Science.gov

Sample records for marine mammal fauna

  1. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  2. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  3. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  4. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  5. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  6. Earliest known Australian Tertiary mammal fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godthelp, Henk; Archer, Michael; Cifelli, Richard; Hand, Suzanne J.; Gilkeson, Coral F.

    1992-04-01

    REMAINS of Early Eocene vertebrates from freshwater clays near Murgon, southeastern Queensland, represent Australia's oldest marsupials, bats, non-volant placentals, frogs, madtsoiid snakes, trionychid turtles1and birds. Radiometric dating of illites forming part of the matrix of the mammal-bearing zone has given a minimum age estimate of 54.6 +/- 0.05 x 106 years, which is roughly twice as old as any marsupials previously known from Australia2 and well before the 38 million year (Myr) separation of Australia from Antarctica/South America3. All marsupials so far known from the Tingamarra Local Fauna are more derived (being dilambdodont) than peradectids. None of them is clearly a member of a previously known Australian family, but some could be uniquely plesiomorphic dasyuroids or perameloids. Another is autapomorphically specialized and indicative of at least partial isolation of the Australian portion of Gondwana. Here we report on the discovery of a tooth of the earliest non-volant placental known from Australia, Tingamarra porterorum gen.et sp. nov., which seems to be a condylarth-like placental mammal. The presence of non-volant placentals in the Early Tertiary of Australia challenges a common presumption that marsupials dominated Australia's therian assemblages because of failure of such placentals to reach Australia before the Late Tertiary.

  7. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  8. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Westgate, J.W. )

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Canderlaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan, The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone 16 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  9. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  10. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  11. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  12. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  13. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  14. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  15. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  16. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  17. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  18. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  19. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  20. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  1. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  2. 50 CFR 18.25 - Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.25 Exempted marine mammals or marine mammal products. (a) The provisions of the Act and these regulations shall not apply:...

  3. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... occur in the seismic survey area include nine cetacean species, beluga whale (Delphinapterus...

  4. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  5. Marine mammal neoplasia: a review.

    PubMed

    Newman, S J; Smith, S A

    2006-11-01

    A review of the published literature indicates that marine mammal neoplasia includes the types and distributions of tumors seen in domestic species. A routine collection of samples from marine mammal species is hampered, and, hence, the literature is principally composed of reports from early whaling expeditions, captive zoo mammals, and epizootics that affect larger numbers of animals from a specific geographic location. The latter instances are most important, because many of these long-lived, free-ranging marine mammals may act as environmental sentinels for the health of the oceans. Examination of large numbers of mortalities reveals incidental proliferative and neoplastic conditions and, less commonly, identifies specific malignant cancers that can alter population dynamics. The best example of these is the presumptive herpesvirus-associated metastatic genital carcinomas found in California sea lions. Studies of tissues from St. Lawrence estuary beluga whales have demonstrated a high incidence of neoplasia and produced evidence that environmental contamination with high levels of polychlorinated biphenols and dichlorophenyl trichloroethane might be the cause. In addition, viruses are suspected to be the cause of gastric papillomas in belugas and cutaneous papillomas in Florida manatees and harbor porpoises. While experimental laboratory procedures can further elucidate mechanisms of neoplasia, continued pathologic examination of marine mammals will also be necessary to follow trends in wild populations. PMID:17099143

  6. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    PubMed Central

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia’s marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  7. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement.

    PubMed

    Woinarski, John C Z; Burbidge, Andrew A; Harrison, Peter L

    2015-04-14

    The highly distinctive and mostly endemic Australian land mammal fauna has suffered an extraordinary rate of extinction (>10% of the 273 endemic terrestrial species) over the last ∼200 y: in comparison, only one native land mammal from continental North America became extinct since European settlement. A further 21% of Australian endemic land mammal species are now assessed to be threatened, indicating that the rate of loss (of one to two extinctions per decade) is likely to continue. Australia's marine mammals have fared better overall, but status assessment for them is seriously impeded by lack of information. Much of the loss of Australian land mammal fauna (particularly in the vast deserts and tropical savannas) has been in areas that are remote from human population centers and recognized as relatively unmodified at global scale. In contrast to general patterns of extinction on other continents where the main cause is habitat loss, hunting, and impacts of human development, particularly in areas of high and increasing human population pressures, the loss of Australian land mammals is most likely due primarily to predation by introduced species, particularly the feral cat, Felis catus, and European red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and changed fire regimes. PMID:25675493

  8. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  9. 76 FR 75524 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... No. 14241, issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 3668), authorizes the permit holder to conduct research on...) issued on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 47779): (1) Included authorization for collection of a skin and blubber... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XO45 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  10. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... (75 FR 68757), notice of receipt of an application to amend Permit No. 781-1824 was published... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  11. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). On May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28236), notice was published that an amendment to Permit No. 13602, issued on September 4, 2009 (74 FR 46569), had been requested by the permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XK54 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National...

  12. A new early Oligocene mammal fauna from the Sirt Basin, central Libya: Biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Pauline M. C.; Beard, K. Christopher; Salem, Mustafa J.; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Brunet, Michel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new early Oligocene vertebrate fauna from the vicinity of Zallah Oasis in the Sirt Basin of central Libya. The Zallah Incision local fauna has been recovered from the base of a fluvial channel within a rock unit that has been mapped as "Continental and Transitional Marine Deposits." This rock unit has produced fossil vertebrates sporadically since the 1960s, but the Zallah Incision local fauna is the most diverse assemblage of fossil mammals currently known from this unit. In addition to lower vertebrates, the fauna includes an indeterminate sirenian, the anthracothere Bothriogenys, a new species of the hyracoid genus Thyrohyrax, new species of the hystricognathous rodent genera Metaphiomys and Neophiomys, Metaphiomys schaubi, and a new species of the parapithecid primate genus Apidium. The Zallah Incision local fauna from Libya appears to be close in age to Fayum quarries V and G in the Jebel Qatrani Formation of Egypt and the Taqah locality in the Ashawq Formation of Oman. Considered together, these early Oligocene faunas support a modest level of faunal provincialism across the northern part of Afro-Arabia during the early Oligocene.

  13. Marine mammals of Hawaii: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is a product of a literature survey on marine mammals at proposed OTEC sites in the Hawaiian Islands. Emphasis is on publications about abundance and distribution, migration routes, and feeding ecology of the marine mammals known to inhabit the main and leeward Hawaiian Islands. Some works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 214 references.

  14. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  15. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  16. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  17. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  18. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and implementing regulations (50 CFR parts 18 and 216... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully...

  19. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Crame, J Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  20. Early Cenozoic Differentiation of Polar Marine Faunas

    PubMed Central

    Crame, J. Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene – Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene) neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability. PMID:23342090

  1. PATHOBIOLOGY OF SELECTED MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine mammals are the subset of true mammals that have evolved unique characteristics for survival in an aquatic environment. he five major groups of marine mammals, cetacea, pinnipeds, mustelids, sirenia, and ursids, did not descend from a common phylogenetic line, and therefor...

  2. 77 FR 49921 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... from ION Geophysical (ION) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by... comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to ION to take, by harassment, nine species of marine mammals... March 1, 2012, from ION for the taking, by harassment, of marine mammals incidental to a marine...

  3. 77 FR 25829 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... only, incidental to a proposed 3- dimensional (3D) ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic survey in...

  4. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  5. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  6. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired...

  7. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  8. 50 CFR 216.37 - Marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammal parts. 216.37 Section 216.37..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.37 Marine mammal parts. With respect to marine mammal parts acquired by take...

  9. MARINE MAMMAL DISEASES: PATHOGENS AND PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a concise overview of the pathogens and processes that alter the health of marine mammals. Viral disease is the most common etiology of significant mortality events in marine mammals. Discussion of viral disease focuses on effects in the ...

  10. Marine mammals of Puerto Rico: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.F.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography is the product of a literature survey on marine mammals at a proposed OTEC site near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. Included are reports of mammal sightings and strandings from Puerto Rico and adjacent Caribbean islands, reports containing information on distribution and abundance migration routes, and feeding ecology of those species known from the area. A few works on the general biology of marine mammals are also included. 96 references.

  11. Report on marine mammal stranding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released a report on 27 April indicating that U.S. Navy sonar transmissions may have played a role in the stranding of more than 150 melon-headed whales on 3 July 2004 off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii. At the time of the stranding, which resulted in one whale death, the Navy was preparing to conduct sonar activities as part of a military exercise. The report notes that six naval surface vessels transiting to the area on the previous night intermittenly transmitted mid-frequency active sonar. That activity is ``a plausible, if not likely, contributing factor'' to the stranding event. There was no significant weather, natural oceanographic event, or known biological factors that would explain the animals' movement into the bay nor the group's continued presence in the bay, according to report lead author Teri Rowles, NOAA marine mammal veterinarian.

  12. 76 FR 3615 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14259

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ..., receive, possess, analyze, and archive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written... requesting authorization to import, export, receive, possess, analyze and archive marine mammal...

  13. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  14. 75 FR 49709 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 8 species of marine mammals incidental to a marine survey program, which includes site clearance and shallow hazards, ice gouge, and strudel scour surveys,......

  15. 78 FR 37209 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC564 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  16. 78 FR 25703 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Fisheries Research AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting fisheries research, over the course... their fisheries research. A copy of the draft EA, which would also support our proposed rulemaking...

  17. 78 FR 35507 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...NMFS received an application from TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment only, incidental to a marine 2- dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the open water season of 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal......

  18. 78 FR 51147 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to TGS-NOPEC Geophysical Company ASA (TGS) to take, by harassment, small numbers of marine mammals incidental to a marine 2-dimensional (2D) seismic survey program in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during the 2013 Arctic open-water......

  19. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  20. 78 FR 66336 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC956 Marine Mammals; File No. 17030 AGENCY...., Oregon State University, Marine Mammal Institute, Hatfield Marine Science Center, 2030 SE ] Marine... marine mammals specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must...

  1. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS: MARINE MAMMALS AND SEA TURTLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the description of the Arthur Kill biological features presented in Chapter 1, marine mammals and sea turtles are not discussed since they are not regular residents of this area. owever, marine turtles, seals, and cetaccans are occasionally sighted in the Arthur Kill, and they...

  2. 76 FR 7824 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1791

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The original permit, issued on February 9, 2006 (71 FR 8279...D, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua,...

  3. 78 FR 1205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Hydrographic Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...NMFS' Office of Protected Resources has received a request from the NOAA Office of Coast Survey (OCS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting hydrographic surveys, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of OCS's request under the......

  4. 75 FR 38991 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Missile Launch Operations at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska... Corporation (AAC) for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to launching space launch vehicles, long...), incidental to space vehicle and missile launch activities from KLC for a period of 5 years. These...

  5. 76 FR 68973 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  6. 78 FR 12541 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ...NMFS received an application from ConocoPhillips Company (COP) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to COP to take, by......

  7. 75 FR 25729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  8. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  9. 76 FR 62778 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Northeast Gateway[supreg] Energy BridgeTM L.P. (Northeast Gateway or NEG) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, small numbers of marine mammals during operation of an......

  10. 76 FR 69957 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...NMFS received an application from Shell Offshore Inc. (Shell) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Shell to take, by......

  11. 78 FR 64918 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC893 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment...

  12. 78 FR 77433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... to PISCO to take marine mammals incidental to these same proposed activities (77 FR 72327, December 5... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC893 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment...

  13. 78 FR 22095 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...NMFS has received a request from the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT), on behalf of the City of Seattle (City), for authorization to take marine mammals incidental to construction associated with the replacement of the Elliott Bay Seawall in Seattle, Washington, for the period September 2013 to September 2018. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing......

  14. 77 FR 64961 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BC69 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking... of 5-year regulations governing the incidental taking of marine mammals and inviting information... Commerce to allow, upon request, the incidental, but not intentional, taking of small numbers of...

  15. 77 FR 46733 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued a Letter of Authorization (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to the U.S. Navy's training exercises within the Navy's Mariana Islands Range Complex (MIRC) in the Pacific...

  16. 76 FR 58473 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...NMFS received an application from Apache Alaska Corporation (Apache) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a proposed 3D seismic survey in Cook Inlet, Alaska, between November 2011 and November 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to Apache to take, by......

  17. 77 FR 40007 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BP) to take, by harassment, small numbers of 10 species of marine mammals incidental to ocean bottom cable (OBC) seismic surveys in the Simpson Lagoon area of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, during the......

  18. Influenza Virus Infection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Fereidouni, Sasan; Munoz, Olga; Von Dobschuetz, Sophie; De Nardi, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Interspecies transmission may play a key role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. The importance of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens such as highly pathogenic H5 and H7 influenza viruses is not well understood. The fact that influenza viruses are some of the few zoonotic pathogens known to have caused infection in marine mammals, evidence for direct transmission of influenza A virus H7N7 subtype from seals to man, transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses to seals and also limited evidence for long-term persistence of influenza B viruses in seal populations without significant genetic change, makes monitoring of influenza viruses in marine mammal populations worth being performed. In addition, such monitoring studies could be a great tool to better understand the ecology of influenza viruses in nature. PMID:25231137

  19. 77 FR 50990 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...NMFS has received an application from the National Ocean Service's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to rocky intertidal monitoring work and searching for black abalone, components of the Sanctuary Ecosystem Assessment Surveys. Pursuant......

  20. Knowledge of Brazilian benthic marine fauna throughout time.

    PubMed

    Longo, Leila de Lourdes; Amado Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystems of Brazil's continental shelf and oceanic islands comprise a variety of environments that display unique geomorphological and geophysical features and biotic components. The quest to attain knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna is hampered by coastline length, biodiversity, a high rate of endemism, and a shortage of specialized researchers. Based on a systematic bibliographic review, the article offers an overview of the history, current knowledge, and outlook for the field of marine biodiversity in Brazil. Our findings show that government initiatives have afforded greater knowledge of Brazilian marine fauna species and opened new perspectives, including reliance on complex tools to describe benthic marine habitats in terms of their geological, geophysical, and biotic composition. PMID:25338037

  1. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Sipuncula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward B.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Key to Sipuncula (Peanut Worms); (3) Annotated Systematic List of Species; (4)…

  2. 77 FR 29969 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...As required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS has incorporated public comments into revisions of marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs). The 2011 reports are final and available to the...

  3. 76 FR 35995 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 34157; FR Doc. 2011-14614). The period of effectiveness in that notice is listed... preamble, FR Doc. 2011-14614, published June 13, 2011, at 76 FR 34157, is corrected as follows: 0 1. On... Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied...

  4. 76 FR 39705 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...NMFS has received a request from BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BP) for authorization for the take of marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea, Alaska, for the period 2011-2016. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing to issue regulations to govern that take and requesting information, suggestions, and......

  5. 77 FR 51773 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to a bird mitigation research trial in the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the USFWS to take, by......

  6. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...NMFS has received a request from BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BP) for authorization for the take of marine mammals incidental to operation of offshore oil and gas facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea, AK, for the period April 2011 - April 2016. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of BP's request for the development and implementation of new 5-year......

  7. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-08-16

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km(2). Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  8. Global distribution and conservation of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Sandra; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified 20 global key conservation sites for all marine (123) and freshwater (6) mammal species based on their geographic ranges. We created geographic range maps for all 129 species and a Geographic Information System database for a 46,184 1° x 1° grid-cells, ∼10,000-km2. Patterns of species richness, endemism, and risk were variable among all species and species groups. Interestingly, marine mammal species richness was correlated strongly with areas of human impact across the oceans. Key conservation sites in the global geographic grid were determined either by their species richness or by their irreplaceability or uniqueness, because of the presence of endemic species. Nine key conservation sites, comprising the 2.5% of the grid cells with the highest species richness, were found, mostly in temperate latitudes, and hold 84% of marine mammal species. In addition, we identified 11 irreplaceable key conservation sites, six of which were found in freshwater bodies and five in marine regions. These key conservation sites represent critical areas of conservation value at a global level and can serve as a first step for adopting global strategies with explicit geographic conservation targets for Marine Protected Areas. PMID:21808012

  9. 75 FR 28239 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW51 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY.... 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part... marine mammals; that the proposed activity by itself, or in combination with other activities, will...

  10. 75 FR 76956 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15415

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA076 Marine Mammals; File No. 15415 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of...

  11. 78 FR 66681 - Draft 2013 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...NMFS reviewed the Alaska, Atlantic, and Pacific regional marine mammal stock assessment reports (SARs) in accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act. SARs for marine mammals in the Alaska, Atlantic, and Pacific regions were revised according to new information. NMFS solicits public comments on the draft 2013...

  12. 77 FR 60107 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17298

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC218 Marine Mammals; File No. 17298 AGENCY..., Connecticut 06355 , has applied in due form for a permit to collect, import, export, and receive marine mammal... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C....

  13. 77 FR 32081 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17236

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC050 Marine Mammals; File No. 17236 AGENCY.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The purpose of the research is to evaluate how...

  14. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB139 Marine Mammals; File No. 17178 AGENCY... permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  15. 76 FR 10560 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15530

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15530 AGENCY... Research, 218 W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  16. 77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC067 Marine Mammals; File No. 17350 AGENCY... receive marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments must be... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  17. 77 FR 3744 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to receive, import, export, possess, and conduct analyses marine mammal... is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16...

  18. 77 FR 58357 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC239 Marine Mammals; File No. 17355 AGENCY... to conduct research on marine mammals and sea turtles. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  19. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA914 Marine Mammals; File No. 16998 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the...

  20. 77 FR 26513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15777

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC014 Marine Mammals; File No. 15777 AGENCY... to take marine mammals during scientific research in coastal waters and adjacent waters off the... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  1. 78 FR 51146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17429

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC766 Marine Mammals; File No. 17429 AGENCY... requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216),...

  2. 77 FR 55456 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17410

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC210 Marine Mammals; File No. 17410 AGENCY... applied in due form for a permit to import, export, collect, and receive marine mammal parts for.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal...

  3. 77 FR 2513 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA936 Marine Mammals; File No. 17011 AGENCY... INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Section 104(c)(6) provides for photography for educational...

  4. 76 FR 4091 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15510

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA165 Marine Mammals; File No. 15510 AGENCY... form for a permit to receive, import, and export marine mammal parts for scientific research. DATES... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  5. 76 FR 79155 - Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA880 Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits AGENCY... Scientific Research on marine mammals. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for a list of names and address of... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  6. 76 FR 45232 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16443

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA597 Marine Mammals; File No. 16443 AGENCY... analyses marine mammal specimens for scientific research. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments... the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  7. 76 FR 6406 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA116 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice..., earthquakes, ice, and atmospheric noise. Biological noise includes sounds produced by marine mammals,...

  8. 76 FR 38361 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... intentional, taking by harassment of small numbers of marine mammals of a species or population stock, by... provided to the public for review. Authorization for incidental taking of small numbers of marine mammals... incidental harassment of small numbers of marine mammals. Within 45 days of the close of the public...

  9. 77 FR 43270 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a 5-year Letter of Authorization (LOA) has been issued to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) to incidentally take, by Level B harassment only, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) incidental to professional......

  10. 77 FR 55645 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... marine mammals would occur as a result of the introduction of sound into the marine environment during... water at elevated temperatures), such usage is significantly reduced from that required in an open-loop.... All of the cooling water would be discharged ] at a temperature of approximately 10 C (18 F) above...

  11. 78 FR 35851 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... encouraged to review NMFS' response to comments on this matter found in 69 FR 74906 (December 14, 2004), 71 FR 43112 (July 31, 2006), 71 FR 50027 (August 24, 2006), and 71 FR 49418 (August 23, 2006). It should... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic Survey in the Beaufort Sea,...

  12. 77 FR 25145 - Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... part 216). The original permit, issued on May 17, 2007 (72 FR 29127) authorizes the permit holder to conduct acoustic studies on captive marine mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May....D., Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106,...

  13. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated. PMID:24311807

  14. 77 FR 31585 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16388

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB154 Marine Mammals; File No. 16388 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  15. 77 FR 19645 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16111

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16111 AGENCY... form for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals. DATES: Written, telefaxed, or email comments... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  16. 78 FR 21113 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17845

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC599 Marine Mammals; File No. 17845 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  17. 77 FR 267 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16621

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA915 Marine Mammals; File No. 16621 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a...

  18. Neanderthal exploitation of marine mammals in Gibraltar

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, C. B.; Finlayson, J. C.; Barton, R. N. E.; Fernández-Jalvo, Y.; Cáceres, I.; Sabin, R. C.; Rhodes, E. J.; Currant, A. P.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Giles-Pacheco, F.; Riquelme-Cantal, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two coastal sites in Gibraltar, Vanguard and Gorham's Caves, located at Governor's Beach on the eastern side of the Rock, are especially relevant to the study of Neanderthals. Vanguard Cave provides evidence of marine food supply (mollusks, seal, dolphin, and fish). Further evidence of marine mammal remains was also found in the occupation levels at Gorham's Cave associated with Upper Paleolithic and Mousterian technologies [Finlayson C, et al. (2006) Nature 443:850–853]. The stratigraphic sequence of Gibraltar sites allows us to compare behaviors and subsistence strategies of Neanderthals during the Middle Paleolithic observed at Vanguard and Gorham's Cave sites. This evidence suggests that such use of marine resources was not a rare behavior and represents focused visits to the coast and estuaries. PMID:18809913

  19. 76 FR 30309 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA292 Marine Mammals; File No. 16087 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  20. 75 FR 13730 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV40 Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  1. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14329

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 21703) that a request for an amendment to Permit No. 14329 to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Mammals; File No. 14329 AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued to the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium...

  2. 76 FR 54433 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the University of Alaska Geophysics Institute (UAGI) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during September-October...

  3. 78 FR 12720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... in Cook Inlet (77 FR 27720). On December 10, 2012, NMFS published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 73434) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making preliminary determinations regarding.... In the notice of the proposed IHA (77 FR 73434, December 10, 2012), NMFS described the second area...

  4. 75 FR 27708 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... take small numbers of marine mammals by harassment. Section 101(a)(5)(D) establishes a 45-day time... survey time is expected to take 30 days. The vessel that will be conducting this activity has not been.... The actual survey time is expected to take 45 days. Ice Gouge Survey As part of the feasibility...

  5. 76 FR 3092 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... incidental to the U.S. Navy's RDT&E activities at the NSWC PCD were published on January 21, 2010 (75 FR 3395... the U.S. Gulf of Mexico under the regulations issued on January 21, 2010 (75 FR 3395). The application... Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Mission Activities at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama...

  6. 78 FR 24731 - Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ...Notice is hereby given that ConocoPhillips Company (COP) has withdrawn its application for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA). The following action is related to a proposed IHA to COP for the take of small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting offshore exploration drilling on Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) leases in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, during......

  7. 77 FR 65059 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... FR 49922). That notice described, in detail, ION's proposed activity, the marine mammal species that... Register notice for the proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION would start its seismic survey... proposed IHA (77 FR 49922; August 17, 2012), ION's in-ice seismic survey would be performed in a...

  8. 78 FR 57368 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... operations of SURTASS LFA sonar are in effect through August 15, 2017 (77 FR 50290, August 20, 2012) and are... issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 51969, August 28, 2012), for the taking of marine mammals incidental to... the north-central Pacific Ocean under the regulations issued on August 15, 2012 (77 FR 50290,...

  9. 75 FR 53672 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the Northeast Gateway Energy BridgeTM LP (Northeast Gateway or NEG) and its partner, Algonquin Gas Transmission, LLC (Algonquin), to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, small......

  10. 77 FR 64320 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC283 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; proposed incidental harassment authorization... and to determine if any relationship exists between changing ocean chemistry and the states of two...

  11. 77 FR 23547 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Columbia River Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... North Portland Harbor in which marine mammals may be directly impacted by sound generated by in-water construction activities, i.e., the area in which modeling indicates that underwater sound generated by the project would be greater than 120 dB re: 1 Pa root mean square (rms; all underwater sound discussed...

  12. 77 FR 27720 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 58473) discussing the effects on marine mammals and making... the proposed IHA (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011). The activities to be conducted have not changed... should refer to the proposed IHA notice (76 FR 58473, September 21, 2011), the IHA application...

  13. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... the specified activities was issued to VanBlaricom on September 23, 2003 (68 FR 57427; October 3, 2003); the most recent of these was issued on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 4841; January 28, 2008), expiring... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Abalone Research on San Nicolas Island,...

  14. 78 FR 63396 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (78 FR 22096, April 12, 2013). In summary, SDOT proposes to replace the Elliott Bay Seawall from South... frequently referred to in this rulemaking (78 FR 22096, pages 22099-22102). This section also includes a... (78 FR 22096, pages 22102-22108). Table 5--Marine Mammal Species or ESA-Listed Distinct...

  15. 76 FR 330 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... ringed seal (75 FR 77476) and a notice of proposed threatened and not warranted status for subspecies and distinct population segments of the bearded seal (75 FR 77496) in the Federal Register. Neither species is... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Polar Bear Captures AGENCY: National...

  16. 76 FR 62378 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR 43267, July 20, 2011), marine mammal densities were derived from the Navy... complete discussion on the abundance and density data can be found in the Notice of Proposed IHA (76 FR... Notice of Proposed IHA and request for 30-day public comment published on January 23, 2006 (71 FR...

  17. Determination of inorganic constituents in marine mammal tissues.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, R; Demiralp, R; Koster, B J; Becker, P R; Burow, M; Ostapczuk, P; Wise, S A

    1993-11-01

    Analyses of selected tissues from the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) have provided comprehensive information related to levels of 36 trace elements and methyl-mercury in marine mammal tissues. Liver, kidney and muscle tissues from two northern fur seals, four ringed seals and six belukha whales were analyzed. The bulk of the investigated tissues and additional tissues from a total of 65 marine mammals are banked in the AMMTAP. The results are compared to literature values for trace element concentrations in marine mammal tissues and their relevance to environmental studies is discussed. PMID:8272841

  18. Bacteria and fungi of marine mammals: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R

    2000-01-01

    A list of the different bacterial and fungal agents isolated from marine mammals in different parts of the world is presented. Importance is given to some of the most recently identified bacterial agents, including Actinobacillus delphinicola, A. scotiae, and Brucella spp. A list, in alphabetical order, of bacteria recovered from different tissues or organs from marine mammals is presented for the integumentary, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary, and reticuloendothelial systems. Infectious bacterial agents associated with abscesses and with cases of septicemia are also listed. Information about the different fungal agents recovered from marine mammals is summarized. A section covering some of the zoonotic infectious agents recovered from marine mammals is included. PMID:10723596

  19. Predation selectively culls medium-sized species from island mammal faunas

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Emily; Cardillo, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. The existence of this kind of extinction pattern, and its link to predation, has been contentious and difficult to demonstrate. Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size–extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. We show that the size-selectivity of extinctions on many islands has exceeded that expected under null models. On islands with introduced predators, extinctions are biased towards intermediate body sizes, but this bias does not occur on islands without predators. Hence, on islands with a large-bodied mammal fauna, predators are selectively culling species from the lower end of the size distribution, and on islands with a small-bodied fauna they are culling species from the upper end. These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size–extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. PMID:24694691

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of marine mammal herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Maness, Heather T D; Nollens, Hendrik H; Jensen, Eric D; Goldstein, Tracey; LaMere, Sarah; Childress, April; Sykes, John; St Leger, Judy; Lacave, Géraldine; Latson, F Ed; Wellehan, James F X

    2011-04-21

    Five novel DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (Dpol) herpesviral sequences were generated using nested consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), orca (Orcinus orca), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a Phocid herpesvirus 2 (PhHV-2) isolate from a harbor seal (used as positive control). These novel sequences and other representative herpesvirus sequences were included in Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses to illustrate the phylogeny of herpesviruses amongst the marine mammal host species and in comparison to those of other animals. All 19 novel and known marine mammal herpesviruses included in the analyses aligned with members of the Alphaherpesvirinae or Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. The novel harbor seal herpesvirus clustered with members of the Macavirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The novel bottlenose dolphin herpesvirus clustered together in a monophyletic group with another delphinid alphaherpesvirus but could not be associated with an established genus. The orca herpesvirus also clustered with a delphinid alphaherpesvirus and formed a separate clade. The sea lion herpesvirus clustered with PhHV-2. PhHV-1 clustered with varicelloviruses and PhHV-2 clustered strongly in the Gammaherpesvirinae genus Percavirus. All cetacean gammaherpesviruses formed a monophyletic clade and could not be associated with an established gammaherpesviral genus. PMID:21055885

  1. 77 FR 13295 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28422) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... E. Nachtigall, Ph.D., Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O....

  2. 77 FR 34352 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... (77 FR 19646) that a request for a permit to import marine mammal parts for scientific research had... Virginia Institute of Marine Science [Responsible Party: Elizabeth Canuel, Ph.D.], P.O. Box 1346,...

  3. 76 FR 78890 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15240

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA874 Marine Mammals; File No. 15240 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...-8401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The subject permit is requested under the authority of the...

  4. 78 FR 29705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC646 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... comprised of multiple sources, including physical (e.g., waves, earthquakes, ice, atmospheric...

  5. Natural resource response guide: Marine mammals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Natural Resource Response Guides were developed for use by responders to oil and hazardous materials spills to determine the seasonal presence and activities of potential resources at risk and then to evaluate the probability and types of expected impacts to these resources. The set includes guides for Marine Fish, Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Marine Shellfish.

  6. 75 FR 50748 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 23241) that a request for a permit to import and export marine mammal parts for..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... histology database and atlas and marine mammal cell lines; and comparative morphology studies. The permit...

  7. 75 FR 23241 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., Aquatic Animal Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (Ruth Francis-Floyd... brevetoxin studies; develop a marine mammal histology database and atlas, marine mammal cell lines; and... excluding walruses), with unlimited sampling from each animal to maximize use. There would not be...

  8. 77 FR 25692 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16479

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... FR 72389) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been submitted by the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA840 Marine Mammals; File No. 16479 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16479 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  9. 77 FR 12815 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16160

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 68161) that a request for a permit to conduct research on marine mammals had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA626 Marine Mammals; File No. 16160 AGENCY... selecting File No. 16160 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  10. 76 FR 16442 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act...

  11. 75 FR 16076 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15206

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Agriculture under the Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. Sec. Sec. 2131 - 59). In addition to determining whether... and welfare of marine mammals; that the proposed activity by itself, or in combination with other... accepted standards of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the Alliance for Marine Mammal Parks...

  12. 77 FR 19648 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16094

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 61345), authorizes the permit holder to take harbor seals (Phoca... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA599 Marine Mammals; File No. 16094 AGENCY... authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and...

  13. 77 FR 26517 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Register (75 FR 13730) that a request for a permit to conduct research on the species identified above had... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV40 Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 AGENCY... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the...

  14. 76 FR 19976 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15537

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... INFORMATION: On May 20, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28239) that a request for a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA352 Marine Mammals; File No. 15537 AGENCY... public display permit application received from the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies (IMMS), P.O....

  15. 75 FR 39665 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14534

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ..., 2009, notice was published in the Federal Register (74 FR 46745) that a request for a permit to conduct... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals; File No. 14534 AGENCY... research on marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents...

  16. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15682

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... the Federal Register (76 FR 18533) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback whales... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA888 Marine Mammals; File No. 15682 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  17. 76 FR 31942 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 14, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13603) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Alaska SeaLife Center (ASLC), Seward, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The...

  18. 77 FR 19649 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... (77 FR 3744) that a request for a permit to import specimens for scientific research had been... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648- XA938 Marine Mammals; File No. 17029 AGENCY... 59851 to receive, import, export, and possess marine mammal specimens for scientific research....

  19. 76 FR 48146 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 25, 2011, notice was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 10560) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA160 Marine Mammals; File No. 15330 AGENCY... Robin Baird, PhD, Cascadia Research, 218\\1/2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501 to take marine mammals...

  20. 78 FR 29117 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... in the Federal Register (78 FR 2956) that a request for a permit to conduct research on non-listed... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC439 Marine Mammals; File No. 17005 AGENCY... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  1. 77 FR 58358 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14097

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40859) that a request for... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX47 Marine Mammals; File No. 14097 AGENCY... has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16...

  2. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 64986) that a request for a permit to import northern fur seal (Callorhinus... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ86 Marine Mammals; File No. 14525 AGENCY...), 16111 Plummer St., North Hills, CA 91343, to import and export marine mammal specimens for...

  3. 77 FR 27441 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 13927, issued on October 19, 2011 (76 FR 67151), authorizes the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... amendment to Permit No. 13927 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  4. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16919

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 27717) that a request for a permit to conduct research on... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB173 Marine Mammals; File No. 16919 AGENCY... the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  5. 77 FR 20793 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16599

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 2512) that a request for a permit to conduct research on all species of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals; File No. 16599 AGENCY... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego,...

  6. 76 FR 329 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14330

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14330, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA122 Marine Mammals; File No. 14330 AGENCY... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  7. The evolution of Arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Harington, C R

    2008-03-01

    This review deals only with the evolutionary history of core Arctic marine mammals: polar bear (Ursus maritimus), walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), white whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and narwhal (Monodon monoceras). Sections on the evolutionary background of pinnipeds and whales help to provide a better perspective on these core species. Polar bears stemmed from brown bears about the Early to Middle Pleistocene. Fossils are rare; the earliest records are from approximately Early Weichselian deposits of Kew Bridge, London, and Svalbard. Existing Pacific and Atlantic walruses probably arose from splitting of a former Holarctic range during a Pleistocene glacial phase of extensive sea ice in the Canadian Arctic. The earliest known bearded seal remains are from Early to Middle Pleistocene deposits of Norfolk, England, and Cape Deceit, Alaska. Other Pleistocene fossils of this species are recorded from the North Sea, southwestern Sweden, and the Champlain Sea that existed in eastern North America approximately 12 000-10000 BP. The harp seal is the commonest pinniped in the Weichselian deposits of the southern North Sea. The earliest recorded fossil is from about 2 million years ago (2 Ma), from Ocean Point, Alaska. The earliest known Pleistocene ringed seal fossils are from last interglacial deposits near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, and Thule, Greenland, although an earlier (3 Ma?) specimen from Malaspina, Alaska, has been reported. This species seems to have been relatively abundant along the coasts of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, during the Last Glacial Maximum. The bowhead whale probably originated in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The earliest (mid-Wisconsinan) Canadian remains are from Ellesmere and Devon islands. More than 400 radiocarbon-dated bowhead remains have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea ice history in

  8. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. PMID:26707982

  9. Marine Mammal Transmitter for porpoise tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, W. G.

    The Marine Mammal Transmitter (MMT) forms part of the equipment to be used in a worldwide Porpoise Tracking System. Knowledge of porpoise migration, distribution characteristics, and population estimates are needed to aid in protection of the porpoise. A major problem is suffocation of porpoises when they are caught in tuna purse seine fishing nets. Location of the porpoise can be determined to within + or - 5 kilometers. The MMT utilizes low power CMOS integrated circuits in timing and control circuits to extend battery life. The MMT with battery pack is contained in two cylinders which are two inches in diameter and 8.5 inches long. The unit is mounted to the porpoise's dorsal fin with a vertical quarter wave monopole antenna extending from one of the cylinders. A signal from the MMT is transmitted to the Nimbus satellite. From there the information is later transmitted to a ground receiver and a data processing facility.

  10. Marine mammal harvests and other interactions with humans.

    PubMed

    Hovelsrud, Grete K; McKenna, Meghan; Huntington, Henry P

    2008-03-01

    The Arctic is currently undergoing rapid social and environmental changes, and while the peoples of the north have a long history of adapting, the current changes in climate pose unprecedented challenges to the marine mammal-human interactions in the Arctic regions. Arctic marine mammals have been and remain an important resource for many of the indigenous and nonindigenous people of the north. Changes in climate are likely to bring about profound changes to the environment in which these animals live and subsequently to the hunting practices and livelihoods of the people who hunt them. Climate change will lead to reduction in the sea ice extent and thickness and will likely increase shipping through the Northern Sea Route and the Northwest Passage and oil and gas activities in Arctic areas previously inaccessible. Such activities will lead to more frequent interactions between humans and marine mammals. These activities may also change the distribution of marine mammals, affecting the hunters. This paper has three parts. First, an overview of marine mammal harvesting activities in the different circumpolar regions provides a snapshot of current practices and conditions. Second, case studies of selected Arctic regions, indigenous groups, and species provide insight into the manner in which climate change is already impacting marine mammal harvesting activities in the Arctic. Third, we describe how climate change is likely to affect shipping and oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Arctic and describe the possible implications of these changes for the marine mammal populations. We conclude that many of the consequences of climate change are likely to be negative for marine mammal hunters and for marine mammals. Lack of adequate baseline data, however, makes it difficult to identify specific causal mechanisms and thus to develop appropriate conservation measures. Nonetheless, the future of Arctic marine mammals and human uses of them depends on

  11. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1984. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-31

    Contents include: reauthorization and amendment of the Marine Mammal Protection Act; research and studies program; international aspects of marine mammal protection and conservation; marine mammal/fishery interactions; incidental take of marine mammals in the course of commercial fishing operations; species of special concern; marine mammal management in Alaska; Outer Continental Shelf oil, gas, and hard minerals development; marine mammal maintenance standards and regulations; permit process.

  12. 77 FR 21539 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Sturgeon Research in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ...NMFS has received a request from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for authorization to take small numbers of marine mammals incidental to conducting sturgeon research in the Gulf of Mexico, over the course of 5 years from the date of issuance. Pursuant to regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is announcing receipt of USFWS's request for the......

  13. 77 FR 42279 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ...In accordance with the regulations implementing the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) as amended, notification is hereby given that we have issued an incidental harassment authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Navy (Navy) to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment only, six species of marine mammals during construction activities associated with a wharf construction project in Hood Canal,......

  14. 78 FR 56659 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC824 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice..., earthquakes, ice, atmospheric sound), biological (e.g., sounds produced by marine mammals, fish,...

  15. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  16. 50 CFR 216.191 - Designation of Offshore Biologically Important Marine Mammal Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to...

  17. New magnetochronology of Late Miocene mammal fauna, NE Tibetan Plateau, China: Mammal migration and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; An, Zhisheng; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fengyan; Lin, Shan; Li, Xingwen

    2016-01-01

    Lanzhou Basin lies on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China and is a rich source of Oligocene-Miocene mammalian fossils. Obtaining precise age determinations for these fossils is important to address key questions concerning mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia associated with stepwise Tibetan Plateau uplift. Here we report a new magnetostratigraphic record for the Xingjiawan fluvio-lacustrine section from the northwestern margin of Lanzhou Basin that can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two options. The Late Miocene Xingjiawan Fauna is located either at the boundary between reversed polarity chron C4r.1r and normal polarity chron C4n.2n or at the boundary between subchrons C5r.1r and C5n.2n, with an estimated age of at least ∼8 Ma or perhaps as early as ∼11 Ma. Both age estimations imply that the fossil Stegodon in the Lanzhou Basin is the oldest known record of Stegodon worldwide; it predates the formerly oldest Stegodon find from Africa by at least one million years and perhaps by as many as four million years. This provides new evidence for an Asian origin of Stegodon. Together with other faunal components, a mixed woodland/grassland setting existed in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Miocene, in contrast to its modern arid environment.

  18. 76 FR 27307 - Marine Mammals; Photography Permit Application No. 16360

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... intended to educate the public about marine mammal conservation issues, as well as the importance of the..., Permits, Conservation and Education Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries... Application No. 16360 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  19. 78 FR 19446 - Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... PBR (the maximum number of animals, not including natural mortality, that may be removed from a marine... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC062 Marine Mammal Stock Assessment Reports AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  20. 75 FR 64996 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), a part of the University of California, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the eastern tropical Pacific......

  1. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take small numbers of marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during August to September, 2010. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS requests comments on its proposal to authorize USGS to......

  2. 78 FR 17359 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (L-DEO) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical (seismic) survey in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, June to July, 2013. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on......

  3. 76 FR 18167 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the central Gulf of Alaska (GOA), June, 2011. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to USGS to......

  4. 76 FR 49737 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulation, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the central-western Bering Sea, August...

  5. 76 FR 20325 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Marine Geophysical Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (L-DEO), a part of Columbia University, to take small numbers of marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting a marine geophysical survey in the eastern tropical Pacific......

  6. Spatial factors affecting statistical power in testing marine fauna displacement.

    PubMed

    Pérez Lapeña, B; Wijnberg, K M; Stein, A; Hulscher, S J M H

    2011-10-01

    Impacts of offshore wind farms on marine fauna are largely unknown. Therefore, one commonly adheres to the precautionary principle, which states that one shall take action to avoid potentially damaging impacts on marine ecosystems, even when full scientific certainty is lacking. We implement this principle by means of a statistical power analysis including spatial factors. Implementation is based on geostatistical simulations, accommodating for zero-inflation in species data. We investigate scenarios in which an impact assessment still has to be carried out. Our results show that the environmental conditions at the time of the survey is the most influential factor on power. This is followed by survey effort and species abundance in the reference situation. Spatial dependence in species numbers at local scales affects power, but its effect is smaller for the scenarios investigated. Our findings can be used to improve effectiveness of the economical investment for monitoring surveys. In addition, unnecessary extra survey effort, and related costs, can be avoided when spatial dependence in species abundance is present and no improvement on power is achieved. PMID:22073657

  7. 76 FR 41463 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ..., 2010). Some dolphins seem to be attracted to the seismic vessel and floats, and some ride the bow wave..., incidental to conducting a marine geophysical seismic survey in the Arctic Ocean during September- October... harassment, of marine mammals incidental to conducting a marine geophysical seismic survey in the...

  8. Ocean noise and marine mammals: A tutorial lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Spain, Gerald; Wartzok, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    The effect of man-made sound on marine mammals has been surrounded by controversy over the past decade. Much of this controversy stems from our lack of knowledge of the effects of noise on marine life. Ocean sound is produced during activities of great benefit to humans: commerce, exploration for energy reserves, national defense, and the study of the ocean environment itself. However, some recent strandings of marine mammals have been associated with the occurrence of human-generated sound. The documented increase of man-made sound in the ocean suggests the potential for more extensive though subtler effects than those observed in the mass strandings. The purpose of this tutorial is to present the scientific issues pertaining to ocean noise and marine mammals. Basic physics of sound in the ocean and long term trends of ocean sound will be presented. The biology of marine mammals, particularly their production, reception and use of sound in monitoring their environment, social interactions, and echolocation, will be reviewed. This background information sets the stage for understanding the effects of man-made sound on marine mammals. The extensive gaps in current knowledge with respect to marine mammal distribution and behavioral and physiological responses to sound will highlight research needs.

  9. Temporal contamination trends in Arctic marine mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    In the late 1970s interest developed for investigating the contamination of humans, wildlife, and other animal species for lipophilic organochlorine compounds such as DDTs, PCBs and other polychlorinated hydrocarbons. Soon many of these compounds were banned (in the US) and people turned their thoughts to other topics. Next the presence of heavy metals as lead, mercury, cadmium and selenium were of interest. At the time there was little thought that any of these environmental contaminants would be transported any distance, let alone to such far off places as the Arctic. In recent times, however, researchers have learned that these compounds have a volatility sufficient to become available in the atmospheric portion of the hemisphere and to be drawn towards the cold Arctic regions. Contamination of good food sources in these regions, particularly for the native Americans and other Arctic peoples, has raised important issues. This study discusses the contamination trends of various marine mammals as indicators of general contamination. Assessments can be made as to future trends from this information. Mathematical expression of these trends will be investigated.

  10. Effects of noise on marine mammals: Executive Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.J.

    1991-02-01

    The report entitled 'Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals' by W.J. Richardson, C.R. Greene Jr., C.I. Malme and D.H. Thomson (OCS Study MMS 90-0093, LGL Report TA834-1), is a review of published and unpublished literature concerning the effects of manmade noise on marine mammals. Emphasis is given to underwater sounds, but airborne sounds are considered as well. Special attention is given to noise-emitting activities associated, directly or indirectly, with offshore hydrocarbon exploration and development, since that is a dominant interest of the U.S. Minerals Management Service, sponsor of the review. However, reactions of marine mammals to noise from all types of human activities are considered. Special attention is given to species of marine mammals and types of human activities that occur in waters around the United States. However, relevant literature from elsewhere is reviewed.

  11. 76 FR 60863 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..... 76 FR 51051; August September 22, 2011. 17, 2011. 48645A Valley Zoological 76 FR 51051; August September 22, 2011. Society dba Gladys 17, 2011. Porter Zoo. Marine Mammals 48293A Red Rock Films 76...

  12. 76 FR 59663 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... (76 FR 43266) that a request for a permit to conduct research on Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus..., (Responsible Party: George Watters, PhD, Director) to take marine mammals for scientific research....

  13. 76 FR 68719 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14676

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). Permit No. 14676, issued on January 13, 2010 (75 FR 4046... Ponganis, Ph.D., University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, has applied for an amendment...

  14. 77 FR 25963 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14325

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... August 17, 2009 (74 FR 44822), authorizes taking of marine mammals during continuation of a long-term... Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), Division of Wildlife Conservation, Juneau, AK,...

  15. Hazards of disease transfer from marine mammals to land mammals: review and recent findings.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Vedros, N A; Akers, T G; Gilmartin, W G

    1978-11-01

    In a 5-year study (1972-1977) of microbial agents isolated from both clinically normal and diseased marine mammals, it was shown that certain disease agents are widespread in a diversity of ocean populations and that some are also transmissible to a number of terrestrial mammal species. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona has been isolated repeatedly from 2 species of pinnipeds (Zalophus californianus califonianus and Callorhinus ursinus). Some of the more important bacterial pathogens for land mammals that were isolated from wild marine mammals are Pseudomonas mallei, Clostridium chauvoei, C novyi, Neisseria mucosa var heidelbergensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp, and Pasteurella multocida. Numerous serotypes of viruses classified as caliciviruses were isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Some of these are known to infect several land mammal species including swine horses, and primates. For this reason., precautions should be taken to ensure that disease agents shed by captive marine mammals are not transmitted to susceptible terrestrial mammals, including animal handlers and other human beings. PMID:738931

  16. 77 FR 50472 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15748

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On May 7, 2012, notice was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 26747) that a... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA288 Marine Mammals; File No. 15748 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), and the regulations governing...

  17. 75 FR 36064 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14186

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Register (73 FR 77630) that a request for a permit to conduct enhancement on the species identified above... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XM26 Marine Mammals; File No. 14186 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972 as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.). Permit No. 14186 authorizes...

  18. 77 FR 33444 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17217

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Register (77 FR 22563) that a request for a public display permit, had been submitted by the above-named... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB159 Marine Mammals; File No. 17217 AGENCY... Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) and the regulations governing...

  19. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  20. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  1. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  2. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  3. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  4. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  5. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  6. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal...

  7. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  8. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal...

  9. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  10. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal...

  11. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  12. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  13. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal...

  14. 50 CFR 216.14 - Marine mammals taken before the MMPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. 216... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 216.14 Marine mammals taken before the MMPA. (a) Section...

  15. 50 CFR 216.47 - Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses, and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to marine mammal tissue, analyses... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.47 Access to marine mammal...

  16. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  17. 50 CFR 18.26 - Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Collection of certain dead marine mammal... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.26 Collection of certain dead marine mammal parts. (a) Any bones, teeth or ivory of any dead marine mammal may be collected...

  18. 50 CFR 18.14 - Marine mammals taken before the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine mammals taken before the Act. 18.14... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Prohibitions § 18.14 Marine mammals taken before the Act. (a) Section 102(e) of the Act provides in effect that the Act shall not apply to any marine mammal taken...

  19. A killer appetite: metabolic consequences of carnivory in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S

    2001-07-01

    Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey. PMID:11440865

  20. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W C; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E; Hunter, Margaret E; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B W; Hahn, Matthew W; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gibbs, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  1. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare.

  2. Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D.; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Vinař, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J.; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and are therefore a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and de novo assembled the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome, and that a subset were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that while convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

  3. 78 FR 30273 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC647 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice... comprised of multiple sources, including physical (e.g., waves, earthquakes, ice, atmospheric...

  4. 77 FR 6771 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS refers the reader to the January 6, 2012, Federal Register notice (77 FR 842... Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor... harassment, incidental to conducting operations of Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System (SURTASS)...

  5. 76 FR 4300 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving activities as part of a test pile program. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, five species of......

  6. 78 FR 30873 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...NMFS has received an application from the U.S. Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to construction activities as part of a pier replacement project. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the Navy to take, by Level B Harassment only, four......

  7. A Preliminary Report of Changing Quaternary Mammal Faunas in Subalpine New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey; Flannery, Tim; Boeardi

    1993-07-01

    The faunas found in the mountains of central Irian Jaya have experienced dramatic changes through the late Quaternary. Remains of two previously unknown species of large marsupial, Maokopia ronaldi and Protemnodon hopei, have been recovered from unrelated cave and fluvial deposits which today occur in dense upper montane forest. Direct dating of the finds has not as yet been possible, but stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic evidence indicates that these species lived near a climatic treeline in subalpine grassland in the late Pleistocene. At higher altitudes a rockshelter provided the second known mid-Holocene record of Thylogale christenseni and Thylogale sp. cf. brunii, apparently extinct grassland wallabies. The two largest remaining subalpine mammal species are being locally exterminated by hunting, leaving only a large murid, Mallomys gunung, which weighs less than 2.0 kg. The area thus records the disappearance of a grassland-adapted fauna. The possum Pseudocheirops cupreus dominates in modem hunting returns, although this species is totally absent from the local fossil records. It may thus be in the process of invading a vacated and disturbed niche from the upper montane forest.

  8. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ana D; Boyer, Alison G; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J; Costa, Daniel P; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H

    2012-02-28

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN "Data Deficient" species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas. PMID:22308490

  9. Drivers and hotspots of extinction risk in marine mammals

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ana D.; Boyer, Alison G.; Kim, Hwahwan; Pompa-Mansilla, Sandra; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ceballos, Gerardo; Brown, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The world's oceans are undergoing profound changes as a result of human activities. However, the consequences of escalating human impacts on marine mammal biodiversity remain poorly understood. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identifies 25% of marine mammals as at risk of extinction, but the conservation status of nearly 40% of marine mammals remains unknown due to insufficient data. Predictive models of extinction risk are crucial to informing present and future conservation needs, yet such models have not been developed for marine mammals. In this paper, we: (i) used powerful machine-learning and spatial-modeling approaches to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of marine mammal extinction risk; (ii) used this information to predict risk across all marine mammals, including IUCN “Data Deficient” species; and (iii) conducted a spatially explicit assessment of these results to understand how risk is distributed across the world's oceans. Rate of offspring production was the most important predictor of risk. Additional predictors included taxonomic group, small geographic range area, and small social group size. Although the interaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables was important in predicting risk, overall, intrinsic traits were more important than extrinsic variables. In addition to the 32 species already on the IUCN Red List, our model identified 15 more species, suggesting that 37% of all marine mammals are at risk of extinction. Most at-risk species occur in coastal areas and in productive regions of the high seas. We identify 13 global hotspots of risk and show how they overlap with human impacts and Marine Protected Areas. PMID:22308490

  10. 78 FR 57133 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14514

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... July 28, 2010 (75 FR 50748), authorizes the University of Florida to receive, import, and export marine... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW11 Marine Mammals; File No. 14514 AGENCY... selecting File No. 14514 from the list of available applications. These documents are also available...

  11. 75 FR 64247 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15543

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... (Principal Investigator), Sarasota Dolphin Research Program, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson... dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). DATES: Written, telefaxed, or e-mail comments must be received on or before... marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take bottlenose...

  12. 75 FR 1029 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14486

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT56 Marine Mammals; File No. 14486 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Alaska SeaLife...

  13. 78 FR 39258 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17355

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...Notice is hereby given that a permit has been issued to National Marine Fisheries Service's Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC), 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 [Responsible Party: William Karp; Principal Investigator: Peter Corkeron] to conduct research on marine mammals and sea...

  14. 75 FR 22119 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14245

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...Notice is hereby given that National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML), Alaska Fisheries Science Center, (Dr. John Bengtson, Responsible Party), 7600 Sand Point Way, NE, Seattle, Washington 98115-6349, has applied in due form for a permit to conduct scientific research in the Pacific, Southern, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans on 33 cetacean species, including......

  15. 77 FR 33443 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16473

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... FR 76950) that a request for a permit to conduct research on humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), fin... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA861 Marine Mammals; File No. 16473 AGENCY.... Ann Pabst, Ph.D., University of North Carolina Wilmington, to conduct research on marine...

  16. 76 FR 67151 - Marine Mammals; File No. 13927

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 10, 2008, notice was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 75084) that... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA774 Marine Mammals; File No. 13927 AGENCY... the activities requested by the applicant has been issued under the authority of the Marine...

  17. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat. PMID:24344685

  18. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  20. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2007-12-01

    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  1. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    PubMed

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed. PMID:21160025

  2. 78 FR 52148 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC762 Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... include physical (e.g., waves, earthquakes, ice, atmospheric sound), biological (e.g., sounds produced...

  3. Ocean acoustics research figures in debate about protecting marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    A recent U.S. Senate committee hearing about the re-authorization of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 focused on one word; harassment.Concern about whether anthropogenically produced underwater noise actually harasses or even may be involved in the deaths of some marine mammals has become a heated issue which has led to recent lawsuits and court rulings to halt or restrict some scientific research and U.S. naval operations. (See Eos, 29 April 2003).At a 16 July hearing, Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine), chair of the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Oceans, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, said a balance needs to be found between research needs and military readiness on one hand, and protection of marine mammals on the other hand.

  4. Invasive mammals and habitat modification interact to generate unforeseen outcomes for indigenous fauna.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Grant; Byrom, Andrea; Pech, Roger; Smith, James; Clarke, Dean; Anderson, Dean; Forrester, Guy

    2013-10-01

    Biotic invasions and habitat modification are two drivers of global change predicted to have detrimental impacts on the persistence of indigenous biota worldwide. Few studies have investigated how they operate synergistically to alter trophic interactions among indigenous and nonindigenous species in invaded ecosystems. We experimentally manipulated a suite of interacting invasive mammals, including top predators (cat Felis catus, ferret Mustela furo, stoat M. erminea), herbivores (rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, hare Lepus europaeus), and an insectivore (hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus occidentalis), and measured their effects on indigenous lizards and invertebrates and on an invasive mesopredator (house mouse Mus musculus). The work was carried out in a grassland/shrubland ecosystem that had been subjected to two types of habitat modification (widespread introduction of high-seed-producing pasture species, and areas of land use intensification by fertilization and livestock grazing). We also quantified food productivity for indigenous and invasive fauna by measuring pasture biomass, as well as seed and fruit production by grasses and shrubs. Indigenous fauna did not always increase following top-predator suppression: lizards increased on one of two sites; invertebrates did not increase on either site. Mesopredator release of mice was evident at the site where lizards did not increase, suggesting negative effects of mice on lizard populations. High mouse abundance occurred only on the predator-suppression site with regular production of pasture seed, indicating that this food resource was the main driver of mouse populations. Removal of herbivores increased pasture and seed production, which further enhanced ecological release of mice, particularly where pasture swards were overtopped by shrubs. An effect of landscape supplementation was also evident where nearby fertilized pastures boosted rabbit numbers and the associated top predators. Other studies have shown that

  5. The Marine Mammal Protection Act at 40: status, recovery, and future of U.S. marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Roman, Joe; Altman, Irit; Dunphy-Daly, Meagan M; Campbell, Caitlin; Jasny, Michael; Read, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Passed in 1972, the Marine Mammal Protection Act has two fundamental objectives: to maintain U.S. marine mammal stocks at their optimum sustainable populations and to uphold their ecological role in the ocean. The current status of many marine mammal populations is considerably better than in 1972. Take reduction plans have been largely successful in reducing direct fisheries bycatch, although they have not been prepared for all at-risk stocks, and fisheries continue to place marine mammals as risk. Information on population trends is unknown for most (71%) stocks; more stocks with known trends are improving than declining: 19% increasing, 5% stable, and 5% decreasing. Challenges remain, however, and the act has generally been ineffective in treating indirect impacts, such as noise, disease, and prey depletion. Existing conservation measures have not protected large whales from fisheries interactions or ship strikes in the northwestern Atlantic. Despite these limitations, marine mammals within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone appear to be faring better than those outside, with fewer species in at-risk categories and more of least concern. PMID:23521536

  6. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  7. Airborne multispectral detecting system for marine mammals survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Sofianos, James; Schoonmaker, Jon; Medeiros, Dustin; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel; Saggese, Steve

    2010-04-01

    This work presents an electro-optical multispectral capability that detects and monitors marine mammals. It is a continuance of Whale Search Radar SBIR program funded by PMA-264 through NAVAIR. A lightweight, multispectral, turreted imaging system is designed for airborne and ship based platforms to detect and monitor marine mammals. The system tests were conducted over the Humpback whale breeding and calving area in Maui, Hawaii. The results of the tests and the system description are presented. The development of an automatic whale detection algorithm is discussed as well as methodology used to turn raw survey data into quantifiable data products.

  8. Determination of PCBs and chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammal tissues.

    PubMed

    Schantz, M M; Koster, B J; Wise, S A; Becker, P R

    1993-11-01

    Selected tissues (blubber, liver, kidney and muscle) from marine mammals, which were collected as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP), were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and chlorinated pesticides. Concentrations of these compounds in the different tissues were compared and blubber was selected as the primary tissue for organic contaminant analyses for the AMMTAP based on higher levels (1-2 orders of magnitude) in this tissue compared to liver, kidney and muscle. Concentrations for 15 PCB congeners and 12 chlorinated pesticides are reported for 10 different animals of three species (northern fur seal, ringed seal and belukha whale) from five different sites. PMID:8272838

  9. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result. PMID:26611006

  10. Marine mammal and habitat monitoring: Requirements; principles; needs; and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, S.L.; Hofman, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    The paper discusses the intents and provisions of section 101(a)(5) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act which allows the Secretaries of the Interior and Commerce to authorize the unintentional taking of small numbers of marine mammals incidental to offshore oil and gas development and other such activities. It explains the rationale for and describes the types of site-specific and population monitoring programs required to document the manner and level of take and to verify that the take has negligible effects on the distribution, size, and productivity of the affected species and populations.