contain muramic acid or diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, suggesting that the strain lacks peptidoglycan. The G+C content of the DNA of strain YM26-026(T) was 54.0 mol%. Menaquinone-7 was the major quinone and C(14 : 0) and C(18 : 1)omega9c were the major fatty acids. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that strain YM26-026(T) represents a new genus of the family Puniceicoccaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia', for which the name Cerasicoccus arenae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YM26-026(T) (=MBIC08280(T)=KCTC 12870(T)). PMID:17766873

  17. Mechanisms for solubilization of cobalt, copper and nickel from Indian Ocean nodules at near neutral pH by a marine isolate.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Amitava; Raichur, Ashok M; Modak, Jayant M; Natarajan, K A

    2004-11-01

    Polymetallic ocean nodules offer an alternative source for extracting valuable strategic metals like Cu, Co and Ni. A novel biodissolution process was carried out, employing the cell-free spent growth medium from a marine organism ( Bacillus M1) isolated from nodules; and Cu, Co and Ni solubilization from the nodules was observed to be beyond the theoretical solubility limits at near neutral pH. Different characterization techniques revealed the presence of phenolic substances in the spent growth medium, which might have formed soluble complexes with the transition metals. The low prevailing E(h) redox value in the medium suggested a strong reducing environment, favoring the reductive dissolution of the oxides. A correlation study of dissolution of Cu, Co and Ni with that of Mn and Fe in the nodules was made to investigate the mechanisms of metal solubilization by the marine isolate. Under the influence of a strong reducing environment coupled with complexation by a phenolic substance present in the spent growth medium, Mn and Fe oxides were solubilized from the nodules, resulting in concomitant dissolution of Cu, Co and Ni associated with them in the nodules. PMID:15449190

  18. Characterization of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and isolation of Fe (III)-reducing bacterium Enterobacter sp. L6 from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-07-01

    To enrich the Fe (III)-reducing bacteria, sludge from marine sediment was inoculated into the medium using Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor. Efficiency of Fe (III) reduction and composition of Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture were analyzed. The results indicated that the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture with the dominant bacteria relating to Clostridium and Enterobacter sp. had high Fe (III) reduction of (2.73 ± 0.13) mmol/L-Fe (II). A new Fe (III)-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Fe (III)-reducing enrichment culture and identified as Enterobacter sp. L6 by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The Fe (III)-reducing ability of strain L6 under different culture conditions was investigated. The results indicated that strain L6 had high Fe (III)-reducing activity using glucose and pyruvate as carbon sources. Strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) at the range of NaCl concentrations tested and had the highest Fe (III) reduction of (4.63 ± 0.27) mmol/L Fe (II) at the NaCl concentration of 4 g/L. This strain L6 could reduce Fe (III) with unique properties in adaptability to salt variation, which indicated that it can be used as a model organism to study Fe (III)-reducing activity isolated from marine environment. PMID:26896316

  19. Draft Genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Vázquez, Susana C.; MacCormack, Walter P.; Iriarte, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a marine bacterium from King George Island, Antarctica, which encodes the carbapenemase SFP-1. The assembly contains 4,799,218 bp (G+C content 41.24%). This strain harbors several mobile genetic elements that provide insight into lateral gene transfer and bacterial plasticity and evolution. PMID:27151790

  20. Draft Genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Vázquez, Susana C; MacCormack, Walter P; Iriarte, Andrés; Quiroga, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Shewanella frigidimarina Ag06-30, a marine bacterium from King George Island, Antarctica, which encodes the carbapenemase SFP-1. The assembly contains 4,799,218 bp (G+C content 41.24%). This strain harbors several mobile genetic elements that provide insight into lateral gene transfer and bacterial plasticity and evolution. PMID:27151790

  1. Taxonomic studies on a new marine ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Colepidae), isolated from Qingdao, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangrui; Warren, Alan; Song, Weibo

    2009-12-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of a new marine colepid ciliate, Apocoleps magnus gen. nov., spec. nov., are described based on living observations and silver impregnations. The new genus Apocoleps is characterized by having 8 (vs. 6 in most other related genera) armour tiers, spines at both ends of the cell, 3 adoral organelles and plates with 4 reniform uni-windows. Apocoleps magnus spec. nov. is defined by the following features: body elongated and slightly curved, about 100-120µm× 35-45 µm in vivo; anterior tertiary tier plate with four uni-windows, most secondary and main tier plates with four uni-windows, posterior tertiary tier plate with two uni-windows; left plate margin slightly serrated; on average 23 transverse and 22 longitudinal ciliary rows; one terminal contractile vacuole; marine habitat.

  2. Exploring Bioactive Properties of Marine Cyanobacteria Isolated from the Portuguese Coast: High Potential as a Source of Anticancer Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Margarida; Garcia, Mónica; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Costa, Maria Sofia; Ribeiro, Maria João; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Barros, Piedade; Barreiro, Aldo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins, Rosário

    2013-01-01

    The oceans remain a major source of natural compounds with potential in pharmacology. In particular, during the last few decades, marine cyanobacteria have been in focus as producers of interesting bioactive compounds, especially for the treatment of cancer. In this study, the anticancer potential of extracts from twenty eight marine cyanobacteria strains, belonging to the underexplored picoplanktonic genera, Cyanobium, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, and the filamentous genera, Nodosilinea, Leptolyngbya, Pseudanabaena and Romeria, were assessed in eight human tumor cell lines. First, a crude extract was obtained by dichloromethane:methanol extraction, and from it, three fractions were separated in a Si column chromatography. The crude extract and fractions were tested in eight human cancer cell lines for cell viability/toxicity, accessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactic dehydrogenase release (LDH) assays. Eight point nine percent of the strains revealed strong cytotoxicity; 17.8% showed moderate cytotoxicity, and 14.3% assays showed low toxicity. The results obtained revealed that the studied genera of marine cyanobacteria are a promising source of novel compounds with potential anticancer activity and highlight the interest in also exploring the smaller filamentous and picoplanktonic genera of cyanobacteria. PMID:24384871

  3. Exploring bioactive properties of marine cyanobacteria isolated from the Portuguese coast: high potential as a source of anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Margarida; Garcia, Mónica; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Costa, Maria Sofia; Ribeiro, Maria João; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Barros, Piedade; Barreiro, Aldo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins, Rosário

    2014-01-01

    The oceans remain a major source of natural compounds with potential in pharmacology. In particular, during the last few decades, marine cyanobacteria have been in focus as producers of interesting bioactive compounds, especially for the treatment of cancer. In this study, the anticancer potential of extracts from twenty eight marine cyanobacteria strains, belonging to the underexplored picoplanktonic genera, Cyanobium, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, and the filamentous genera, Nodosilinea, Leptolyngbya, Pseudanabaena and Romeria, were assessed in eight human tumor cell lines. First, a crude extract was obtained by dichloromethane:methanol extraction, and from it, three fractions were separated in a Si column chromatography. The crude extract and fractions were tested in eight human cancer cell lines for cell viability/toxicity, accessed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactic dehydrogenase release (LDH) assays. Eight point nine percent of the strains revealed strong cytotoxicity; 17.8% showed moderate cytotoxicity, and 14.3% assays showed low toxicity. The results obtained revealed that the studied genera of marine cyanobacteria are a promising source of novel compounds with potential anticancer activity and highlight the interest in also exploring the smaller filamentous and picoplanktonic genera of cyanobacteria. PMID:24384871

  4. Dihydroisocoumarin Derivatives from Marine-Derived Fungal Isolates and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV2 Microglia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Quang, Tran Hong; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yoon, Chi-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; Feng, Yu; Che, Yongsheng; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2015-12-24

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extracts of marine-derived fungal isolates Aspergillus sp. SF-5974 and Aspergillus sp. SF-5976 yielded a new dihydroisocoumarin derivative (1) and 12 known metabolites. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and MS data. Among the metabolites, the absolute configuration of 5'-hydroxyasperentin (6) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro antineuroinflammatory effects of the metabolites were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cells. Among the isolated metabolites, dihydroisocoumarin derivatives 1-6 (10-80 μM) were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Further, 1 (20-80 μM) was found to suppress the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α), interrupt the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and decrease the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). PMID:26651366

  5. [Use of immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for reducing the toxic effects of thermostable toxin and lipopolysaccharides from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on a macroorganism].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T A; Logvinenko, A A; Timchenko, N F; Epshteĭn, L M; Besednova, N N

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to use immunomodulators isolated from marine invertebrates for the lowering of the toxic effects caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis thermoresistant toxin and lipopolysaccharide was investigated. Effects were evaluated by the animals survival rate in per cent and mice average lifetime after toxin lethal dose injection. It was shown that polypeptide gangleen when compared to timalin as well as glycanes mitilane and strombus had dose-dependent protective effect. These substances increased animals survival rate to 15-17 per cent and prolonged life period for about two times when compared to control group. These results demonstrates the possibility to use investigated immunomodulators is clinical practice at the treatment of the patients with pseudotuberculosis. PMID:11697237

  6. Isolation and characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as inhibitors of microtubule assembly from the marine sponge Phyllospongia dendyi collected at Palau.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongwei; Namikoshi, Michio; Meguro, Shiori; Nagai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Yao, Xinsheng

    2004-03-01

    Two new polybrominated diphenyl ethers (1 and 2) were isolated by bioassay-guided separations together with nine known compounds (3-11) from the marine sponge Phyllospongia dendyi collected from Palau. The structures were assigned on the basis of their spectral data. Compounds 3, 7, and 10 showed inhibitory activities to the assembly of microtubule proteins (IC(50): 29.6, 33.5, and 20.9 microM, respectively) and to the meiotic maturation of starfish oocytes (IC(50): 3.6, 4.2, and 4.2 microM, respectively), while 1, 2, 4-6, 8, 9, and 11 were not active at 100 microM. Two phenolic hydroxyls are required for their bioactivities. PMID:15043436

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of the Marine-Derived Compound Excavatolide B Isolated from the Culture-Type Formosan Gorgonian Briareum excavatum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-You; Lin, Sung-Chun; Feng, Chien-Wei; Chen, Pei-Chin; Su, Yin-Di; Li, Chi-Min; Yang, San-Nan; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Duh, Chang-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, several marine-derived compounds have been clinically evaluated. Diterpenes are secondary metabolites from soft coral that exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities. In the present study, we isolated a natural diterpene product, excavatolide B, from cultured Formosan gorgonian Briareum excavatum and investigated its anti-inflammatory activities. We found that excavatolide B significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). We also examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of excavatolide B on intraplantar carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses. Excavatolide B was found to significantly attenuate carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, weight bearing deficits and paw edema. In addition, excavatolide B inhibited iNOS, as well as the infiltration of immune cells in carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw tissue. PMID:25923315

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of the Marine-Derived Compound Excavatolide B Isolated from the Culture-Type Formosan Gorgonian Briareum excavatum

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-You; Lin, Sung-Chun; Feng, Chien-Wei; Chen, Pei-Chin; Su, Yin-Di; Li, Chi-Min; Yang, San-Nan; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Duh, Chang-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several marine-derived compounds have been clinically evaluated. Diterpenes are secondary metabolites from soft coral that exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities. In the present study, we isolated a natural diterpene product, excavatolide B, from cultured Formosan gorgonian Briareum excavatum and investigated its anti-inflammatory activities. We found that excavatolide B significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory mediators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). We also examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of excavatolide B on intraplantar carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses. Excavatolide B was found to significantly attenuate carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, weight bearing deficits and paw edema. In addition, excavatolide B inhibited iNOS, as well as the infiltration of immune cells in carrageenan-induced inflammatory paw tissue. PMID:25923315

  9. Mitogenic activity of CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata (Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Kim, Daekyung; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    An N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific Ca(2+)-dependent lectin (C-type lectin), isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), CEL-I, showed potent mitogenic activity toward normal mouse spleen cells. The mitogenic activity of CEL-I, which reached a maximum at 100 microg/ml, was inhibited by GalNAc in a concentration-dependent manner. The mitogenic effect of CEL-I at 10 microg/ml on T cell- enriched splenocytes was at a similar level due to a well-known T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), at 10 microg/ml. Furthermore, CEL-I evoked a mitogenic response from nude mouse spleen cells, while no significant effects of Con A on this cell population were observed over a wide range of concentrations. These results suggest that CEL-I is a potent mitogenic lectin with the ability to stimulate both T and B cells. PMID:20699569

  10. The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon's rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Evans, Steven W; Cole, Nik; Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun; Kylin, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon's Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m(-)(1) shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study. PMID:26763686

  11. Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrenocine A Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Thaís Regina; Dejani, Naiara N.; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Kossuga, Miriam H.; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Sette, Lara D.; Medeiros, Alexandra I.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the immunomodulatory potential of secondary metabolites isolated from marine microorganisms. In the present study, we characterized pyrenocine A, which is produced by the marine-derived fungus Penicillium paxilli Ma(G)K and possesses anti-inflammatory activity. Pyrenocine A was able to suppress, both pretreatment and posttreatment, the LPS-induced activation of macrophages via the inhibition of nitrite production and the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and PGE2. Pyrenocine A also exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on the expression of receptors directly related to cell migration (Mac-1) as well as costimulatory molecules involved in lymphocyte activation (B7.1). Nitrite production was inhibited by pyrenocine A in macrophages stimulated with CpG but not Poly I:C, suggesting that pyrenocine A acts through the MyD88-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. Moreover, pyrenocine A is also able to inhibit the expression of genes related to NFκB-mediated signal transduction on macrophages stimulated by LPS. Our results indicate that pyrenocine A has promissory anti-inflammatory properties and additional experiments are necessary to confirm this finding in vivo model. PMID:24574582

  12. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Aquiluna" sp. strain IMCC13023, a marine member of the Actinobacteria isolated from an arctic fjord.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ilnam; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Seung-Jo; Choi, Ahyoung; Kang, Dongmin; Lee, Yoo Kyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2012-07-01

    We report the genome sequence of actinobacterial strain IMCC13023, isolated from arctic fjord seawater. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain is related to "Candidatus Aquiluna rubra." The genome information suggests that strain IMCC13023 is a photoheterotroph carrying actinorhodopsin, with the smallest genome ever reported for a free-living member of the Actinobacteria. PMID:22689238

  13. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  14. Marine Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-08-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  15. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A-C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong D; Pham, Ngoc B; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N A; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-07-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A-C (1-3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A-C (1-3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  16. Isolation and Total Synthesis of Stolonines A–C, Unique Taurine Amides from the Australian Marine Tunicate Cnemidocarpa stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong D.; Pham, Ngoc B.; Ekins, Merrick; Hooper, John N. A.; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Cnemidocarpa stolonifera is an underexplored marine tunicate that only occurs on the tropical to subtropical East Coast of Australia, with only two pyridoacridine compounds reported previously. Qualitative analysis of the lead-like enhanced fractions of C. stolonifera by LC-MS dual electrospray ionization coupled with PDA and ELSD detectors led to the identification of three new natural products, stolonines A–C (1–3), belonging to the taurine amide structure class. Structures of the new compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses and later verified by total synthesis. This is the first time that the conjugates of taurine with 3-indoleglyoxylic acid, quinoline-2-carboxylic acid and β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid present in stolonines A–C (1–3), respectively, have been reported. An immunofluorescence assay on PC3 cells indicated that compounds 1 and 3 increased cell size, induced mitochondrial texture elongation, and caused apoptosis in PC3 cells. PMID:26204949

  17. Complete Oxidation of Propionate, Valerate, Succinate, and Other Organic Compounds by Newly Isolated Types of Marine, Anaerobic, Mesophilic, Gram-Negative, Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria

    PubMed Central

    Finster, Kai; Bak, Friedhelm

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures with either propionate, succinate, lactate, or valerate and elemental sulfur and inocula from shallow marine or deep-sea sediments were dominated by rod-shaped motile bacteria after three transfers. By application of deep-agar dilutions, five eubacterial strains were obtained in pure culture and designated Kyprop, Gyprop, Kysw2, Gylac, and Kyval. All strains were gram negative and grew by complete oxidation of the electron donors and concomitant stoichiometric reduction of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide. The isolates used acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, maleate, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and yeast extract. All isolates, except strain Gylac, used citrate as an electron donor but valerate was oxidized only by strain Kyval. Fumarate and malate were degraded by all strains without an additional electron donor or acceptor. Kyprop, Gyprop, and Gylac utilized elemental sulfur as the sole inorganic electron acceptor, while Kysw2 and Kyval also utilized nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide, or Fe(III)-citrate as an electron acceptor. Images PMID:16348934

  18. Antifungal activity of metabolites from the marine sponges Amphimedon sp. and Monanchora arbuscula against Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea).

    PubMed

    Arevabini, Cynthia; Crivelenti, Yasmin D; de Abreu, Mariana H; Bitencourt, Tamires A; Santos, Mário F C; Berlinck, Roberto G S; Hajdu, Eduardo; Beleboni, Renê O; Fachin, Ana L; Marins, Mozart

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of preharvest and stored peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) by aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus is an important economical and food safety problem in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The present investigation reports the antifungal activity of a halitoxins/amphitoxins enriched extract obtained from the sponge Amphimedon sp. (HAEEAsp), and of batzelladine L isolated from the sponge Monanchora arbuscula on Aspergillus flavus isolated from stored peanuts. A PCR system directed against the ITS region and aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes of A. flavus was applied for identification of aflatoxin producing strains. The HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range between 1.9 to 15.6 microg/mL and between 1.9 to 7.8 microg/mL, respectively. The minimal fungicide concentration (MFC) of HAEEAsp extract and batzelladine L was in the range between 3.9 to 31.3 microg/mL and 3.9 to 15.6 microg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that these marine alkaloids may be further explored for the development of potential lead compounds active against aflatoxigenic fungi. PMID:24660456

  19. Characterization of a salt-tolerant aminopeptidase from marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 that improves hydrolysis and debittering efficiency for soy protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fenfen; Zhao, Qiangzhong; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was isolated from the marine Bacillus licheniformis SWJS33 (BLAP) and purified. According to the tandem mass spectrometry, the enzyme displayed 11% amino acid identity with the aminopeptidase from Bacillus (gi|496687392). BLAP exhibited maximum activity at 60°C and pH 8.0-8.5 and had a molecular mass of 100kDa. The presence of NaCl enabled 50% improvement of enzyme activity with 10-15% NaCl being the best. The observed inactivation by EDTA and bestatin and activation by Co(2+) and Ag(+) indicated that the obtained enzyme was a metalloaminopeptidase. Such an aminopeptidase could further improve the hydrolysis degree of soy protein isolate hydrolysates catalyzed by papain, Alcalase 2.4L or Flavourzyme 500MG from 8.5%, 9.5% or 14.4-18.8%, 18.7% or 20.1%, respectively, while decreasing the bitter intensity score of the SPI hydrolysates catalyzed by Alcalase 2.4L from 3.6 to 0.4. PMID:27507484

  20. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition studies of a new γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Viviana; Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-08-01

    A new γ-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) was cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, PhaCAγ. The enzyme has a medium-low catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction of CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons, with a kcat of 1.4×10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 1.9×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). An anion inhibition study of PhaCAγ with inorganic anions and small molecule inhibitors is also reported. Many anions present in sea water, such as chloride, fluoride, sulfate, iodide, but also others such as azide, perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit this enzyme. Pseudohalides such as cyanate, thiocyanate, cyanide, selenocyanide, and also bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite and many complex inorganic anions showed inhibition in the millimolar range (KI in the range of 1.7-9.3mM). The best PhaCAγ inhibitors detected in this study were diethyldithiocarbamate (KI of 0.96 mM) as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KI in the range of 82-91 μM). Since γ-CAs are poorly understood at this moment, being present in carboxysomes and thus involved in photosynthesis, this study may be relevant for a better understanding of these processes in Antarctic bacteria/cyanobacteria. PMID:26145820

  1. Genome Sequence of Vibrio campbellii Strain UMTGB204, a Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Green Barrel Tunicate.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Noor, Mohd Ezhar Mohd; Saari, Nur Azna; Musa, Najiah; Mustapha, Baharim; Usup, Gires; Danish-Daniel, Muhd

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio campbellii strain UMTGB204 was isolated from a green barrel tunicate. The genome of this strain comprises 5,652,224 bp with 5,014 open reading frames, 9 rRNAs, and 116 tRNAs. It contains genes related to virulence and environmental tolerance. Gene clusters for the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptides and bacteriocin were also identified. PMID:25814609

  2. Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Rare 21:4 n-7 Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius, Isolated Using Bioassay Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Vasskog, Terje; Andersen, Jeanette H.; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated and identified using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was shown that the opisthobranch contained unusual PUFAs such as several ω3 fatty acids and the ω7 heneicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid (21:4 n-7) not isolated before. The organism was shown to be a very rich source of PUFAs and the activity of the isolated compounds against a range of human cancer cell lines (melanoma, colon carcinoma and breast carcinoma) is further reported. The ω7 PUFA was significantly more cytotoxic in comparison with reference ω6 arachidonic and ω3 eicosapentaenoic acid. A noteworthy non-selective cytotoxicity against normal lung fibroblasts was also established. The paper contains isolation protocols in addition to cytotoxicity data of the isolated compounds. The potential of marine mollusks as a source for rare PUFAs is also discussed. PMID:23342390

  3. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2012-02-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog

  4. Pelagicoccus croceus sp. nov., a novel marine member of the family Puniceicoccaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia' isolated from seagrass.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Oku, Naoya; Matsuda, Satoru; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-12-01

    An obligately aerobic, spherical, non-motile, pale-yellow pigmented bacterium was isolated from a piece of leaf of seagrass, Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle, grown in Okinawa, Japan and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate N5FB36-5(T) shared approximately 96-98 % sequence similarity with the species of the genus Pelagicoccus of the family Puniceicoccaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain N5FB36-5(T) with Pelagicoccus mobilis 02PA-Ca-133(T) and Pelagicoccus albus YM14-201(T) were below 70 %, which is accepted as the phylogenetic definition of a novel species. beta-Lactam antibiotic susceptibility test and amino acid analysis of the cell wall hydrolysates indicated the absence of muramic acid and diaminopimelic acid in the cell walls, which suggested that this strain lacks an ordinary Gram-negative type of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. The DNA G+C content of strain N5FB36-5(T) was 51.6 mol%; MK-7 was the major menaquinone; and the presence of C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and anteiso-C(15 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acids supported the identification of the novel isolate as a member of the genus Pelagicoccus. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, it was concluded that this strain should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pelagicoccus, for which the name Pelagicoccus croceus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N5FB36-5(T) (=MBIC08283(T)=KCTC [corrected] 12903(T)). PMID:18048742

  5. Antineoplastic Agents. 570. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Bacillistatins 1 and 2 from a Marine Bacillus silvestris†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, George R.; Knight, John C.; Herald, Delbert L.; Pettit, Robin K.; Hogan, Fiona; Mukku, Venugopal J. R. V.; Hamblin, John S.; Dodson, Michael J.; Chapuis, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Two new cyclodepsipeptides designated bacillistatins 1 (1) and 2 (2) have been isolated from cultures of a sample of Bacillus silvestris that was obtained from a Pacific Ocean (southern Chile) crab. Each 12-unit cyclodepsipeptide strongly inhibited growth of a human cancer cell line panel, with GI50s of 10−4–10−5 μg/mL, and each compound was active against antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The structures were elucidated by a combination of X-ray diffraction and mass and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses, together with chemical degradation. PMID:19226154

  6. Isolation, Characterization, and Synthesis of the Barrettides: Disulfide-Containing Peptides from the Marine Sponge Geodia barretti.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Bodil B; Rosengren, K Johan; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Schempp, Stefanie; Bohlin, Lars; Dahlström, Mia; Clark, Richard J; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-08-28

    Two disulfide-containing peptides, barrettides A (1) and B (2), from the cold-water marine sponge Geodia barretti are described. Those 31 amino acid residue long peptides were sequenced using mass spectrometry methods and structurally characterized using NMR spectroscopy. The structure of 1 was confirmed by total synthesis using the solid-phase peptide synthesis approach that was developed. The two peptides were found to differ only at a single position in their sequence. The three-dimensional structure of 1 revealed that these peptides possess a unique fold consisting of a long β-hairpin structure that is cross-braced by two disulfide bonds in a ladder-like arrangement. The peptides are amphipathic in nature with the hydrophobic and charged residues clustered on separate faces of the molecule. The barrettides were found not to inhibit the growth of either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus but displayed antifouling activity against barnacle larvae (Balanus improvisus) without lethal effects in the concentrations tested. PMID:26222779

  7. A cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase isolated from the marine denitrifier Pseudomonas nautica 617: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Besson, S; Carneiro, C; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Fauque, G

    1995-08-01

    Nitrite reductase (cytochrome cd1) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the soluble extract of the marine denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas nautica strain 617. Cells were anaerobically grown with 10 mM nitrate as final electron acceptor. The soluble fraction was purified by four successive chromatographic steps and the purest cytochrome cd1 exhibited an A280 nm(oxidized)/A410nm(oxidized) coefficient of 0.90. In the course of purification, cytochrome cd1 specific activity presented a maximum value of 0.048 units/mg of protein. This periplasmic enzyme is a homodimer and each 60 kDa subunit contains one heme c and one heme d1 as prosthetic moieties, both in a low spin state. Redox potentials of hemes c and d1 were determined at three different pH values (6.6, 7.6 and 8.6) and did not show any pH dependence. The first 20 amino acids of the NH2-terminal region of the protein were identified and the sequence showed 45% identity with the corresponding region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase but no homology to Pseudomonas stutzeri and Paracoccus denitrificans enzymes. Spectroscopic properties of Pseudomonas nautica 617 cytochrome cd1 in the ultraviolet-visible range and in electron paramagnetic resonance are described. The formation of a heme d1 -nitric-oxide complex as an intermediate of nitrite reduction was demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance experiments. PMID:16887530

  8. Marine Tubeworm Metamorphosis Induced by Arrays of Bacterial Phage Tail–Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Nicholas J.; Pilhofer, Martin; Weiss, Gregor L.; Hadfield, Michael G.; Jensen, Grant J.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2016-01-01

    Many benthic marine animal populations are established and maintained by free-swimming larvae that recognize cues from surface-bound bacteria to settle and metamorphose. Larvae of the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, an important biofouling agent, require contact with surface-bound bacteria to undergo metamorphosis; however, the mechanisms that underpin this microbially mediated developmental transition have been enigmatic. Here, we show that a marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea, produces arrays of phage tail–like structures that trigger metamorphosis of H. elegans. These arrays comprise about 100 contractile structures with outward-facing baseplates, linked by tail fibers and a dynamic hexagonal net. Not only do these arrays suggest a novel form of bacterium-animal interaction, they provide an entry point to understanding how marine biofilms can trigger animal development. PMID:24407482

  9. Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing bacterium isolated from marine biofilm, and emended description of the genus Croceicoccus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Feng, Hao; Wu, Yuehong; Xu, Xuewei

    2015-05-01

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading and acylhomoserine-lactone-producing marine bacterium, designated strain PQ-2(T), was isolated from marine biofilm collected from a boat shell at a harbour of Zhoushan island in Zhejiang Province, PR China. Strain PQ-2(T) is Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Optimal growth of strain PQ-2(T) was observed at 32 °C, at pH 7.0 and in 2% (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain PQ-2(T) showed highest similarity to Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) (96.3%) followed by Novosphingobium malaysiense MUSC 273(T) (95.6%) and Altererythrobacter marinus H32(T) (95.6%). Phylogenetic analysis with all species of the family Erythrobacteraceae with validly published names revealed that strain PQ-2(T) formed a phyletic line with Croceicoccus marinus E4A9(T) that was distinct from other members of the family Erythrobacteraceae . The sole respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C17 : 1ω6c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH). The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. In the polar lipid profile, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one sphingoglycolipid were the major compounds; and another sphingoglycolipid was present in a minor amount. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain PQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Croceicoccus , for which the name Croceicoccus naphthovorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PQ-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12805(T) =NBRC 110381(T)). In addition, emended descriptions for the genus Croceicoccus and the species C. marinus are given. PMID:25713040

  10. Effect of light quality on the C-phycoerythrin production in marine cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena sp. isolated from Gujarat coast, India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Maurya, Rahulkumar R; Patidar, Shailesh K; Haldar, Soumya; Mishra, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    The isolated cyanobacterium containing biopigments like chlorophyll-a, phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and carotenoid was cultured under different quality of light modes to ascertain biomass and pigment productivity. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate was identified as Pseudanabaena sp. Maximum biomass concentration obtained in white-, blue-, and green-light was 0.82, 0.94, and 0.89 g/L, respectively. It was observed that maximum phycoerythrin production was in green light (39.2 mg/L), ensued by blue light (32.2 mg/L), while phycocyanin production was maximum in red light (10.9 mg/L). In yellow light, pigment production as well as the growth rate gradually declined after 12 days. Carotenoid production decreased in blue-, white-, and red-light after 15 days, while in green light it had increased gradually. The present communication suggests that Pseudanabaena sp. can be used for commercial production of phycoerythrin when grown under green light. PMID:21906679

  11. Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-stain negative, spherical, non-motile, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow pigmented bacterium, designated strain 04OKA003-7(T) was isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis L. collected at Akajima, Okinawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (92.9 %) to Vitellibacter aestuarii JC2436(T) and Aureitalea marina S1-66(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain 04OKA003-7(T) were identified as iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 41 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified lipid. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. galaxeae is 04OKA003-7(T) (=KCTC 32993(T) = NBRC 110018(T)). PMID:25795444

  12. Toxicity of bioactive and probiotic marine bacteria and their secondary metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as eukaryotic model organisms.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Prol-García, María J

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  13. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Anna Katrin; Månsson, Maria; Prol-García, María J.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from an applied point of view as fish probiotics or as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. The application of either organisms or compounds requires that they do not cause any side effects, such as toxicity in eukaryotic organisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these bacteria or their compounds have any toxic side effects in the eukaryotic organisms Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Arthrobacter davidanieli WX-11, Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4060, P. piscicida S2049, P. rubra S2471, Photobacterium halotolerans S2753, and Vibrio coralliilyticus S2052 were lethal to either or both model eukaryotes. The toxicity of P. luteoviolacea S4060 could be related to the production of the antibacterial compound pentabromopseudilin, while the adverse effect observed in the presence of P. halotolerans S2753 and V. coralliilyticus S2052 could not be explained by the production of holomycin nor andrimid, the respective antibiotic compounds in these organisms. In contrast, the tropodithietic acid (TDA)-producing bacteria Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395 and Ruegeria mobilis F1926 and TDA itself had no adverse effect on the target organisms. These results reaffirm TDA-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution. PMID:24141121

  14. Bioaccumulation of mycotoxins by shellfish: contamination of mussels by metabolites of a Trichoderma koningii strain isolated in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, C; Pouchus, Y F; Bardouil, M; Lassus, P; Roquebert, M F; Verbist, J F

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether toxic metabolites produced by fungi could cause shellfish toxicities, mussels were contaminated in laboratory conditions by sterile filtrates of a liquid culture of a strain of the fungus Trichoderma koningii previously isolated from a shellfish, the cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Mussels were kept in aerated natural seawater and fed with a culture of the microalga Isochrysis galbana, to which a filtrate of liquid fungal culture was added. Mussels were exposed to contamination for 7 days at 16 or 20 degrees C and extractions were then performed and their activity tested on blowfly larvae. The same toxicity was found in the fungal filtrate and the shellfish, indicating bioaccumulation. The digestive gland was the most toxic part of the mussel, confirming contamination by filtration. Treated mussels produced a mucus which appeared to be a means of eliminating toxic metabolites. PMID:9920482

  15. Isolation and biological evaluation of 8-epi-malyngamide C from the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jason C; Teplitski, Max; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-03-26

    A new stereoisomer of malyngamide C, 8-epi-malyngamide C (1), and the known compound lyngbic acid [(4E,7S)-7-methoxytetradec-4-enoic acid] were isolated from a sample of Lyngbya majuscula collected near Bush Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida. The structure of 1 was determined by NMR and MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by selective Mitsunobu inversion of C-8 to give malyngamide C, as determined by NMR, MS, and comparison of specific rotation. Both 1 and malyngamide C were found to be cytotoxic to HT29 colon cancer cells (IC(50) 15.4 and 5.2 microM, respectively) and to inhibit bacterial quorum sensing in a reporter gene assay. PMID:20166701

  16. New Mg2+-Dependent Oxytetracycline Resistance Determinant Tet 34 in Vibrio Isolates from Marine Fish Intestinal Contents

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Lisa; Suzuki, Satoru

    2002-01-01

    A new oxytetracycline (OTC) resistance (Otcr) determinant, Tet 34, was cloned from chromosomal DNA of Vibrio sp. no. 6 isolated from intestinal contents of cultured yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). The transformant, containing cloned Tet 34, could grow in broth containing 25 μg of drug per ml with 10 mM MgCl2. Tet 34 encoded an open reading frame (ORF) 154 amino acids long. The amino acid sequence of the ORF was homologous to sequences of several bacterial xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferases (XPRTs), which act in purine nucleotide salvage synthesis. Mg2+ binding site residues and the active site were highly conserved in XPRT and the ORF of Tet 34. The results suggest that Tet 34 encodes a new Mg2+-dependent Otcr mechanism. PMID:11959596

  17. Stigmasterol isolated from marine microalgae Navicula incerta induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Sang; Li, Xi-Feng; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Plant sterols have shown potent anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis induction against breast and prostate cancers. However, the effect of sterols against hepatic cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, we assessed whether the stigmasterol isolated from Navicula incerta possesses apoptosis inductive effect in hepatocarcimona (HepG2) cells. According to the results, Stigmasterol has up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic gene expressions (Bax, p53) while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2). Probably via mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. With the induction of apoptosis caspase-8, 9 were activated. The DNA damage and increase in apoptotic cell numbers were observed through Hoechst staining, annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis. According to these results, we can suggest that the stigmasterol shows potent apoptosis inductive effects and has the potential to be tested as an anti-cancer therapeutic against liver cancer. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 433-438] PMID:24286323

  18. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)). PMID:27084709

  19. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)). PMID:27272908

  20. Algicidal activity against Skeletonema costatum by marine bacteria isolated from a high frequency harmful algal blooms area in southern Chinese coast.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongjun; Huang, Honghui; Qi, Zhanhui; Hu, Weian; Tian, Ziyang; Dai, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Four marine bacterial strains P1, P5, N5 and N21 were isolated from the surface water and sediment of Mirs Bay in southern Chinese coast using the liquid infection method with 48-well plates. These bacteria were all shown to have algicidal activities against Skeletonema costatum. Based on morphological observations, biochemical tests and homology comparisons by 16S rDNA sequences, the isolated strains P1, P5, N5 and N21 were identified as Halobacillus sp., Muricauda sp., Kangiella sp. and Roseivirga sp., respectively. Our results showed that bacterial strain P1 killed S. costatum by release of heat labile algicide, while strains P5, N5 and N21 killed them directly. The algicidal processes of four bacterial strains were different. Strains P1, N5 and N21 disrupted the chain structure and S. costatum appeared as single cells, in which the cellular components were aggregated and the individual cells were inflated and finally lysed, while strain P5 decomposed the algal chains directly. We also showed that the algicidal activities of the bacterial strains were concentration-dependent. More specifically, 10 % (v/v) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activities, as all S. costatum cells were killed by strains N5 and N21 within 72 h and by strains P1 and P5 within 96 h. 5 % of bacteria in algae also showed significant algicidal activities, as all S. costatum were killed by strains N5, P5 and N21 within 72, 96 and 120 h, respectively, whereas at this concentration, only 73.4 % of S. costatum cells exposed to strain P1 were killed within 120 h. At the concentration of 1 % bacteria in algae, the number of S. costatum cells continued to increase and the growth rate of algae upon exposure to strain N5 was significantly inhibited. PMID:23054696

  1. Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Antioxidant Mannoglucan from a Marine Bubble Snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghong; Liao, Ningbo; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Wu, Dan; Guo, Xin; Zhong, Jianjun; Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Shiguo

    2013-01-01

    Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata. PMID:24284423

  2. Mameliella phaeodactyli sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from the marine algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Lei, Xueqian; Lai, Qiliang; Yang, Luxi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Yu, Zhiming; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-05-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, yellow bacterium designated strain KD53(T), was isolated from a culture of the alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum from Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that strain KD53(T) was a member of the Roseobacter clade within the family Rhodobacteraceae , forming a distinct lineage with species of the genus Mameliella . The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain KD53(T) and other strains examined were all less than 97.0%. Strain KD53(T) was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and in the presence of 3% (w/v) NaCl. The dominant fatty acids of strain KD53(T) were C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 0 and C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 65 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain KD53(T) represents a novel member of the genus Mameliella , then the name Mameliella phaeodactyli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KD53(T) ( =MCCC 1K00273(T) =KCTC 42178(T)). PMID:25716952

  3. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes. PMID:26952993

  4. Application of wireless sensor networks to study flow over heterogeneous surfaces: flow over an isolated mountain in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Honrath, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A combination of standard meteorological equipment (3d sonic anemometer, energy balance sensors) and Crossbow MPR400 (Mica2) wireless motes and sensorboards were deployed along the slope of Pico mountain in the Azores, Portugal, between z = 1200 m and z = 2300 m MSL. The isolated location and uniform, conic shape make Pico mountain an ideal location to study orographic effects. This experiment focuses on upslope and downslope flow. Cost effective wireless sensor technology allows for high density of observations in time and space as necessary for characterization of flows over heterogeneous surfaces. Thus the features of upslope and downslope flows (speed, location and duration) and their effect on atmospheric physics and chemistry (temperature, relative humidity) can be studied in great detail. Synchronous measurements of O3, CO, NOx, NOy and NMHC at the PICO-NARE observatory (Honrath et al. 2004) situated at the mountaintop give further clues on airmass origin and dispersion. Findings regarding the occurrence and impacts of upslope and downslope flow and the advantages and disadvantages of wireless sensors relative to standard meteorological instruments will be presented. In particular, practical issues of wireless sensor deployment, such as durability in harsh conditions, power management, accuracy, and cost will be discussed.

  5. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    El Shoubaky, Gihan A.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Mansour, Mohamed H.; Salem, Essam A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2) solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H3BO3, AlCl3, and AlCl3 + HCl) were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids). The flavone compound was identified as apigenin bycomparing its physicochemical data with those in the literature. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin were evaluated. Apigenin showed promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the hot plate test and writhing test in mice as well as tail-immersion tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It is concluded that apigenin possesses potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, which might be due to the inhibition of PGE2 as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. PMID:26917974

  6. Genetic Modification of the Marine-Isolated Yeast Aureobasidium melanogenum P16 for Efficient Pullulan Production from Inulin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zai-Chao; Liu, Nan-Nan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-08-01

    In this study, in order to directly and efficiently convert inulin into pullulan, the INU1 gene from Kluyveromyces maximum KM was integrated into the genomic DNA and actively expressed in the high pullulan producer Aureobasidium melanogenum P16 isolated from the mangrove ecosystem. After the ability to produce pullulan from inulin by different transformants was examined, it was found that the recombinant strain EI36, one of the transformants, produced 40.92 U/ml of inulinase activity while its wild-type strain P16 only yielded 7.57 U/ml of inulinase activity. Most (99.27 %) of the inulinase produced by the recombinant strain EI36 was secreted into the culture. During the 10-l fermentation, 70.57 ± 1.3 g/l of pullulan in the fermented medium was attained from inulin (138.0 g/l) within 108 h, high inulinase activity (42.03 U/ml) was produced within 60 h, the added inulin was actively hydrolyzed by the secreted inulinase, and most of the reducing sugars were used by the recombinant strain EI36. This confirmed that the genetically engineered yeast of A. melanogenum strain P16 was suitable for direct pullulan production from inulin. PMID:25985744

  7. Phylogenetic identification of marine bacteria isolated from deep-sea sediments of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcus Adonai Castro; Cavalett, Angélica; Spinner, Ananda; Rosa, Daniele Cristina; Jasper, Regina Beltrame; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Bonatelli, Maria Letícia; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline; Corção, Gertrudes; Lima, André Oliveira de Souza

    2013-12-01

    The deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic Ocean are less studied in comparison to the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. With the aim of identifying the deep-sea bacteria in this less known ocean, 70 strains were isolated from eight sediment samples (depth range between 1905 to 5560 m) collected in the eastern part of the South Atlantic, from the equatorial region to the Cape Abyssal Plain, using three different culture media. The strains were classified into three phylogenetic groups, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, by the analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most frequently identified groups, with Halomonas the most frequent genus among the strains. Microorganisms belonging to Firmicutes were the only ones observed in all samples. Sixteen of the 41 identified operational taxonomic units probably represent new species. The presence of potentially new species reinforces the need for new studies in the deep-sea environments of the South Atlantic. PMID:23565357

  8. Lectins of marine hydrobionts.

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O V; Molchanova, V I; Chikalovets, I V; Kondrashina, A S; Li, W; Lukyanov, P A

    2013-07-01

    Data from the literature and results of our research on lectins isolated from some kinds of marine hydrobionts such as clams, ascidians, sea worms, sponges, and algae are presented in this review. Results of comparative analysis of the basic physicochemical properties and biological activity of lectins isolated from various sources are discussed. PMID:24010839

  9. 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of CmPI-II, a serine protease inhibitor isolated from marine snail Cenchritis muricatus.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Muñoz, Aymara; Rojas, Laritza; Alonso-del-Rivero Antigua, Maday; Pires, José Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    A protease inhibitor (CmPI-II) (UNIPROT: IPK2_CENMR) from the marine mollusc Cenchritis muricatus, has been isolated and characterized. It is the first member of a new group (group 3) of non-classical Kazal-type inhibitors. CmPI-II is a tight-binding inhibitor of serine proteases: trypsin, human neutrophil elastase (HNE), subtilisin A and pancreatic elastase. This specificity is exceptional in the members of Kazal-type inhibitor family. Several models of three-dimensional structure of CmPI-II have been constructed by homology with other inhibitors of the family but its structure has not yet been solved experimentally. Here we report the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C chemical shift assignments of CmPI-II as basis for NMR structure determination and interaction studies. Secondary structure analyses deduced from the NMR chemical shift data have identified three β-strands β1: residues 14-19, β2: 23-35 and β3: 43-45 and one helix α1: 28-37 arranged in the sequential order β1-β2-α1-β3. These secondary structure elements suggest that CmPI-II adopts the typical scaffold of a Kazal-type inhibitor. PMID:26547437

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Single-Stranded RNA Virus Infectious to a Marine Fungoid Protist, Schizochytrium sp. (Thraustochytriaceae, Labyrinthulea)

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yoshitake; Nagasaki, Keizo; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro; Honda, Daiske

    2005-01-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmoheterotrophic microorganisms that play important roles as decomposers, producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and pathogens of mollusks, especially in coastal ecosystems. SssRNAV, a novel single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus infecting the marine fungoid protist Schizochytrium sp. (Labyrinthulea, Thraustochytriaceae) was isolated from the coastal water of Kobe Harbor, Japan, in July 2000, and its basic characteristics were examined. The virus particle is icosahedral, lacks a tail, and is ca. 25 nm in diameter. SssRNAV formed crystalline arrays and random assemblies within the cytoplasm of host cells, and it was also concentrated along the intracellular membrane structures. By means of one-step growth experiments, the lytic cycle and the burst size were estimated to be <8 h and 5.8 × 103 to 6.4 × 104 infectious units per host cell, respectively. SssRNAV had a single molecule of ssRNA that was approximately 10.2 kb long, three major proteins (37, 34, and 32 kDa), and two minor proteins (80 and 18 kDa). Although SssRNAV was considered to have some similarities with invertebrate viruses belonging to the family Dicistroviridae based on its partial nucleotide sequence, further genomic analysis is required to determine the detailed classification and nomenclature of SssRNAV. Our results indicate that viral infection is one of the significant factors controlling the dynamics of thraustochytrids and provide new insights into understanding the ecology of these organisms. PMID:16085844

  11. Taxonomic identification and lipid production of two Chilean Chlorella-like strains isolated from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    González, Mariela A.; Pröschold, Thomas; Palacios, Yussi; Aguayo, Paula; Inostroza, Ingrid; Gómez, Patricia I.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Chlorella was the first microalga to be massively cultured as food, feed and as a source of nutraceuticals. More recently, some species have been suggested as candidates for biodiesel production. One of the most difficult tasks in studying the systematics of green coccoids is the identification of species assigned to the genus Chlorella. In the context of several projects carried out by our research group we isolated two Chlorella-like strains from a marine and an estuarine coastal environment in Chile (Coliumo strain and Baker strain, respectively). The main objectives of this research were to identify these Chilean strains—at the species level—and determine and compare their lipid production when cultured under identical conditions. Cell size and shape, autospore number and sizes, and chloroplast and pyrenoid ultrastructure were considered as taxonomic descriptors, and 18S rDNA sequences and internal transcribed spacer ITS-1 + ITS-2 sequences and secondary structure were adopted as phylogenetic tools. The combined use of these morphological, ultrastructural and molecular attributes revealed that only the Baker strain belongs to the genus Chlorella (C. vulgaris), while the Coliumo strain corresponds to the recently amended genus Chloroidium (C. saccharophilum). Lipid characterization of the biomass obtained from these strains showed that Chlorella vulgaris (Baker strain) appears to be suitable as a raw material for biodiesel production, while Chloroidium saccharophilum (Coliumo strain) would be more appropriate for animal nutrition.

  12. Chemical Profiling (HPLC-NMR & HPLC-MS), Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Meroditerpenoids from the Southern Australian Marine Brown Alga Sargassum paradoxum

    PubMed Central

    Brkljača, Robert; Urban, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of a southern Australian marine brown alga, Sargassum paradoxum, resulted in the isolation and identification of four new (5, 9, 10, and 15) and nine previously reported (1, 2, 6–8, and 11–14) bioactive meroditerpenoids. HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS were central to the identification of a new unstable compound, sargahydroquinal (9), and pivotal in the deconvolution of eight (1, 2, 5–7, and 10–12) other meroditerpenoids. In particular, the complete characterization and identification of the two main constituents (1 and 2) in the crude dichloromethane extract was achieved using stop-flow HPLC-NMR and HPLC-MS. This study resulted in the first acquisition of gHMBCAD NMR spectra in the stop-flow HPLC-NMR mode for a system solely equipped with a 60 μL HPLC-NMR flow cell without the use of a cold probe, microcoil, or any pre-concentration. PMID:25551779

  13. Effect of diterpenes isolated of the marine alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against some toxic effects of the venom of the bothrops jararaca snake.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Thaisa Francielle Souza; Vallim, Magui Aparecida; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Sanchez, Eládio Flores; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Fuly, André Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol), previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. jararaca venom. The mixture of diterpenes was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and incubated with venom for 30 min at room temperature, and then several in vivo (hemorrhage, edema and lethality) and in vitro (hemolysis, plasma clotting and proteolysis) assays were performed. The diterpenes inhibited hemolysis, proteolysis and hemorrhage, but failed to inhibit clotting and edema induced by B. jararaca venom. Moreover, diterpenes partially protected mice from lethality caused by B. jararaca venom. The search for natural inhibitors of B. jararaca venom in C. cervicornis algae is a relevant subject, since seaweeds are a rich and powerful source of active molecules which are as yet but poorly explored. Our results suggest that these diterpenes have the potential to be used against Bothropic envenomation accidents or to improve traditional treatments for snake bites. PMID:25699595

  14. Isolation identification and biochemical characterization of a novel halo-tolerant lipase from the metagenome of the marine sponge Haliclona simulans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    temperatures ranging from 10 to 80°C. A maximum lipase activity of 2,700 U/mg was observed with 10 mM p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate, in the presence of 5 mM Ca2+ and 5 M NaCl, and a reaction time of 15 min at pH 7 and 40°C; while KM and Vmax values were calculated to be 1.093 mM-1 and 50 μmol/min, respectively. Conclusion We have isolated a novel halo tolerant lipase following a functional screen of a marine sponge fosmid metagenomic library. The activity and stability profile of the recombinant enzyme over a wide range of salinity, pH and temperature; and in the presence of organic solvent and metal ions suggests a utility for this enzyme in a variety of industrial applications. PMID:22657530

  15. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion; Vandieken, Verona; Petersen, Jörn; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Shapiro, Nicole; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans -Peter; et al

    2016-03-12

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switchmore » from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum (fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.« less

  16. Isolation, purification and characterization of beta-1,3-glucan binding protein from the plasma of marine mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, S S; Thiagarajan, R; Arumugam, M; Mullainadhan, P

    2008-06-01

    A beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (betaGBP) specific for laminarin (a beta-1,3-glucan) was detected for the first time in a mollusc, Perna viridis. betaGBP was isolated and purified from the plasma using laminarin precipitation and affinity chromatography on laminarin-Sepharose 6B, respectively. It agglutinated bakers yeast, bacteria, and erythrocytes and enhanced prophenoloxidase (proPO) activity of the plasma in a dose-dependent manner. The purified betaGBP appeared as a single band in native-PAGE and the purity was conformed by HPLC. The protein has a molecular weight estimate of 510kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and in isoelectric focusing the purified betaGBP was focused as a single band at pI 5.3. betaGBP was found to possess inherent serine protease activity but lacked beta-1,3-glucanase activity and all these results suggest that plasma betaGBP of P. viridis functions as a recognition molecule for beta-1,3-glucan on the surface of microbial cell walls. This recognition and binding lead to the activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade mediated by the inherent serine protease activity of betaGBP. Presence of agglutinating activity and serine protease activity shows that betaGBP is a bifunctional protein. The findings are discussed in light of the importance of this protein in the innate immune response of P. viridis, and they implicate evolutionary link with similar proteins found in other invertebrates. PMID:18420422

  17. Tri-domain Bifunctional Inhibitor of Metallocarboxypeptidases A and Serine Proteases Isolated from Marine Annelid Sabellastarte magnifica*

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-del-Rivero, Maday; Trejo, Sebastian A.; Reytor, Mey L.; Rodriguez-de-la-Vega, Monica; Delfin, Julieta; Diaz, Joaquin; González-González, Yamile; Canals, Francesc; Chavez, Maria Angeles; Aviles, Francesc X.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel bifunctional metallocarboxypeptidase and serine protease inhibitor (SmCI) isolated from the tentacle crown of the annelid Sabellastarte magnifica. SmCI is a 165-residue glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 19.69 kDa (mass spectrometry) and 18 cysteine residues forming nine disulfide bonds. Its cDNA was cloned and sequenced by RT-PCR and nested PCR using degenerated oligonucleotides. Employing this information along with data derived from automatic Edman degradation of peptide fragments, the SmCI sequence was fully characterized, indicating the presence of three bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor/Kunitz domains and its high homology with other Kunitz serine protease inhibitors. Enzyme kinetics and structural analyses revealed SmCI to be an inhibitor of human and bovine pancreatic metallocarboxypeptidases of the A-type (but not B-type), with nanomolar Ki values. SmCI is also capable of inhibiting bovine pancreatic trypsin, chymotrypsin, and porcine pancreatic elastase in varying measures. When the inhibitor and its nonglycosylated form (SmCI N23A mutant) were overproduced recombinantly in a Pichia pastoris system, they displayed the dual inhibitory properties of the natural form. Similarly, two bi-domain forms of the inhibitor (recombinant rSmCI D1-D2 and rSmCI D2-D3) as well as its C-terminal domain (rSmCI-D3) were also overproduced. Of these fragments, only the rSmCI D1-D2 bi-domain retained inhibition of metallocarboxypeptidase A but only partially, indicating that the whole tri-domain structure is required for such capability in full. SmCI is the first proteinaceous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases able to act as well on another mechanistic class of proteases (serine-type) and is the first of this kind identified in nature. PMID:22411994

  18. Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Jingyan; Zhang, Huajun; Yang, Luxi; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yun; Yu, Zhiming; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, reddish-orange and chemoheterotrophic bacteria, designated strain KD52(T), was isolated from a culture of the alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum from Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that strain KD52(T) was a member of the family Saprospiraceae, forming a distinct lineage with 'Portibacter lacus' KCTC 23747. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain KD52(T) and the type strains of species of the family Saprospiraceae ranged from 86% to 89%. Growth occurred at 20-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), in the presence of 1-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5%) and at pH 5-8.5 (optimum, pH 6.0). The dominant fatty acids (>10%) of strain KD52(T) were iso-C15:0 (33.1%), iso-C15:1 G (14.8%) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c, 13.8%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, four unknown lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 51 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). On the basis of phenotypic data and phylogenetic inference, strain KD52(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is KD52(T) ( = MCCC 1F01213(T) = KCTC 32575(T)). PMID:25052393

  19. Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov., a novel agarolytic gammaproteobacterium isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103), and emended description of the genus Catenovulum.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Tao; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    A novel agarolytic, Gram-stain negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic and pale-white pigmented bacterial strain, designated Q1(T), was isolated from the marine alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (AST58-103) collected from the coastal area of Weihai, China. The cells are motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The isolate requires NaCl for growth, while seawater is not necessary, and growth occurs optimally at about 30-33 °C, in 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7-7.5. Strain Q1(T) shows oxidase-positive and catalase-negative activities, and possesses the ability to hydrolyse starch and alginate, but not cellulose, gelatin, urea or Tween-80. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain Q1(T) is affiliated with the family Alteromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The isolate, strain Q1(T), is most closely related to Catenovulum agarivorans YM01(T) (94.85 %), with less than 91.2 % sequence similarity to other close relatives with validly published names. The draft genome sequence of strain Q1(T) consists of 62 contigs (>200 bp) of 4,548,270 bp. The genomes of Q1(T) and YM01(T) have an ANI value of 70.7 %, and the POCP value between the two genomes is 64.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Q1(T) is 37.9 mol% as calculated from the draft genome sequence. The main isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The predominant cellular fatty acids are summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), C16:0 and C18:1 ω7c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on data from a polyphasic chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical study, strain Q1(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Catenovulum, for which the name Catenovulum maritimus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Q1(T) (=CICC 10836(T)=DSM 28813(T)). PMID:26036673

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Victor G.; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J.

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Marinobacter sp. Strain P4B1, an Electrogenic Perchlorate-Reducing Strain Isolated from a Long-Term Mixed Enrichment Culture of Marine Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Victor G; Xiao, Yeyuan; Lopez, April J; Roberts, Deborah J; Fox, George E

    2016-01-01

    The perchlorate-reducing strain Marinobacter sp. strain P4B1 was isolated from a long-term perchlorate-degrading enrichment culture seeded with marine sediment. The draft genome of Marinobacter sp. P4B1 is comprised of the bacterial chromosome (3.60 Mbp, G+C 58.51%, 3,269 predicted genes) and its associated plasmid pMARS01 (0.14 Mbp, G+C 52.95%, 165 predicted genes). PMID:26798109

  2. Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine conch and emended descriptions of the genus Pseudofulvibacter Yoon et al. 2013 and Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Jin; Kyoung Kwon, Kae

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC08749T, was isolated from a marine conch collected at Samcheok Port in the East Sea, Korea (also known as the Sea of Japan). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC08749T shared highest similarity with Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis YCS-9T (94.9 %). Growth was observed at 5-31 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and with 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 9 (comprising 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C17 : 1ω9c). The DNA G+C content was 30 mol%. The only respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified lipids and two unidentified aminolipids were detected as major polar lipids. Several phenotypic characteristics, such as production of acetoin, activity of cystine arylamidase, utilization of some carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids, differentiated strain MEBiC08749T from P. geojedonensis KCTC 23884T. On the basis of data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain MEBiC08749T should be classified as representing a novel species in the genus Pseudofulvibacter, for which the name Pseudofulvibacter gastropodicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MEBiC08749T ( = KCCM 43046T = JCM 30369T). Emended descriptions of the genus PseudofulvibacterYoon et al. 2013 and of Pseudofulvibacter geojedonensis are also given. PMID:26537663

  3. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA Virus infectious to a marine fungoid protist, Schizochytrium sp. (Thraustochytriaceae, Labyrinthulea).

    PubMed

    Takao, Yoshitake; Nagasaki, Keizo; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro; Honda, Daiske

    2005-08-01

    Thraustochytrids are cosmopolitan osmoheterotrophic microorganisms that play important roles as decomposers, producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and pathogens of mollusks, especially in coastal ecosystems. SssRNAV, a novel single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus infecting the marine fungoid protist Schizochytrium sp. (Labyrinthulea, Thraustochytriaceae) was isolated from the coastal water of Kobe Harbor, Japan, in July 2000, and its basic characteristics were examined. The virus particle is icosahedral, lacks a tail, and is ca. 25 nm in diameter. SssRNAV formed crystalline arrays and random assemblies within the cytoplasm of host cells, and it was also concentrated along the intracellular membrane structures. By means of one-step growth experiments, the lytic cycle and the burst size were estimated to be <8 h and 5.8 x 10(3) to 6.4 x 10(4) infectious units per host cell, respectively. SssRNAV had a single molecule of ssRNA that was approximately 10.2 kb long, three major proteins (37, 34, and 32 kDa), and two minor proteins (80 and 18 kDa). Although SssRNAV was considered to have some similarities with invertebrate viruses belonging to the family Dicistroviridae based on its partial nucleotide sequence, further genomic analysis is required to determine the detailed classification and nomenclature of SssRNAV. Our results indicate that viral infection is one of the significant factors controlling the dynamics of thraustochytrids and provide new insights into understanding the ecology of these organisms. PMID:16085844

  5. Thalassotalea marina sp. nov., isolated from a marine recirculating aquaculture system, reclassification of Thalassomonas eurytherma as Thalassotalea eurytherma comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Thalassotalea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Ying; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, strain QBLM2T, was isolated from rearing water of a marine recirculating aquaculture system in Tianjin, China. Its taxonomic position was investigated through a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain QBLM2T were non-spore-forming rods, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Positive for oxidase and catalase. Growth occurred at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.5-10.5 (optimum pH 7.5-8.5) and in the presence of 0-5.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain QBLM2T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Thalassotalea and exhibited sequence similarities of 94.5-96.3 % to members of the genus Thalassotalea. The predominant fatty acids (>10 %) were C17 : 1ω8c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) was the major ubiquinone. The DNA G+C content was 37.1 mol%. Based on the data above, strain QBLM2T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thalassotalea, for which the name Thalassotalea marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is QBLM2T ( = CGMCC 1.12814T = KCTC 42731T). Phylogenetic analyses indicated that Thalassomonas eurytherma Za6a-12T fell within the genus Thalassotalea, so it is reclassified as Thalassotalea eurytherma comb. nov. and the description of the genus Thalassotalea is emended. PMID:26400666

  6. Antibacterial activity of the lipopetides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased marine animals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Mei; Rong, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Xin; Song, Bo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens M1 was examined against multidrug-resistant Vibrio spp. and Shewanella aquimarina isolated from diseased marine animals. A new and cheap medium which contained 1.0 % soybean powder, 1.5 % wheat flour, pH 7.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.28 mg/ml was obtained after 18 h of 10-l fermentation and diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with Vibrio anguillarum was 34 mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the lipopeptide N3 produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 was the main product and contained the surfactin isoforms with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). The evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the lipopeptide N3 was carried out against S. aquimarina and nine species of Vibrio spp.. It was found that all the Vibrio spp. and S. aquimarina showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multidrug resistance. It was also indicated that all the Vibrio spp. strains and S. aquimarina were sensitive to the surfactin N3, in particular V. anguillarum. The results demonstrated that the lipopeptides produced by B. amyloliquefaciens M1 had a broad spectrum of action, including antibacterial activity against the pathogenic Vibrio spp. with multidrug-resistant profiles. After the treatment with the lipopeptide N3, the cell membrane of V. anguillarum was damaged, and the whole cells of the bacterium were disrupted. PMID:24132666

  7. Isolation and characterization of a PSI-LHCI super-complex and its sub-complexes from a siphonaceous marine green alga, Bryopsis Corticulans.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaochun; Wang, Wenda; Chang, Lijing; Chen, Jinghua; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jianping; He, Yikun; Kuang, Tingyun; Shen, Jian-Ren

    2015-01-01

    A novel super-complex of photosystem I (PSI)-light-harvesting complex I (LHCI) was isolated from a siphonaceous marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans. The super-complex contained 9-10 Lhca antennas as external LHCI bound to the core complex. The super-complex was further disintegrated into PSI core and LHCI sub-complexes, and analysis of the pigment compositions by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed unique characteristics of the B. corticulans PSI in that one PSI core contained around 14 α-carotenes and 1-2 ε-carotenes. This is in sharp contrast to the PSI core from higher plants and most cyanobacteria where only β-carotenes were present, and is the first report for an α-carotene-type PSI core complex among photosynthetic eukaryotes, suggesting a structural flexibility of the PSI core. Lhca antennas from B. corticulans contained seven kinds of carotenoids (siphonaxanthin, all-trans neoxanthin, 9'-cis neoxanthin, violaxanthin, siphonein, ε-carotene, and α-carotene) and showed a high carotenoid:chlorophyll ratio of around 7.5:13. PSI-LHCI super-complex and PSI core showed fluorescence emission peaks at 716 and 718 nm at 77 K, respectively; whereas two Lhca oligomers had fluorescence peaks at 681 and 684 nm, respectively. By comparison with spinach PSI preparations, it was found that B. corticulans PSI had less red chlorophylls, most of them are present in the core complex but not in the outer light-harvesting systems. These characteristics may contribute to the fine tuning of the energy transfer network, and to acclimate to the ever-changing light conditions under which the unique green alga inhabits. PMID:25214185

  8. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). PMID:25445014

  9. Description of toluene inhibition of methyl bromide biodegradation in seawater and isolation of a marine toluene oxidizer that degrades methyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Tokarczyk, Ryszard; Stephens, F Carol; Saltzman, Eric S

    2005-07-01

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are important precursors for destruction of stratospheric ozone, and oceanic uptake is an important component of the biogeochemical cycle of these methyl halides. In an effort to identify and characterize the organisms mediating halocarbon biodegradation, we surveyed the effect of potential cometabolic substrates on CH3Br biodegradation using a 13CH3Br incubation technique. Toluene (160 to 200 nM) clearly inhibited CH3Br and CH3Cl degradation in seawater samples from the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, a marine bacterium able to co-oxidize CH3Br while growing on toluene was isolated from subtropical Western Atlantic seawater. The bacterium, Oxy6, was also able to oxidize o-xylene and the xylene monooxygenase (XMO) pathway intermediate 3-methylcatechol. Patterns of substrate oxidation, lack of acetylene inhibition, and the inability of the toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO)-containing bacterium Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 to degrade CH3Br ruled out participation of the T4MO pathway in Oxy6. Oxy6 also oxidized a variety of toluene (TOL) pathway intermediates such as benzyl alcohol, benzylaldehyde, benzoate, and catechol, but the inability of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 to degrade CH3Br suggested that the TOL pathway might not be responsible for CH3Br biodegradation. Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified Oxy6 to be a member of the family Sphingomonadaceae related to species within the Porphyrobacter genus. Although some Sphingomonadaceae can degrade a variety of xenobiotic compounds, this appears to be the first report of CH3Br degradation for this class of organism. The widespread inhibitory effect of toluene on natural seawater samples and the metabolic capabilities of Oxy6 indicate a possible link between aromatic hydrocarbon utilization and the biogeochemical cycle of methyl halides. PMID:16000753

  10. Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov., a novel marine lactic acid bacterium isolated from deep sub-seafloor sediment of the Nankai Trough.

    PubMed

    Toffin, Laurent; Zink, Klaus; Kato, Chiaki; Pignet, Patricia; Bidault, Adeline; Bienvenu, Nadège; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Prieur, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A piezotolerant, mesophilic, marine lactic acid bacterium (strain LT20T) was isolated from a deep sub-seafloor sediment core collected at Nankai Trough, off the coast of Japan. Cells were Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-sporulating and non-motile. The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-120 g l(-1), with the optimum at 10-20 g l(-1). The temperature range for growth at pH 7.0 was 4-50 degrees C, with the optimum at 37-40 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0-8.0. The optimum pressure for growth was 0.1 MPa with tolerance up to 30 MPa. The main cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerols (25 %), diphosphatidylglycerols (34 %) and a group of compounds tentatively identified as ammonium-containing phosphatidylserines (32 %); phosphatidylethanolamines (9 %) were minor components. The fatty acid composition was dominated by side chains of 16 : 0, 14 : 0 and 16 : 1. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the secondary structure of the V6 region, this organism was found to belong to the genus Marinilactibacillus and was closely related to Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans M13-2(T) (99 %), Marinilactibacillus sp. strain MJYP.25.24 (99 %) and Alkalibacterium olivapovliticus strain ww2-SN4C (97 %). Despite the high similarity between their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99 %), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels were less than 20 %. On the basis of physiological and genetic characteristics, it is proposed that this organism be classified as a novel species, Marinilactibacillus piezotolerans sp. nov. The type strain is LT20T (=DSM 16108T=JCM 12337T). PMID:15653899

  11. PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from the Marine-Derived Fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Kyoung-Su; Sohn, Jae Hak; Kang, Myeong-Suk; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a major role in the negative regulation of insulin signaling, and is thus considered as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetes. Bioassay-guided investigation of the methylethylketone extract of marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. JF-55 cultures afforded a new PTP1B inhibitory styrylpyrone-type metabolite named penstyrylpyrone (1), and two known metabolites, anhydrofulvic acid (2) and citromycetin (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, and kinetic analyses of PTP1B inhibition suggested that these compounds inhibited PTP1B activity in a competitive manner. In an effort to gain more biological potential of the isolated compounds, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1–3 were also evaluated. Among the tested compounds, only compound 1 inhibited the production of NO and PGE2, due to the inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penstyrylpyrone (1) also reduced TNF-α and IL-1β production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an inhibitor of HO-1, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of penstyrylpyrone (1) on the pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were associated with the HO-1 expression. Therefore, these results suggest that penstyrylpyrone (1) suppresses PTP1B activity, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB pathway, through expression of anti-inflammatory HO-1. PMID:23612372

  12. Elevated nutrients change bacterial community composition and connectivity: high throughput sequencing of young marine biofilms.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Jasmin C; Neilan, Brett A; Brown, Mark V; Clark, Graeme F; Johnston, Emma L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are integral to many marine processes but their formation and function may be affected by anthropogenic inputs that alter environmental conditions, including fertilisers that increase nutrients. Density composition and connectivity of biofilms developed in situ (under ambient and elevated nutrients) were compared using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S gene. Elevated nutrients shifted community composition from bacteria involved in higher processes (eg Pseudoalteromonas spp. invertebrate recruitment) towards more nutrient-tolerant bacterial species (eg Terendinibacter sp.). This may enable the persistence of biofilm communities by increasing resistance to nutrient inputs. A core biofilm microbiome was identified (predominantly Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales) and revealed shifts in abundances of core microbes that could indicate enrichment by fertilisers. Fertiliser decreased density and connectivity within biofilms indicating that associations were disrupted perhaps via changes to energetic allocations within the core microbiome. Density composition and connectivity changes suggest nutrients can affect the stability and function of these important marine communities. PMID:26751559

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2016-01-01

    Dokdonia spp. have been used for investigating the lifestyles of proteorhodopsin-containing photoheterotrophs and for understanding marine photobiology. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1(T) using the PacBio sequencing platform. It should provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of marine life harboring microbial rhodopsins among others. PMID:27491981

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kitae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Dokdonia spp. have been used for investigating the lifestyles of proteorhodopsin-containing photoheterotrophs and for understanding marine photobiology. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T using the PacBio sequencing platform. It should provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of marine life harboring microbial rhodopsins among others. PMID:27491981

  15. Molecular structure of endotoxins from Gram-negative marine bacteria: an update.

    PubMed

    Leone, Serena; Silipo, Alba; L Nazarenko, Evgeny; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Molinaro, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marine bacteria are microrganisms that have adapted, through millions of years, to survival in environments often characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, namely pressure, temperature and salinity. The main interest in the research on marine bacteria is due to their ability to produce several biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), or their portions, from Gram-negative marine bacteria, have often shown low virulence, and represent potential candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock. Besides, the molecular architecture of such molecules is related to the possibility of thriving in marine habitats, shielding the cell from the disrupting action of natural stress factors. Over the last few years, the depiction of a variety of structures of lipids A, core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been given. In particular, here we will examine the most recently encountered structures for bacteria belonging to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas, of the gamma-Proteobacteria phylum, and to the genera Flavobacterium, Cellulophaga, Arenibacter and Chryseobacterium, of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention will be paid to the chemical features expressed by these structures (characteristic monosaccharides, non-glycidic appendages, phosphate groups), to the typifying traits of LPSs from marine bacteria and to the possible correlation existing between such features and the adaptation, over years, of bacteria to marine environments. PMID:18463721

  16. Molecular Structure of Endotoxins from Gram-negative Marine Bacteria: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Serena; Silipo, Alba; L.Nazarenko, Evgeny; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Molinaro, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Marine bacteria are microrganisms that have adapted, through millions of years, to survival in environments often characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, namely pressure, temperature and salinity. The main interest in the research on marine bacteria is due to their ability to produce several biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), or their portions, from Gram-negative marine bacteria, have often shown low virulence, and represent potential candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock. Besides, the molecular architecture of such molecules is related to the possibility of thriving in marine habitats, shielding the cell from the disrupting action of natural stress factors. Over the last few years, the depiction of a variety of structures of lipids A, core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been given. In particular, here we will examine the most recently encountered structures for bacteria belonging to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas, of the γ-Proteobacteria phylum, and to the genera Flavobacterium, Cellulophaga, Arenibacter and Chryseobacterium, of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention will be paid to the chemical features expressed by these structures (characteristic monosaccharides, non-glycidic appendages, phosphate groups), to the typifying traits of LPSs from marine bacteria and to the possible correlation existing between such features and the adaptation, over years, of bacteria to marine environments. PMID:18463721

  17. [Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusaĭkin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

  18. Phorbaketal A, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., Exerts Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects via NF-κB Inhibition and Heme Oxygenase-1 Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yun-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Rho, Jung-Rae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-11-01

    Marine sponges harbor a range of biologically active compounds. Phorbaketal A is a tricyclic sesterterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp.; however, little is known about its biological activities and associated molecular mechanisms. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of phorbaketal A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that phorbaketal A significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), but not prostaglandin E₂, in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, phorbaketal A suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, phorbaketal A reduced the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Treatment with phorbaketal A inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a crucial signaling molecule in inflammation. Moreover, phorbaketal A up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These data suggest that phorbaketal A, isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway and up-regulation of the HO-1 pathway. PMID:26610528

  19. Phorbaketal A, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Phorbas sp., Exerts Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects via NF-κB Inhibition and Heme Oxygenase-1 Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yun-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Rho, Jung-Rae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges harbor a range of biologically active compounds. Phorbaketal A is a tricyclic sesterterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp.; however, little is known about its biological activities and associated molecular mechanisms. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism of phorbaketal A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that phorbaketal A significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), but not prostaglandin E2, in RAW 264.7 cells. Further, phorbaketal A suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, phorbaketal A reduced the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Treatment with phorbaketal A inhibited the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), a crucial signaling molecule in inflammation. Moreover, phorbaketal A up-regulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These data suggest that phorbaketal A, isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway and up-regulation of the HO-1 pathway. PMID:26610528

  20. Phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial activities of bryozoan-associated bacteria isolated from Mediterranean and Baltic Sea habitats.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Thiel, Vera; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-03-01

    To date, only a small number of investigations covering microbe-bryozoa associations have been carried out. Most of them have focused on a few bryozoan species and none have covered the antibacterial activities of associated bacteria. In the current study, the proportion and phylogenetic classification of Bryozoan-associated bacteria with antimicrobial properties were investigated. Twenty-one specimens of 14 different bryozoan species were collected from several sites in the Baltic and the Mediterranean Sea. A total of 340 associated bacteria were isolated, and 101 displayed antibiotic activities. While antibiosis was predominantly directed against Gram-positive test strains, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed affiliation of the isolates to Gram-negative classes (Flavobacteria, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria). One isolate was related to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. The sequences were grouped into 27 phylotypes on the basis of similarity values >or=99.5%. A host-specific affiliation was not revealed as members of the same phylotype were derived from different bryozoan species. Site-specific patterns, however, were demonstrated. Strains of the genera Sphingomonas and Alteromonas were exclusively isolated from Mediterranean sites, whereas Shewanella, Marinomonas and Vibrio-related isolates were only from Baltic sites. Although Pseudoalteromonas affiliated strains were found in both habitats, they were separated into respective phylotypes. Isolates with 16S rDNA similarity values <98%, which could possibly represent new species, belonged to the genera Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas and Tenacibaculum. PMID:20153592

  1. Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  2. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  3. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  4. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  5. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  6. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2013-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

  7. Antimicrobial activities and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of Bacillus isolates from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Pabel, Christian T; Vater, Joachim; Wilde, Christopher; Franke, Peter; Hofemeister, Jürgen; Adler, Barbara; Bringmann, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg; Hentschel, Ute

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria that are resistant to the strong antimicrobial metabolites characteristic of Aplysina aerophoba. For this purpose, bacterial isolation was performed on agar plates to which sponge tissue extract had been added. Following screening for antifungal and antimicrobial activities, 5 strains were chosen for more detailed analyses. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, specifically B. subtilis and B. pumilus. Using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass spectrometry typing of whole cells and antimicrobial bioassays against selected reference strains, the bioactive metabolites were identified as lipopeptides. PMID:14730425

  8. Fermentation Technologies for the Optimization of Marine Microbial Exopolysaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Finore, Ilaria; Di Donato, Paola; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, research has focused on the capabilities of microbes to secrete exopolysaccharides (EPS), because these polymers differ from the commercial ones derived essentially from plants or algae in their numerous valuable qualities. These biopolymers have emerged as new polymeric materials with novel and unique physical characteristics that have found extensive applications. In marine microorganisms the produced EPS provide an instrument to survive in adverse conditions: They are found to envelope the cells by allowing the entrapment of nutrients or the adhesion to solid substrates. Even if the processes of synthesis and release of exopolysaccharides request high-energy investments for the bacterium, these biopolymers permit resistance under extreme environmental conditions. Marine bacteria like Bacillus, Halomonas, Planococcus, Enterobacter, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Vibrio, Rhodococcus, Zoogloea but also Archaea as Haloferax and Thermococcus are here described as EPS producers underlining biopolymer hyperproduction, related fermentation strategies including the effects of the chemical composition of the media, the physical parameters of the growth conditions and the genetic and predicted experimental design tools. PMID:24857960

  9. Identification of structural and morphogenesis genes of Pseudoalteromonas phage φRIO-1 and placement within the evolutionary history of Podoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Hardies, Stephen C.; Thomas, Julie A.; Black, Lindsay; Weintraub, Susan T.; Hwang, Chung Y.; Cho, Byung C.

    2016-01-01

    The virion proteins of Pseudoalteromonas phage φRIO-1 were identified and quantitated by mass spectrometry and gel densitometry. Bioinformatic methods customized to deal with extreme divergence defined a φRIO-1 tail structure homology group of phages, which was further related to T7 tail and internal virion proteins (IVPs). Similarly, homologs of tubular tail components and internal virion proteins were identified in essentially all completely sequenced podoviruses other than those in the subfamily Picovirinae. The podoviruses were subdivided into several tail structure homology groups, in addition to the RIO-1 and T7 groups. Molecular phylogeny indicated that these groups all arose about the same ancient time as the φRIO-1/T7 split. Hence, the T7-like infection mechanism involving the IVPs was an ancestral property of most podoviruses. The IVPs were found to variably host both tail lysozyme domains and domains destined for the cytoplasm, including the N4 virion RNA polymerase embedded within an IVP-D homolog. PMID:26748333

  10. Identification of structural and morphogenesis genes of Pseudoalteromonas phage φRIO-1 and placement within the evolutionary history of Podoviridae.

    PubMed

    Hardies, Stephen C; Thomas, Julie A; Black, Lindsay; Weintraub, Susan T; Hwang, Chung Y; Cho, Byung C

    2016-02-01

    The virion proteins of Pseudoalteromonas phage φRIO-1 were identified and quantitated by mass spectrometry and gel densitometry. Bioinformatic methods customized to deal with extreme divergence defined a φRIO-1 tail structure homology group of phages, which was further related to T7 tail and internal virion proteins (IVPs). Similarly, homologs of tubular tail components and internal virion proteins were identified in essentially all completely sequenced podoviruses other than those in the subfamily Picovirinae. The podoviruses were subdivided into several tail structure homology groups, in addition to the RIO-1 and T7 groups. Molecular phylogeny indicated that these groups all arose about the same ancient time as the φRIO-1/T7 split. Hence, the T7-like infection mechanism involving the IVPs was an ancestral property of most podoviruses. The IVPs were found to variably host both tail lysozyme domains and domains destined for the cytoplasm, including the N4 virion RNA polymerase embedded within an IVP-D homolog. PMID:26748333

  11. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  12. Enhanced recovery of Arcobacter spp. using NaCl in culture media and re-assessment of the traits of Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus isolated from marine water and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Salas-Massó, Nuria; Andree, Karl B; Furones, M Dolors; Figueras, M José

    2016-10-01

    The genus Arcobacter is a relatively poorly known group of bacteria, and the number of new species and sequences from non-culturable strains has increased considerably in recent years. This study investigates whether using media that contain NaCl might help to improve the recovery of Arcobacter spp. from marine environments. To this aim, 62 water and shellfish samples were analysed in parallel, with both a commonly used culture method (enrichment in Arcobacter-CAT broth followed by culture on Blood Agar) and a new one that supplements the Arcobacter-CAT enrichment broth with 2.5% NaCl (w/v) followed by culturing on Marine Agar. The new method yielded ca. 40% more positive samples and provided a higher diversity of known (11 vs. 7) and unknown (7 vs. 2) Arcobacter species. Among the 11 known species recovered, Arcobacter marinus and Arcobacter halophilus were isolated only by this new method. No more strains of these species have been isolated since their original descriptions, both of which were based only on a single strain. In view of that, the phenotypic characteristics of these species are re-evaluated in the present study, using the new strains. Strains of A. halophilus had the same phenotypic profile as the type strain. However, some strains of A. marinus differed from the type strain in that they did not hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate, becoming, therefore, the first Arcobacter species to show a varying ability to hydrolyse indoxyl-acetate. This study shows to what extent a simple variation to the culture media can have a big influence on positive samples and on the community of species recovered. PMID:27282494

  13. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Karczewska-Golec, Joanna; Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence ofFlavobacteriumsp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, a Baltic Sea Isolate Exhibiting a High Level of Resistance to Marine Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowska-Łyżen, Maja; Olszewski, Paweł; Bałut, Magdalena; Moskot, Marta; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Golec, Piotr; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. 316, isolated from brackish water of the Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea. The assembly contains 3,971,755 bp in 17 scaffolds. The sequence will facilitate postgenomic studies on bacterial stress responses in the challenging habitat of the Baltic Sea. PMID:27034490

  16. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Kaela B; Woo, Hannah L; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report. PMID:25953187

  17. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Kaela B.; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar; Klingeman, Dawn; Brown, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report. PMID:25953187

  18. Isolation of an algicide from a marine bacterium and its effects against the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and other harmful algal bloom species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Sook; Son, Hong-Joo; Jeong, Seong-Yun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria demonstrating an algicidal effect against Alexandrium catenella and to determine the activity and range of any algicide discovered. The morphological and biochemical attributes of an algicidal bacterium, isolate YS-3, and analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed it to be a member of the genus Brachybacterium. This organism, designated Brachybacterium sp. YS-3, showed the greatest effect against A. catenella cells of all bacteria isolated, and is assumed to produce secondary metabolites. When 10% solutions of culture filtrates from this strain were applied to A. catenella cultures, over 90% of cells were killed within 9 h. Bioassay-guided isolation of the algicide involved led to the purification and identification of an active compound. Based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data, including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass analyses, this compound was identified as 1-acetyl-β-carboline. This algicide showed significant activity against A. catenella and a wide range of harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming species. Taken together, our results suggest that Brachybacterium sp. YS-3 and its algicide represent promising candidates for use in HAB control. PMID:26224453

  19. Genome Sequence of Halomonas sp. Strain KO116, an Ionic Liquid- Tolerant Marine Bacterium Isolated from a Lignin-Enriched Seawater Microcosm

    DOE PAGESBeta

    O'Dell, Kaela; Woo, Hannah L.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-05-07

    Halomonas sp. strain KO116 was isolated from Nile Delta Mediterranean Sea surface water enriched with insoluble organosolv lignin. It was further screened for growth on alkali lignin minimal salts medium agar. The strain tolerates the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Its complete genome sequence is presented in this report.

  20. An assessment of natural product discovery from marine (sensu strictu) and marine-derived fungi

    PubMed Central

    Overy, David P.; Bayman, Paul; Kerr, Russell G.; Bills, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The natural products community has been investigating secondary metabolites from marine fungi for several decades, but when one attempts to search for validated reports of new natural products from marine fungi, one encounters a literature saturated with reports from ‘marine-derived’ fungi. Of the 1000+ metabolites that have been characterized to date, only approximately 80 of these have been isolated from species from exclusively marine lineages. These metabolites are summarized here along with the lifestyle and habitats of their producing organisms. Furthermore, we address some of the reasons for the apparent disconnect between the stated objectives of discovering new chemistry from marine organisms and the apparent neglect of the truly exceptional obligate marine fungi. We also offer suggestions on how to reinvigorate enthusiasm for marine natural products discovery from fungi from exclusive marine lineages and highlight the need for critically assessing the role of apparently terrestrial fungi in the marine environment. PMID:25379338

  1. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  2. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  3. A marine inducible prophage vB_CibM-P1 isolated from the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Yongle; , Richard Allen White, III; Wang, Yu; Luo, Tingwei; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2014-11-01

    A prophage vB_CibM-P1 was induced by mitomycin C from the epipelagic strain Citromicrobium bathyomarinum JL354, a member of the alpha-IV subcluster of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB). The induced bacteriophage vB_CibM-P1 had Myoviridae-like morphology and polyhedral heads (approximately capsid 60-100 nm) with tail fibers. The vB_CibM-P1 genome is ~38 kb in size, with 66.0% GC content. The genome contains 58 proposed open reading frames that are involved in integration, DNA packaging, morphogenesis and bacterial lysis. VB_CibM-P1 is a temperate phage that can be directly induced in hosts. In response to mitomycin C induction, virus-like particles can increase to 7 × 109 per ml, while host cells decrease an order of magnitude. The vB_CibM-P1 bacteriophage is the first inducible prophage from AAPB.

  4. Single-cell protein production from Jerusalem artichoke extract by a recently isolated marine yeast Cryptococcus aureus G7a and its nutritive analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lingmei; Chi, Zhenming; Sheng, Jun; Ni, Xiumei; Wang, Lin

    2007-12-01

    After crude protein of the marine yeast strains maintained in this laboratory was estimated by the method of Kjehldahl, we found that the G7a strain which was identified to be a strain of Cryptococcus aureus according to the routine identification and molecular methods contained high level of protein and could grow on a wide range of carbon sources. The optimal medium for single-cell protein production was seawater containing 6.0 g of wet weight of Jerusalem artichoke extract per 100 ml of medium and 4.0 g of the hydrolysate of soybean meal per 100 ml of medium, while the optimal conditions for single-cell protein production were pH 5.0 and 28.0 degrees C. After fermentation for 56 h, 10.1 g of cell dry weight per liter of medium and 53.0 g of crude protein per 100 g of cell dry weight (5.4 g/l of medium) were achieved, leaving 0.05 g of reducing sugar per 100 ml of medium and 0.072 g of total sugar per 100 ml of medium total sugar in the fermented medium. The yeast strain only contained 2.1 g of nucleic acid per 100 g of cell dry weight, but its cells contained a large amount of C(16:0) (19.0%), C(18:0) (46.3%), and C(18:1) (33.3%) fatty acids and had a large amount of essential amino acids, especially lysine (12.6%) and leucine (9.1%), and vitamin C (2.2 mg per 100 g of cell dry weight). These results show that the new marine yeast strain was suitable for single-cell protein production. PMID:17929010

  5. Characterization of Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae from Diseased Farmed and Wild Marine Fish from the U.S. Gulf Coast, Latin America, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Wang, Rui; Wiles, Judy; Baumgartner, Wes; Green, Christopher; Plumb, John; Hawke, John

    2015-06-01

    We examined Lancefield serogroup B Streptococcus isolates recovered from diseased, cultured hybrid Striped Bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis × White Bass M. chrysops) and wild and cultured Gulf Killifish Fundulus grandis from coastal waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Gulf coast) and compared those isolates to strains from tilapias Oreochromis spp. reared in Mississippi, Thailand, Ecuador, and Honduras and to the original Gulf coast strain identified by Plumb et al. ( 1974 ). The isolates were subjected to phylogenetic, biochemical, and antibiotic susceptibility analyses. Genetic analysis was performed using partial sequence comparison of (1) the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; (2) the sipA gene, which encodes a surface immunogenic protein; (3) the cspA gene, which encodes a cell surface-associated protein; and (4) the secY gene, which encodes components of a general protein secretion pathway. Phylogenies inferred from sipA, secY, and cspA gene sequence comparisons were more discriminating than that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison. The U.S. Gulf coast strains showed a high degree of similarity to strains from South America and Central America and belonged to a unique group that can be distinguished from other group B streptococci. In agreement with the molecular findings, biochemical and antimicrobial resistance analyses demonstrated that the isolates recovered from the U.S. Gulf coast and Latin America were more similar to each other than to isolates from Thailand. Three laboratory challenge methods for inducing streptococcosis in Gulf Killifish were evaluated-intraperitoneal (IP) injection, immersion (IMM), and immersion plus abrasion (IMMA)-using serial dilutions of S. agalactiae isolate LADL 97-151, a representative U.S. Gulf coast strain. The dose that was lethal to 50% of test fish by 14 d postchallenge was approximately 2 CFU/fish via IP injection. In contrast, the fish that were challenged via IMM or IMMA presented cumulative mortality

  6. Presence of SXT integrating conjugative element in marine bacteria isolated from the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata from Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Kumari, Prabla; Krishnan, Pandian; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Das, Subrata K

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we characterize 18 cultivable bacteria associated within the mucus of the coral Fungia echinata from Andaman Sea, India. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that all the 18 strains isolated in this study from the coral mucus belong to the group Gammaproteobacteria and majority of them were identified as Vibrio core group. Our objective was to investigate the presence of the SXT/R391 integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) targeting integrase int(SXT) and SXT Hotspot IV genetic elements in these isolates. SXT/ICE initially reported in Vibrio cholerae contains many antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes and acts as an effective tool for the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in other bacterial populations. Two of our strains, AN44 and AN60, were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin, in addition to other antibiotics such as neomycin, ampicillin, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Using PCR followed by sequencing, we detected the SXT/ICE in these strains. The SXT integrase genes of AN44 and AN60 had a 99% and 100% identity with V. cholerae serogroup O139 strain SG24. This study provides the first evidence of the presence of SXT/R391 ICEs in Marinomonas sp. strain AN44 (JCM 18476(T) ) and Vibrio fortis strain AN60 (DSM 26067(T) ) isolated from the mucus of the coral F. echinata. PMID:23083057

  7. Aureibacter tunicatorum gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a coral reef sea squirt, and description of Flammeovirgaceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Adachi, Kyoko; Park, Sanghwa; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2011-10-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, golden-yellow pigmented and rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains A5Q-118(T) and A5Q-27, were isolated from an unidentified sea squirt that thrives in the coral reefs off the coast of Okinawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolates were affiliated with the family 'Flammeovirgaceae' of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strains A5Q-118(T) and A5Q-27 shared 100 % sequence similarity with each other and showed <92 % similarity with other cultivated members of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. The novel isolates were phenotypically and physiologically different from strains described previously. The DNA G+C content was 35.5-36.2 mol%, MK-7 was the major menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 1)ω5c were the major fatty acids. Based on the results of this polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that strains A5Q-118(T) and A5Q-27 represent a novel species in a new genus of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae', for which the name Aureibacter tunicatorum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Proposal for designation of the Flammeovirgaceae fam. nov. is also presented. The type strain of Aureibacter tunicatorum is A5Q-118(T) ( = KCTC 23232(T)  = NBRC 107587(T)). PMID:21037036

  8. Anti-dormant mycobacterial activity and target molecule of melophlins, tetramic acid derivatives isolated from a marine sponge of Melophlus sp.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Yamano, Yoshi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Setiawan, Andi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is a major world health problem that is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people each year. In addition, the requirement for long-term therapy to cure TB complicates treatment of the disease. One of the major reasons for the extended chemotherapeutic regimens and wide epidemicity of TB is that M. tuberculosis has the ability to persist in a dormant state. We therefore established a new screening system to search for substances with activity against dormant mycobacteria using M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG cultivated in medium containing propionate as sole carbon source to induce dormancy. Subsequently, melophlins A (1), G (2), H (3), and I (4), tetramic acid derivatives, were re-discovered from the Indonesian marine sponge of Melophlus sp. as anti-dormant mycobacterial substances. Moreover, target analysis of melophlin A indicated that it targeted the BCG1083 protein of putative exopolyphosphatase and the BCG1321c protein of diadenosine 5',5‴-P(1),P(4)-tetraphosphate phosphorylase. PMID:27193014

  9. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  10. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  11. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

    PubMed Central

    Schäberle, Till F.; Goralski, Emilie; Neu, Edith; Erol, Özlem; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter; Bierbaum, Gabriele; König, Gabriele M.

    2010-01-01

    Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005) and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006) sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). PMID:20948900

  12. Dereplication Strategies for Targeted Isolation of New Antitrypanosomal Actinosporins A and B from a Marine Sponge Associated-Actinokineospora sp. EG49

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Cheng, Cheng; Viegelmann, Christina; Zhang, Tong; Grkovic, Tanja; Ahmed, Safwat; Quinn, Ronald J.; Hentschel, Ute; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HRFTMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed as complementary metabolomic tools to dereplicate the chemical profile of the new and antitrypanosomally active sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. EG49 extract. Principal Component (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were used to evaluate the HRFTMS and NMR data of crude extracts from four different fermentation approaches. Statistical analysis identified the best culture one-strain-many-compounds (OSMAC) condition and extraction procedure, which was used for the isolation of novel bioactive metabolites. As a result, two new O-glycosylated angucyclines, named actinosporins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the broth culture of Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49, which was cultivated from the Red Sea sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. The structures of actinosporins A and B were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Testing for antiparasitic properties showed that actinosporin A exhibited activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei with an IC50 value of 15 µM; however no activity was detected against Leishmania major and Plasmodium falciparum, therefore suggesting its selectivity against the parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei; the causative agent of sleeping sickness. PMID:24663112

  13. A Distinctive Structural Twist in the Aminoimidazole Alkaloids from a Calcareous Marine Sponge: Isolation and Characterization of Leucosolenamines A and B

    PubMed Central

    Ralifo, Paul; Tenney, Karen; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Crews, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Papua New Guinea collections of Leucosolenia sp. resulted in the isolation of the novel compounds leucosolenamines A (5) and B (6) and the known compound thymidine (7). Compound 5 contains a 2-aminoimidazole core substituted at C-4 and C-5 by an N,N-dimethyl-5,6-diaminopyrimidine-2,4-dione and a benzyl group, respectively. Compound 6 retains the same core structure; however C-4 is substituted by a 5,6-diamino-1,3-dimethyl-4-(methylimino)-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one moiety. This substitution pattern is unique and has never been observed in calcareous imidazole alkaloid chemistry. Leucosolenamine A (5) was mildly cytotoxic against the murine colon adenocarcinoma C-38 cell line. PMID:17253846

  14. Isolation and Identification of a New Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacterial Species, Raoultella terrigena, from Hong Kong Marine Puffer Fish Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vincent Chung-Him; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Ho, Kin-Chung; Lee, Fred Wang-Fat

    2011-01-01

    Puffer fish, Takifugu niphobles, collected from the Hong Kong coastal waters were screened for tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria. A Gram-negative, non-acid-fast, non-sporing and rod shaped bacterial strain (designated as gutB01) was isolated from the intestine of the puffer fish and was shown to produce tetrodotoxin (TTX). Based on the Microbial Identification (MIDI) and 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified as Raoultella terrigena. The TTX production ability of the strain was confirmed by mouse bioassay, ELISA and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Our results reiterate that the TTX found in puffer fish was likely produced by the associated bacteria and TTX are widely produced amongst a diversity of bacterial species. PMID:22163191

  15. Mameliella atlantica sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the Roseobacter clade isolated from deep-sea sediment of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxiu; Jiang, Lijing; Li, Shaoneng; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze

    2015-07-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain L6M1-5(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment collected from the South Atlantic Ocean. The isolate was Gram-reaction-negative, oxidase-negative and catalase-weakly positive. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-15% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3-5%), at 10-41 °C (optimum 28-30 °C), and pH 5.0-10.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The principal fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) (84.2%), C18 : 0 (6.3%), C12 : 1 3-OH (3.2%) and C16 : 0 (2.7%). The polar lipid profile comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids, two unknown phospholipids and one unknown lipid. Ubiquinone-10 was the major quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.0 mol %. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain L6M1-5(T) belonged to the genus Mameliella and shared 95.8% sequence similarity with Mameliella alba JLT354-W(T). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain L6M1-5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mameliella, for which the name Mameliella. atlantica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L6M1-5(T) ( = MCCC 1A07531(T) = JCM 30230(T)). PMID:25866025

  16. Autochthonous Bacterial Isolates Successfully Stimulate In vitro Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Bušelić, Ivana; Hrabar, Jerko; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Jozić, Slaven; Trumbić, Željka

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available probiotics are routinely administered as feed supplements in aquaculture important species. Among them, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is the most widely reared fish in the Mediterranean, whose rearing systems are highly variable between countries, affecting at some level the sustainability of production. After random isolation of autochthonous gut bacteria of the sea bass, their identification and pathogenicity testing, we have selected three potentially probiotic isolates; Pseudoalteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp., and Enterovibrio coralii. Selected isolates were tested and their immunostimulative efficiency was compared with a commercially available Lactobacillus casei isolate, inferring inflammatory, apoptotic and anti-pathogen response of sea bass' peripheral blood leukocytes. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and expression of lysozyme, Mx protein, caspase 3, TNF-α, IL-10 genes was measured 1, 3, 5, and 12 h post-stimulation by four bacterial isolates to evaluate early kinetics of the responses. Best immunostimulative properties were observed in Pseudoalteromonas-stimulated leukocytes, followed by Alteromonas sp. and L. casei, while Enterovibrio coralii failed to induce significant stimulation. Based on such in vitro assay intestinal autochthonous bacterial isolates showed to have better immunostimulative effect in sea bass compared to aquaculture-widely used L. casei, and further steps need to engage tank and field feeding trials to evaluate long-term prophylactic suitability of the chosen isolates. A panel of biomarkers that represent pro-/anti-inflammatory, pro-/anti-apoptotic, and anti-bacteria/viral responses of the fish should be taken into consideration when evaluating the usefulness of the potential probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:27551281

  17. Autochthonous Bacterial Isolates Successfully Stimulate In vitro Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Mladineo, Ivona; Bušelić, Ivana; Hrabar, Jerko; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Jozić, Slaven; Trumbić, Željka

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available probiotics are routinely administered as feed supplements in aquaculture important species. Among them, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is the most widely reared fish in the Mediterranean, whose rearing systems are highly variable between countries, affecting at some level the sustainability of production. After random isolation of autochthonous gut bacteria of the sea bass, their identification and pathogenicity testing, we have selected three potentially probiotic isolates; Pseudoalteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp., and Enterovibrio coralii. Selected isolates were tested and their immunostimulative efficiency was compared with a commercially available Lactobacillus casei isolate, inferring inflammatory, apoptotic and anti-pathogen response of sea bass’ peripheral blood leukocytes. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and expression of lysozyme, Mx protein, caspase 3, TNF-α, IL-10 genes was measured 1, 3, 5, and 12 h post-stimulation by four bacterial isolates to evaluate early kinetics of the responses. Best immunostimulative properties were observed in Pseudoalteromonas-stimulated leukocytes, followed by Alteromonas sp. and L. casei, while Enterovibrio coralii failed to induce significant stimulation. Based on such in vitro assay intestinal autochthonous bacterial isolates showed to have better immunostimulative effect in sea bass compared to aquaculture-widely used L. casei, and further steps need to engage tank and field feeding trials to evaluate long-term prophylactic suitability of the chosen isolates. A panel of biomarkers that represent pro-/anti-inflammatory, pro-/anti-apoptotic, and anti-bacteria/viral responses of the fish should be taken into consideration when evaluating the usefulness of the potential probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:27551281

  18. Anticancer agent-based marine natural products and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Wei; Wu, Qi-Hao; Rowley, David C; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products constitute a huge reservoir of anticancer agents. Consequently during the past decades, several marine anticancer compounds have been isolated, identified, and approved for anticancer treatment or are under trials. In this article the sources, structure, bioactivities, mode of actions, and analogs of some promising marine and derived anticancer compounds have been discussed. PMID:25559315

  19. The Structural Diversity of Carbohydrate Antigens of Selected Gram-Negative Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, Evgeny L.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens) found in cell walls of Gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria. PMID:22073003

  20. The structural diversity of carbohydrate antigens of selected gram-negative marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, Evgeny L; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2011-01-01

    Marine microorganisms have evolved for millions of years to survive in the environments characterized by one or more extreme physical or chemical parameters, e.g., high pressure, low temperature or high salinity. Marine bacteria have the ability to produce a range of biologically active molecules, such as antibiotics, toxins and antitoxins, antitumor and antimicrobial agents, and as a result, they have been a topic of research interest for many years. Among these biologically active molecules, the carbohydrate antigens, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, O-antigens) found in cell walls of gram-negative marine bacteria, show great potential as candidates in the development of drugs to prevent septic shock due to their low virulence. The structural diversity of LPSs is thought to be a reflection of the ability for these bacteria to adapt to an array of habitats, protecting the cell from being compromised by exposure to harsh environmental stress factors. Over the last few years, the variety of structures of core oligosaccharides and O-specific polysaccharides from LPSs of marine microrganisms has been discovered. In this review, we discuss the most recently encountered structures that have been identified from bacteria belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Alteromonas, Idiomarina, Microbulbifer, Pseudoalteromonas, Plesiomonas and Shewanella of the Gammaproteobacteria phylum; Sulfitobacter and Loktanella of the Alphaproteobactera phylum and to the genera Arenibacter, Cellulophaga, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Flexibacter of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum. Particular attention is paid to the particular chemical features of the LPSs, such as the monosaccharide type, non-sugar substituents and phosphate groups, together with some of the typifying traits of LPSs obtained from marine bacteria. A possible correlation is then made between such features and the environmental adaptations undertaken by marine bacteria. PMID:22073003

  1. The marine isolate Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y shows specific adaptation to use the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source.

    PubMed

    Notomista, Eugenio; Pennacchio, Francesca; Cafaro, Valeria; Smaldone, Giovanni; Izzo, Viviana; Troncone, Luca; Varcamonti, Mario; Di Donato, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y, isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from a closed bay in the harbour of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy), uses fuels as its sole carbon and energy source. Like some other Sphingomonads, this strain can grow as either planktonic free cells or sessile-aggregated flocks. In addition, this strain was found to grow as biofilm on several types of solid and liquid hydrophobic surfaces including polystyrene, polypropylene and diesel oil. Strain PP1Y is not able to grow on pure alkanes or alkane mixtures but is able to grow on a surprisingly wide range of aromatic compounds including mono, bi, tri and tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. During growth on diesel oil, the organic layer is emulsified resulting in the formation of small biofilm-coated drops, whereas during growth on aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in paraffin the oil layer is emulsified but the drops are coated only if the mixtures contain selected aromatic compounds, like pyrene, propylbenzene, tetrahydronaphthalene and heterocyclic compounds. These peculiar characteristics suggest strain PP1Y has adapted to efficiently grow at the water/fuel interface using the aromatic fraction of fuels as the sole carbon and energy source. PMID:21258788

  2. Isolation of Two Novel Marine Ethylene-Assimilating Bacteria, Haliea Species ETY-M and ETY-NAG, Containing Particulate Methane Monooxygenase-like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Takamichi; Fuse, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Two novel ethylene-assimilating bacteria, strains ETY-M and ETY-NAG, were isolated from seawater around Japan. The characteristics of both strains were investigated, and phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they belonged to the genus Haliea. In C1–4 gaseous hydrocarbons, both strains grew only on ethylene, but degraded ethane, propylene, and propane in addition to ethylene. Methane, n-butane, and i-butane were not utilized or degraded by either strain. Soluble methane monooxygenase-type genes, which are ubiquitous in alkene-assimilating bacteria for initial oxidation of alkenes, were not detected in these strains, although genes similar to particulate methane monooxygenases (pMMO)/ammonia monooxygenases (AMO) were observed. The phylogenetic tree of the deduced amino acid sequences formed a new clade near the monooxygenases of ethane-assimilating bacteria similar to other clades of pMMOs in type I, type II, and Verrucomicrobia methanotrophs and AMOs in alpha and beta proteobacteria. PMID:22307463

  3. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions. PMID:25763657

  4. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  5. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Nikzad, Sonia; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  6. Strain Variation in Mycobacterium marinum Fish Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ucko, M.; Colorni, A.; Kvitt, H.; Diamant, A.; Zlotkin, A.; Knibb, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined. PMID:12406715

  7. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  8. [Secondary Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms. I. Secondary Metabolites from Marine Actinomycetes].

    PubMed

    Orlova, T I; Bulgakova, V G; Polin, A N

    2015-01-01

    Review represents data on new active metabolites isolated from marine actinomycetes published in 2007 to 2014. Marine actinomycetes are an unlimited source of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. Among them there are antibiotics, anticancer compounds, inhibitors of biochemical processes. PMID:26863742

  9. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  10. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  11. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  12. Assay for Lipolytic and Proteolytic Activity Using Marine Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Raymond A.; Crisan, Eli V.

    1975-01-01

    Nondestructive assay procedures for determining microbial lipolytic and proteolytic activity on marine substrates were developed and tested with 287 isolates of bacteria, filamentous fungi, and yeasts. A definite substrate specificity was noted when the enzymatic activities on marine and nonmarine substrates was compared. Of 170 lipolytic isolates, 14 were only active on menhaden oil, 11 could hydrolyze menhaden oil and Tween 80 and/or tributyrin, and 145 isolates could only hydrolyze one or both of the nonmarine lipids. Of the 198 proteolytic isolates, 10 were specific for codfish extract, 152 were active against the marine substrate plus casein and/or gelatin, and 36 were specific for nonmarine substrates. PMID:1167775

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of [1-13C]Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and [1-13C]Acrylate Metabolism by a DMSP Lyase-Producing Marine Isolate of the α-Subclass of Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ansede, John H.; Pellechia, Perry J.; Yoch, Duane C.

    2001-01-01

    The prominence of the α-subclass of Proteobacteria in the marine bacterioplankton community and their role in dimethylsulfide (DMS) production has prompted a detailed examination of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) metabolism in a representative isolate of this phylotype, strain LFR. [1-13C]DMSP was synthesized, and its metabolism and that of its cleavage product, [1-13C]acrylate, were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. [1-13C]DMSP additions resulted in the intracellular accumulation and then disappearance of both [1-13C]DMSP and [1-13C]β-hydroxypropionate ([1-13C]β-HP), a degradation product. Acrylate, the immediate product of DMSP cleavage, apparently did not accumulate to high enough levels to be detected, suggesting that it was rapidly β-hydroxylated upon formation. When [1-13C]acrylate was added to cell suspensions of strain LFR it was metabolized to [1-13C]β-HP extracellularly, where it first accumulated and was then taken up in the cytosol where it subsequently disappeared, indicating that it was directly decarboxylated. These results were interpreted to mean that DMSP was taken up and metabolized by an intracellular DMSP lyase and acrylase, while added acrylate was β-hydroxylated on (or near) the cell surface to β-HP, which accumulated briefly and was then taken up by cells. Growth on acrylate (versus that on glucose) stimulated the rate of acrylate metabolism eightfold, indicating that it acted as an inducer of acrylase activity. DMSP, acrylate, and β-HP all induced DMSP lyase activity. A putative model is presented that best fits the experimental data regarding the pathway of DMSP and acrylate metabolism in the α-proteobacterium, strain LFR. PMID:11425733

  14. Pseudomaricurvus alcaniphilus sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediment and emended descriptions of the genus Pseudomaricurvus, Pseudomaricurvus alkylphenolicus Iwaki et al. 2014 and Maricurvus nonylphenolicus Iwaki et al. 2012.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Seok; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung

    2015-10-01

    A novel Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic and motile strain, designated MEBiC06469T, was isolated from tidal flat sediment of the Taean province, South Korea. Strain MEBiC06469T produced ivory-coloured colonies on marine agar 2216 medium and could degrade carboxymethyl-cellulose. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the closest relative was Pseudomaricurvus alkylphenolicus KU41GT with 96.5 % similarity. The isolate was catalase-positive but oxidase-negative. Growth was observed at 16-38 °C (optimum, 32 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0.0-8.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.5 %). The only isoprenoid quinone was Q-8.The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprised of C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c; 20.4 %) and C17 : 1ω8c (30.9 %), summed feature 8 (comprised of C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 9.5 %), C16 : 0 (9.0 %), C15 : 1ω8c (5.3 %), and C11 : 0 3-OH (5.2 %). Based on these phenotypic properties and phylogenetic data, strain MEBiC06469T should be classified as a novel species within the genus Pseudomaricurvus for which the name Pseudomaricurvus alcaniphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MEBiC06469T ( = KCCM 42976T = JCM 18313T). Emended descriptions of the genus Pseudomaricurvus, Pseudomaricurvus alkylphenolicusIwaki et al. 2014, and Maricurvus nonylphenolicusIwaki et al. 2012 are also provided. PMID:26297504

  15. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  16. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Desriac, Florie; Jégou, Camille; Balnois, Eric; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs), synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs), obtained through the linkage of (unusual) amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs. PMID:24084784

  18. Population genetic structure of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis (Atherinidae, Atheriniformes, Teleostei), inhabiting marine lakes and adjacent lagoons in Palau: marine lakes are "Islands" for marine species.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Chiba, Satoru N; Goto, Tadasuke V; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Although evidence for the evolution of terrestrial species on islands continues to rapidly accumulate, little is known about the evolution of marine species in geographically isolated environments such as islands as ocean currents often facilitate gene flow among populations. In this study, we focused on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, which are considered to be true analogues of terrestrial islands for marine species. To examine evolutionary processes in marine lakes, we conducted population genetic analyses on marine lake and lagoon populations of the striped silverside, Atherinomorus endrachtensis, using two mitochondrial DNA markers differing in evolutionary rate, the cytochrome b gene and the control region. The analyses revealed that the amount of genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations and high levels of genetic differentiation occur among marine lake and lagoon populations. The present study has shown that marine lake populations have been completely isolated and have differentiated from lagoon populations, and each marine lake population is experiencing different evolutionary processes. These findings clearly demonstrate that marine lakes are excellent environments for the evolutionary study of marine species. PMID:22362031

  19. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  20. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  1. Polycyclic Guanidine Alkaloids from Poecilosclerida Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sfecci, Estelle; Lacour, Thierry; Amade, Philippe; Mehiri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Sessile marine sponges provide an abundance of unique and diversified scaffolds. In particular, marine guanidine alkaloids display a very wide range of biological applications. A large number of cyclic guanidine alkaloids, including crambines, crambescins, crambescidins, batzelladines or netamins have been isolated from Poecilosclerida marine sponges. In this review, we will explore the chemodiversity of tri- and pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids. NMR and MS data tools will also be provided, and an overview of the wide range of bioactivities of crambescidins and batzelladines derivatives will be given. PMID:27070629

  2. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  3. Are isolated wetlands isolated?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Haukos, David A.

    2011-01-01

    While federal regulations during the past 10 years have treated isolated wetlands as unconnected to aquatic resources protected by the Clean Water Act, they provide critical ecosystem services to society that extend well beyond their wetland boundaries. The authors offer well-documented examples from the scientific literature on some of the ecosystem services provided by isolated wetlands to society and other ecosystems.

  4. Calafianin, a bromotyrosine derivative from the marine sponge Aplysina gerardogreeni.

    PubMed

    Encarnación, R D; Sandoval, E; Malmstrøm, J; Christophersen, C

    2000-06-01

    Calafianin (1) and two known compounds, aerothionin and (3, 5-dibromo-2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetic acid, were isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina gerardogreeni. The structure of 1 was determined by NMR analysis and mass spectrometry. PMID:10869226

  5. Occurrence and diversity of Candida genus in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenming; Yue, Lixi; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Dechao

    2008-11-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, guts of marine fishes and marine algae were obtained. The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeasts belonged to Candida genus as Candida intermedia for YA01a, Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2, Candida quercitrusa for JHSb, Candia rugosa for wl8, Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a, and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3. Isolates YA01a ( Candida intermedia), wl8 ( Candida rugosa), 3eA2 ( Candida parapsilosis), and JHSb ( Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase, while isolate W14-3 ( Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin. These marine yeast Candida spp. seem to have wide potential applications in biotechnology.

  6. Characteristics of cyclic AMP transport by marine bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, J.W.; Azam, F.

    1987-12-01

    Uptake and autoradiography experiments with natural populations of marine bacteria, sea water cultures, and cultured isolates showed that the high-affinity cyclic AMP transport system in marine bacteria has stringent structural requirements, is found in a minority of cells in mixed bacterial assemblages, and appears to be related to the culture growth state.

  7. Marine metagenomics: strategies for the discovery of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications from marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan DW

    2008-01-01

    Metagenomic based strategies have previously been successfully employed as powerful tools to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities from the unculturable component of microbial communities from various terrestrial environmental niches. Both sequence based and function based screening approaches have been employed to identify genes encoding novel biocatalytic activities and metabolic pathways from metagenomic libraries. While much of the focus to date has centred on terrestrial based microbial ecosystems, it is clear that the marine environment has enormous microbial biodiversity that remains largely unstudied. Marine microbes are both extremely abundant and diverse; the environments they occupy likewise consist of very diverse niches. As culture-dependent methods have thus far resulted in the isolation of only a tiny percentage of the marine microbiota the application of metagenomic strategies holds great potential to study and exploit the enormous microbial biodiversity which is present within these marine environments. PMID:18717988

  8. The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for

  9. Marine Natural Meroterpenes: Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Levert, Annabel; Menniti, Christophe; Soulère, Laurent; Genevière, Anne-Marie; Barthomeuf, Chantal; Banaigs, Bernard; Witczak, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meroterpenes are compounds of mixed biogenesis, isolated from plants, microorganisms and marine invertebrates. We have previously isolated and determined the structure for a series of meroterpenes extracted from the ascidian Aplidium aff. densum. Here, we demonstrate the chemical synthesis of three of them and their derivatives, and evaluate their biological activity on two bacterial strains, on sea urchin eggs, and on cancerous and healthy human cells. PMID:20390109

  10. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  11. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of marine caliciviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than forty different marine caliciviruses (family Caliciviridae, genus Vesivirus) have been identified from marine and terrestrial host since their initial isolation in 1972. Marine vesiviruses have previously infected swine along the Western coast of the United States and produce a disease cl...

  12. The origins of tropical marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W; Rocha, Luiz A; Toonen, Robert J; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-06-01

    Recent phylogeographic studies have overturned three paradigms for the origins of marine biodiversity. (i) Physical (allopatric) isolation is not the sole avenue for marine speciation: many species diverge along ecological boundaries. (ii) Peripheral habitats such as oceanic archipelagos are not evolutionary graveyards: these regions can export biodiversity. (iii) Speciation in marine and terrestrial ecosystems follow similar processes but are not the same: opportunities for allopatric isolation are fewer in the oceans, leaving greater opportunity for speciation along ecological boundaries. Biodiversity hotspots such as the Caribbean Sea and the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle produce and export species, but can also accumulate biodiversity produced in peripheral habitats. Both hotspots and peripheral ecosystems benefit from this exchange in a process dubbed biodiversity feedback. PMID:23453048

  13. Dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylsulfone in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, George R.; Lang, Russell F.

    1986-01-01

    New isolation and detection methods were developed to measure dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) in marine rain and marine air masses. Central equatorial Pacific rain contained 1 to 10 µg/ℓ of each of these compounds. Uncontaminated air sampled off Miami contained 2 to 6 ng/m³ of each component. These concentrations suggest that DMSO and DMSO2 may be as significant as dimethylsulfide (DMS) in marine sulfur transport. In fact, DMSO was observed to undergo disproportionation in illuminated seawater or distilled water to DMS and DMSO2. This latter observation implies a partially reversible loop in the sulfur transport cycle and complicates the calculation of the flux of sulfur into the marine boundary layer.

  14. The psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas halosplanktis TAC125 possesses a gene coding for a cold-adapted feruloyl esterase activity that shares homology with esterase enzymes from gamma-proteobacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Saviano, Michele; Rossi, Mose'; D'Auria, Sabato

    2007-08-01

    The complete genome of the psychrophilic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125, recently published, owns a gene coding for a putative esterase activity corresponding to the ORF PSHAa1385, also classified in the Carbohydrate Active Enzymes database (CAZY) belonging to family 1 of carbohydrate esterase proteins. This ORF is 843 bp in length and codes for a protein of 280 amino acid residues. In this study we characterized and cloned the PSHAa1385 gene in Escherichia coli. We also characterized the recombinant protein by biochemical and biophysical methodologies. The PSHAa1385 gene sequence showed a significant homology with several carboxyl-esterase and acetyl-esterase genes from gamma-proteobacteria genera and yeast. The recombinant protein exhibited a significant activity towards pNP-acetate, alpha-and beta-naphthyl acetate as generic substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl p-trimethylammonio cinnamate chloride (MUTMAC) as a specific substrate, indicating that the protein exhibits a feruloyl esterase activity that it is displayed by similar enzymes present in other organisms. Finally, a three-dimensional model of the protein was built and the amino acid residues involved in the catalytic function of the protein were identified. PMID:17543477

  15. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  16. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa.

    PubMed

    Galkiewicz, Julia P; Pratte, Zoe A; Gray, Michael A; Kellogg, Christina A

    2011-08-01

    Microorganisms associated with corals are hypothesized to contribute to the function of the host animal by cycling nutrients, breaking down carbon sources, fixing nitrogen, and producing antibiotics. This is the first study to culture and characterize bacteria from Lophelia pertusa, a cold-water coral found in the deep sea, in an effort to understand the roles that the microorganisms play in the coral microbial community. Two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico were sampled over 2 years. Bacteria were cultured from coral tissue, skeleton, and mucus, identified by 16S rRNA genes, and subjected to biochemical testing. Most isolates were members of the Gammaproteobacteria, although there was one isolate each from the Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Phylogenetic results showed that both sampling sites shared closely related isolates (e.g. Pseudoalteromonas spp.), indicating possible temporally and geographically stable bacterial-coral associations. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test was used to separate bacteria to the strain level, with the results showing that isolates that were phylogenetically tightly grouped had varying responses to antibiotics. These results support the conclusion that phylogenetic placement cannot predict strain-level differences and further highlight the need for culture-based experiments to supplement culture-independent studies. PMID:21507025

  17. Influence of salinity and temperature on the activity of biosurfactants by polychaete-associated isolates.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Carmen; Michaud, Luigi; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; De Domenico, Emilio; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2014-02-01

    Influence of different parameters on biosurfactant (BS) activity was carried out on strains that were isolated from the polychaetes Megalomma claparedei, Sabella spallanzanii and Branchiomma luctuosum and additional 30 strains that were previously identified as potential BS producers from crude oil enrichments of the same polychaete specimens. The selection of BS-producing strains from polychaete natural samples was carried out by using standard screening tests. The BS activity by each isolate was evaluated for the effect of salinity and temperature on emulsion production and surface tension reduction, during incubation in mineral medium supplemented with tetradecane or diesel oil. All isolates showed a similar time course of BS activity, and the latter was more influenced by salinity rather than temperature. Some of the BS producers belonged to genera that have not (i.e. Citricoccus, Cellulophaga, Tenacibaculum and Maribacter) or have poorly been (Psychrobacter, Vibrio, and Pseudoalteromonas) reported as able to produce BSs. This is remarkable as some of them have previously been detected in hydrocarbon-enriched samples. Results confirm that filter-feeding polychaetes are an efficient source for the isolation of BS producers. PMID:24170506

  18. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galkiewicz, Julia P.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Gray, Michael A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with corals are hypothesized to contribute to the function of the host animal by cycling nutrients, breaking down carbon sources, fixing nitrogen, and producing antibiotics. This is the first study to culture and characterize bacteria from Lophelia pertusa, a cold-water coral found in the deep sea, in an effort to understand the roles that the microorganisms play in the coral microbial community. Two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico were sampled over 2 years. Bacteria were cultured from coral tissue, skeleton, and mucus, identified by 16S rRNA genes, and subjected to biochemical testing. Most isolates were members of the Gammaproteobacteria, although there was one isolate each from the Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Phylogenetic results showed that both sampling sites shared closely related isolates (e.g. Pseudoalteromonas spp.), indicating possible temporally and geographically stable bacterial-coral associations. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test was used to separate bacteria to the strain level, with the results showing that isolates that were phylogenetically tightly grouped had varying responses to antibiotics. These results support the conclusion that phylogenetic placement cannot predict strain-level differences and further highlight the need for culture-based experiments to supplement culture-independent studies.

  19. Petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Harayama, S; Kishira, H; Kasai, Y; Shutsubo, K

    1999-08-01

    Petroleum-based products are the major source of energy for industry and daily life. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products such as plastics, paints, and cosmetics. The transport of petroleum across the world is frequent, and the amounts of petroleum stocks in developed countries are enormous. Consequently, the potential for oil spills is significant, and research on the fate of petroleum in a marine environment is important to evaluate the environmental threat of oil spills, and to develop biotechnology to cope with them. Crude oil is constituted from thousands of components which are separated into saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. Upon discharge into the sea, crude oil is subjected to weathering, the process caused by the combined effects of physical, chemical and biological modification. Saturates, especially those of smaller molecular weight, are readily biodegraded in marine environments. Aromatics with one, two or three aromatic rings are also efficiently biodegraded; however, those with four or more aromatic ring are quite resistant to biodegradation. The asphaltene and resin fractions contain higher molecular weight compounds whose chemical structures have not yet been resolved. The biodegradability of these compounds is not yet known. It is known that the concentrations of available nitrogen and phosphorus in seawater limit the growth and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in a marine environment. In other words, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to an oil-contaminated marine environment can stimulate the biodegradation of spilled oil. This notion was confirmed in the large-scale operation for bioremediation after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaska. Many microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum components have been isolated. However, few of them seem to be important for petroleum biodegradation in natural environments. One group of bacteria belonging to the genus

  20. Advances in Marine Microbial Symbionts in the China Sea and Related Pharmaceutical Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    Marine animals and plants such as sponges, sea squirts, corals, worms and algae host diverse and abundant symbiotic microorganisms. Marine microbial symbionts are possible the true producers or take part in the biosynthesis of some bioactive marine natural products isolated from the marine organism hosts. Investigation of the pharmaceutical metabolites may reveal the biosynthesis mechanisms of related natural products and solve the current problem of supply limitation in marine drug development. This paper reviews the advances in diversity revelation, biological activity and related pharmaceutical metabolites, and functional genes of marine microbial symbionts from the China Sea. PMID:19597576